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Fully developed laminar flow

Fully developed: the velocity

profile is the same at any cross

section of the pipe.

Whether the flow is laminar or

turbulent,

Flow in a long, straight, constant

diameter sections of a pipe

becomes fully developed.

But the other flow properties are

different for these two types of

flow.

Fully developed laminar flow

Knowledge of the velocity profile can lead directly to

other useful information such as pressure drop, head

loss, flowrate.

We begin by developing the equation for the velocity

profile in fully developed laminar flow.

If the flow is not fully developed, a theoretical analysis

becomes much more complex

If the flow is turbulent, a rigorous theoretical analysis is as

yet not possible.

Fully developed laminar flow

There are numerous ways to derive important results

pertaining to fully developed laminar flow.

Three alternatives include:

From F = ma applied directly to a fluid element,

From the Navier –Stokes equations of motion,

&

From dimensional analysis methods.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

Consider the motion of a cylindrical fluid element at time

‘t’ within a pipe.

𝜕𝜕𝑉𝑉

The local acceleration is zero because the flow is steady ( =

𝜕𝜕𝑡𝑡

0), and

The convective acceleration is zero because the flow is fully

𝜕𝜕𝑢𝑢

developed (V.ΔV= u i = 0).

𝜕𝜕𝑥𝑥

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

Every part of the fluid merely

flows along its streamline parallel

to the pipe walls with constant

velocity,

Velocity varies from one pathline

to another.

This velocity variation, combined

with the fluid viscosity, produces

the shear stress.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

If gravitational effects are neglected, the pressure is

constant across any vertical cross section of the pipe,

although it varies along the pipe from one section to the

next.

If the pressure is P1 at section (1), it is P1- ΔP at section

(2).

A shear stress τ, acts on the surface of the cylinder of fluid

it is a function of the radius of the cylinder, τ = τ (r).

We isolate the cylinder of fluid and apply Newton’s

second law, Fx = max

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

Thus, fully developed horizontal pipe flow is a balance

between pressure and viscous forces

The pressure difference acting on the end of the cylinder

of area πr²

The shear stress acting on the lateral surface of the

cylinder of area 2πrl.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

This force balance can be written as

coordinate, r, it implies that 2π/r must also be independent

of r.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

That is, τ = Cr , where C is a constant.

At the centerline of the pipe (r = 0) there is no shear stress τ =

0.

At the pipe wall (r = D/2) the shear stress is a maximum,

denoted τw the wall shear stress.

Hence, C= 2 τw /D and the shear stress distribution

throughout the pipe is a linear function of the radial

coordinate

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

pressure would be constant throughout the pipe

We get a relation between

pressure drop, and

wall shear stress

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

To carry the analysis further we must prescribe how the

shear stress is related to the velocity.

For a laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, the shear stress is

simply proportional to the velocity gradient.

In the notation associated with our pipe flow, this becomes

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

The two governing laws for fully developed laminar flow

of a Newtonian fluid within a horizontal pipe

where c1 is a constant.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

Because the fluid is viscous it sticks to the pipe wall so

that u = 0, at r= D/2.

F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element

The volume flowrate through the pipe can be obtained by

integrating the velocity profile across the pipe.

sectional area,

The above results confirm the following properties of laminar pipe flow.

For a horizontal pipe the flowrate is

A. directly proportional to the pressure drop

B. inversely proportional to the viscosity,

C. inversely proportional to the pipe length

D. proportional to the pipe diameter to the fourth power.

With all other parameters fixed, an increase in diameter by a factor of 2 will

increase the flowrate by a factor of 16

the flowrate is very strongly dependent on pipe size.

A 2% error in diameter gives an 8% error in flowrate

This flow, the properties of which were first established experimentally by two

independent workers, G. Hagen 11797–18842 in 1839 and J. Poiseuille 11799–

18692 in 1840, is termed Hagen–Poiseuille flow.

Equation 8.9 is commonly referred to as Poiseuille’s law.

Recall that all of these results are restricted to laminar flow (those with

Reynolds numbers less than approximately 2100) in a horizontal pipe

Pipe in slope

The adjustment necessary to account for non-horizontal pipes are shown in Fig. It

can be easily included by replacing the pressure drop, by the combined effect of

pressure and gravity

Note that if the flow is uphill Ɵ>0, while if the flow is downhill Ɵ<0

This can be seen from the force balance in the x direction (along the pipe axis) on

the cylinder of fluid shown n Fig.

The method is exactly analogous to that used to obtain the Bernoulli equation

when the streamline is not horizontal.

The net force in the x direction is a combination of the pressure force in that

direction, and the component of weight in that direction.

The result is a slightly modified form of Eq given by

Thus, all of the results for the horizontal pipe are valid

provided the pressure gradient is adjusted for the elevation

term so that

and

It is seen that the driving force for pipe flow can be either

a pressure drop in the flow direction, or the component of

weight in the flow direction.

If the flow is downhill, gravity helps the flow (a smaller

pressure drop is required).

If the flow is uphill gravity works against the flow (a

larger pressure drop is required)

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