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Power System Analysis Hadi Saadat Milwaukee School of Engineering a WCB McGraw-Hill Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, 1A Maison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogoté Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto CHAPTER 7 OPTIMAL DISPATCH OF GENERATION 71 INTRODUCTION ‘The formulation of power flow problem and its solutions were discussed in Chap- ter 6. One type of bus in the power flow was the voltage-controlled bus, where real power generation and voltage magnitude were specified. The power flow solution provided the voltage phase angle and the reactive power generation. In a practical power system, the power plants are not located at the same distance from the center of loads and their fuel costs are different. Also, under normal operating conditions, the generation capacity is more than the total load demand and losses. Thus, there are many options for scheduling generation. In an interconnected power system, the objective is to find the real and reactive power scheduling of each power plant in such a way as to minimize the operating cost. This means that the generator’s real and reactive power are allowed to vary within certain limits so as to meet a particular load demand with minimum fuel cost. This is called the optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The OPF is used to optimize the power flow solution of large scale power system. This is done by minimizing selected objective functions while ‘ining an acceptable system performance in terms of generator capability its and the output of the compensating devices. The objective functions, also 287 258 7. OPTIMAL DISPATCH OF GENERATION known as cost functions, may present economic costs, system security, or other objectives. Efficient reactive power planning enhances economic operation as well as system security, The OPF has been studied by many researchers and many al- gorithms using different objective functions and methods have been presented [11, 12, 22, 23, 40, 42, 54, 78}, In this chapter, we will limit our analysis to the economic dispatch of real power generation, The classical optimization of continuous functions is introduced. ‘The application of constraints to optimization problems is presented. Following this, the incremental production cost of generation is introduced. The economic dispatch of generation for minimization of the total operating cost with transmis- sion losses neglected is obtained. Next, the transmission loss formula is derived and the economic dispatch of generation based on the loss formula is obtained, A program named bloss is developed for the evaluation of the transmission loss B coefficients which can be used following any one of the power flow programs Mgauss, Iinewton, or decouple discussed in Chapter 6. Also, a general program called dispatch is developed for the optimal scheduling of real power generation and can be used in conjunction with the bloss program. 7.2 NONLINEAR FUNCTION OPTIMIZATION Unconstrained Parameter Optimization Nonlinear function optimization is an important tool in computer-aided design and is part of a broader class of optimization called nonlinear programming. The un- derlying theory and the computational methods are discussed in many books. The basic goal is the minimization of some nonlinear objective cost function subject to nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The mathematical tools that are used to solve unconstrained parameter opti- mization problems come directly from multivariable calculus. ‘The necessary con-