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woxiwnnoek@UjOUrNal.in Motion in a Straight Line Frame of Reference Motion of an abject is the change in its position with respect to time generally, a three dimensional coordinate system consisting of three mutually perpendicular axes, x, and 2 is used to describe motion, The point at which all, the three axes meet is the origin and this point serves as the reference point to find the position of an object The three dimensional coordinate system along with a clock to measure time is known as frame of reference. If the value of any coordinate of the three coordinates x, y and z of an objet changes with respect to time than the object is considered to be in motion Frame of reference can be of two types tet mmaed leon She New law of motion holds good. ‘© Non intertial frame of reference : In thi first law of motion does not hold good. \ oe swe ition of the object thsen arigin. Positions ositive and left of origin Motion in a Straight Line Th describe motion along, a straig an axis, say x-axis, 50 sana object. Then one can meas {with roforonce ta a con to the right of origin is is taken as negative, Distance and Displacement Distance isa measure ofthe ength ofthe path taken during the change in position of an object. Ite aesalar quantity, Displacement is a measure of the change in position of an object. 1 is a vector quantity. SI unit of distance and dlzplacement ia metre (2), Position-Time Graph + Themotionofanobjectcanbe graphically represented by position time graph. Position time graph of astationary object iva sive i Figute (). If an object is travelling equal distance inoqual intervals of time, then its said to be in uniform motion. The position- time graph of an object undergoing uniform mations as show in Figur (i. 29) xe + an object is oa ual x) distance in equal int or vce versa, the objestas it to ben | 7 pananionn RQ pst Figur oat time graph for an es onergcing ron uniforiumotiow is as shown in fg WO ee cS responding time taken by the object. ‘object in motion isthe ratio of total path length total path length time taken + nuorm speed : An object Is sald to be moving with tuniform speed, if it covers equal distances in equal Intervals of time. Average speed : Iti the ratio ofthe total distance travelled by the body to the total time taken total distance travelnd Average Speed = otal time taken Instantaneous speed : Ibis the speed of an object ata given instant of time, Velocity Velocity of an object is the ratio of displacement and the corresponding time interval taken by the object displacement time taken Velocity It is a vector quatity. SI unit of velocity ism sh Its tesa Kris [MOLT Uniform velocity : An object is said to be moving with tuniform velocity fit undergoes equal displacements in equal intervals of time, however small these intervals may be. Instantancous velocity : The velocity of an object at any given instant of time is known as instantaneous velocity Instantaneous velocit Average velocity ¢ It is the ratio of displacement to the time interval for which the motion takes place. hitps:ittmelEstore33_com Motion in a Straight Line lsplacement Average volt = splacemen Acceleration Acceleration of an object in motion is defined as the ratio of change in velocity and the corresponding time taken by the object change in velocity Acceleration = Hane woos leis a vector quantity SI unit of acceleration is m =. its worwmoek@ujournal.in 13 When an object is moving with sine) positiveconstant acceleration with some initial velocity, the velocity- time graph is stright line as shown Lg in igure (i, ‘Figure = When an object is moving with sine) increasingacceleration, having zero initial velocity, the velocity-time sgraph is a curve as shown in figure ay.) oy Figure i © When an object is moving with dimensional formula is MPLT=] vn’ Uniform acceleration : An objet is sid to be moving __SonSaninegative acceleration having witha uniform acelertionifits velocity changesty equal stv inal veloc, tha velacty unorm aceeration i fine gaphaina a ra tenors in equal interval of ime time graph is a Average acceleration : 18 the ato of ftal change in velocity ofthe objet during motion othe tal time ken. Positon-tie graph asad motion, Imanlaneoee saseaien "The aeeaton of fe When magne mene wih Shiectat piven inetancoG tne incalied ks Inotentansaoue mi tyé acceleration, L-7 acceleration, pos raph is 2 curve os ws Instantaneous accleration = jim SY 2 ure (i) Figee mar a Equations of motion fora uniformly accelerated motion tf te mong. ih Bavations o tive assertion, thon positon 7 : ime api Bown os enteda? figure. =r «tw = When an object is moving wih *% - negative acceleration, then positon Tne graph ire ctrngh ic as shoven eciy intigure i. Cr = fina velocity a Fae heed lementary concept oF aitrentiation and integration oasis for describing motion ‘These equations Uniform. In case of if the acceleration is non jon of an object under gravity, acceleration a is replaced by g, acceleration due to gravity. Velucity-tine graph for ann accelerated motion © When an object is moving with zero. sag") acceleration, that is with constant velocity, the velocity-tme graph is a straight line as shown in figure. gH) = When an object is moving with © "= constantpositive acceleration, having “5? zero initial velocity its velocity graph isa straight line as shown in figure i rg Ian object moving with velocity 2 along a straight line, the velocity ata time tis given by ae a ‘where dis the displacement ofthe object If an object is moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration, then do a where dois the change in acceleration in time dt Also distance travelled by a particle x-feu Velocity of par, fate hitps:ittmelEstore33_com woxiwnnoek@UjOUrNal.in > >) EXAMDRILL & & 1. A person walks up a stationary escalator in time fy If he remains stationary on the escalator, then it can take him up in ime f. How mtzch fime would i fake him to walk up the moving escalator? oy th oie ( @ hth 2 Thevelocity-time graph of +1) abody ishownin figure. Thedteparemententered tythebodyingsis @) 9m © 2m 2 (© 10m =~ (@) 28m 3. A streamer moves with velocity 3 km h-! in and ‘against the direction of river water whose velocity is 2 km hl. Calculate its total time for total joumey if the boat travela 2 lum in dircetion of the ofream and then back to his place. (@ 2h @) 25h © 24h @ 4h 4. Aboyofmass50kgisstandingon a weighit placed on the floor ofa lift. The machi is ‘weight in N. What is the reading of ine if the lift is moving upwards with tiniformspeed of 1 ms? (Take g= 10. ms) (@) S10N & (©) 490N © Aes? © devs 5A cae necolonaton fren vost at a eematant rate ov fr some time, after which it decelerates at a constant rate to come to reat. If the total time elapsed is # the ‘maximum velocity acquired by the car is @) lsh) ob ®) ap » ‘Ha+B) at ca) (abt 8 (a+B) ® ap 7. Two particles move tn the same straight Line starting from the same position. The first moves with constant velocity u and the second with eonstant acceleration f 1. uw 16. During the time clapses before the second catches the first greatest distance between the particles is @F oF 9 £ af © Pr (d) # ‘A body falling from a high minaret travels 40.m in the last 2 of its fall to ground. Height of minaret is [Take g=10m 2] (@) 60m 45m (© 80m id) 50m A particle movi ‘plane according to the law sti. The distance traversed, aes” oe Is freely from rest and the total distance by it in the last second of its motion equals es Qu Sees Sees @) 6s () 58 © 7s (@) as A body is fred vertically upwards. At half the maximum height, the wolocity of the body. is 0 ms". The maximum height raised by the body (lake g=10ms) @ 5m (&) 10m © Bm (a) 20m Appantcle moves along a straight line OX. Ata time £ (in seconds) the distance x (in metres) of the particle from O's given by x=40+ 121~# How long would the particle travel before coming to rest? (@) 24m ) 40m 12m (@) 16m ‘A drunkard walking in a narrow lane takes 8 steps forward and 6 steps hackward. followed again by Bsteps forward and 6 steps backward and so on. Each step is 1m long and requires 1s, Determine how long the drunkard takes to fallin a pit 18m avay from the start @) 18s (0) 1265 © Ts (a) es A ball Ais thrown up vertically with a speed w and at the same instant another ball Bis released from @ Iheight h Attime tthe speed af A relative to is @) (0) © we @ Acar covers the frst one-third of a distance x at a speed of 10 km hr", the second one-third at a speed of 20 km fr! and the last one-third at a speed of hitps:ittmelEstore33_com