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CBSE class 11 - motion in a plane

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woxiwnnoek@UjOUrNal.in
Motion in a Plane
Vectors
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Feectien need Poectimemnedetve
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ctr quantity it ie epresente by 2
Cecunancatao tne
1) aerate A pau var ONS oS
eee
ii) Axial vectors or Pseudo vectors : A pseu
anion honticelstim
eg: angular velocity, torque, ang De.
Equal vectors : Two vectors are s equal if they
have same magnitude and avy refardless of their
initial positions,
Negative vector Itie
irection apposite to fen vector,
ose magnitude is zero, but its
in
Properties of a null vector
Ard:
(i) AO=O where isa scalar
(i) =
cpa
Null vector: Ii
direction is not
Unit veetor A vector having magnitude equal to unity: To
find the unit veetorin the direction A, we divide the given
vector by its magnitude.
4A
ced =o
Co-initial vectors: The vectors are said to be co-inita, if
their intial point is common.
having equal or unequal magnitudes and are acting along
the parallel straight lines
Tine aie Mae
5 waa
Coplnar vets: thea ves: whch a
Laws of vector alge Band C are vectors, and mt
and mare scalars the
ee
Ar Bye
tive law for multiplication
ny A = n(n)
}) Distributive law
(ont Amd nk
‘+ Tilangle law of vector addition: It states that if
two vectors can be represented both in magnitude
and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken
in the same order, then the resultant is represented.
completely (both in magnitude and direction) by the
third side ofthe triangle taken in the opposite order.
R isthe resultant of A and Blas shown in figure, then
R=AvR
a?
Parallelogram law of vector addition : It states that
if two vectors acting Simultaneously at a point ean
be represented both in magnitude and direction by
the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the
resultantisrepresented completely (both in magnitude
and direction) by the diagonal of the parallelogram.
passing through that point.
isthe resultantof A and ff asshown in figure, then,
REAR ens
Bsind
AxBcoxb
2
o
tanB
hitps:ittmelEstore33_com24
= Polygon law of vector addition : It states that if
rnumberofvectorscanberepresentedbothinmagnitude
and direction by the sides ofa polygon taken in tne
same order then thei resultant is represented (oth
in magnitude and direction) by the closing side ofthe
polygon taken inthe opposite order.
Rectangular component of vector in a plane: When
a vector issplited into two component vectors aright
angles to eachother, the component vectors ae clled
rectangular components of a vector. A makes an
angle @ with x-axis, and A, and A, be the rectangular
components of A along axis and yaxis respectively,
then
Peay
Here A, = Acos8 and A,= Asin
A+ A? “A%(cost0 + sin?0)
or An (ASLADH? and tant = AYA,
tepestvely a choven inthe igure, then
Aen Aare, Ay = Aco, A= Acooy
Ingeneral wehave A= A 44,j “S
The magnitude of A
Resolution of a vector in a space : Let « fi, an ee
Dot or Scalar Product
‘The dot or scalar product of two vectors Aand B denoted
by AB (read A dot ff) is defined as the product of the
magnitudes of A and fi and the cosine of the angle
between them. In symbols, A B=ABcos#, 050s
Note A.B is ascalar and nota vector,
‘© Properties of dot product
@ ABBA
(i) AGrC)nA BAS
(ii) mA By=mA)-B = Aon
where m isa scalar
(vi tap poh kant pap bok D0
A. Bom.
woxiwnnoek@UjOUrNal.in
(ELD Crash Course Physios
() MAZAg +a,f 4A8 and B28? +8.) 48,6 then
A BHA, +40, +48,
A Ramee a ae
(©) A B=0 and Aand Bare not mull vectors then A
and Bare perpendicular.
Cross or Vector Product
‘The cross or vector product of Aand B is a vector
C=Ax Bread A cross 6). The magnitude of AxB is
defined as the product ofthe
fo the plane A and B
and such that A, B aright handed system.
In symbols,
0s0ex
tot indicating the direction of Ax B
(B+O)=AxB+ Axe
i) An By = (myn B= A x(n) = (A By
where mis a scalar
Gv) ixi=j ixjakjvbaibxt
() WARAi +4, +46
and B= 8B, +8,j +B,k, then
ijk
AxB=|4, A, A.
8, B, B,|
(0) AeB~ the area of a paratielogram with sides
ana
(iD AxB =O and A and B are not null vectors,
then Aand Bare parallel.
Relative Motion
‘The term relative is frequently used for comparison of
displacement, velocity and acceleration of two bodies.
“The relative velocity of an object Q with respect to object
P when both are in motion, is the time rate of change of
position of object Q with respect to that of object P.
Relative velocity of a body A with respect to body 8,
when ae are moving in the same direction is given by
Relative velocity ofa body A with respect to body B when
thay are moving in the apposite diction is given by
By =8, +85
‘The magnitude of a relative velocity of a body A with
respect to body #, when they are inclined at an angle 0 is
stvenby v= (fog) +(e) #2) (e000
hitps:ittmelEstore33_comapm woowwsek@ujournal.in =
Motion ina rane 25
= fe Fo) 28,8,6080
_e)sinct80°—0)
tonB= Fo J4-(0,]eost180°-0) aac
2, —P,cos8
where #, and 8, are velocities of two bodies A and B, bis
anangle which &,, makes with the dicection of 8,
ae
‘Time of crossing, ¢= d/o,
Now the boat reaches the point C rather than teaching
point B, If BC =, then
tano=" =~ or
ya”
‘© aman travels
im in a river, then the time
taken by the man W8ieover a distance dis 4,
a
Wa ustream in a ver, then the time
Rain Man Problem cy to cover a distance d is = So
1f rain is falling vertically with a velocity 8, and aman rir.
is moving, horizontally with spoed i. the man can
protect himself from the rain if he holds his ambs
»
Ei “ane Gr aes: oa gM body given a ie glo mere oy space
SS ee ae Gig ey bate gon eed scsi mr bes
er itimen an tae a Os a Cee ie
tan = Ygley {ground level ae the examples of projectile motion.
‘The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory
Boat-River Problem iw ‘Trajectory of a projectile is a parabola
Lat 8 = velocity of bot in sil watgy, AA NRILy OF 0% peice Motion
‘of wales it sive, el width rive
‘= To cross the river in th path : Here it js Ifa body is thrown with some initial velocity with the
required that the boat § ‘A must reach the horizontal direction, and then allowed to move in two
‘opposite poine B al Mest path AB. For the disieusions under the action of gravity alone wilhoul
shortest path, the kd be rowed upstream being propelled by any machine, then the motion of body
making an a ‘AB such that AB gives the isknown as projectile motion,
direction of resultant Velocity. To study the motion of a
projectile, we have to make
following assumptions.
+ There isno frictional resistance of ai,
‘+ The acceleration due to gravit
‘magnitude and direction at all points ot the motion,
of projectile.
If a projectile projected horizontally from a height I with
velocity 1,
‘= Time taken by the projectile to reach the ground,
jue nai hae ' hi
to cross the river in shortest time, the boat should % Horizontal range. u @
os aang boon " :
calegerage oan AB equtonot oot nye et
is constant in
Also.
© To cross the river
hitps:ittmelEstore33_com

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