You are on page 1of 13 Motion in a Plane Vectors the se tno hve nh msi i il iter ere vorken reba Feectien need Poectimemnedetve suis sibany ua cicnuebaner hate Soaks ealnenendd mer ate wraceuniisor magavcueuteaats ignitor: ceria away acne ctr quantity it ie epresente by 2 Cecunancatao tne 1) aerate A pau var ONS oS eee ii) Axial vectors or Pseudo vectors : A pseu anion honticelstim eg: angular velocity, torque, ang De. Equal vectors : Two vectors are s equal if they have same magnitude and avy refardless of their initial positions, Negative vector Itie irection apposite to fen vector, ose magnitude is zero, but its in Properties of a null vector Ard: (i) AO=O where isa scalar (i) = cpa Null vector: Ii direction is not Unit veetor A vector having magnitude equal to unity: To find the unit veetorin the direction A, we divide the given vector by its magnitude. 4A ced =o Co-initial vectors: The vectors are said to be co-inita, if their intial point is common. having equal or unequal magnitudes and are acting along the parallel straight lines Tine aie Mae 5 waa Coplnar vets: thea ves: whch a Laws of vector alge Band C are vectors, and mt and mare scalars the ee Ar Bye tive law for multiplication ny A = n(n) }) Distributive law (ont Amd nk ‘+ Tilangle law of vector addition: It states that if two vectors can be represented both in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in the same order, then the resultant is represented. completely (both in magnitude and direction) by the third side ofthe triangle taken in the opposite order. R isthe resultant of A and Blas shown in figure, then R=AvR a? Parallelogram law of vector addition : It states that if two vectors acting Simultaneously at a point ean be represented both in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the resultantisrepresented completely (both in magnitude and direction) by the diagonal of the parallelogram. passing through that point. isthe resultantof A and ff asshown in figure, then, REAR ens Bsind AxBcoxb 2 o tanB hitps:ittmelEstore33_com 24 = Polygon law of vector addition : It states that if rnumberofvectorscanberepresentedbothinmagnitude and direction by the sides ofa polygon taken in tne same order then thei resultant is represented (oth in magnitude and direction) by the closing side ofthe polygon taken inthe opposite order. Rectangular component of vector in a plane: When a vector issplited into two component vectors aright angles to eachother, the component vectors ae clled rectangular components of a vector. A makes an angle @ with x-axis, and A, and A, be the rectangular components of A along axis and yaxis respectively, then Peay Here A, = Acos8 and A,= Asin A+ A? “A%(cost0 + sin?0) or An (ASLADH? and tant = AYA, tepestvely a choven inthe igure, then Aen Aare, Ay = Aco, A= Acooy Ingeneral wehave A= A 44,j “S The magnitude of A Resolution of a vector in a space : Let « fi, an ee Dot or Scalar Product ‘The dot or scalar product of two vectors Aand B denoted by AB (read A dot ff) is defined as the product of the magnitudes of A and fi and the cosine of the angle between them. In symbols, A B=ABcos#, 050s Note A.B is ascalar and nota vector, ‘© Properties of dot product @ ABBA (i) AGrC)nA BAS (ii) mA By=mA)-B = Aon where m isa scalar (vi tap poh kant pap bok D0 A. Bom. (ELD Crash Course Physios () MAZAg +a,f 4A8 and B28? +8.) 48,6 then A BHA, +40, +48, A Ramee a ae (©) A B=0 and Aand Bare not mull vectors then A and Bare perpendicular. Cross or Vector Product ‘The cross or vector product of Aand B is a vector C=Ax Bread A cross 6). The magnitude of AxB is defined as the product ofthe fo the plane A and B and such that A, B aright handed system. In symbols, 0s0ex tot indicating the direction of Ax B (B+O)=AxB+ Axe i) An By = (myn B= A x(n) = (A By where mis a scalar Gv) ixi=j ixjakjvbaibxt () WARAi +4, +46 and B= 8B, +8,j +B,k, then ijk AxB=|4, A, A. 8, B, B,| (0) AeB~ the area of a paratielogram with sides ana (iD AxB =O and A and B are not null vectors, then Aand Bare parallel. Relative Motion ‘The term relative is frequently used for comparison of displacement, velocity and acceleration of two bodies. “The relative velocity of an object Q with respect to object P when both are in motion, is the time rate of change of position of object Q with respect to that of object P. Relative velocity of a body A with respect to body 8, when ae are moving in the same direction is given by Relative velocity ofa body A with respect to body B when thay are moving in the apposite diction is given by By =8, +85 ‘The magnitude of a relative velocity of a body A with respect to body #, when they are inclined at an angle 0 is stvenby v= (fog) +(e) #2) (e000 hitps:ittmelEstore33_com apm = Motion ina rane 25 = fe Fo) 28,8,6080 _e)sinct80°—0) tonB= Fo J4-(0,]eost180°-0) aac 2, —P,cos8 where #, and 8, are velocities of two bodies A and B, bis anangle which &,, makes with the dicection of 8, ae ‘Time of crossing, ¢= d/o, Now the boat reaches the point C rather than teaching point B, If BC =, then tano=" =~ or ya” ‘© aman travels im in a river, then the time taken by the man W8ieover a distance dis 4, a Wa ustream in a ver, then the time Rain Man Problem cy to cover a distance d is = So 1f rain is falling vertically with a velocity 8, and aman rir. is moving, horizontally with spoed i. the man can protect himself from the rain if he holds his ambs » Ei “ane Gr aes: oa gM body given a ie glo mere oy space SS ee ae Gig ey bate gon eed scsi mr bes er itimen an tae a Os a Cee ie tan = Ygley {ground level ae the examples of projectile motion. ‘The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory Boat-River Problem iw ‘Trajectory of a projectile is a parabola Lat 8 = velocity of bot in sil watgy, AA NRILy OF 0% peice Motion ‘of wales it sive, el width rive ‘= To cross the river in th path : Here it js Ifa body is thrown with some initial velocity with the required that the boat § ‘A must reach the horizontal direction, and then allowed to move in two ‘opposite poine B al Mest path AB. For the disieusions under the action of gravity alone wilhoul shortest path, the kd be rowed upstream being propelled by any machine, then the motion of body making an a ‘AB such that AB gives the isknown as projectile motion, direction of resultant Velocity. To study the motion of a projectile, we have to make following assumptions. + There isno frictional resistance of ai, ‘+ The acceleration due to gravit ‘magnitude and direction at all points ot the motion, of projectile. If a projectile projected horizontally from a height I with velocity 1, ‘= Time taken by the projectile to reach the ground, jue nai hae ' hi to cross the river in shortest time, the boat should % Horizontal range. u @ os aang boon " : calegerage oan AB equtonot oot nye et is constant in Also. © To cross the river hitps:ittmelEstore33_com