# PSS SINCAL 6.

5 Contingency Analysis
Automatic Calculation of Contingencies and their Effects in Electricity Networks

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3 3.3 2.5 3.5.1 2.5.3 3.4 Example for Contingency Analysis Presetting Calculation Settings Defining Malfunction Groups Defining Function Groups Performing the Contingency Analysis Malfunction Overloaded Elements Details Displaying and Evaluating the Results Results in the Contingency Analysis Dialog Box Results in Tabular View Results in Reports Coloring in the Network Diagram 8 9 11 12 13 14 16 16 17 17 18 18 20 April 2010 .2 3.1 3.3 3.4.4 Contingency Analysis Calculation Method Malfunctioning Elements Determining Malfunctions Evaluating Malfunctions Violation Performance Indices (VPI) Advantages to the Network Carrier 2 3 3 6 6 7 3. 2.4.5.1 3.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Table of Contents 1.3.5.1 3.1 2. 3.2 3.4.2 3.4 3.2 2. Introduction to Contingency Analysis 1 2.

etc. overloads. This manual contains the following chapters: ● ● Contingency Analysis Calculation Method Example for Contingency Analysis Contingency Analysis Procedure You never need special settings when you enter data for Contingency Analysis. The following steps are necessary: ● ● Define the number of malfunctioning network elements in the network areas Define the voltage and load limits in the calculation settings for load flow Contingency Analysis also checks for load current tripping. Introduction to Contingency Analysis PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis calculations are a series of load flow calculations.) in the results. maximum values. PSS SINCAL displays all data relevant to the malfunction (minimum values. unsupplied consumers. One or more elements malfunction and do not participate in individual load flow calculations. April 2010 1 . PSS SINCAL determines malfunctioning elements by network areas.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Introduction to Contingency Analysis 1. The malfunction can be conditional or unconditional.

PSS SINCAL only uses elements supplied in this basic load flow to evaluate the network when one or more elements malfunction.PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Contingency Analysis Calculation Method SIEMENS 2. Contingency Analysis Calculation Procedure Calculate load flow of the complete network Determine malfunctioning elements Turn off malfunctioning element and operating group in load flow calculations Network analysis and load flow calculations in remaining network Determine minimum values. Contingency Analysis Calculation Method The purpose of PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis calculations is to evaluate load flow in distribution networks when the following elements malfunction: ● ● ● Individual elements Elements that can operate only together (function groups) Overloaded elements Load flow calculations for the entire network provide the basis of contingency analysis calculations. unfed elements and loads Store overloaded elements for caused malfunctions Have all elements been observed? Yes Prepare results Illustration: Sequence diagram No 2 April 2010 . maximum values.

The network area contains the lines L1 to L7.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Contingency Analysis Calculation Method 2. This procedure is the same as checking the n – 1 criterion for the network.2 Determining Malfunctions PSS SINCAL recognizes the following types of malfunctions: ● ● Basic malfunctions Caused malfunctions Why the element failed is not important. Use the Contingency Analysis tab to set which network elements will malfunction and whether this will generate caused malfunctions. PSS SINCAL always checks the malfunction of an individual element and its effect on the remaining network.1 Malfunctioning Elements Malfunctions are broken down into element types. April 2010 3 . Illustration: Data screen form for Network Area – Contingency Analysis The small network area below shows how contingency analysis functions in basic and caused malfunctions. You can set parameters for contingency analysis individually for each network area. Only elements of the following types can malfunction: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Lines Serial reactors Two-winding transformers Three-winding transformers Synchronous machines Asynchronous machines with load flow type DFIG Power units Static compensators 2.

SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Contingency Analysis Calculation Method L2 (62 %) L1 (60 %) L6 (47 %) L3 (79 %) L4 (25 %) L5 (58 %) L7 (38 %) Illustration: Malfunctioning network elements with a load limit of 75 % (one malfunction – one line) Caused Malfunctions Caused malfunctions are always load-dependent. because the load with 78 % is above 75 % Caused Malfunction 2: Basic malfunction of line L7 Caused malfunction of line L3. load flow must be calculated in the rest of the network after a basic malfunction. April 2010 5 . L2 (78 %) L1 (68 %) L6 (57 %) L3 (89 %) L4 (42 %) L5 (67 %) L7 L7 L2 L3 … Basic malfunction … Caused malfunction 1 … Caused malfunction 2 Illustration: Caused malfunctions with a load limit greater than 75 % These two caused malfunctions have the following elements: ● Caused Malfunction 1: Basic malfunction of line L7 Caused malfunction of line L2. You can select whether PSS SINCAL only generates caused malfunctions in their own network area or in all the network areas where you switched ON Marked for Caused Malfunction. All elements that exceed the prescribed load limit in this load flow cause a new malfunction. To investigate caused malfunctions. because the load with 89 % is above 75 % ● Detailed parameters can be set for how PSS SINCAL generates caused malfunctions.

the use of function groups is optional. Those total VPIs allow you to compare different load flow cases. For each monitored current and voltage value.3 Evaluating Malfunctions The results of the contingency analysis are used to evaluate the results of different malfunctions. In PSS SINCAL. PSS SINCAL considers all entered function groups independent of whether there is a basic malfunction or a caused malfunction. For this evaluation. the individual VPIs of all monitored branch currents and node voltages can be summed up to Total VPI(I) and Total VPI(V). PSS SINCAL provides the following results: ● ● ● ● ● ● Number of unsupplied loads Number of limit violations for load and voltage Number of protection devices that trip (load flow tripping) Violation Performance Indices Minimum and maximum network voltage Maximum utilization These statistics are used to for an in-depth evaluation of the different malfunctions. a violation performance index (VPI) is calculated. You can execute a detailed analysis for a specific malfunction at any time! PSS SINCAL will provide complete load flow results for this malfunction. 2. The following agreement is valid: all elements in an function group must always operate together. The calculation is performed as follows: VPI(I) Weight(I) Value(I) Limit(I) 2 Total VPI(I) = ∑ of all monitored VPI(I)'s 6 April 2010 .PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Contingency Analysis Calculation Method SIEMENS Function Groups Function groups can be used to group any network elements that you choose. For each load flow case.3. In malfunction simulation.1 Violation Performance Indices (VPI) Violation Performance Indices are measurements used to evaluate limit violations. 2. the function group is built by the Network Element Group. The total VPIs are excellent sorting criteria for Contingency Analysis results. VPI Calculation for Currents The limit used to determine the VPI for currents comes from the input data for network elements. This means network elements grouped like this way always malfunction at the same time.

The carrier gets important network information on: ● ● ● ● ● ● n – 1 criteria for network operation Breaks in supplies Overload conditions during network element malfunctions Impossible network conditions during network element malfunctions Priorities of network development measures Influences on consumer contractual agreements April 2010 7 .5 (Upper Limit( V ) Lower Limit( V )) 0.5 (Upper Limit( V ) Lower Limit( V )) then the required values are: VPI( V ) Weight( V ) Value( V ) Re f ( V ) dMax( V ) 2 Total VPI(V) = ∑ of all monitored VPI(V)'s 2. The calculation is as follows: Lower Limit (V) Nom (V) Upper Limit (V) Ref (V) Value (V) dMax (V) dMax (V) where Re f ( V ) dMax( V ) 0.4 Advantages to the Network Carrier Malfunction simulation provides network carriers with information on the reliability and deficiencies in the network.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Contingency Analysis Calculation Method VPI Calculation for Voltages The limit used to determine the VPI for voltages is taken from the Load Flow Calculation Settings.

The following descriptions show: ● ● ● ● ● Presetting Calculation Settings Defining Malfunction Groups Defining Function Groups Performing the Contingency Analysis Displaying and Evaluating the Results Basic Data All descriptions are based on the following network: Illustration: Example network for contingency analysis When PSS SINCAL is installed. it automatically provides a network ("Example Ele"). Example for Contingency Analysis Below is a simple example of how Contingency Analysis works.PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis SIEMENS 3. 8 April 2010 . which can be used to check the simulation procedure.

PSS SINCAL will not generate caused malfunctions for this network area.1 Presetting Calculation Settings PSS SINCAL assigns individual network elements to a precise network area. Click Insert – Network Area… in the menu to open the Network Area data screen form and enter the initial setting. When you switch this option ON.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis 3. PSS SINCAL generates caused malfunctions for this network area assuming selected network areas has been selected in the Caused Malfunction field. Illustration: Data screen form for Network Area – Contingency Analysis You can set control parameters in the Contingency Analysis tab. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● None: No elements malfunction. Loaded lines and transformers: All lines and transformers malfunction if their Utilization Limit has been violated. Loaded elements: All elements malfunction if their Utilization Limit has been violated. PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis calculations can be done for any network area. All elements: All elements malfunction. All lines and transformers: All lines and transformers malfunction. Marked for Caused Malfunction regulates the scope of caused malfunctions. All lines: All lines malfunction. Loaded lines: All lines malfunction if their Utilization Limit has been violated. April 2010 9 . Malfunction turns the elements in the network area ON and OFF or checks them for the contingency analysis. If this option is not switched ON.

Elements: All elements are documented that exceed the preset limit. ● How many elements for caused malfunctions PSS SINCAL actually considers can also be set with the Caused Elements field. Loaded lines and transformers: Only malfunctions caused by overloaded lines and transformers.PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis SIEMENS Consider Connectors switches the connectors of the network area for the contingency analysis ON or OFF. Lines. Loaded lines: Malfunctions caused by overloaded lines. Lines and nodes: All lines are documented that exceed the preset limit. PSS SINCAL logs all nodes if their voltage is outside the prescribed voltage limits. if Marked for Caused Malfunction is selected. Marked areas: Caused malfunctions for network areas are only generated. PSS SINCAL logs all nodes if their voltage is outside the prescribed voltage limits. PSS SINCAL logs all nodes if their voltage is outside the prescribed voltage limits. The Caused Malfunction field regulates the number of caused malfunctions in the network areas. Lines: All lines are documented that exceed the preset limit. Lines and transformers: All lines and transformers are documented that exceed the preset limit. transformers and nodes: All lines and transformers are documented that exceed the preset limit. Own area: PSS SINCAL only generates caused malfunctions for the current network area. No: Connectors are ignored. There is an additional contingency analysis for elements where the Caused Utilization Limit is exceeded where original and the presently overloaded elements fail together. ● ● None: No caused malfunctions are generated. Show Limits sets parameters for the scope of the results in malfunction analysis. ● ● Yes: Connectors are considered. Elements and nodes: All elements are documented that exceed the preset limit. ● ● None: No overloaded elements are documented. ● ● ● ● ● 10 April 2010 . ● ● ● Loaded elements: All malfunctions caused by overloaded elements.

Illustration: Creating a new group Enter the name and select Malfunction group as the type of group in the data screen form. Then press OK to create the new group. April 2010 11 .2 Defining Malfunction Groups If you want to have multiple elements malfunction together for contingency analysis. use Malfunction group to assign them to a network element group. Add Selection assigns all selected elements to the new group. Then click New Group in the following dialog box. Simply select these elements in the network diagram and switch them ON with Insert – Network Element Group… in the menu.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis 3. Illustration: New network element group with assigned network elements All elements of a network element group with the Malfunction group type cause their own malfunction in Contingency Analysis.

Simply select these elements in the network diagram and switch them ON with Insert – Network Element Group… in the menu. 12 April 2010 .PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis SIEMENS 3. Illustration: New network element group with assigned network elements If only one network element in a function group malfunctions because of the malfunction amount defined in the network area data. Then press OK to create the new group. Add Selection assigns all selected elements to the new group. use Function group to assign them to a network element group. Illustration: Creating a new group Enter the name and select Function group as the type of group in the data screen form. Then click New Group in the following dialog box. all the other network elements in this group also malfunction automatically at the same time.3 Defining Function Groups If elements are only able to operate in conjunction.

click Calculate – Load Flow – Contingency Analysis in the menu. The Contingency Analysis dialog box has two parts. You can select either Overview of the malfunctions or Overloaded elements in the part at the top.SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis 3. If there are no errors in the simulation and network areas have been switched ON for the contingency analysis. The bottom part provides the details for the malfunction you have selected. PSS SINCAL displays the results of these load flow calculations in the network diagram so you can observe the malfunction more closely. Illustration: Contingency Analysis dialog box You can click Calculate – Results – Contingency Analysis in the menu at any time to open this dialog box. April 2010 13 . PSS SINCAL automatically opens the Contingency Analysis dialog box when the calculations are finished. Click Calculate to turn load flow calculations ON where PSS SINCAL calculates the selected malfunction in detail.4 Performing the Contingency Analysis To start PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis calculations.

i. Hierarchically: Malfunctions are displayed in a structured manner. The list shows the network element that has malfunctioned and additional information on the malfunction (number of unfed loads. it displays a menu. Select: Highlights the selected malfunction in the network diagram.e. Illustration: Menu to select the display The menu has the following functions that let you customize how the list of options is displayed. A special feature of the input field is the control button in the input field. Assigning a filter immediately reduces the amount displayed in the attached list of options.PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis SIEMENS 3. etc. If you click it. see the section on Filter Functions in Tabular View in the chapter on Tabular View in the System Manual. Click on a malfunction in the list of options with of the right mouse button to open the pop-up menu with the following functions: ● ● ● Details: Opens the data-output form for the malfunction. ● Filter: An additional dialog box is opened where the data in the dialog box can be filtered and sorted according to various criteria.). 14 April 2010 . Simple: Malfunctions are displayed flat and all malfunctions and caused malfunctions are displayed in a single layer.4. Disable Filter: A filter can be temporary deactivated.1 Malfunction The Filter field. assigns a temporary filter for the malfunctions. For a detailed description. displaying all the data again. ● ● ● The Malfunction list has the results of the contingency analysis. Calculate: Starts load flow calculations for the selected malfunction. caused malfunctions are displayed under the malfunction that caused them.

SIEMENS PSS SINCAL Contingency Analysis Manual Example for Contingency Analysis Details of Malfunction When you click Details… in the pop-up menu for an entry in the list. Minimum Voltage and Maximum Voltage have the minimum and maximum tensions in the network for this malfunction. Number of Not Supplied Loads shows how many consumers are not supplied due to this malfunction. Total Voltage VPI and Total Current VPI show total values of the Violation Performance Indices (VPI) for current and voltage. Number of Voltage Limits Reached and Number of Loading Limits Reached have the number of limit violations for the malfunction. Malfunction Key and Base Malfunction Key identify the malfunction. Load Flow Solved shows whether PSS SINCAL will calculate the network after the malfunction. If it is a secondary malfunction. Maximum Factor Ext. Illustration: Data screen form for Contingency Analysis Results This dialog box has detailed information on the malfunction. Calculation shows the highest factor from the extended calculation at a node. the malfunction that caused it is entered as a basic malfunction key. April 2010 15 . this opens the detailed data output form for the malfunction. Number of Limits Reached. Number of Tripping Devices shows how many protection devices trip during this malfunction due to load currents. Maximum Loading has the highest load for a network element for this malfunction.