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Introduction

Throughout almost all of its existence, mankind has been in constant search for new
sources of energy. Currently, non-renewable sources, which are natural resources such as
coal, oil or natural gas, are used to obtain the necessary amount of electric energy.

The use of these types of fuel can provide a person with the necessary amount of
energy, but recently it has become increasingly important to search for a new type of fuel
resources, which can be alternative sources of electricity.

This problem is urgent, because according to the forecasts of most scientists, the
reserves of natural resources used in the electric power industry have been rapidly declining
in recent years, due to the growth of human needs for energy. The development of energy is a
very important task that can solve the problem of fuel shortage to meet the needs.

Alternative energy sources - a chance for salvation

The search for new sources of fuel, which are called alternative, is one of the
components of such a concept as alternative energy.

Alternative energy is a new energy industry, which is a community of promising areas


with the aim of enhancing the search for new ways of obtaining, transferring and using
energy, the source of which are alternative sources of energy.

At the same time, one of the directions of development of this industry is the use of
any type of energy, which is of interest from an economic point of view, due to the low cost
per unit of energy produced and from an environmental point of view, since alternative
energy types tend to be safe and do not harm the environment.

The use of alternative sources is an opportunity to obtain almost infinite energy, since
most alternative sources are renewable resources, which makes them inexhaustible.

Types of alternative energy sources

Currently, several methods of obtaining electric energy without the use of traditional
fuels are being investigated and used in practice. At the same time, according to statistics,
people in the modern world uses only 0.001% of the available alternative energy sources in
nature, which is a negligible part of the huge potential of nature.

Also, the problem that puts the use of alternative energy sources in the category of
developing areas is the complete lack of elaboration of this issue at the legislative level, since
currently all the natural resources of the country belong to the state heritage. In theory, even
the use of sun or wind can be taxed. To date, the following types of energy production
through the use of natural inexhaustible sources are the most widespread.

Wind. People have learned to use the power of wind long before they began to think
about the finiteness of natural resources. The first example is navigation, where the wind
made the ship move. Modern technologies have made possible the use of wind, which is an
alternative source of energy. The production of electricity with the help of wind occurs
through the use of a special installation called a windmill, which can be compared to a mill.
There is a screw on which the blades rotating under the influence of wind flow are installed.
The screw is connected to the generator, which produces current. The connection can be
made directly or by means of a rotor;

Sun. Solar energy is a type of electricity produced by the use of light flux entering the
earth in the form of sunlight. Currently obtaining energy from sunlight is the most promising
area of alternative energy, since one year only on the surface of the Earth gets sunlight at 30
000 times more than the entire population of the planet uses this year. The process of
obtaining energy is the accumulation deposited on the surface of special photographic plates
of solar radiation, which further with the help of the solar thermal system is transformed into
the familiar electric current.

The heat of the earth. Another alternative to electricity is to produce energy using
heat, which gives the earth itself. The principle of obtaining this type of heat is that through
the use of a special pump, one part of which is submerged under the ground and is able to
capture the low-temperature potential, the conversion of the heat obtained from the ground
into clean energy.

By the action of the work of such a pump can be compared with the work of the
compressor of the refrigerator, only in this case, the output of the person does not get cold,
and heat. The only big drawback of such a system is its imperfection. Modern installations
can produce only 40 degrees at the output, which is clearly not enough for full heating and
can be used only for the floor heating system.

In addition to these, the most common types of sources of alternative energy, there are
more exotic ways, including:

 biofuel, which is a variety of biomass and waste;


 the muscular energy of the person;
 using the power of thunderstorms, the principle of which is to try to catch the
lightning and redirect it to the power grid;
 controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction;
 energy generation through the use of photovoltaic cells located in the earth's
orbit;
 the use of the energy of the tides.

The development of energy and continuous improvement of technology significantly


accelerate the process of using alternative energy sources, for which the future.
Waves: ocean energy

In the ocean waves hidden so much energy that would be more than enough to
illuminate many large cities. It remains only to figure out how to extract it.

The linear generator on permanent magnets is a chain of permanent magnets on a 4-


meter rod. This design is tied to an anchor lying at a depth of about 30 meters. The copper
coil covering the rod is enclosed in a" float", that is, in a fiberglass buoy, which, together
with the waves, walks up and down. The coil crosses the magnetic field lines when moving,
and an electric current appears in it. Based on this principle, the 100-kilowatt generator was
developed by Anetta von Joanne and Alan Wallace, professors at the school of electrical
engineering at the University of Oregon. Unlike previous designs, which used the principle
of hydraulic or pneumatic pumps, this principle promises an efficiency of up to 90 percent.

According to von Joann, wave energy has significant advantages over other types of
renewable sources, for example, the wind. The behavior of the waves is more predictable,
and the energy density in them is 50 times higher than in the wind. The alternating voltage
from the network of buoys can be applied to a single switching unit, converted into a
constant current, increasing the voltage to 12,000 volts, and sent to the shore, where the
auxiliary substation again converts it to alternating current. The prototype has a diameter of 5
meters, but the same principle can be used on a more modest scale. For example, if such a
unit is built into the ship's anchorage system, it could power on-Board electronics in the
Parking lots.

Conclusion

The mankind is faced with the question of the development of alternative and renewable
energy sources. Although this process is trying to prevent the oil barons, new technologies
are slow, but still developing. I hope that in the near future humanity will go and new sources
of energy. Ideally, it would be the extraction of energy from waste without environmental
pollution.