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# Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

GateCycle Training

## Surface Condenser Modeling Exercise

12
Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## Modeling Surface Condensers in GateCycle

Introduction
This exercise involves building a simple condenser only model. Using the vendor data in Tables
I and II below, we will build a design point model of typical surface condenser using GateCycle's
implementation of the HEI calculation method. When the design point is complete, we will
create and run off design cases using the data shown in Table III. The data shown in Table II was
taken from the included set of vendor curves. These curves plot the condenser pressure versus
the percent of design heat load for a range of circulating water inlet temperatures.

Exercise Data
Parameter Value
Surface Area 62,760 ft
Tube Material 22 gage Type 304/316
Stainless Steel
Tube Outer Diameter l inch
Tube Velocity 7.0 Feet/s
100% Cooling water flow rate 54,500 GPM
Cooling water inlet temperature 70 F
HEI Cleanliness Factor 0.85
100% Duty 655.05 MM BTU/HR
Pressure 2.22 In. HGA
Table I Given Design Data

Parameter Value
p 2.0 PSIA
H 990 BTU/LB
w Set by macro
Table II Assumed Inlet Steam Data

## CW InletT % Design CW Flow Vendor Pressure GC Pressure

F Dutv GPM PSIA InHGA PSIA
65 100 54500 0.953 1.94
80 100 54500 1.42 2.9
87 80 54500 1.42 2.9
70 60 35425 0.913 1.86
55 100 35425 1.15 2.34
Table III Data for Off-Design Runs

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Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## Condenser Modeling Algorithm

When modeling surface condensers in GateCycle, it is best to use the HEI method. Most vendor
data is based on the HEI method and this fact is usually stated somewhere on the vendor data.
The data included with this exercise has the words Heat Exchange Institute Performance at the
top of each Pressure vs. Percent Duty graph.

The HEI method calculates the overall heat transfer coefficient in a condenser using the
following equation:

U == C1 * C2 * C3 * C4fo
Where:

## U = Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient BTU/hr - ft2 - F

C, = Tube Geometry Correction Factor
C2 = Cooling Water Inlet Temperature Correction Factor
CJ = Tube Gauge and Material Correction Factor
C4 = A Cleanliness Correction Factor
V = Water Velocity in the Tubes in Ft/sec

HEI data for the C i , C2, and C3 correction factors is shown in the tables included on the next
page and may also be found in GateCycle's on-line help. Because the tubes in a new condenser
quickly develop a film, C4 (the so called cleanliness factor) is typically taken as 0.85. Vendor
data that uses a different value for C4 will usually state the value that was assumed so you should
make a habit of locating and noting the stated cleanliness factor on any condenser performance
curve.
When using the HEI method in GateCycle, specify the condenser's tube diameter, C3 , C4 , and the
tube velocity for the design point heat load and circulating water flow rate. GateCycle will
lookup and use the appropriate values for C I and C2. The values used for C2 and .Jv vary in off
design runs where the cooling water inlet temperature and flow rate differ from their design point
values. The variation of these parameters causes the overall heat transfer coefficient to vary and
comprises GateCycle's off design correlation for U in the condenser.
Most condenser manufacturers use the HEI method to state the performance of their equipment
so GateCycle should exactly match vendor data when the HEI method is used. If you do not find
a match, double-check your inputs and make sure that you input the Vendor's assumed
cleanliness factor. Your results may also be off at low loads on the condenser where air-removal
equipment constraints limit performance. The HEI equation is not applicable at lower loads, but
GateCycle will still use the equation and issue a warning at such loads.

14
Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## HE/ Correction Factor Data

Tube OD in. 5/8 & 3/4 7/8 & I I 1/8 & I 1/4 I 3/8 & l l /2 I I 5/8 & I 3/4 I 7/8 & 2
Cl for Vin FPS 267 263 259 255 I 251 247
Table IV C1 Correction for Tube Geometry

Temperature F C2
30 0.65
35 0.7
40 0.743
45 0.79
50 0.835
55 0.88
60 0.922
65 0.967
70 1.00
75 1.026
80 1.045
85 1.06
90 1.073
95 1.09
100 1.1
105 1.11
110 1.121
115 1.13
120 1.14
Table V C2 Correction for Cooling Water Inlet Temperature

## Tube Materials Tube Wall Gauge - BWG

24 22 20 18 16 14 12
Admiralty Metal 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.87
Arsenical Copper 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.87
Copperlron 194 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.87
Aluminum Brass 1.03 1.02 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84
Aluminum Bronze 1.03 1.02 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84
90-10 Cu-Ni 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.74
70-30 Cu-Ni 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.82 0.77 0.71 0.64
Cold-Rolled Low Carbon Steel 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.80 0.74
Stainless Steels Type 304/316 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.76 0.70 0.63 0.55
Titanium 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.76 0.70 0.63 0.55
Table VI C3 Correction for Tube Gauge and Material
NOTE: Table values are from the Eighth Edition of the HEI Standard

15
Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

Instructions
Follow these steps to complete the exercise:
1. Create a new model using the condenser icon only. Connect the steam and cooling water
inlet and exit ports source/sink streams. Note, your work will be easier if you give
meaningful names like CWIN or STMIN to the various streams. Place a component data
icon that displays the Main Steam Inlet Pressure on the model diagram.
2. Configure the Condenser by entering the design data given in Table I. Be sure to enter the
proper value for the Cleanliness Factor as stated by the vendor. Note, the HEI Cleanliness
Factor is found by pressing the Other Inputs button on the main condenser form.
3. Configure the incoming steam source using the data in Table II. Set the steam source's flash
method to Pressure - Enthalpy.
4. Write a macro that reads the desired cooling water flow rate in GPM from a user variable,
convert/ it to LBS/HR and then sets the cooling water inlet stream's outlet flow rate in
LBS/HR to the converted value. We must write this macro because GateCycle's UOM
system does not have a conversion factor for gallons.
5. Write another macro that reads the desired duty in percent from a user variable and controls
the condenser's calculated duty to the desired value by varying the inlet steam flow from
50,000 to 800,000 LBS/HR. Hint: Table I gives the 100% duty in millions of BTU/hr.
6. Run the model and save your work. Note that the calculated pressure is right on at 1.09 PSIA
or 2.22 in. HGA.
7. Create an off design case.
8. Enter the data from Table III one row at a time and note the values that GateCycle calculates
for the condenser pressure in Table III. If you want to, you can create a separate case for
each row in table III. Compare the calculated and vendor values. They should match almost
exactly.

Troubleshooting
If your design point case fails to converge when run, check the following things:
1. The Loop Around field of your duty macro should be set to blank or System.
2. Make sure the demand flow flag in the condensate sink is NOT checked.
3. Your units of measure in the user variables and macros. The 100% design point duty is given
in millions of BTU/hr.

1
NOTE: For this exercise, assume I GPM = 500.76 LB/HR

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Condenser Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

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Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

GateCycle Training

## Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise

21
Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## Modeling Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers in GateCycle

Introduction
This document presents an overview of cooling tower modeling in GateCycle. It provides
sample vendor data for use in a scripted modeling exercise. The sample vendor data is typical of
the sort of tower used for a 100 MW cogeneration plant. The goals of this exercise are as follows:

1. Catalog the vendor data needed to build an accurate cooling tower model.
2. List and define common cooling tower terms and equations.
3. Demonstrate techniques for tuning the design point to achieve better off design results.
4. Provide guidance for sizing a cooling tower without all the needed vendor data
5. Demonstrate the accuracy of GateCycle's cooling tower model.

We will build a design point model of an actual cooling tower using the data described in the
Vendor Data section below. When the design point model is complete, we will run several off
design cases to tune and validate the model.

Vendor Data
Parameter Value
# of Bays 2
Approach 13 F
Cooling water flow rate 28500 GPM
Wet bulb temperature 70 F
Relative humidity 50 %
Cooling water inlet temperature 106 F
Cooling water exit temp 83 F
Stack height 8 feet
Total fan power 2 x 125 HP= 250 HP
Site Elevation 325 Feet
Table I: Given Design Data (See Vendor Data on pp. 6 - 8)

22
Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

Parameter Value
Air-to-Water Ratio (AWR) 1.0
Drift Loss* 0.001
Cycles of Concentration* 4
Packing Characteristic* 0.65
Table II: Assumed Design Data

## Wet Bulb T Range CW Flow Vendor CWExitT GCCWExitT

F F GPM F F
53 23 28500 74
66 28 28500 82
58 18 25650 72
38 28 31350 74
Table III Data.for Qff-Design Runs

Instructions
Follow these steps to complete the exercise:
9. Create a new model using the cooling tower icon only. Connect the cooling water inlet and
exit ports and the makeup port to source streams. Configure the cooling tower to read the
ambient conditions from the SYSTEM icon. Add a stream data icon that displays the cooling
tower's exit water temperature.
10. Enter the design data shown in tables I and II.
11. Set the circulating water and makeup water inlet temperature and pressure. Any flow rate
you specify will be overwritten so you do not need to enter a flow rate. Set the same
circulating water and makeup water inlet pressure of 65 PSIA. The design point circulating
water inlet temperature is l 06 F and you can choose any temperature for the makeup water as
it will be set by a macro that you will write in a moment.
12. Write a macro that reads the desired cooling water flow rate in GPM from a user variable,
2
converts it to LBS/HR and then sets the inlet stream's flow in LBS/HR to the converted
value.
13. Write a set macro that sets the ambient dry bulb temperature to the desired wet bulb
temperature plus two degrees. This macro will ensure that the ambient temperature and the
desired wet bulb temperature inputs are consistent with one another. If these inputs are not
consistent with one another, i.e. wet bulb temperature is greater than dry bulb, GateCycle will
choose a new wet bulb temperature that is slightly lower than the input ambient temperature
and your results will be affected.

Values for parameters marked with a * were chosen using the guidelines given in the on-line help file.
2
NOTE: l GPM = 500.76 LB/HR

23
Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

14. Run the model and save your work. Note that the calculated fan power3 is high. We'll fix
this with another macro!
15. Write another macro to control the cooling tower's total fan power to the design point power
of 250 HP by varying the cooling tower's Gas Side Pressure Drop.
2

16. Write a macro to set the makeup water inlet temperature equal to the cooling tower's cooling
zone exit temperature. This macro eliminates any error we might introduce into the
calculated outlet water temperature as a result of makeup water that is too cold.
17. Run the model and save your work. The fan power should match now.
18. Create an off design case.
19. Disable the fan power macro in the off design case.
20. Write a macro that controls the cooling tower's range to a value specified in a user variable
by varying the cooling water inlet temperature from 75 to 125 F.
21. Enter the data from Table ill one row at a time (create a new off design case for each row)
and note the values that GateCycle calculates for the cooling water exit temperature in Table
III. Compare the calculated and vendor values. They should match fairly well, with some
error at the lower wet bulb temperatures.
22. Note that the model matches the vendor data pretty well, except for in case 4. Here we are 3
degrees too low. This suggests that we have not sized the tower correctly. Go back to the
design point reference case and note the design point Merkel Number is less than 2. The
Merkel number for most commercial cooling towers is usually somewhere between two and
three. To adjust the Merkel number, we can vary the packing characteristic and/or the Air to
Water Ratio (AWR) at the design point. Experience shows that it is better to adjust AWR.
23. The Merkel number increases with decreasing AWR, so choose a new, lower design point
AWR of 0.75. Run the design point reference case again.
24. Open off design case four and run it again. The circulating water exit temperature should be
higher now. It is still too low, so we will adjust the design point AWR again.
25. Repeat steps 14 and 15 until the temperature predicted by off design case four is within half a
degree of the vendor value of 74 F. Record the AWR you used to make case four match.
You should end up with a design point AWR of about 0.57 to obtain a good match. Note, the
AWR is not an off design input and it will change from the design point value when off
design conditions are run.
26. Run the other off-design cases again to ensure that they still match within half a degree.

Troubleshooting
If you experience convergence problem when running any of the cases, please check the
following things:
4. The Loop Around fields in your control macros should be blank.

3
NOTE: I HP= 0.746 KW or you can change the UOM of the total fan power variable in the macro

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Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

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5. Make sure the demand flow flag in the circulating water sink is NOT checked.
6. Your units of measure in the user variables and macros. The circulating water flow is given
in Gallons Per Minute (GPM).

e 7. Make sure that the makeup source and circulating water source pressures are set at the same
value. The RANGE macro in off design cases will not converge if this is not the case.

e Conclusion
In summary, the GateCycle cooling tower model works well. It is possible to match vendor data

e or design a realistic tower from scratch. The chief technique for doing either is to vary the air to
water ratio at the design point to attain a reasonable Merkel number ranging from 1.5 to 5.

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_(::_o()_l�ng Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## .. · 12-11-1994 HARLEY CLASS Wi88

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26
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GateCycle Training
Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise

## COGENERATION FACILITY 12-11..;1991 MOTIi.EV CLASS W188

13:48:43/1 Model W199-4.8-2
JTD Effectlue 06-08-1991
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; 68 ,- _ : ___ . __ JI IT[IT[ ]ill__ - . _. _ . -__
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+ 23.00 ·r nange
35 40 45 50 55 68 65. 70 75 B8 o 10.80 •y nange
•r i Wet-Dulb Temperature X Design Point ..

27
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e
Cooling Tower Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## COGENERATIOH FACILITY · 12-11-1991 MATILEY CLASS Wi80

13:48:13/1 Model �1199-4. 8-2
JTD Effectlue 06-08-1991

-f
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## ----- - ---,-r.�-mmtmmmrl-H++ Design Conditions:

T
e Flow Rate 20500 GPM
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a Altitude 325 Ft
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+ 23.00 °F nange
35 10 15 50 55 60 65 78 75 B8 D 18.00 °F flange
•r Wet-Dulb Te�perature X Design Point

28
GateCycle Training

GateCycle Training

## Steam Turbine Model Building Exercise

30
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## Modeling Steam Turbines in GateCycle

Introduction
This document presents an overview of steam turbine modeling in GateCycle. It presents
a brief overview of GateCycle's steam turbine algorithms, defines some common Steam
turbine related terms and provides sample vendor data for use in a scripted modeling
exercise. The supplied data is for a General Electric steam turbine that has one controlled
extraction and one uncontrolled admission. The goals of this exercise are as follows:

## 6. Explain the Spencer Cotton Cannon efficiency method.

7. Stress the importance of a separate, maximum flow, design point case for the steam
turbine.
8. Demonstrate the proper way to model controlled extraction turbines in GateCycle.
9. Catalog the vendor needed to build an accurate steam turbine model.
10. List and define common GateCycle Steam Turbine terms and equations.
11. Demonstrate techniques for tuning the design point to achieve better off design
results.

We will build a design point model of an actual controlled extraction steam turbine using
the data described in the Vendor Data section below. When the design point model is
complete, we will run three off design cases to validate the model.

This exercise supplements the steam turbine material found pages 36 - 48 in the
GateCycle for Windows Training Seminar Notes.

## Steam Turbine Modeling Algorithms

GateCycle models off design steam turbine performance by calculating how the flow
passing, internal pressure distribution and efficiency of the turbine vary in response to
changes in the cycle conditions. GateCycle models these effects using Stodola's Law of
the Ellipse to determine the relationship between flow and pressure and the Spencer
Cotton Cannon correlations developed by General Electric to correct the design point
efficiency for off-design effects.

The Spencer Cotton Cannon (SCC) efficiency correlations were developed by General
Electric in the 1950s to predict performance of steam turbines. The method was first
presented at the 1962 Winter Annual Meeting of the ASME. GE published the method
again most recently in a paper entitled A Methodfor Predicting the Performance of Steam
Turbine-Generators ... 16,500 KW and Larger General Electric Co., Publication GER-
2007C, July 1974. These correlations supply correction factors that can be applied to the
design point efficiency of a turbine section to account for off design effects. To do this,
SCC classifies a turbine section as either a High Pressure (HP), Intermediate Pressure (IP)
or Low Pressure (LP) section. In GateCycle, the inputs specified for the following ST

31
e
e
e
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

icon parameters tell the SCC correlations what type of section (HP, IP, LP or single) the
e ST icon represents:
• The number of control valves

## e • The number of rows in the governing stage

• The Condensing Section Check Box

e The Steam Turbine Configuration Table on page 43 of the GateCycle for Windows
Training Seminar Notes summarizes the allowable input combinations for these
parameters and how the SCC correlations interpret the inputs to determine section type.
e The type and magnitude of the efficiency corrections that SCC makes depend on the

e nature of the off design conditions and the values that are specified for the following ST
icon parameters:
• The number of control valves

## e • The number of rows in the governing stage

• The last stage bucket length
• The Exhaust annulus area
e • The pitch diameter of the governing stage

e The SCC figures included with this document will be used to illustrate the effects of some
of these parameters. Refer to GateCycle's on-line help for complete details on the effects
of these parameters. Given values for the above parameters at the design point and a set

e of off design conditions, the SCC correlations model the efficiency of a turbine section
according to what type of section it is. For HP Sections, the efficiency is treated as a
function of Throttle Flow Ratio (TFR). For IP sections efficiency is assumed constant.
e For LP sections efficiency is treated as a function of the exhaust annulus velocity. For
single sections, the efficiency is treated as a function of TFR and Exhaust annulus
velocity.
e Stodola's Law of the Ellipse states that the inlet flow to a group stage4 W, may be

e calculated as follows:

e - r-<
2

w = cl/ Pbow/
l ( J
V bowl 1-r

e Where:

e
1e
e
4
A group stage is comprised of all turbine stages between an inlet and an extraction, between successive
extractions or between an extraction and the main exit.

e 32

e
e
St�am T_1.1rbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## W = inlet flow to group Stage

Cq = calculated(at design point) flow coefficient
r • = critical pressure ration
r = outlet pressure ratio

Given that the off-design pressure flow and efficiency characteristics of a steam turbine
are directly related to the design point, one can see the importance of a good design point
reference case for the steam turbine. This is one reason why modelers at Enter Software
always use a separate steam turbine only model as the design point reference for any
steam turbine in a combined cycle plant model.

## Useful ST Equations, Definitions and sec Facts

This section lists facts that may be useful to those modeling Steam Turbines in

t
GateCycle.
�(')l't"l� lo...., ,� I
I
Useful Equations

Pdesig11
V design
TFR at ST Inlet
M design Pcurrent
vcurre11/

## where n = number of stages

( p . ):.
Stage Pressure Ratio = ____!!:!!!__
!';,,fer

## UEEP = ELEP + Dry Exhaust Loss

Useful Definitions
Bowl -The space immediately ahead of the nozzles of a turbine stage or section.
Pitch diameter -The diameter of a turbine stage measured to the center of the buckets.
UEEP - Used Energy End Point. The enthalpy of the steam at the exhaust flange of a
condensing ST.
ELEP - Expansion Line Endpoint. The enthalpy of the steam at the end of its expansion
through the steam turbine.

## Useful SCC Facts

• Allowable range for the pitch diameter of the governing stage = 30 -46 inches
• Pitch diameter of 38 inches zeros out the design (and off design) point efficiency
correction for HP sections with a l row governing stage.

33
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

• A governing stage exit pressure of 62.5% of throttle pressure zeros out the design
point efficiency correction for HP sections with 2 row governing stages
• The mean of valve loops correction always lowers efficiency. It can be used with
turbines with 4, 6, or 8 control valves. Fewer valves make the correction larger.

## Vendor Data Description

The following vendor data is included with this document:
1. A cut away view of the steam turbine.
2. A Locus of Valve point diagram that shows throttle flow vs. output for various
controlled extraction flows
3. An exhaust loss curve
4. A graph of controlled extraction enthalpy vs. throttle flow.
5. A design flow statement
6. Off design case data for three different load points.
7. An excerpt from a GE Steam Turbine owner's manual.
8. Various, apropos figures from Spencer Cotton Canon.
The data listed above is the ideal data set for modeling a steam turbine in GateCycle.
Steam turbine vendors refer to such data as a "Thermal Kit". If possible, you should ask
your vendor for the thermal kit for any steam turbine that you want to model in
GateCycle. The next seven pages contain actual thermal kit data that has been scanned or
input into an Excel spreadsheet for clear and easy duplication. The information that we
will get from each piece of data is summarized below.

The steam turbine cut away diagram gives us the following information:
• The HP and IP sections have multiple control valves.
• The HP and IP sections have l row governing stages.
• There is a controlled extraction ahead of the IP section.
• The HP, IP and LP sections each have five stages.
• The LP section is single flow.
• Three ST icons and a splitter and a mixer will be needed to model this turbine.

## The Locus of Valve Points diagram gives us the following information:

• Generator output is :a:: 97.5 MW at the maximum throttle flow of 782,000 LB/HR and
controlled extraction flow of 63,600 LB/HR. This is our maximum flow and power,
valves wide-open design point.
• The design point controlled extraction pressure is 489.7 PSIA
• The design point throttle pressure is 1265 PSIA.
• The design point throttle temperature is 925 F.

34
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## The Exhaust Loss curve provides the following information:

• The LP exhaust annulus area = 41. l ft2.
• The last stage bucket length = 26 inches.
• The turbine operates at 3600 RPM.
• The above information allows us to choose one of the existing GE Exhaust loss
curves for this model.
The 475 PSIG AE enthalpy diagram provides the following information:
• HP section exit enthalpy is an indicator of the efficiency of the HP section as a
function of throttle flow rate. We will use this data to tune our design point.

## The design flow statement gives us the following information:

• The design point, valves wide-open flow for this steam turbine is 782,000 LB/HR.
• 782,000/744800 = 1.05 which implies a 5 percent margin on the rated flow. This is
typical of most steam turbine manufacturers.

## The steam turbine owner's manual tells us:

• The HP section has partial arc admission.
• The IP section has partial arc admission.

## Spencer Cotton Cannon Figures

This section highlights certain features of the SCC correlations by presenting some of the
figures are part of GateCycle. We will use our knowledge about the included figures as
we create and tune our design point model.

Figure 7 shows the allowable range for the pitch diameter parameter (30" - 46") and the
effect that it has on design point efficiency. Specifically:
+ 38 inches implies no design point efficiency.
+ Greater than 38 inches implies reduced design point efficiency.
+ Less than 38 inches implies increased design point efficiency.

Figure 8 shows the effect ofThrottle Flow Ratio (TFR) and Pitch diameter on off design
efficiency.
+ 38 inches implies no design point efficiency.
+ Greater than 38 inches implies increased design point efficiency.
+ Less than 38 inches implies reduced design point efficiency.
Note that this is the opposite of what happens at the design point.

Figure 12 shows the efficiency correction as a function ofTFR that is applied when the
mean-of-valve loops check box is checked. Note that this correction always lowers
efficiency and that fewer control valves leads to a more severe correction.

35
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

Instructions
Follow the instructions below to model the steam turbine described in the attached vendor
data.

1. Create new model named STCLAS. Use three ST icons a splitter and a mixer to
model the steam turbine shown in the schematic.
2. Place stream data icons at the throttle, extraction, admission and LP exit streams.
Enlarge them so you can see the data values.
3. Enter the design point throttle conditions:
P = 1265 PSIA
T = 925 F
W = 782,000 LB/HR
4. Configure the HP section:
Inlet pressure set upstream
Input Exit Enthalpies
6 control valves
Press the partial arc button and choose a 1 row governing stage and a
38 inch pitch diameter to zero the efficiency correction initially. We'll come back to
this later.
Press the Enth & Pres button and set the HP exit pressure and enthalpy to the
controlled extraction pressure and enthalpy of 489.7 PSIA and 1355 BTU/lbm. The
extraction Enthalpy is read from the chart on page 14.
Make sure the demand control check box is unchecked!
5. Configure the extraction splitter:
Configure the port that is connected to the IP section's inlet as a remainder port.
Configure the port that is connected to the extraction as a specified flow port and
enter the design point extraction flow of 63,600 LB/HR.
6. Configure the IP section:
Input inlet pressure - This is always the pressure method to use when modeling a
controlled extraction. Enter the controlled extraction pressure of 489.7 PSIA.
Spencer Cotton Cannon efficiency
8 control valves
Press the partial arc button and choose a I row governing stage and a
38 inch pitch diameter to zero the efficiency correction initially. We'll come back to
this later.
Check the equalize inlet pressures check box. This will send pressure signals from
the LP section through the mixer so that the IP exit and admission flow source
pressure match the LP inlet pressure. We will specify the LP inlet pressure at the
design point and Stodola will calculate it in any off design run.
8. Configure the LP section:
Input Inlet pressure

36
Steam Turbine Modeling_Exercise GateCycle Training

We will guess an initial value of 72 PSIA for theLP inlet pressure. We will revisit
this choice later as well.
Input isentropic efficiency. Set the efficiency value to 0.835
Press the Flows button and specify the design point exhaust pressure of 1.97 PSIA.
Check the condensing check box and then press the condensing button to the last
stage bucket length = 26 inches and the annulus area of 41.1 ft2.
9. Configure the admission flow source
Choose the Pressure - Enthalpy property method.
Specify P= 82 PSIA
H= 1184.83 BTU/LB
W=O.OLB/HR
10. Save your work and run the model. We are low in power relative to what we
expected from theLocus of Valve Point Performance diagram on page 12. Note also
that the admission source pressure is now 72 PSIA instead of the 82 PSIA value we
specified due to the pressure signal that propagated through the mixer from the LP
section since the mixer's equalize inlet pressure flag was set.
11. As noted in step 10, we are still low in power so let's try to get a little more power by
adjusting the IP section's efficiency by changing its pitch diameter. Recall from
SCC figure 7 that decreasing the pitch diameter from 38 inches increases the design
point efficiency calculated by the Spencer Cotton Cannon efficiency method. Use a
pitch diameter of 34 inches. We don't know what the actual pitch diameter is, but
physics tells us it should be larger than the HP section's pitch diameter since the
steam has undergone some expansion in the HP section. Therefore, we should also
lower the HP section's pitch diameter from 38 to 33 inches. Run the model again
after making these changes.
12. We are still low in power, so let's adjust the Steam Turbine generator efficiency.
Choose System from the inputs menu, press the miscellaneous button and enter 0.985
for the steam turbine generator efficiency. Since we are at or near the full load power
for the generator, its efficiency should be pretty high making 0.985 a good guess.
Run the model again.
13. We are still a little low in power. At this point we will try running an off-design case
using the case one data included with this exercise.
14. Save your work and then choose the Save As, Case item from the File menu. Create a
new case named STOD-1 and enter 94467 KW offdesign case as the description. BE
sure to check run all components off design check box before creating the new case.
15. Enter the Case One Throttle steam conditions shown in the attached table:
P= 1280 PSIA
T= 925 F
W = 700,000LB/HR
16. Configure the HP ST:
Choose the SCC efficiency method

37
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

17. Enter the 0.0 LB/HR extraction flow for case one in the extraction splitter.
18. Configure the IP ST
Choose the SCC efficiency method
19. Configure the LP ST:
Choose the SCC efficiency method.
Choose the sliding pressure inlet pressure method.
20.
H = 1184.82 BTU/LB
W = 40,000 LB/HR
We will look at the admission point pressure that GateCycle calculates compared to
the case value of 71. 75 PSIA to see how well we sized our turbine. If we are off, we
will go back and adjust the design point and try again.
22. Save your work and run the model.
We are too high in power and the admission inlet pressure is too high.
The extraction enthalpy looks OK. We need to fix these problems.
23. To fix the high power, note that the generator loss calculated by GateCycle (View a
Current Case report too see this) is lower than the value of 1841 KW specified in the
case one data. This means our generator efficiency is probably too high. Let's write a
macro to that controls GateCycle's steam turbine generator losses to a value entered
in a user variable by varying the steam turbine generator efficiency from 0.5 to 0.999.
24. Run the model again when the macro is complete. The power should now look pretty
25. Let's now fix the admission pressure problem. Note the current admission pressure
and then go back to the design point reference case. Adjust the LP inlet pressure at
the design point using the following equation: Pdesign = 72-(PotTdesign -71.75). Run
the design point reference case again and save your work.
26. Open the STOD-1 case and run it again to use the new reference point data. Power
looks good. LP Inlet P looks good and the exhaust conditions look good so we are
done!
27. Copy the STOD-1 case to a new case called STOD-2.
28. Enter the case two data:
Gen and Mech Loss = 1594 KW
Throttle Steam P = 1265 PSIA
Throttle Steam T = 925 F
Throttle Steam W = 560,000 LB/HR
Extraction Flow = 50,000 LB/HR
LP Section Exit Pressure = 1.47 PSIA

38
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

29. Save your work, run the model and compare the results to those shown on the case
two data sheet. It should look pretty good.
30. Create and run case three. The results should again compare favorably

Summary
In this exercise, we have seen how to model a controlled extraction steam turbine using
the Spencer Cotton Cannon off deign efficiency correlations. Using several sets of off­
design case data, we were able to fine tune our design point and then validate the overall
model. The key points to remember from this exercise are as follows:
1. Use multiple steam turbine icons and always specify the inlet pressure of the steam
turbine icon downstream of a controlled extraction to model a turbine that has a
controlled extraction.
2. A separate, valves wide open, full power and full flow design case is always needed
to properly calibrate the off design correlations used to calculate the steam turbine's
pressure - flow and efficiency characteristics.
3. It is very important to configure the IP section following a controlled extraction as a
SCC HP section. That is it should have multiple control valves and a governing stage
because there is usually partial arc admission to the stage following a controlled
extraction. This is true for all GE machines and many foreign made turbines found in
U.S. cogeneration plants.
4. Certain vendor data like that presented with this exercise is very helpful when
constructing a steam turbine design point reference model. Specifically, the cut away
diagram and locus of valve point performance diagram gave us lots of insight on this
particular steam turbine.
5. It is important to properly specify the design point pressure distribution throughout
the turbine to achieve the proper off design pressures at uncontrolled extraction,
admission and sliding pressure inlet ports. If your model is off, recalibrate by going
back to the design point and adjusting the pressures that were input there.
6. Refer to the included SCC figures for insight on choosing and adjusting the pitch
diameter of a one row governing stage.
7. It is OK to mix and match non-SCC design point efficiency methods like "Input Exit
Enthalpies" with the SCC off design efficiency method.

39
-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-e-
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

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41
-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeee-
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## Annulus Velocity, FT/SEC

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

J
50 Exhaust Loss Curve

V'
48 I----
1

'
46 -- RPM - 3600
---- Bucket Length, IN - 26.0
44 Annulus Area, SQ FT - 41.1
-
�L
42
40 --
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t-
I I
38 1. Read the exhaust loss curve at
he annulus velocity obtained from
36 >-�����-+-+-��+--��-+-������+--�---+-������+--�����-+�---�� -t the following expression
34
IXl 32 I--- _____,I_ VAN= Q
A(V)( 1.0-0.01 Y)
3600 (AA)
3 30 The enthalpy of the steam entering the
lii 28 -_ condenser is the quantity obtained from the
following expression
� 26
.3 24 -----+---1----UEEP=ELEP+(ExhaustLoss)(0.87)(1.0-0.0lY)(l.0-0.0065Y)
t; 22 The exhaust loss curve includes the loss in
t-
� - �� ��---t-��---1+--��������-o internal efficiency which occurs at light loads as
� 20 btained in tests.
w 18 ����1- �-1-�4. This curve is based on the 1967 ASME Steam tables
16 1 - - -
- �� t ���oc-��-1-�LEGEND
VAN - Annulus velocity in Feet per Second
14 ·- QA - Condenser flow in pounds per hour
12 V - Saturated dry specific volume in cubic feet per
10 I ��-+-�-2"-+������-+--pound.

y
AA - Annulus area in square feet
8 �� ��+--y - Percent moisture at Expansion Line End Point
6 -t- �� -+ � ��� �� -1-� - ELEP - Expansion Line End Point at actual exhaust P
UEEP - Used Energy End Point
4
2 '- -
0 ' '''' .,

43
e e e -eeeeee-eeee-eeeeee-
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## 475 PSIG AE Enthalpy

1250 PSIG - 925F - 4.5" HGA
EXPECTED DATA- NOT GUARANTEED

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0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Throttle Flow - 1000 LB/HR

44
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Trainin

## Rating Flow (Guaranteed) is 744800 LB/HR at initial steam conditions of

1265 PSIA, 925 Deg F. To assure that the turbine will pass this flow,
considering variations in flow coefficients from expected values,
manufacturing tolerances on drawing areas, etc., which may affect the flow,
the turbine is being designed for an expected flow of 782000 LB/HR

45
e
e
e Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## e Off Design Case One

e
Gross Heat Rate 10073 BTU/KWHR
Generator Output 94467 KW
Gen and Mech Loss 1841 KW

## e Steam Conditions 1265 PSIG, 925 F, 4 IN HGA

e
Flow Pressure Temperature Enthlapy
LB/HR PSIA F BTU/LB
Heat Source

e
Steam from Boiler 700000 1280 925 1452.81
Turbine
Make up to steam seal system 0 1280 1452.81

e
Steam to throttle 700000 1280 1452.81
V1 HVS Pkg to Stage 7 Shell 531 290 1452.81
To steam seal system 238 16.7 1452.81

e
HP End Packing
Leak flow to stage 11 shell 12190 71.75 1422.43
Seal flow to steam seal system 1107 16.7 1422.43

e
Vent flow to evacuator system 147 1422.43
l'1 Auto Extr to customer line 0 489.7 1351.93
V2 HVS PKG to steam Seal System 182 16.7 1351.93

e
Stage 7 Adm from VI HVS Pkg 531 290 1452.81
1'1 Proc Adm from customer line 40000 71.75 1184.82
Stage 11 Adm from HP end packing 12190 71.75 1422.43
Stage 14 Adm from steam seal system 628 8.074 1418.76

## e Stage 15 Adm from LP end packing

LP End Packing
Seal flow from steam seal system
587

899
1.965

16.7
1418.76

1418.76

e
Vent flow to evacuator system 312 1418.76
Steam Seal System
Makeup from steam suooly line 0 1280 1452.81

e
Dump to stage 14 shell 628 8.074 1418.76
Flow from V l HVS packing 238 16.7 1452.81
Flow from HP end oacking 1107 16.7 1422.43

e
Flow from V2 HVS oacking 182 16.7 1351.93
Flow to LP end oacking 899 16.7 1418.76
Evacuator System

e
Flow from HP end packing 147 14.5 1422.43
Flow from LP end packing 312 14.5 1418.76
Customer Line

e
Flow from No. 1 Auto Extr 0 489.7 1351.93
Flow to No. 1 Proc Adm 40000 71.75 1184.82
Condenser

e
Steam to Condenser 739541 1.965 993.98

## Turbine Business Operations, General Electric Co.

e
e 46

e
e
e
e
e
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## e Off Design Case Two

e
Gross Heat Rate 11085 BTU/KWHR
Generator Output 69226 KW
Gen and Mech Loss 1594KW

e
Steam Conditions 1250 PSIG, 925 F, 4 IN HGA

## Pressure Temperature Enthlapy

e
Flow
LB/HR PSIA F BTU/LB
Heat Source

e
Steam from Boiler 560000 1265 925 1453.35
Turbine
Make up to steam seal system 0 1280 1453.35

e
Steam to throttle 560000 1265 1453.35
V1 HVS Pkg to Stage 7 Shell 570 206.l 1453.35
To steam seal system 189 16.7 1453.35

e
HP End Packing
Leak flow to stage 11 shell 10877 47.7 1412.05
Seal flow to steam seal system 668 16.7 1412.05

e
Vent flow to evacuator system 148 1412.05
l '1 Auto Extr to customer line 50000 489.7 1359.26
V2 HVS PKG to steam Seal System 182 16.7 1359.26
Stage 7 Adm from V1 HVS Pkg 570 206.1 1453.35

## e 1'1 Proc Adm from customer line

Stage 11 Adm from HP end packing
Stage 14 Adm from steam seal system
0
10871
139
47.7
71.75
5.480
1412.05
1412.05
1410.35

e
Stage 15 Adm from LP end packing 586 1.473 1410.35
LP End Packing
Seal flow from steam seal system 900 16.7 1410.35

e
Vent flow to evacuator system 315 1410.35
Steam Seal System
Makeup from steam supply line 0 1265 1453.35

e
Dump to stage 14 shell 139 5.480 1410.35
Flow from V1 HVS packing 189 16.7 1453.35
Flow from HP end packing 668 16.7 1412.05

e
Flow from V2 HVS packing 182 16.7 1359.26
Flow to LP end packing 900 16.7 1410.35
Evacuator System

e
Flow from HP end packing 148 14.5 1412.05
Flow from LP end packing 315 14.5 1410.35
Customer Line
Flow from No. 1 Auto Extr

e
50000 489.7 1359.26
Flow to No. 1 Proc Adm 0 47.70 1412.05
Condenser
Steam to Condenser 509537 1.473 988.37

## e Turbine Business Operations, General Electric Co.

e
e 47

e
e
e
e
e Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## e Off Design Case Three

e
Gross Heat Rate 13011 BTU/KWHR
Generator Output 77818 KW
Gen and Mech Loss 1675 KW

## e Steam Conditions 1265 PSIG, 925 F, 4 IN HOA

e
Flow Pressure Temperature Enthlapy
LB/HR PSIA F BTU/LB
Heat Source

## e Steam from Boiler

Turbine
Make up to steam seal svstem
744800

0
1280

1280
925 1452.81

1452.81

e
Steam to throttle 744800 1280 1452.81
V1 HVS Pkg to Stage 7 Shell 578 217.3 1452.81
To steam seal system 189 16.7 1452.81

e
HP End Packing
Leak flow to stage 11 shell 13144 53.4 1427.65
Seal flow to steam seal system 766 16.7 1427.65

e
Vent flow to evacuator system 146 1427.65
1'1 Auto Extr to customer line 205000 489.7 1352.4
V2 HVS PKG to steam Seal System 182 16.7 1352.4

e
Stage 7 Adm from VI HVS Pkg 578 217.3 1452.81
1'' Proc Adm from customer line 24400 53.40 1184.82
Stage 11 Adm from HP end packing 13144 53.40 1427.65
Stage 14 Adm from steam seal system 1419.8

e
239 6.083
Stage 15 Adm from LP end packing 586 1.965 1419.8
LP End Packing
Seal flow from steam seal system 898 16.7 1419.8

## e Vent flow to evacuator system

Steam Seal System
Makeup from steam supply line
312

0 1280
1419.8

1452.81

e
Dump to stage 14 shell 239 6.083 1419.8
Flow from VI HVS packing 189 16.7 1452.81
Flow from HP end packing 766 16.7 1427.65

e
Flow from V2 HVS packing 182 16.7 1352.4
Flow to LP end packing 898 16.7 1419.8
Evacuator System

e
Flow from HP end packing 146 14.5 1427.65
Flow from LP end packing 312 14.5 1419.8
Customer Line

e
Flow from No. l Auto Extr 205000 489.7 1352.4
Flow to No. 1 Proc Adm 24400 53.40 1184.82
Condenser

e
Steam to Condenser 563742 1.965 996.61

## Turbine Business Operations, General Electric Co.

e
e 48

e
e
e
e
e Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## e - a-=mhly llliq the smion a.ma. In addidan. for

Jew:r opena:d vaha; lbc wive m:am. pans an be

e
1- CIPll(Wely cff bled widlaut dlsrmliiug 1be 11!1'­
WIIDD, Such eaee o£ ,r •btyimpaws mam­
J taimblll:y and -*II the n:tiablJii, rim tnbcrmt ID
I_ dbmnnecdng the electrical and high-prellure

e
�CiiiiiO!iMM

.___---
On smaller UDiD, both mdusttial and udJi1y, the

___ ..
• • 1-:::-.::-..::.-::-..
...._ -- ._....
. .:- .c-;�1
�.
controkalvc chest ii daigncd integral with the
shell. In addJtinn, rmuml valva lmc hem elimi­

e
,
nated from the lower halHbcD wm:raa' pcmib1c
to cllrnina•e the need to work merbead duriag
Clnll77 maintemDCe and aa:mhly. See Figure J!.
Pipe lJ. Vadalale p!W'emodeaof aper don On larger UDU1 the coJUl'OI valves are either

e
In addidon to providing panial..rc control in a separate chest or in scpar.ue individual
,cages at the st.eaJn.9dmiaion point to the tur­ caainga, which, in either c:aae, are welded to
bine mr improved pan-load performance, they the stop valves to make a atop-wlve/control­
arc abo provided at the fim stage following an valve assembly. Thia usembly ii umally locaied

e
aut.>madc steam-c:maction point to improve the below the floor; and ii supported on aolld-md
mc:rall unit efliciency. Sec F"igare 14. bangers. It ii free to rnove to contribute to the
flexibiUty needed between the supcrbeater
Vahe.Arnapmems owlet and the turbine.

e
Gti'.'s Product line af'wlves and vahe ammge­ '1'ypical aop,whe/conuokam: awcmNiee are
mcur.c is guided by CM> am:ria. lhc Jira being to pro­ ahown inHgmes 16 and 17.
'fide � few valw: caings as pcmible wblle praridmg All modem reheat inlet vaha arc o£ lbc com­
high d.:dcimcy pardal,en: cmurol. md the second bined type. with both the rehcat srop,wlve and

e
being lh:&tall vaJws &bauld be cagnec1 wilh vmial intercept-wive fanctiom in the aam
IU:IDS � ad horizmual steam joirus to permit easy dla- ..;,':,,"';l
(F"igare 18). Tlu:rc arc normally tJllO

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e Constant Pressure Extraction

e

GE Controlled Extraction Steam Turbines ALWAYS have multiple contro
l valves and

e
partial arc admission downstream of the extraction point.

e
e 49

e
e
e
e
e
Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

e +2 , --�1-.
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0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
PRESSURE AT EXIT OF GOVERNING STAGE AT DESIGN FLOW (PSIA)
THROTTLE PRESSURE (PSIA)

## e Fig. 2. Nonrehe!JI condenrir.g, 2-row governing sloge, design flow and

efficiencv co"11ction for oovernino \$/n!J11 or"""'" rnlin

e
SCC Figure 2. Notice that the efficiency correction is O when the pressure at the exit of
the governing stage is 62.5% of the throttle pressure.

e
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e 50

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e Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

e
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## e Fig. 7. 3600-rpm /,ig/,-preuure turbine section, 1°row goveming rtage,

dHign flow .IFiciency cornction For governing stage pitclt diam•t•r

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## Fig. 8. 3600-rpm /,/g/,-preuure turbine ,action, 1-row governing stage,

part-load •Fficiancy cor,-ction For gonrning stage pitch diameter

e SCC Figures 7 and 8. Effects of Pitch Diameter. Figure 7 = design, Figure 8 = off

e
design. Notice that pitch diameter of 38 inches gives an efficiency correction of 0.

-
e 51

e
e
e
e Steam Turbine Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

e
e . -=
IL �-.---"----·
· . Exhaust Pressure at Design Flaw . of 0.26.

I
_; This curve assumes an ratio
If this ratio is significantly at variance from 0.26 use:
Roted Th rottle pressure
1
_ -::=-

e
·:;-
t
-M ,
Percent Reduction in Efficiency• _;J-�
z -·,

## � •I!; 1::1 ffia•'g_if�HJ.t

Exhaust Pressure at Design Flaw Curve Value

e
� :

## §\fiJ I ::, ��1

( Rated Throttle P ressure (PSIA) ) ( )
2 I 0.26 _. __
+

, � @�rnz:-t:::r:0
e - -==::2 : · � ��-- a.=.JJ!9·--uo
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## e Fig. 12. 3600,rpm high-preuvre turbine section, 1, or 2-row governing r/age,

efficiency carn�ion For mean•af,.,,,/.,• loops

e SCC Figure 12. Shows the effect of the number of control valves when the mean-of­
valve loops checkbox is checked for an off design run.

e
e
e
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e
e
Plant Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

GateCycle Training

## Plant Modeling Exercise

53
e
e
e Plant Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

## e Plant Modeling in GateCycle

e Introduction
This document presents an overview plant modeling in GateCycle. It provides sample

e
vendor data for use in a scripted modeling exercise. The goals of this exercise are as
follows:

e 12. Catalog the vendor data needed to build an accurate plant model.
13. Illustrate the use of separate design point models and a modular approach to building

e
the main plant model.

We will build a GateCycle model of an actual twin train, landfill gas fired combined

e Cycle plant using the data described in the Vendor Data section below. This data will be
used to build separate design point models for the GT, ST, HRSG and condenser. When

e
the design point models are finished, we will build a complete plant model with off
design cases for a hot and cold day. The plant schematic is shown below:

e �·-�·"-"'""�"·-···

f•
-�

e ,­
TMX1

[ j r:_A/1
, r · l --�; � , h �- ll �
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. � • A
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!1
DB1 EVA; ECON1
SPHT1

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FUSPLl FUSP2

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MODEL: PLANT I -- -· � _

1"
r.,;i

CASE: P LANT

e
I [,,j
@ 11"""' I
POWER· 2075
1

## :;�, �;�� r-f� rL ,h . 1nf �

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L---J =-iL12'1Llr
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l_jGlo2
DB2 SPHT2

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Twin Train Plant Layout

e
e 54

e
e
Plant Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

Vendor Data
Parameter Value
Solar Taurus 60s 2
GT Data
Fuel CH4 50 % by volume
Fuel CO2 37.5 % by volume
Fuel N2 IO % by volume
Fuel 02 2.5 % by volume
Fuel LHV 6063BTU/lb
GT Rated Power @ ISO 5.279 MW
GT Rated Heat Rate @ ISO 10,991Btu/h
GT Exhaust Flow 176,674 lb/h
GT Exhaust Temperature 892 F
Condenser
Design Pressure 2.50 in. HG Abs
Circulating Water Temperature Rise 18 F
Tube O.D. 0.75 in.
Tube Gauge 18BWG
Tube velocity 7 Ft.ls
Steam Flow 91239 lb/hr
Steam Enthalpy 1025.9Btu/lb
HRSG 1 Pressure Level
DB Outlet Temperature 1534 F
SPHT Outlet Temperature 831 F
SPHT Steam Side Pressure Drop 37 psi
SPHT Steam flow 48,223 lb/hr
Evaporator Operating Pressure 546.7 PSIA
Evaporator blowdown as fraction offeedwater flow 3%
Feedwater inlet temperature 225 F
Economizer Outlet temperature 398 F
Economizer pressure drop 22 psi
ST Data used, circa 1959 Elliot 9 MW
Number oflnlet control valves 7
Condensing Yes
Throttle Flow 100,000 lb/hr
Throttle Temperature 750 F
Throttle Pressure 500 PSIA
Exhaust Pressure 2.50 In. Hg
Exhaust Enthalpy 1023.1Btu/lb
Extraction flow 8525 lb/hr
Extraction Enthalpy 1150.00Btu/lb
Extraction Pressure 16.6 PSIA
Table I: Given Design Data

55
Plant Modeling Exercise GateCycle Training

Instructions
Use the data from Table I to construct a complete, twin train plant model. Rough steps
are given below:

1. Create a Land Fill gas version of the Solar Taurus 60 based on the Natural Gas
Fired Taurus 60 in the GTDATA library. This is curve set ID TAU60G
2. Build a design point Condenser Model
3. Build a design point HRSG model
4. Build a design point ST model
5. Build the complete model and set equipment to run off design using previously
created design point models. Plant Deaerator operates at a constant pressure of
15.68 PSIA. Demand pegging steam to maintain this pressure.
6. Create 30F and 90F ambient cases for complete plant.
7. Set a duty of l .2089e+006 BTU/hr in the valve upstream of the deaerator's boiler
feed water inlet. This valve models the heat added to the feed water by cooling
the steam turbine generator

56
Modeling Air Cooled Condensers with Odd Shaped Tubes

Introduction
The Hamon Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) designs have highlighted a weakness in the
GateCycle™ ACC icon. The GateCycle tube geometry inputs are not well-suited to the
almost rectangular tubes of this new design. This document describes a workaround for
such systems. Using this workaround, it is possible to model the Hamon ACC design
satisfactorily, as illustrated in the attached example.

## Basic Concept of the Workaround

The current GateCycle tube geometry code we written for the three cases of fins:
1. Round or circular fins
2. Rectangular Fins
3. Connected fins
It is not well suited to handle other fin configurations. When the geometry information
for other fin configurations is entered, certain criteria are not met and the code issues
warnings as it tries to find geometrically feasible inputs. As a result of this, the following
workaround requires fooling GateCycle™ by entering round tube and fin geometry data
that results in the same bare tube and total (bare tube + fin) surface areas provided by the
non-round tubes and fins.
Inputting the equivalent round tube and fin geometry data will upset the built in equation
for the heat transfer coefficient. The following two parameters influence this equation:
( 1) air-side film coefficient correction
(2) OD hydraulic diameter
In order to tune the model it is necessary to find a set of these two parameters that result
in good model behavior over the anticipated range of operation.
There is another important parameter with ACC models. ACCs are usually located
outside of the turbine hall and have rather extensive ductwork to guide the steam from the
steam turbine condenser neck into the ACC. As such, it is vitally important to model the
pressure loss associated with this ductwork using a PIPVLV between ST and ACC.
The GateCycle™ ACC icon does feature a waterside pressure drop correlation, but the
correlation only works when the ACC is used as an air-cooled water cooler, i.e. not in
condensing mode. Therefore, it is important to get the right off-design pressure
relationship in place by using a PIPVLV icon to calculate the turbine backpressure
correctly.

## Modeling Procedure, Design Mode

Geometric Settings
Use round tubes with round fins
GateCycle Air Cooled Condenser Modeling

The first task in setting up a model is to find out about the tube length and number of
tubes per bay. Usually the vendor data specifies the number of bundles and number of
tubes per bundle. One ACC module or bay usually contains a certain number of bundles.
Hamon bundles have 36 tubes per bundle and have one row of tubes. With the attached
example it looks like the six bundles per side of one A-Frame, makes 12 bundles per bay
and 216 (6 * 36) tubes per row at a tube length of 12m (40 ft). 40 ft is known to be a
manufacturing limit for HX tubes.
Typically vendors give two surface areas: (1) bare tube and (2) total area as the sum of the
bare tube and fin area. The next task is to find the appropriate geometrically equivalent
diameter of the "round" tubes to achieve the same bare tube surface. The total area
information helps you to set the fin diameter. Set these two diameters so that the bare and
total surface areas match the vendor stated values.

Hydraulic Settings
At the vendor design point we need some information on the airflow through the ACC.
This is either the air exit temperature or the mass or volumetric flow. With this
information the mass and energy balance for the ACC is closed:
Q = A * U * LMDT.
A is determined from the geometric settings. LMDT is determined from the process state
points. Q is determined from the design process information. The only variable to adjust
is the heat transfer coefficient. To make GateCycle™ calculate the correct airflow one
must adjust the U value. This can be accomplished by the choice of hydraulic diameter
and the air side film coefficient correction (AirSideFCcorrFactor[O]). In design mode
write a macro that adjusts the air side film coefficient correction factor until the air exit
temperature or the air volumetric flow given by the vendor is matched.
At the end of this procedure we know the volumetric air flow rate through one ACC bay,
which is constant for all ambient temperatures unless the fan speed changes. Usually the
U settles around a film coefficient of 45 to 50 W/m2.K on the air side.

Fan Power
After the airflow has been determined check the resulting fan power. Adjust the design
airside pressure drop to achieve the power consumption that the vendor specifies. This
can be done with a control macro.

Off-Design Modeling

## Model Design Point

To produce a model that covers the complete range of operation well, it is advisable to
pick a design point at one ambient temperature (high or low) and adjust some parameter
to match the back pressure at the other extreme temperature. The attached example has
the model design point at the high temperature case (33 ° C).
Adjust the heat transfer coefficient (AirSideFCCorrFactor[O]) at the design point so that
the volumetric air flow settles at the same value determined from the vendor design point.

58
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GateCrcle Air Cooled Condenser Modeling

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Pressure-Loss Steam Duct
As mentioned above it is important to model the pressure losses through the steam duct

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with a PIPVLV. If information on the design pressure loss is lacking, it is a good choice
to use a drop of 4 to 5 mbar at the model design point (at high ambient temp. and high
saturation pressure). The off-design correlation will determine the pressure loss at other

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operational points. In a second tuning step the user will have to adjust a pressure loss
correlation factor to match the turbine backpressure at the low ambient temperatures. In
the attached example this has been done for the 0°C ambient temperature at a design flow

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fraction of 1. It turned out that the coefficient for volumetric flow had to be adjusted
from 1 to some 1.21 to make the pressure match.

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With this adjustment the model gave a good correspondence with the vendor data as can
be seen from Figure l on the next page.
230
1

e 210 --

e 190+----

e - 170

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; 150

- - �
-- GateCycle ••
-- Vendor Data

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. -+- Vendor Design Point
-0- Model Design Point
c\1l 130 � ,

e 110

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90

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70

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50
0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2
% Design Flow

## e Figure 1 Comparison of GateCycle ™ modeling with vendor data.

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GateCycle Air Cooled Condenser Modeljng

Summary
The steps for modeling an ACC with odd shaped tubes are summarized below:
I) Figure out geometry inputs,# of bays,# of tubes per bay, tube length. Use tube
length and # of tubes input for the air side design method.
2) Use round tubes and round fins.
3) Set geometric diameter of tube and fin diameter such that the vendor data for bare
tube and finned tube surface match.
4) Adjust heat transfer coefficient to match airside flow from vendor design point data.
Specify hydraulic diameter (hydr. 0D=4* A/C, A... Cross sectional area, C ... tube
Circumference) and adjust the airside film coefficient correction to achieve desired
airflow. Result is volumetric airflow.
5) Pick a model design point at one extreme temperature of the operational range. Make
sure to use the same volumetric airflow by adjusting the film coefficient for this
design point. Pick a design point pressure loss for the ST duct - use vendor
information or set to 4 or 5 mbar if vendor information is not available.
6) Create an off-design case and run it at the other extreme ambient temperature of the
operational range. Adjust the specific volume coefficient (coefficient "a") in the
PIPVLV's off-design pressure loss correlation to match turbine backpressure.
7) Run different cases for different load and ambient temperature to check the model
out. If the match at other off design points is not good, choose new values for thr
hydraulic diameter, airside film coefficient corrections and design pressure drop in the
steam duct to change the behavior of the model.
Notes: Pay attention to the vendor specifications for which the performance diagrams are
valid! Some vendors (like GEA) specify the dry steam flow versus constant moisture
steam flow as in the attached example. In this example one must use a macro to change
the inlet steam enthalpy to maintain constant moisture at different backpressures for a fair
comparison with the vendor curves.

## Attachment: Vendor Specification

The following 3 pages are actual Hamon data sheets that have been scanned in for easy
reproduction of this exercise.

60
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e GateCycle
Air Cooled Condenser Modeling

e • 4J DATASHEET

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r 1 .fl

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.., 't'�� .. ,./1-�h.-.,Qc. U:'\::!...-f'.:.lJ. .

## Heat aicchanged 208 MWt Type/ Model A-Frame

Steam flow rate 92,7 l:Dnlhr Number or modules 18
Turbine bai:lepressure mbar Number of streets 3

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74
Total Enthalpy 241S \W/kg W. Total Width al columns 36,5 m
Steam Wetness 6,6 % L- Total length at columns 74,8 m
hm0&pherfc piwaure 994 mber Fan declc level 15,5 m

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'Altitude above sea level 155 m Top manlfold level 28,6
l�let Temperature 13,7 'C Topwindwall 26,1 m
Min Design Temp. -16 •c Main duct diameter (out of HTE scope : 5,3 m
1Noise pressure level 48 dS(Al at 140. m DlstribuHon manifold diameter 3,1 m
_,_

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Total weight cond_eneer ton
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e 101ameier
's1ngJ& Bow Cond!l!!!&!C 9,754 m
Desigr, pressura bar(g) + FV Motor RPM 750
Design temperature 13,7 'C Nornin•I Power, each 110 kW

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ba�g} Contn,J
r----
Total absclbed pOWI/' at fan shaft
b"data 1Tolal e�ei:ted consumed power
'.,n,. 1s23
cocth,J
Material Welded c.s., alum. : '· .,

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HelghV,\lld1h 219119 mm ��1�\$.i':i�tt1!ffrJJI���f.i}�1.�.;r�i;t��fit���-_,.-1�.i;_�-r11Fitf
lw..!.! thickness 0,7 mm
I\ .undies 216 Volume condensate tank m'
[Ntottubes/bundlo 36 I Norn. Power condensate pump KW

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5ffacli�e Ex,hange bolh items 11111 �eluded f/Om Hamon su
·surface (finned) 5'10B42 rri'
Etrec;tJve Ban, sutfai.e 29246 m• Aiv ovllf/J f"""'t"· J.s,s·c
S.vb co,,l,:,...._1 3 ·C-
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Aluminium
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19/2.00 mm
<f),J'::' mm
11

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GateCycle Air Cooled Condenser Modeling

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,,....... ••.
AIR C001 IS'"' ACC)
Cllent Project Nr

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Locaticn Proposal Nr HBT�139
Document PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR CONSTANT DRYNESS Do�NrTA- YBTll19EO -PCUUIJZ
0l'IL1' ru-KINFO.RMATION

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DESIGN CONDITIONS
steam Flow DG 92..70 l(e/s Steam Dryness XG 0.934 lcg/1(g
Back Pressure PG 74 mbara
Air Temperature tLG )4"C Barom. Pressure bG 894 mbara

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IJJ,} AfrT•mperature • c

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Revision 0 2 3 ..__ 5
Date 13'-Mar•OII l
Issued SHA_'i/..!" "

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1 ,opcrovea \iil39pculs

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e 62

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GateCycle
Air Cooled Condenser Modeling

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Module
One module consists of a number of tube bundles arranged
as an A-frame. The cooling air is delivered by a large fan dri­
ven by an electric motor via gearbox.

e Modularb:ed Erection
Hamon-Lummus engineering expertise in erecting large sRC
condensers and cooling towers is well-known throughout

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the world. The design optimization of the modularized erec­
tion concept depends mainly on the labor rates, project
schedule and site conditions.

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Supporting steel is delivered to the job site in large pre­
assembled sections and can be immediately erected. Bundles

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are easily lifted and laid on the supporting structure. lhere­
after one module (complete with fan, fan bell, its fan drive
assembly and internal walkway) wiU be lifted from the pre­
assembly area on to the supporting structure. Steam ducting

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with expansion bellows, windwall panels, small piping and
external walkways are also pre-assembled and lilted in plaQ!.

## Short Cyde 11me

Hamon-Lummus can meet the shortest delivery for comple­

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te projects including erection as demonstrated recently
where an existing condenser in operation had to be
replaced by the SRC system. The old condenser was decom­
missioned 6 months after award and the new SRC was

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ready for start-up one month later.
Such achievements are only made possible by
using the modularized concept of HL

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e Typical SRC Module

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