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PONTIFICA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DEL PERU

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS E INGENIERIA


DIPLOMATURA DE ESTUDIOS EN INGENIERIA ESTRUCTURAL

DISEÑO DE ELEMENTOS EN CONCRETO POSTENSADO

TAREA
DISEÑO DE UNA VIGA POSTENSADA

Docente: Ing. Luis Yeckle Montalvo

Presentado Por: Abel Carazas Covinos


Claudia Caso Salazar

LIMA – PERU
NOVIEMBRE 2013
DISEÑO DE UNA VIGA POSTENSADA

Se tiene una viga postensada de 20m de luz entre ejes y 5.0m de separacion entre ellas, considerando:
• Losa de concreto vaciado insitu 300 kg/m2
• Piso Terminado 100 kg/m2
• sobrecarga 100 kg/m2
• Concreto f'c=350 kg/cm2, fci=280 kg/cm2
• Coeficiente de perdidas de tension=0.85 asumido para el diseño
• Considerar cordones de 1/2"
Calcular:
a)Seccion Transversal
b)Fuerza de Postensado
c)Trazar el c able resultante a lo largo de la viga
d)Realizar la verificacion al esfuerzo cortante con los dos metodos
e)Realizar la verificacion de esfuerzos
f)Realizar la verificacion a la rotura
Considerar acero G250 Baja Relajacion
DESARROLLO

1)Determinacion de las Cargas Actuantes


Ancho Tributario b := 5 ⋅ m Lviga := 20 ⋅ m

kgf
Peso Propio (estimado) Pp := 732
m
kgf kgf
Losa de concreto Plosa := b ⋅ 300 = 1500 ⋅
2 m
m
kgf kgf
Sobrecarga SC := b ⋅ 100 ⋅ = 500 ⋅
2 m
m
kgf kgf
Piso Terminado Pter := b ⋅ 100 ⋅ = 500 ⋅
2 m
m
kgf kgf
wD := Pp + Plosa + Pter = 2732 ⋅ wL := SC = 500 ⋅
m m
kgf
w1=carga existente en la transferencia w1 := Pp + Plosa = 2232 ⋅
m
kgf
w2= carga total w2 := Pp + Plosa + SC + Pter = 3232 ⋅
m

Consideramos a la viga como simplemente apoyada

2 2
w1 ⋅ Lviga w2 ⋅ Lviga
M 1 := = 111600 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m M 2 := = 161600 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m
8 8

M a := M 2 − M 1 = 50000 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m
2)Esfuerzos Admisibles
kgf kgf
f´c := 350 ⋅ f´ci := 280 ⋅
2 2
cm cm
Coeficiente de Perdidas por friccion η := 0.85

Inmediatamente Despues de la transferencia


kgf kgf kgf
fciadm := 0.6 ⋅ f´ci = 168 ⋅ fti adm := 0.8 ⋅ f´ci ⋅ = 13.39 ⋅
2 2 2
cm cm cm

En los apoyos, en elementos kgf kgf


fti adm2 := 1.6 ⋅ f´ci ⋅ = 26.77 ⋅
simplemente apoyados 2 2
cm cm
En etapa de servicio
kgf
fcadm1 := 0.45 ⋅ f´c = 157.5 ⋅ Para cargas permanentes
2
cm

kgf
fcadm2 := 0.60 ⋅ f´c = 210 ⋅ Para carga total
2
cm

kgf kgf
ftadm := 2.0 ⋅ f´c ⋅ = 37.42 ⋅ Clase U. Para carga total
2 2
cm cm

3)Modulos minimos y Predimensionamiento


M1
Relacion M1/Ma = 2.23
Ma
M1
Relacion := "Consideramos solo el modulo inferior, seccion asimetrica" if ≥ 0.3
Ma
"Consideramos ambos modulos, seccion simetrica" otherwise

Relacion = "Consideramos solo el modulo inferior, seccion asimetrica"

M a + ( 1 − η) ⋅ M 1 3
Ssup := = 30147.45 ⋅ cm
fcadm2 + η ⋅ fti adm

M a + ( 1 − η) ⋅ M 1 3
Sinf := = 37033.22 ⋅ cm
η ⋅ fci adm + ftadm

Escogemos una secccion I asimetrica con una relacion ys/H de 0.35 a0.40
Predimensionamiento del Peralte
Lviga Lviga
h v1 := = 1m h v2 := = 0.8 m Asumimos h v := 1.00 ⋅ m
20 25
Espesor del Ala t ala := 0.20 ⋅ m t ala
= 0.2
hv
Para usar la Tabla de Lyn, consideramos valores de Bi/Bs de 0.3 y de b'/b de 0.2
t/h=0.2 Si1=0.05841xbxh2
t/h=0.3 Si2=0.06136xbxh2
Sinf
Interpolando t/h=0.20 Sip := 0.05841 xbxh2 Bs1 := = 0.63 m
2
Sip ⋅ h v
b ´.1 := Bs1 ⋅ 0.3 = 0.19 m

t/h=0.2 ys=0.353h
Interpolando t/h=0.20 ysp := 0.353 xh
t/h=0.3 ys=0.344h
ys1 := ysp ⋅ h v = 0.35 m
Seccion Transversal (Pregunta a)

Bs := 1.0 ⋅ m

Bi := 0.4 ⋅ m

tfsup := 0.2 ⋅ m
tfinf := 0.2 ⋅ m
b´ := 0.25 ⋅ m
Hv := 1 ⋅ m
h w := Hv − tfsup − tfinf = 0.6 m

Area := Bs ⋅ tfsup + Bi ⋅ tfinf + ( h w) ⋅ b´ = 4300 ⋅ cm


2

B s ⋅ tfsup ⋅
tfsup
+ Bi ⋅ tfinf ⋅  Hv −  +  tfsup + h w  ⋅ ( h ) ⋅ ( b´)
tfinf
 w
ys :=
2  2   2 
Area
ys = 0.388 m yi := Hv − ys = 0.61 m

3 2
B s ⋅ tfsup
+ Bs ⋅ tfsup ⋅  ys −
tfsup  4
Ialasup :=  = 1729836 ⋅ cm
12  2 
3 2
b´ ⋅ h w  hw  4
Ialma := + b´ ⋅ h w ⋅  + tfsup − ys = 636912 ⋅ cm
12 2 
3 2
Bi ⋅ tfinf
+ Bi ⋅ tfinf ⋅  yi − 
tfinf 4
Ialainf :=  = 2120772 ⋅ cm
12  2 
4
IG := Ialasup + Ialma + Ialainf = 4487519 ⋅ cm
IG 3 IG 3
Ss := = 115546.91 ⋅ cm Si := = 73370.09 ⋅ cm IG
ys yi rx := = 32.3 ⋅ cm
Area
Verificacion1 := "Seccion Adecuada" if Si ≥ Sinf ∧ Ss ≥ Ssup
"Replantear Seccion" otherwise

Verificacion1 = "Seccion Adecuada"


2 2
rx rx Cs + Ci
Cs := = 17.06 ⋅ cm Ci := = 26.87 ⋅ cm ε := = 0.44
yi ys Hv
kgf
Verificamos el peso propio γc := 2400 ⋅
3
m
kgf kgf
wpp := Area ⋅ γc − Bs ⋅ 300 ⋅ = 732 ⋅
2 m
m
Considerando una distancia minima entre el cable inferior del postensado y el borde del ala inferior
de 8cm (recubrimiento mecanico), la excentricidad maxima seria yi-8cm

recmec := 8 ⋅ cm emax := yi − recmec = 0.53 m

4)Planteamiento de las Inecuaciones de Magnel

M1 kgf M2 kgf
σ1SUP := = 96.58 ⋅ σSSUP := = 139.86 ⋅
Ss 2 Ss 2
cm cm
M1 kgf M2 kgf
σ1INF := = 152.11 ⋅ σSINF := = 220.25 ⋅
Si 2 Si 2
cm cm
Recta 1
e1 := Ci = 26.87 ⋅ cm
1 −6 1
b 1 := = −1.735 × 10 ⋅
Area ⋅ ( −ftadm − σ1SUP ) kgf

Recta 2
e2 := Ci = 26.87 ⋅ cm
η −6 1
b 2 := = −2.504 × 10 ⋅
Area ⋅ ( fcadm1 − σ1SUP − σSSUP) kgf
Recta 3
e3 := −Cs = −17.06 ⋅ cm
η −7 1
b 3 := = 6.175 × 10 ⋅
Area ⋅ ( fciadm + σ1INF) kgf
Recta 4
e4 := −Cs = −17.06 ⋅ cm
η −7 1
b 4 := = 7.766 × 10 ⋅
Area ⋅ ( −ftadm + σ1INF + σSSUP) kgf
1.20E-05

1.00E-05

8.00E-06

recta1
6.00E-06
recta2

4.00E-06 recta3
recta4
2.00E-06 e
1/Ni
0.00E+00
-50 0 50 100 150 1/Ni

-2.00E-06

-4.00E-06

-6.00E-06

Figura 1. Diagrama de Magnel

4.00E-06

3.50E-06
recta1
recta2
recta3
3.00E-06
recta4
e
1/Ni

2.50E-06 1/Ni

2.00E-06
40 50 60 70 80

Figura 2. Diagrama de Magnel Amplificado a la zona de interes


Ingresamos el valor e=0.53m exc := 0.53 ⋅ m
De la Figura 2 1/Ni esta entre 2.6x10-6 y 3.15x10-6 Asumimos 4x10-6
1.kgf
Ni := = 250000 ⋅ kgf
−6
4 × 10
5)Calculo de la Fuerza Postensora (Pregunta b)
Si
Formula General Kt := = 0.17 m
Area

M2
Ni := = 230650.18 ⋅ kgf
exc + Kt

6)Verificacion de Esfuerzos
La fuerza de Postensado esta dada por 3 cables de 1/2" , con una fuerza inicial de 230 ton
y una fuerza estable de 0.85x230= 195.5 ton. Con un trazado parabolico con una excentricidad de 53
cm en el centro de la luz y 0 cm en los apoyos.

Ni := 230000 ⋅ kgf exc := 0.53 ⋅ m


Ns := η ⋅ Ni = 195500 ⋅ kgf

Preesforzado inicial
Ni  exc 
⋅  1 +
kgf Ni exc  kgf
σps.inicial := ⋅ 1 −  = −52.01 ⋅ 2 σpi.inicial :=  = 219.63 ⋅ 2
Area  Ci  Area  Cs 
cm cm

Preesforzado Estable

Ns Ns
⋅  1 −
exc 
⋅  1 +
kgf exc  kgf
σps :=  = −44.21 ⋅ 2 σpi :=  = 186.69 ⋅ 2
Area  Ci 
cm
Area  Cs 
cm
Esfuerzos debido a M1
M1 kgf
σ1SUP := = 96.58 ⋅ −M 1 kgf
Ss 2 σ1INF := = −152.11 ⋅
cm Si 2
cm
Esfuerzos debido a Ma

Ma kgf −M a kgf
σSSUP := = 43.27 ⋅ σSINF := = −68.15 ⋅
Ss 2 Si 2
cm cm

Verificacion de Esfuerzos al centro de la viga (Pregunta e)

a)Preesforzado inicial+M1
Superior Maximo
kgf kgf
Est1s := σps.inicial + σ1SUP = 44.57 ⋅ −fti adm = −13.39 ⋅
2 2
cm cm
Rev1 = "Correcto"
Inferior
kgf kgf
Est1i := σpi.inicial + σ1INF = 67.53 ⋅ fciadm = 168 ⋅
2 2
cm cm
Rev2 = "Correcto"
b)Preesforzado estable+M1

Superior Maximo
kgf kgf
Est2s := σps + σ1SUP = 52.38 ⋅ −ftadm = −37.42 ⋅
2 2
cm cm
Inferior Rev3 = "Correcto"
kgf kgf
Est2i := σpi + σ1INF = 34.58 ⋅ fcadm1 = 157.5 ⋅
2 2
cm cm

Rev4 = "Correcto"
c)Preesforzado estable+M1+Ma
Superior Maximo
kgf
Est3s := Est2s + σSSUP = 95.65 ⋅ kgf
2 fcadm1 = 157.5 ⋅
cm 2
cm
Inferior Rev5 = "Correcto"
kgf kgf
Est3i := Est2i + σSINF = −33.57 ⋅ −ftadm = −37.42 ⋅
2 2
cm cm
Rev6 = "Correcto"

Verificacion de Esfuerzos en el apoyo

a)Preesforzado inicial+M1
Superior
Maximo
Ni kgf kgf
Est4s := = 53.49 ⋅ −fti adm2 = −26.77 ⋅
Area 2 2
cm cm
Rev7 = "Correcto"
Inferior
Ni kgf
Est4i := = 53.49 ⋅ kgf
Area 2 fciadm = 168 ⋅
cm 2
cm
Rev8 = "Correcto"
7)Trazo del cable (Pregunta c)
Determinacion de cables y verificacion de esfuerzo en los cables
Ni = 230000 ⋅ kgf
2
Ncables := 3 Ntoron := 9 aps := 92.9 ⋅ mm dp := Hv − recmec = 0.92 m

2 Aps
Aps := aps ⋅ Ncables ⋅ Ntoron = 25.08 ⋅ cm ωpw := = 0.011
b´ ⋅ dp
Asmax = "Correcto"
kgf kgf
fpu := 17250 ⋅ fpy := 0.9 ⋅ fpu = 15525 ⋅
2 2
cm cm

Esfuerzo en el acero en el momento de transferencia


Ni kgf
fpsi := = 9169.56 ⋅
Aps 2
cm
kgf
fpadm1 := 0.82 ⋅ fpy = 12730.5 ⋅ kgf
2 fpadm2 := 0.74 ⋅ fpu = 12765 ⋅
cm 2
cm

Nota = "Correcto"

w1 ⋅  Lviga ⋅ x − x
2
fti adm ⋅ Ss Ss 
es( x) := + + limite excentricidad superior
Ni Area 2 ⋅ Ni

w2 ⋅  Lviga ⋅ x − x
2
ftadm ⋅ Si Ss 
ei( x) := − − + limite excentricidad inferior
Ns Area 2 ⋅ Ns

Elegimos una parabola, y=px2, donde p=exc/(L/2)^2=0.0053

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-50.00
-40.00
-30.00
-20.00
-10.00
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00

limite exc inf limite exc sup ysup yinf trazo del cable
8)Verificacion a la rotura (pregunta f)

2
kgf wu ⋅ Lviga
wu := 1.4 ⋅ wD + 1.7 ⋅ wL = 4674.8 ⋅ M u := = 233740 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m
m 8
kgf
2 2 2 fy := 4200 ⋅
γp := 0.40 Aps = 25.08 ⋅ cm As := 0 ⋅ cm As´ := 0 ⋅ cm 2
cm

Aps
ρP := = 0.0027 β1 := 0.8 d := Hv − recmec = 92 cm d´ := 5 ⋅ cm
Bs ⋅ dp

As fy As fy
ω := ⋅ =0 ω´ := ⋅ =0
Bs ⋅ d f´c Bi ⋅ d´ f´c

 γp  fpu d  kgf
fps := fpu ⋅ 1 − ρP ⋅ + ⋅ ( ω − ω´) = 16091.03 ⋅
 β1  f´c dp  2
cm
Aps ⋅ fps
a := = 13.57 ⋅ cm ϕ := 0.9
0.85 ⋅ f´c ⋅ Bs

ϕMn := ϕ ⋅ Aps ⋅ fps ⋅  dp −


a ϕMn
 = 309549.53 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m = 1.32
 2 Mu

Nota2 := "Correcto" if M u ≤ ϕMn


"Revisar diseño" otherwise Nota2 = "Correcto"

9)Verificacion al esfuerzo cortante (pregunta e)

Verificamos en el apoyo

( 1.4 ⋅ wD + 1.7 ⋅ wL) ⋅ Lviga


Vuap := = 46748 ⋅ kgf Muap := 100 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m
2

Metodo 1

 kgf kgf Vuap ⋅ dp 


Vcap1 :=  ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ b´ ⋅ dp if fps ≥ 0.4 ⋅ fpu
Muap 
0.16 f´c 49
2 2
 cm m 
"usar metodo 2" otherwise

Vcap1 = 11731.67 kgf


kgf
Vcmin := 0.53 ⋅ f´c ⋅ ⋅ ( b´ ⋅ dp) = 22805.4 ⋅ kgf
2
cm

kgf
Vcmax := 1.31 ⋅ f´c ⋅ ⋅ ( b´ ⋅ dp) = 56368.07 ⋅ kgf
2
cm
Vcap := Vcap1 if Vcap1 ≥ Vcmin ∧ Vcap1 ≤ Vcmax
Vcmin if Vcap1 ≤ Vcmin

otherwise
Vcmin if Vcap1 ≤ Vcmin
Vcmax otherwise
Vcap = 22805.4 ⋅ kgf

Metodo 2

Ns kgf kgf
fpe := = 45.47 ⋅ En apoyo fd := 0 ⋅ En apoyo
Area 2 2
cm cm

 IG   kgf 
M cre :=  y  ⋅  1.6 ⋅ f´c ⋅ 2 + fpe − fd = 87120.49 ⋅ kgf ⋅ m
 s  cm 

M max := Muap = 100 kgf ⋅ m Vi := Vuap = 46748 ⋅ kgf En apoyo

wD ⋅ Lviga
Vd := = 27320 kgf
2

 kgf  Vi ⋅ M cre
Vci :=  0.16 ⋅ f´c ⋅  ⋅ b´ ⋅ dp + Vd + = 40761291.34 kgf
2 M max
 cm 

4exc Ns kgf
θ := = 0.11 Vp := Ns ⋅ sin( θ) = 20684.21 kgf fcp := = 45.47 ⋅
Lviga Area 2
cm

 kgf 
Vcw :=  0.93 ⋅ f´c ⋅ + 0.3 ⋅ fcp  ⋅ b´ ⋅ dp + Vp = 92072.17 kgf
2
 cm 
Vcap2 := Vci if Vci ≤ Vcw ∧ Vci ≤ Vcmax ∧ Vci ≥ Vcmin

otherwise
Vcw if Vcw ≤ Vcmax ∧ Vcw ≥ Vcmin

otherwise
Vcmax if Vcmax ≤ Vci ∧ Vcmax ≤ Vcw
Vcap2 = 56368.07 ⋅ kgf
Vcmin otherwise
Diseño del refuerzo transversal

Vuap = 46748 kgf ϕv := 0.85

Vuap 2
Vs := − Vcap = 32192.25 kgf Av := 1.42 ⋅ cm 1 estribo de 3/8"
ϕv
Av ⋅ fy ⋅ d
sep := = 17.04 cm sep1 := 15 ⋅ cm
Vs

Av ⋅ fy ⋅ d
Vs1 := = 36579.2 kgf
sep1

ϕVn := ( Vcap + Vs1) ⋅ ϕv = 50476.91 kgf Vuap = 46748 kgf

Nota3 := "Correcto" if Vuap ≤ ϕVn


"Revisar diseño" otherwise Nota3 = "Correcto"

Usamos estribos de 3/8" cada 15 cm en una distancia 2 d de los apoyos