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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)

Volume 115 – No. 1, April 2015

A Survey on Handwritten Character Recognition

Techniques for Various Indian Languages
Krupa Dholakia
Computer Science Department
Shri Jagdish Prasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, India

ABSTRACT Preprocessing
Handwritten character recognition is always an interesting
area of pattern recognition for research in the field of image
processing. Many researchers have presented their work in
this area and still research is undergoing to achieve high
accuracy. This paper is mainly concerned for the people who
are working on the character recognition and review of work
to recognize handwritten character for various Indian Feature Extraction
languages. The objective of this paper is to describe the set of
preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and
classification techniques. Classification
Handwritten character, Preprocessing, Segmentation, Feature Post Processing
extraction, Classification.

1. INTRODUCTION Fig.1: Stages of Character Recognition

India is a multi-lingual country with more than 20 languages This paper represents review of handwritten character
like Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, recognition techniques with respect to the stages of character
Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri (Meithei), Marathi, recognition systems for various Indian scripts.
Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil,
Telugu, Urdu etc[1] for which the concept of uppercase and 2. PRE-PROCESSING
lowercase is not present. In image pre-processing we apply a series of operations like
Binarization, Complement, Size normalization,
Handwritten Character Recognition is a process of
Morphological Operation, Noise removal using filters,
transforming handwritten text into machine executable
thresholding, skeletonization, thinning, cleaning techniques
format. There are mainly three steps in pattern recognition:
and filtering mechanisms on scanned image which are taken
observation, pattern segmentation and pattern classification.
as input.It makes the input image easier to process in order to
Recognition of character has become very interesting topic in
increase the overall efficiency of recognition system.
pattern recognition for the researchers during last few
decades. In general, handwritten recognition is classified in to K.Singh[4] used median filtration, dilation, some
two types as on-line and off-line recognition methods [3]. Off- morphological operations to join unconnected pixels, to
line handwriting recognition involves the automatic remove isolated pixels, to set neighbor pixel values in
conversion of text into an image into letter codes which are majority and to remove spur pixels.
usable within computer and text-processing applications. The
data obtained by this form is regarded as a static A.Desai[5] has done his work on Gujarati numerals
representation of handwriting. But, in the on-line system, the recognition where he has collected 0-9 digits from 300
two dimensional coordinates of successive points are different people. In the scanned image contrast, adjustment is
represented as a function of time and the order of strokes done by adaptive histogram equalization algorithm,
made by the writer are also available. Offline character smoothing of image boundaries are done using median filter
recognition is comparatively more challenging due to shape of and nearest neighborhood interpolation algorithm is used to
characters, great variation of character symbol, different put all handwritten digit in a uniform size. To deal with skew
handwriting style and document quality. correction, digit is rotated up to 100 fine patterns for each digit
in clock wise and anti-clock wise direction with difference of
Several applications including mail sorting, bank processing, 20 each.
document reading and postal address recognition require off-
line handwriting recognition systems. As a result, the off-line In the preprocessing phase, Md.Saidur[6]used canny
handwriting recognition continues to be an active area of method for edge detection and normalized numerals using
research towards exploring the newer techniques that would thinning and dilation algorithm.
improve recognition accuracy [2]. R.Singh and M.Kaur[7]suggested adaptive sampling
The study defines the five major stages in any HCR which is algorithm, Otsu’s threshold algorithm, Hilditch algorithm and
shown in Fig.1. its variants for normalization, image binarization and thinning
of binarized image.
A.Aggarwal[9] used threshold value for converting
image into binary image. Median filtering is used to remove

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 115 – No. 1, April 2015

the noise and after segmentation each character is normalized number of vertical lines (long and short) and number of slop
to size of 90*90. lines and special dots.
In preprocessing stage, V.Agnihotri[12] used threshold value After converting the original image into gray scale and size
and sobel technique for binarization and edge detection. After normalization, J.John[8] used Haar Wavelet features at
binarization and edge detection, dilation on the image and different resolution scales for the feature extraction.
filling of the holes were presented.
For the feature extraction, A.Aggarwal[9] have proposed
3. SEGMENTATION Gradient feature. This feature measures the gradient
Segmentation is process of extracting the basic constituent magnitude and gradient direction of greatest change in
symbols of the script. Image is subdivided into many parts so intensity in a small neighborhood of each pixel. Sobel
that each part of the image is readable. To accomplish this template is used to compute the gradients.
task the image is subdivided considering three aspects, i.e. S.Niranjan[10] used Fisher Linear Discriminate analysis
line wise segmentation, word wise segmentation and character (FLD), 2DFLD, and diagonal FLD based methods for feature
wise segmentation. extraction to recognize unconstrained Kannada handwritten
For the segmentation, A.George and F.Gafoor[3]used characters. They have calculated between class scatter matrix
horizontal histogram profile for the line segmentation and and within class scatter matrix. They solved generalized
vertical histogram profile for the word and character eigenvectors and eigenvalues, sorted eigenvectors by their
segmentation. associate eigenvalues from high to low and from each sample
of training set extracted feature.
J.Johan[8] have done segmentation using projection
analysis and connected component labeling. In that they have N.Patil[11] suggested Moment Invariants (MIs), Affine
used horizontal projection profile for the line segmentation moments Invariants (AMIs), image thinning, structuring the
and isolated character using connected component labeling image in box format for the feature extraction. The MIs are
algorithm. derived by means of the theory of algebraic invariants
whereas AMIs are invariants under general affine
In segmentation, V.Agnihotri[12] segmented the preprocessed transformation.
image into isolated character using labeling process. The label
provides information about number of characters in image. V.Agnihotri[12] used diagonal feature extraction for
extracting the features. Individual character is resized to
4. FEATURE EXTRACTION 90*60 pixels and divided into 54 equal zones and size is
Feature extraction is a special form of dimension reduction. 10*10 pixels. The features are extracted from each zone by
This approach is useful when image sizes are large and a moving along their diagonals. This process is repeated for
reduced feature representation is required to quickly complete zones to extraction of 54 features for each character.
tasks such as image matching and retrieval.
K.Singh[4] used Zoning Density(ZD) and Background RECOGNITION
Directional Distribution(BDD) features for recognition. The classification stage is the decision making stage of the
Zoning density is computed by dividing number of foreground recognition system. The performance of a classifier depends
pixels in the zone and background directional distribution on the quality of the features which are extracted. There are
values are calculated for each foreground pixel by directional many existing techniques available for handwriting
distribution of its neighboring background pixels. The value classification.
for each directional distribution is summed up for all pixels in
each zone and a specific mask is used in particular direction. K.Singh[4] used SVM (support vector machines)
By combining both types of features, total 144 features are classifier for the recognition. SVM classifier takes the set of
used for classification. input data and classifies them in one of the only two distinct
classes. The effectiveness of SVM depends on kernel used
A.Desai[5] has suggested four different profiles, horizontal, and kernel parameter. SVM with RBF (Radial Basis Function)
vertical and two diagonals for the feature extraction. The kernel, they achieved 95.04% 5-fold cross validation
vector of these four profiles is used for identification of a accuracy.
A.Desai[5] used feed forward back propagation neural
For the feature extraction, Md.Saidur[6] extracts four network for the classification of Gujarati numerals and
directional local feature vector by Kirsch mask and one global proposed multilayered neural network with three layers
feature vector. Kirsch mask is used to get the edges through (94,50,10) neurons respectively and has achieved 81.66% of
the horizontal, vertical, right and left diagonal. accuracy in his work.
A.George and F.Gafoor[3] used contourlet transform in Md.Saidur[6] used PCA and SVM to enhance the
addition with aspect ratio, ratios of grid value in horizontal accuracy. PCA decrease the dimension and extract more
and vertical directions. The original image is divided to a significant feature. The output of PCA is then passed to a
lowpass image and a bandpass image using Laplacian SVM to determine appropriate class. They achieved 92.5% of
Pyramid (LP) decomposing and each band pass image is accuracy.
further decomposed by Directional filter bank (DFB).This
extraction method provides high recognition accuracy and Feed forward back propagation neural network algorithm used
taking less time for training and classification. by A.George and F.Gafoor[3] as a classifier. The three hidden
layer is used to perform the classification in this feed forward
R.Singh and M.Kaur[7]has represented each character as a back propagation neural network. It gives 97.3% of
feature vector in the feature extraction stage. The various recognition accuracy with total 32 features.
features for the classification are the character height,
character width, number of horizontal lines (long and short),

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 115 – No. 1, April 2015

For the classification of the Telugu characters, R.Singh and FLD with Angle and Correlation performs better recognition
M.Kaur[7]used Back Propagation algorithm. It is based on of vowels and consonants for Kannada handwritten characters
supervised learning. It consists of three layers: input, hidden compared to other methods and distance metric.
and output. There are two phases in that: forward phase and
backward phase. N.Patil[11] used Fuzzy Gaussian Membership function
for the classification of Marathi handwritten characters. The
J.John[8] used SVM classifier with RBF (Radial Basis template is formed and it consists of mean and standard
Function) kernel for the classification of Malayalam deviation for each feature.
characters. The feature space is linearly inseparable so using
RBF kernel it is mapped into a high dimensional space and V.Agnihotri[12] used Feed Forward Back Propagation neural
becomes linearly separable. network for the classification. The neural network consists of
54/69 inputs layers, two hidden layer with 100 neurons and
A.Aggarwal[9] used SVM with RBF kernel as a output layer with 44 neurons. He achieved 97% of recognition
classifier. Basically SVM is two classes classifier. Margin accuracy for 54 features and 98% for 69 features.
width between the classes is the optimization criterion that is
the empty area around the decision boundary defined by the 6. POST-PROCESSING
distance to the nearest training pattern. This pattern called The last stage of the character recognition system is Post-
support vector which define classification function. They processing. It prints the corresponding recognized characters
achieved 94% of recognition accuracy. in the structured text form. The accuracy of character
recognition stages can be improved if the semantic
For the classification purpose, S.Niranjan[10] used information is available up to great extent.
different distance measure techniques such as, Minkowski,
Manhattan, Euclidean, Squared Euclidean, Mean Square 7. STUDY OF VARIOUS CHARACTER
Error, Angle, Correlation co-efficient, Mahalonobis between
normed vector, Weighted Manhattan, Weighted SSE,
Weighted angle, Canberra, Modified Manhattan, Modified SCRIPTS
SSE, Weighted Modified SSE and Weighted Modified
Manhattan are used which defines that combination of 2D-
Table 1. Study of various character recognition systems for Indian scripts

Feature Classification
Researcher Language Dataset Pre-Processing Segmentation Accuracy
Extraction & Recognition
Feed forward
A.George profile, Contourlet
Malayalam - - propagation 97.3%[3] vertical transform
neural network
Density (ZD)
and Back- SVM (support
K.Singh 7000 ground vector
Gurumukhi dilation, some - 95.04%[4] samples Directional machines)
Distribution classifier
histogram Feature
equalization vector of four
algorithm, different Feed forward
Gujarati median filter profiles- back
A. Desai[5] from 300 81.66%
Numerals and nearest horizontal, propagation
neighborhood vertical and neural network
interpolation two
algorithm, skew diagonals
Canny method, local feature
Md.Saidur Bengali 1600 using thinning vector by
PCA and SVM 92.5%[6] Numerals numerals and dilation kirsch mask
algorithm and one
global feature

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 115 – No. 1, April 2015

Adaptive height and
sampling width, the
algorithm, number of Back
Telugu - Otsu’s threshold horizontal, Propagation
algorithm and vertical lines algorithm
hilditch and slop
algorithm lines, special
Projection SVM classifier
analysis, with RBF
J.John 10,000 Haar Wavelet
Malayalam - connected (Radial Basis 90.25%[8] samples features
component Function)
labeling kernel
SVM with
A.Aggarwal 7200 Threshold value, Gradient
Devanagari RBF kernel as 94%[9] samples Median filtering feature
a classifier
For angle
Fisher Linear
analysis Different
68% for
S.Niranjan 5000 (FLD), distance
Kannada - - FLD, 68%[10] samples 2DFLD, and measure
for 2D-
diagonal techniques
FLD, 66%
FLD based
for Dia-
Invariants MIs gives
(MIs), Affine 75 %,AMI
moments gives
Invariants 89.09% and
N.Patil 1100 Gaussian
Marathi (AMIs), combinatio[11] samples membership
image n approach
thinning, of MIs &
structuring AMIs gives
the image in 52.90 %
box format
Threshold value, Feed Forward 97% for 54
570 Diagonal
V.Agnihotri[ sobel technique, Labeling Back features and
Devanagari samples feature
12] dilation, filling process Propagation 98% for 69
for testing extraction
holes neural network features
Neural Network: A Review, International Journal of
8. CONCLUSION Science and Research (IJSR), Vol. 2 Issue 1, 2013,
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proposed their work in this area and achieved good accuracy International Journal of Industrial Electronics and
rate. Very few researchers have explored their research Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue-4, 2014, pp.19-22.
pointing out complexities involved in Indian script such as [4] Kartar Singh Siddharth, Renu Dhir and Rajneesh Rani,
characters with modifiers, disconnected characters and Handwritten Gurumukhi Character Recognition using
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International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)
Volume 115 – No. 1, April 2015

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