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DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

An adaptive traffic control system was developed where


the traffic load is continuously measured by sensors connected to
a microcontroller-based system which also performs all
intersection control functions. Intersection controllers of an area
are interconnected with a communication network through which
traffic load and synchronization information is exchanged.

As a result, the duration and relative phases of each traffic


light cycle change dynamically. For the basic function of the
system only the intersection controllers are required.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
Implementation

Microcontroller based traffic control system is an application


specific project, which is used to control the traffic. An embedded
system is developed which consists of a microcontroller, IR
transmitter and receiver, LED’s
This project is implemented by placing IR transmitters, receivers
and led’s at the 4 way junction, the four paths are represented as
R1,R2,R3,R4

Transmitters and receivers are placed at either sides of the four


paths, and 4 led’s at corner of the junction
When there is a traffic along the paths,value of R would be 000
which are the values of IR sensors and if there is no traffic the
value is 111
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

For instance,let the traffic at the path R1 be initially 111 ie there


is no traffic , when the traffic reaches the first sensor,the value of
R would be 011,if it reaches second sensor ,the value of R is
001,and then if it reaches the last sensor that is the third one,it is
recognized that traffic is heavy and the led glows which indicates
that vehicles can move forward,traffic is cleared, and the sensor
values automatically changed to 111.the control goes to the next
path wher the values of sensors contains more no of zeroes

This entire embedded system is placed at that junction


Microcontroller is interfaced with led’s and ir sensors The total no
of IR sensors required are 12 and led’s 4 Therefore these are
connected to any two ports of microcontroller
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

BLOCK DIAGRAM

AT89S52
IR
MICRO LED
TRANSMI IR CONTROLLER
TTER RECIEVE
R

LCD
REGULAT
ED
POWER
SUPPLY
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIIPTION

The block diagram consists of microcontroller interfaced to


regulated power supply, led and IR receiver and IR transmitter
which consists of an IR sensor

The IR sensors and leds are connected to any of the port pins of
microcontroller,regulated power supply is connected to the Vcc
pin of microcontroller which uses an voltage regulator to get 5 v
of power supply. The transmit pin of IR receiver is connected to
the receive pin of microcontroller

This embedded system is placed at the 4 way junction which


controls the traffic electronically The system uses a compact
circuitry build around flash version of AT89S52 Microcontroller
with a non-volatile memory. Programs will be developed in
EMBEDDED C language. FLASH MAGIC is used for loading of
programs into microcontroller.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

IR TRANSMITTER and receiver

The purpose of the transmitter is to transform the information we


want to send into a signal that can be propagated by the channel.
In the case of our wired copper channel, this means we want the
information to be transformed into a modulated voltage level,
something like the pulse train. For a wireless channel, however,
the transmitter needs to encode the information onto an EM wave
that can be easily propagated.

IR TRANSMITTER

The IR transmitter part consists of an Infra red light emitting diode


that can capable of sending modulated data within infra red band.
To match the receiver frequency the the data is modulated at
38.7 KHZ by configuring 555 timer at astable mode of operation,
which generates frequency using the components R2 and C2 as
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

shown in above fig. This frequency can be varied over a long


range just by varying the preset R1 and C1.

IR RECEIVER

The IR receiver consists of TSOP 1738 module which is a simple


yet effective IR proximity sensor built around the TSOP 1738
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

module. The TSOP module is commonly found at the receiving


end of an IR remote control system; e.g., in TVs, CD players etc.
These modules require the incoming data to be modulated at a
particular frequency and would ignore any other IR signals. It is
also immune to ambient IR light, so one can easily use these
sensors outdoors or under heavily lit conditions.
Such modules are available for different carrier frequencies from
32 kHz to 42kHz.
In this particular proximity sensor, we will be generating a
constant stream of square wave signal using IC555 centered at 38
kHz and would use it to drive an IR led. So whenever this signal
bounces off the obstacles, the receiver would detect it and
change its output. Since the TSOP 1738 module works in the
active-low configuration, its output would normally remain high
and would go low when it detects the signal (the obstacle).

Basically an ir sensor is used for detecting an obstacle, there are


some areas where valuable things are placed, an IR transmitter
and receiver is placed there, an infrared path is established and if
any person comes into that path the buzzer gets on which gives
out a long beep Similarly a fire sensor is used to detect fire
The sensed data is given to the microcontroller, processing is
done according to the logic in the microcontroller and then writes
onto GSM which will further send sms to the mobile at the user
A buzzer is interfaced to microcontroller to give out a beep sound
whenever an obstacle and fire is detected
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

IR receiver module TSOP


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Description

The TSOP17.. – series are miniaturized receivers for infrared


remote control systems. PIN diode and preamplifier are
assembled on lead frame, the epoxy package is designed as IR
filter.
The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a
microprocessor. TSOP17.. is the standard IR remote control
receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.

Features
 Photo detector and preamplifier in one package
 Internal filter for PCM frequency
 Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance
 TTL and CMOS compatibility
 Output active low
 Low power consumption
 High immunity against ambient light
 Continuous data transmission possible (1200 bit/s)
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

 Suitable burst length 10 cycles/burst

CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

EMBEDDED SYSTEM

An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system


designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions[1],
sometimes with real-time computing constraints. It is usually
embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and
mechanical parts. In contrast, a general-purpose computer, such
as a personal computer, can do many different tasks depending
on programming. Embedded systems have become very
important today as they control many of the common devices we
use.

Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design


engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the
product, or increasing the reliability and performance. Some
embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from
economies of scale.

Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such


as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary
installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems
controlling nuclear power plants. Complexity varies from low, with
a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units,
peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or
enclosure.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

In general, "embedded system" is not an exactly defined term, as


many systems have some element of programmability. For
example, Handheld computers share some elements with
embedded systems — such as the operating systems and
microprocessors which power them — but are not truly embedded
systems, because they allow different applications to be loaded
and peripherals to be connected.

An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware


and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, that is
specifically designed for a particular kind of application device.
Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment, cameras,
household appliances, airplanes, vending machines, and toys (as
well as the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are among the
myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. Embedded
systems that are programmable are provided with a programming
interface, and embedded systems programming is a specialized
occupation.

Certain operating systems or language platforms are tailored for


the embedded market, such as EmbeddedJava and Windows XP
Embedded. However, some low-end consumer products use very
inexpensive microprocessors and limited storage, with the
application and operating system both part of a single program.
The program is written permanently into the system's memory in
this case, rather than being loaded into RAM (random access
memory), as programs on a personal computer are.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM

We are living in the Embedded World. You are surrounded with


many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on
the proper functioning of these gadgets. Television, Radio, CD
player of your living room, Washing Machine or Microwave Oven
in your kitchen, Card readers, Access Controllers, Palm devices of
your work space enable you to do many of your tasks very
effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in
your car take care of car operations between the bumpers and
most of the times you tend to ignore all these controllers.

In recent days, you are showered with variety of information


about these embedded controllers in many places. All kinds of
magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest
technologies, new devices, fast applications which make you
believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded
products. Now you can agree to the fact that these embedded
products have successfully invaded into our world. You must be
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

wondering about these embedded controllers or systems. What is


this Embedded System?

The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a


document or analyze the database is known as the standard
desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to
serve many purposes and applications.

You need to install the relevant software to get the required


processing facility. So, these desktop computers can do many
things. In contrast, embedded controllers carryout a specific work
for which they are designed. Most of the time, engineers design
these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind. So these
controllers cannot be used in any other place.

Theoretically, an embedded controller is a combination of a piece


of microprocessor based hardware and the suitable software to
undertake a specific task.

These days designers have many choices in


microprocessors/microcontrollers. Especially, in 8 bit and 32 bit,
the available variety really may overwhelm even an experienced
designer. Selecting a right microprocessor may turn out as a most
difficult first step and it is getting complicated as new devices
continue to pop-up very often.

In the 8 bit segment, the most popular and used architecture is


Intel's 8031. Market acceptance of this particular family has
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

driven many semiconductor manufacturers to develop something


new based on this particular architecture. Even after 25 years of
existence, semiconductor manufacturers still come out with some
kind of device using this 8031 core.

MICROCONTROLLER

In contrast to general-purpose CPUs, microcontrollers may not


implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM
and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Using
fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper
package.

Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip


and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip, but
often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a
whole. Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is
slightly more than the cost of a CPU + external peripherals,
having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit
board, and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the
circuit board.

A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the


following features:
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• central processing unit - ranging from small and simple 4-bit


processors to complex 32- or 64-bit processors
• discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection
of the logic state of an individual package pin
• serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs)
• other serial communications interfaces like I²C, Serial
Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system
interconnect
• peripherals such as timers, event counters, PWM generators,
and watchdog
• volatile memory (RAM) for data storage
• ROM, EPROM, [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and
operating parameter storage
• clock generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing
crystal, resonator or RC circuit
• many include analog-to-digital converters
• in-circuit programming and debugging support

This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the


amount of wiring and PCB space that would be needed to produce
equivalent systems using separate chips. Furthermore, and on
low pin count devices in particular, each pin may interface to
several internal peripherals, with the pin function selected by
software. This allows a part to be used in a wider variety of
applications than if pins had dedicated functions. Microcontrollers
have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since
their introduction in the 1970s.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Some microcontrollers use a Harvard architecture: separate


memory buses for instructions and data, allowing accesses to
take place concurrently. Where a Harvard architecture is used,
instruction words for the processor may be a different bit size
than the length of internal memory and registers; for example:
12-bit instructions used with 8-bit data registers.

The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult. The


microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and
system design flexibility against time-to-market requirements
from their customers and overall lower system cost.
Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size
against additional functionality.

Microcontroller architectures vary widely. Some designs include


general-purpose microprocessor cores, with one or more ROM,
RAM, or I/O functions integrated onto the package. Other designs
are purpose built for control applications. A microcontroller
instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit-wise
operations to make control programs more compact. For
example, a general purpose processor might require several
instructions to test a bit in a register and branch if the bit is set,
where a microcontroller could have a single instruction that would
provide that commonly-required function.

Microcontroller
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

A microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a computer-on-a-chip. It


is a type of microprocessor emphasizing high integration, low
power consumption, self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in
contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a
PC). In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a
general purpose microprocessor, the microcontroller typically
integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for
data storage, read-only memory, such as flash for code storage,
EEPROM for permanent data storage, peripheral devices, and
input/output interfaces. At clock speeds of as little as a few MHz
or even lower, microcontrollers often operate at very low speed
compared to modern day microprocessors, but this is adequate
for typical applications. They consume relatively little power
(milliwatts), and will generally have the ability to sleep while
waiting for an interesting peripheral event such as a button press
to wake them up again to do something. Power consumption
while sleeping may be just nano watts, making them ideal for low
power and long lasting battery applications.

Microcontrollers are frequently used in automatically controlled


products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems,
remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and
toys. By reducing the size, cost, and power consumption
compared to a design using a separate microprocessor, memory,
and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to
electronically control many more processes.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

MICROCONTROLLER VERSUS MICROPROCESSOR

What is the difference between a Microprocessor and


Microcontroller? By microprocessor is meant the general purpose
Microprocessors such as Intel's X86 family (8086, 80286, 80386,
80486, and the Pentium) or Motorola's 680X0 family (68000,
68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, etc). These microprocessors
contain no RAM, no ROM, and no I/O ports on the chip itself. For
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

this reason, they are commonly referred to as general-purpose


Microprocessors.

A system designer using a general-purpose microprocessor such


as the Pentium or the 68040 must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and
timers externally to make them functional. Although the addition
of external RAM, ROM, and I/O ports makes these systems bulkier
and much more expensive, they have the advantage of versatility
such that the designer can decide on the amount of RAM, ROM
and I/O ports needed to fit the task at hand. This is not the case
with Microcontrollers.

A Microcontroller has a CPU (a microprocessor) in addition to a


fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and a timer all on a single
chip. In other words, the processor, the RAM, ROM, I/O ports and
the timer are all embedded together on one chip; therefore, the
designer cannot add any external memory, I/O ports, or timer to
it. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and number of I/O
ports in Microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications
in which cost and space are critical.

In many applications, for example a TV remote control, there is no


need for the computing power of a 486 or even an 8086
microprocessor. These applications most often require some I/O
operations to read signals and turn on and off certain bits.

MICROCONTROLLERS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

In the Literature discussing microprocessors, we often see the


term Embedded System. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers are
widely used in embedded system products. An embedded system
product uses a microprocessor (or Microcontroller) to do one task
only. A printer is an example of embedded system since the
processor inside it performs one task only; namely getting the
data and printing it. Contrast this with a Pentium based PC. A PC
can be used for any number of applications such as word
processor, print-server, bank teller terminal, Video game, network
server, or Internet terminal. Software for a variety of applications
can be loaded and run. of course the reason a pc can perform
myriad tasks is that it has RAM memory and an operating system
that loads the application software into RAM memory and lets the
CPU run it.

In an Embedded system, there is only one application software


that is typically burned into ROM. An x86 PC contains or is
connected to various embedded products such as keyboard,
printer, modem, disk controller, sound card, CD-ROM drives,
mouse, and so on. Each one of these peripherals has a
Microcontroller inside it that performs only one task. For example,
inside every mouse there is a Microcontroller to perform the task
of finding the mouse position and sending it to the PC. Table 1-1
lists some embedded products.

Intel's 8031 ArchitectureThe generic 8031 architecture sports


a Harvard architecture, which contains two separate buses for
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

both program and data. So, it has two distinctive memory spaces
of 64K X 8 size for both program and data. It is based on an 8 bit
central processing unit with an 8 bit Accumulator and another 8
bit B register as main processing blocks. Other portions of the
architecture include few 8 bit and 16 bit registers and 8 bit
memory locations.

Each 8031 device has some amount of data RAM built in the
device for internal processing. This area is used for stack
operations and temporary storage of data.

This base architecture is supported with onchip peripheral


functions like I/O ports, timers/counters, versatile serial
communication port. So it is clear that this 8031 architecture was
designed to cater many real time embedded needs.

The following list gives the features of the 8031 architecture:

• Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications.


• Extensive Boolean processing capabilities.
• 64K Program Memory address space.
• 64K Data Memory address space.
• 128 bytes of onchip Data Memory.
• 32 Bi-directional and individually addressable I/O lines.
• Two 16 bit timer/counters.
• Full Duplex UART.
• 6-source / 5-vector interrupt structure with priority levels.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• Onchip clock oscillator.

Now you may be wondering about the non mentioning of


memory space meant for the program storage, the most
important part of any embedded controller. Originally this 8031
architecture was introduced with onchip, 'one time
programmable' version of Program Memory of size 4K X 8. Intel
delivered all these microcontrollers (8051) with user's program
fused inside the device.

8051 DERIVATIVES

Along the way, this 8031 architecture gained enviable market


acceptance. Many semiconductor manufacturers started either
manufacturing the 8031 devices as such (Intel was liberal in
giving away license to whoever asked) or developing a new
kind of microcontrollers based on 8031 core
architecture.Manufacturers modified the basic 8031
architecture and added many new peripheral functions to
make them attractive to the designers.

Because of the rush, electronic community started getting a


variety of 8031 based devices with range of options. To beat the
competition, manufacturers developed different microcontrollers
with many unique features.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

These parts are popularly known as '8031 Derivatives'. Almost


every decent manufacturer boasted of having an 8031 based
microcontroller in the line card.

First major manufacturer was the Philips who brought out more
than 40-50 derivatives with a variety of I/O options, memory
combinations, and peripheral functions. Devices became available
in regular DIP and SMD packages. With the basic 8031 core,
Philips ported high capacity Program Memory (upto 32K/64K), its
patented I2C interface bus, 8/10 bit Analog to Digital Converters,
CAN Bus, Capture and Compare registers, Watch dog timer, PWM
facilities and etc. More I/O ports (as many as eight ports),
additional timer/counter, second serial port was also made
available in Philips devices.

Apart from all these, Philips developed many consumer devices


meant for telecom, computer and TV applications. A smart card
controller was also developed by incorporating a cryptographic
engine. So Philips clearly established itself as the market leader in
8031 derivatives and still caters to this segment.

Then came Dallas semiconductor. Dallas redesigned the 8031


architecture and eliminated waste clock cycles of original core
and made all instructions executed in less clock cycles (maximum
of 4) which has traditionally taken upto 12 clock cycles. So, came
the birth of High speed 8031 Derivatives.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Dallas also maintained the same device pin out configurations to


enable the user get upto 3X performance by replacing slower
parts with a Dallas device. So, existing compiled code started
running faster without any modification. These days, you can find
Dallas devices giving upto 50 MIPS (Million Instructions Per
Second).

Apart from this, Dallas introduced additional Serial port, Watch


Dog Timer, Precision Reset Circuitry, Real Time Clock, Power Fail
Monitor in the 8031 devices. Also a second data pointer, more
onchip RAM space and more interrupt lines were also made
available.

Dallas semiconductor also has got a range of secure


microcontrollers based on 8031 core. This microcontroller family
uses non volatile RAM to keep both program and data. Because of
this RAM, the controller gives the In System Reprogrammability.
Dallas has combined this microcontroller, SRAM and lithium cell in
a single pack. This device guarantees 10+ years of data retention
in the RAM area. This 8031 also boasts the tamper proof security
features like Real Time Memory Encryption, user selected 48 bit
Encryption key, memory contents, security lock and the facility to
hide interrupt vector table. As you can agree, this particular 8031
device has found a niche market in banking and security related
applications.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Atmel Corporation is the another major semiconductor


manufacturer who introduced many flash memory based 8031
derivatives at a competitive cost. Atmel used its expertise in flash
memory technology into the basic 8031 core and brought out
microcontrollers with a variety of flash memory options and few
devices also carry In System Reprogramming facility. You can
program/reprogram this microcontroller after soldering the device
in the target board. If this programming facility is embedded in
the system software, then the tasks like remote calibration, onsite
system upgradation become as easy as sending your
data/program in a floppy disk or by internet. Atmel devices sport
security lock to its flash memory to protect the contents from the
prying eyes.

Meantime, Intel itself tried to cash in the popularity of this 8031


architecture and introduced improved versions of
microcontrollers: 80151 and 80251 families. These devices sport
16 bit architecture using 8031 core and unfortunately these
devices have not become as popular as 8031.Even after many
years of introduction, 8031 core is still going strong in 8 bit arena.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

PIN DIAGRAM OF GENERAL PURPOSE MICROCONTROLLER

ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the


low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. ALE
is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 of the oscillator frequency, for
external timing or clocking purposes, even when there are no
accesses to external memory. (However, one ALE pulse is skipped
during each access to external Data Memory.) This pin is also the
program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external


Program Memory. When the device is executing out of external
Program Memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle
(except that two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to
external Data Memory). PSEN is not activated when the device is
executing out of internal Program Memory.

EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal


Program Memory (unless the Program Counter exceeds 0FFFH in
the 80C51). Holding EA low forces the CPU to execute out of
external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. In the
80C31, EA must be externally wired low. In the EPROM devices,
this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP)
during EPROM programming.

XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier.

XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. As an


open drain output port, it can sink eight LS TTL loads. Port 0 pins
that have 1s written to them float, and in that state will function
as high impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order
address and data bus during accesses to external memory. In this
application it uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. Port 0
emits code bytes during program verification. In this application,
external pullups are required.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal


pullups. Port 1 pins that have 1s written to them are pulled high
by the internal pullups, and in that state can be used as inputs. As
inputs, port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source
current because of the internal pullups.

Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal


pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during accesses
to external memory that use 16-bit addresses. In this application,
it uses the strong internal pullups when emitting 1s.

Port 3: . Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal


pullups. It also serves the functions of various special features of
the 80C51 Family as follows:

Port Pin Alternate Function

P3.0- RxD (serial input port)

P3.1 -TxD (serial output port)

P3.2 -INT0 (external interrupt 0)

P3.3- INT1 (external interrupt 1)

P3.4 -T0 (timer 0 external input)

P3.5 -T1 (timer 1 external input)

P3.6 -WR (external data memory write strobe)


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

P3.7 -RD (external data memory read strobe)

VCC: -Supply voltage

VSS: -Circuit ground potential

All four ports in the 80C51 are bidirectional. Each consists of a


latch (Special Function Registers P0 through P3), an output driver,
and an input buffer. The output drivers of Ports 0 and 2, and the
input buffers of Port 0, are used in accesses to external memory.
In this application, Port 0 outputs the low byte of the external
memory address, time-multiplexed with the byte being written or
read. Port 2 outputs the high byte of the external memory
address when the address is 16 bits wide. Otherwise, the Port 2
pins continue to emit the P2 SFR content.

All the Port 3 pins are multifunctional. They are not only port pins,
but also serve the functions of various special features as listed
below:

Port Pin Alternate Function

P3.0 RxD (serial input port)

P3.1 TxD (serial output port)

P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt)

P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt)

P3.4 T0 (Timer/Counter 0 external input)


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

P3.5 T1 (Timer/Counter 1 external input)

P3.6 WR (external Data Memory write strobe)

P3.7 RD (external Data Memory read strobe)

MEMORY ORGANISATION

The alternate functions can only be activated if the corresponding


bit latch in the port SFR contains a 1. Otherwise the port pin
remains at 0.All 80C51 devices have separate address spaces for
program and data memory, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The
logical separation of program and data memory allows the data
memory to be accessed by 8-bit addresses, which can be quickly
stored and manipulated by an 8-bit CPU. Nevertheless, 16-bit data
memory addresses can also be generated through the DPTR
register.

Program memory (ROM, EPROM) can only be read, not written to.
There can be up to 64k bytes of program memory. In the 80C51,
the lowest 4k bytes of program are on-chip. In the ROMless
versions, all program memory is external. The read strobe for
external program memory is the PSEN (program store enable).
Data Memory (RAM) occupies a separate address space from
Program Memory. In the 80C51, the lowest 128 bytes of data
memory are on-chip. Up to 64k bytes of external RAM can be
addressed in the external Data Memory space. In the ROMless
version, the lowest 128 bytes are on-chip. The CPU generates
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

read and write signals, RD and WR, as needed during external


Data Memory accesses.

External Program Memory and external Data Memory may be


combined if desired by applying the RD and PSEN signals to the
inputs of an AND gate and using the output of the gate as the
read strobe to the external Program/Data memory.

BASIC REGISTERS

A number of 8052 registers can be considered "basic." Very little


can be done without them and a detailed explanation of each one
is warranted to make sure the reader understands these registers
before getting into more complicated areas of development.

The Accumulator If you've worked with any other assembly


language you will be familiar with the concept of an accumulator
register.

The Accumulator, as its name suggests, is used as a general


register to accumulate the results of a large number of
instructions. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most
versatile register the 8052 has due to the sheer number of
instructions that make use of the accumulator. More than half of
the 8052's 255 instructions manipulate or use the Accumulator in
some way. For example, if you want to add the number 10 and
20, the resulting 30 will be stored in the Accumulator. Once you
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

have a value in the Accumulator you may continue processing the


value or you may store it in another register or in memory.

The "R" Registers The "R" registers are sets of eight registers
that are named R0, R1, through R7. These registers are used as
auxiliary registers in many operations. To continue with the above
example, perhaps you are adding 10 and 20. The original number
10 may be stored in the Accumulator whereas the value 20 may
be stored in, say, register R4. To process the addition you would
execute the command:

ADD A,R4

After executing this instruction the Accumulator will contain the


value 30. You may think of the "R" registers as very
important auxiliary, or "helper", registers. The Accumulator alone
would not be very useful if it were not for these "R" registers.

The "R" registers are also used to store values temporarily. For
example, letís say you want to add the values in R1 and R2
together and then subtract the values of R3 and R4. One way to
do this would be:

MOV A,R3 ;Move the value of R3 to accumulator

ADD A,R4 ;Add the value of R4

MOV R5,A ;Store the result in R5

MOV A,R1 ;Move the value of R1 to Acc


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

ADD A,R2 ;Add the value of R2 with A

SUBB A,R5 ;Subtract the R5 (which has R3+R4)

As you can see, we used R5 to temporarily hold the sum of R3


and R4. Of course, this isn't the most efficient way to calculate
(R1+R2) - (R3 +R4) but it does illustrate the use of the "R"
registers as a way to store values temporarily.

As mentioned earlier, there are four sets of "R" registers-register


bank 0, 1, 2, and 3. When the 8052 is first powered up, register
bank 0 (addresses 00h through 07h) is used by default. In this
case, for example, R4 is the same as Internal RAM address 04h.
However, your program may instruct the 8052 to use one of the
alternate register banks; i.e., register banks 1, 2, or 3. In this
case, R4 will no longer be the same as Internal RAM address 04h.
For example, if your program instructs the 8052 to use register
bank 1, register R4 will now be synonymous with Internal RAM
address 0Ch. If you select register bank 2, R4 is synonymous with
14h, and if you select register bank 3 it is synonymous with
address 1Ch.

The concept of register banks adds a great level of flexibility to


the 8052, especially when dealing with interrupts (we'll talk about
interrupts later). However, always remember that the register
banks really reside in the first 32 bytes of Internal RAM.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The B Register The "B" register is very similar to the


Accumulator in the sense that it may hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value.
The "B" register is only used implicitly by two 8052 instructions:
MUL AB and DIV AB. Thus, if you want to quickly and easily
multiply or divide A by another number, you may store the other
number in "B" and make use of these two instructions.

Aside from the MUL and DIV instructions, the "B" register are
often used as yet another temporary storage register much like a
ninth "R" register.

The Program Counter The Program Counter (PC) is a 2-byte


address that tells the 8052 where the next instruction to execute
is found in memory. When the 8052 is initialized PC always starts
at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed.
It is important to note that PC isn't always incremented by one.
Since some instructions are 2 or 3 bytes in length the PC will be
incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.

The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly


modify its value. That is to say, you can't do something like
PC=2430h. On the other hand, if you execute LJMP 2430h you've
effectively accomplished the same thing.

It is also interesting to note that while you may change the value
of PC (by executing a jump instruction, etc.) there is no way to
read the value of PC. That is to say, there is no way to ask the
8052 "What address are you about to execute?" As it turns out,
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

this is not completely true: There is one trick that may be used to
determine the current value of PC. This trick will be covered in a
later chapter.

The Data Pointer The Data Pointer (DPTR) is the 8052ís only
user-accessible 16-bit (2-byte) register. The Accumulator, "R"
registers, and "B" register are all 1-byte values. The PC just
described is a 16-bit value but isn't directly user-accessible as a
working register.

DPTR, as the name suggests, is used to point to data. It is used by


a number of commands that allow the 8052 to access external
memory. When the 8052 accesses external memory it accesses
the memory at the address indicated by DPTR.

While DPTR is most often used to point to data in external


memory or code memory, many developers take advantage of
the fact that it's the only true 16-bit register available. It is often
used to store 2-byte values that have nothing to do with memory
locations.

The Stack Pointer The Stack Pointer, like all registers except
DPTR and PC, may hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value. The Stack Pointer
is used to indicate where the next value to be removed from the
stack should be taken from.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

When you push a value onto the stack, the 8052 first increments
the value of SP and then stores the value at the resulting memory
location. When you pop a value off the stack, the 8052 returns the
value from the memory location indicated by SP, and then
decrements the value of SP.

This order of operation is important. When the 8052 is initialized


SP will be initialized to 07h. If you immediately push a value onto
the stack, the value will be stored in Internal RAM address 08h.
This makes sense taking into account what was mentioned two
paragraphs above: First the 8051 will increment the value of SP
(from 07h to 08h) and then will store the pushed value at that
memory address (08h).

ADDRESSING MODES

The addressing modes in the 80C51 instruction set are as follows:

Direct Addressing In direct addressing the operand is specified


by an 8-bit address field in the instruction. Only internal Data RAM
and SFRs can be directly addressed.

Indirect Addressing In indirect addressing the instruction


specifies a register which contains the address of the operand.
Both internal and external RAM can be indirectly addressed. The
address register for 8-bit addresses can be R0 or R1 of the
selected bank, or the Stack Pointer. The address register for 16-
bit addresses can only be the 16-bit “data pointer” register, DPTR.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Register Instructions The register banks, containing registers


R0 through R7, can be accessed by certain instructions which
carry a 3-bit register specification within the opcode of the
instruction. Instructions that access the registers this way are
code efficient, since this mode eliminates an address byte. When
the instruction is executed, one of the eight registers in the
selected bank is accessed. One of four banks is selected at
execution time by the two bank select bits in the PSW.

Register-Specific Instructions Some instructions are specific


to a certain register. For example, some instructions always
operate on the Accumulator, or Data Pointer, etc., so no address
byte is needed to point to it. The opcode itself does that.
Instructions that refer to the Accumulator as A assemble as
accumulator specific opcodes.

Immediate Constants The value of a constant can follow the


opcode in Program Memory. \ For example,

MOV A, #100

loads the Accumulator with the decimal number 100. The same
number could be specified in hex digits as 64H.

Indexed Addressing

Only program Memory can be accessed with indexed addressing,


and it can only be read. This addressing mode is intended for
reading look-up tables in Program Memory A 16-bit base register
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

(either DPTR or the Program Counter) points to the base of the


table, and the Accumulator is set up with the table entry number.
The address of the table entry in Program Memory is formed by
adding the Accumulator data to the base pointer. Another type of
indexed addressing is used in the “case jump” instruction. In this
case the destination address of a jump instruction is computed as
the sum of the base pointer and the Accumulator data…

CHAPTER 3

AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Description

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit


microcontroller with 8K bytes of in system programmable Flash
memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the
industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip
Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By


combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful
microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control applications.The AT89S52
provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256
bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers,
three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock
circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software
selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU
while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt
system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip
functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Features

• Compatible with MCS-51® Products

• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory

– Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles

• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz

• Three-level Program Memory Lock

• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM

• 32 Programmable I/O Lines

• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters

• Eight Interrupt Sources

• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode

• Watchdog Timer

• Dual Data Pointer

• Power-off Flag

• Fast Programming Time

• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Pin
Description

VCC Supply voltage.

GND Ground.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an


output port, each pin can sinkeight TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as highimpedance
inputs.Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-
order address/data bus during accesses to external program and
data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also
receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs
the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are
required during program verification.

Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.


The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When
1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to
be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the
timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown
in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address
bytes during Flash programming and verification.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-


ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.
When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins
that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order
address byte during fetches from external program memory and
during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit
addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong
internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external
data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits
the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also
receives the high-order address bits and some control signals
during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-


ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.
When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins
that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)
because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for
Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in


the following table.

RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while
the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for
98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO
bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature.
In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is
enabled.

ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for


latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external
memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a


constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for
external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE
pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If
desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR
location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or
MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high.
Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in
external execution mode.

PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external


program memory.When the AT89S52 is executing code from
external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine
cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each
access to external data memory.

EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in


order to enable the device to fetch code from external program
memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.Note, however,
that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on
reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program
executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming
enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the


internal clock operating circuit.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Special Function Registers

A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function


Register (SFR) space is

shown in Table 1. Note that not all of the addresses are occupied,
and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip.
Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random
data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.User
software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since
they may be used in Future products to invoke new features. In
that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always
be 0.

Timer 2 Registers: Control and status bits are contained in


registers T2CON (shown in Table 2) and T2MOD (shown in Table
6) for Timer 2. The register pair (RCAP2H,RCAP2L) are the
Capture/Reload registers for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or
16-bit auto-reload mode.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Interrupt Registers: The individual interrupt enable bits are in


the IE register. Two priorities can be set for each of the six
interrupt sources in the IP register.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Dual Data Pointer Registers: To facilitate accessing both internal


and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit Data Pointer
Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H
and DP1 at 84H-85H. Bit DPS = 0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and
DPS = 1 selects DP1. The user should ALWAYS initialize the DPS
bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data
Pointer Register. Power Off Flag: The Power Off Flag (POF) is
located at bit 4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF is set to “1”
during power up. It can be set and rest under software control
and is not affected by reset.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Memory Organization MCS-51 devices have a separate address


space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes each of
external Program and Data Memory can be addressed. Program
Memory If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches
are directed to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is
connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through
1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses
2000H through FFFFH are to external memory. Data Memory The
AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128
bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function
Registers. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the same
addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR
space.

When an instruction accesses an internal location above address


7FH, the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether
the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

of RAM or the SFR space. Instructions which use direct addressing


access the SFR space. 9 1919B–MICRO–11/03 For example, the
following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at
location 0A0H (which is P2).

MOV 0A0H, #data

Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128


bytes of RAM. For example, the following indirect addressing
instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses the data byte at
address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H).

MOV @R0, #data

Note that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so


the upper 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.
Watchdog Timer(One-time Enabled with Reset-out) The WDT is
intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may
be subjected to software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit
counter and the Watchdog

Timer Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from


exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and
0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H).
When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle
while the oscillator is running. The WDT timeout period is
dependent on the external clock frequency. There is no way to
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or


WDT overflow reset). When WDT overflows, it will drive an output

RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin.

Using the WDT To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and
0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H).
When the WDT is enabled, the user needs to service it by writing
01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST to avoid a WDT overflow. The 14-bit
counter overflows when it reaches 16383 (3FFFH), and this will
reset the device. When the WDT is enabled, it will increment
every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. This means
the user must reset the WDT at least every 16383 machine
cycles. To reset the WDT the user must write 01EH and 0E1H to
WDTRST. WDTRST is a write-only register. The WDT counter
cannot be read or written. When WDT overflows, it will generate
an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET pulse duration
is 98xTOSC, where TOSC = 1/FOSC. To make the best use of the
WDT, it should be serviced in those sections of code that will
periodically be executed within the time required to prevent a
WDT reset.

WDT During Powerdown and Idle

In Power-down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT


also stops. While in Power-down mode, the user does not need to
service the WDT. There are two methods of exiting Power-down
mode: by a hardware reset or via a level-activated external
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

interrupt which is enabled prior to entering Power-down mode.


When Power-down is exited with hardware reset, servicing the
WDT should occur as it normally does whenever the AT89S52 is
reset. Exiting Power-down with an interrupt is significantly
different. The interrupt is held low long enough for the oscillator
to stabilize. When the interrupt is brought high, the interrupt is
serviced. To prevent the WDT from resetting the device while the
interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started until the interrupt
is pulled high.

It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service


for the interrupt used to exit Power-down mode. To ensure that
the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting Power-
down, it is best to reset the WDT just before entering Power-down
mode. Before going into the IDLE mode, the WDIDLE bit in SFR
AUXR is used to determine whether the WDT continues to count if
enabled. The WDT keeps counting during IDLE

(WDIDLE bit = 0) as the default state. To prevent the WDT from


resetting the AT89S52 while in IDLE mode, the user should always
set up a timer that will periodically exit

IDLE, service the WDT, and reenter IDLE mode.

With WDIDLE bit enabled, the WDT will stop to count in IDLE mode
and resumes the count upon exit from IDLE. UART The UART in
the AT89S52 operates the same way as the UART in the AT89C51
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

and AT89C52. For further information on the UART operation,


refer to the ATMEL Web site

(http://www.atmel.com). From the home page, select “Products”,


then “8051-Architecture

Flash Microcontroller”, then “Product Overview”.

Timer 0 and 1 Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89S52 operate the


same way as Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C51 and AT89C52.
For further information on the timers” operation, refer to the

ATMEL Web site (http://www.atmel.com). From the home page,


select “Products”, then

“8051-Architecture Flash Microcontroller”, then “Product


Overview”.

Timer 2 Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as


either a timer or an event counter. The type of operation is
selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON (shown in Table 2). Timer 2
has three operating modes: capture, auto-reload (up or down
counting), and baud rate generator. The modes are selected by
bits in T2CON, as shown in Table 5.

Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer
function, the TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle.
Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods, the count
rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency. In the Counter function,
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its


corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external
input is sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. When the
samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle, the
count is incremented. The new count value appears in the
register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the
transition was detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator
periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the
maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. To ensure
that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, the
level should be held for at least one full machine cycle.

Capture Mode In the capture mode, two options are selected by


bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or
counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in T2CON. This bit can
then be used to generate an interrupt. If EXEN2 = 1, Timer 2
performs the same operation, but a 1-to-0 transition at external
input T2EX also causes the current value in TH2 and TL2 to be
captured into RCAP2H and RCAP2L, respectively. In addition, the
transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in T2CON to be set. The EXF2
bit, like TF2, can

generate an interrupt. The capture mode is illustrated in Figure 1.

Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter)

Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when


configured in its 16-bit autoreload mode. This feature is invoked
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

by the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR T2MOD
(see Table 6). Upon reset, the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that timer 2
will default to count up. When DCEN is set, Timer 2 can count up
or down, depending on the value of the T2EX pin.

Figure 2 shows Timer 2 automatically counting up when DCEN =


0. In this mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 counts up to 0FFFFH and then sets the TF2


bit upon overflow. The overflow also causes the timer registers to
be reloaded with the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The
values in

Timer in Capture ModeRCAP2H and RCAP2L are preset by


software. If EXEN2 = 1, a 16-bit reload can be triggered either by
an overflow or by a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX. This
transition also sets the EXF2 bit. Both the TF2 and EXF2 bits can
generate an interrupt if enabled.

Setting the DCEN bit enables Timer 2 to count up or down, as


shown in Figure 2. In this mode, the T2EX pin controls the
direction of the count. A logic 1 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count up.
The timer will overflow at 0FFFFH and set the TF2 bit. This
overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L to
be reloaded into the timer registers, TH2 and TL2, respectively. A
logic 0 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count down. The timer underflows
when TH2 and TL2 equal the values stored in RCAP2H and
RCAP2L. The underflow sets the TF2 bit and causes 0FFFFH to be
reloaded into the timer registers.

The EXF2 bit toggles whenever Timer 2 overflows or underflows


and can be used as a 17th bit of resolution. In this operating
mode, EXF2 does not flag an interrupt.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

----------------------------------------------------------- =
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Baud Rate Generator Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate


generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON (Table 2). Note
that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if
Timer 2 is used for the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used
for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2
into its baud rate generator mode, as shown in Figure 4.

The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode,


in that a rollover in

TH2 causes the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit


value in registers

RCAP2H and RCAP2L, which are preset by software.

The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2’s


overflow rate according to

the following equation.


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation.


In most applications, it is configured for timer operation (CP/T2 =
0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it is used as
a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it increments every
machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate
generator, however, it increments every state time (at 1/2 the
oscillator frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.

where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L


taken as a 16-bit unsigned integer.

Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 4. This figure


is valid only if RCLK or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in
TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an interrupt. Note too,
that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set EXF2 but
will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2).
Thus, when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can
be used as an extra external interrupt. Note that when Timer 2 is
running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode,
TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these
conditions, the Timer is incremented every state time, and the
results of a read or write may not be accurate. The RCAP2
registers may be read but should not be written to, because a
write might overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the
Timer 2 or RCAP2 registers.

Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rates= Timer 2 Overflowrate/16

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter


operation. In most applications, it is configured for timer
operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2
when it is used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it
increments every machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator
frequency). As a baud rate generator, however, it increments
every state time (at 1/2 the oscillator frequency). The baud rate
formula is

given below.

where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L


taken as a 16-bit
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

unsigned integer.

Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 4. This figure


is valid only if RCLK

or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set


TF2 and will not generate

an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in


T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H,
RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2). Thus, when Timer 2is in use as a baud rate
generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt. Note
that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate
generator mode, TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written
to. Under these conditions, the Timer is incremented every state
time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. The
RCAP2 registers may be read but should not be written to,
because a write might

overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors. The timer
should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer 2 or
RCAP2 registers.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Programmable

Clock Out

A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1.0,


as shown in Figure 5. This pin, besides being a regular I/O pin, has
two alternate functions. It can be programmed to input the
external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50% duty cycle
clock ranging from 61 Hz to 4 MHz (for a 16-MHz operating
frequency). To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock
generator, bit C/T2 (T2CON.1) must be cleared and bit T2OE
(T2MOD.1) must be set. Bit TR2 (T2CON.2) starts and stops the
timer.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The clock-out frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and


the reload value of

Timer 2 capture registers (RCAP2H, RCAP2L), as shown in the


following equation.

In the clock-out mode, Timer 2 roll-overs will not generate an


interrupt. This behavior is

similar to when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. It is


possible to use Timer 2 as a baud-rate generator and a clock
generator simultaneously. Note, however, that the baud-rate and
clock-out frequencies cannot be determined independently from
one another since they both use RCAP2H and RCAP2L.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Interrupts The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two


external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), three timer interrupts (Timers
0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts are all
shown in Figure 6.

Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or


disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register
IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all
interrupts at once.

Note that Table 5 shows that bit position IE.6 is unimplemented.


User software should not write a 1 to this bit position, since it may
be used in future AT89 products. Timer 2 interrupt is generated
by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. Neither
of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is
vectored to. In fact, the service routine may have to determine
whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt, and that
bit will have to be cleared in software. The Timer 0 and Timer 1
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the
timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the
next cycle. However, the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is
polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Oscillator

Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an


inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip
oscillator, as shown in Figure 7. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic
resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external
clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is
driven, as shown in Figure 8. There are no requirements on the
duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the
internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but
minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications
must be observed.

Idle Mode In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the
on-chip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by
software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special

functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle


mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a
hardware reset. Note that when idle mode is terminated by a
hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution
from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the
internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits
access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is
not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

to a port pin when idle mode is terminated by a reset, the


instruction

following the one that invokes idle mode should not write to a
port pin or to external memory.

Power-down Mode In the Power-down mode, the oscillator is


stopped, and the instruction that invokes Power-down is the last
instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function
Registers retain their values until the Power-down mode is
terminated. Exit from Powerdown mode can be initiated either by
a hardware reset or by an enabled external interrupt.

Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM.
The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its
normal operating level and must be held active long enough to
allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Program Memory

Lock Bits
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The AT89S52 has three lock bits that can be left unprogrammed
(U) or can be programmed

(P) to obtain the additional features listed in the following table.

When lock bit 1 is programmed, the logic level at the EA pin is


sampled and latched during reset. If the device is powered up
without a reset, the latch initializes to a random value and holds
that value until reset is activated. The latched value of EA must
agree with the current logic level at that pin in order for the
device to function properly.

Programming the Flash – Parallel Mode

The AT89S52 is shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array


ready to be programmed.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The programming interface needs a high-voltage (12-volt)


program enable signal and is compatible with conventional third-
party Flash or EPROM programmers.

The AT89S52 code memory array is programmed byte-by-byte.


Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89S52, the
address, data, and control signals should be set up according to
the Flash programming mode table and

Figures 13 and 14. To program the AT89S52, take the following


steps:

1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines.

2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.

3. Activate the correct combination of control signals.

4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V.

5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or


the lock bits. The byte-write cycle is self-timed and typically takes
no more than 50 µs. Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the
address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object
file is reached.

Data Polling: The AT89S52 features Data Polling to indicate the


end of a byte write
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

cycle. During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte


written will result in the complement of the written data on P0.7.
Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all
outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin
any time after a write cycle has been initiated.

Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be


monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. P3.0 is pulled low after
ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.0 is
pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY.

Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been
programmed, the programmed code data can be read back via
the address and data lines for verification. The status of the
individual lock bits can be verified directly by reading them back.

Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by


the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H,
100H, and 200H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a
logic low. The values returned are as follows.

(000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel

(100H) = 52H indicates AT89S52

(200H) = 06H

Chip Erase: In the parallel programming mode, a chip erase


operation is initiated by using the proper combination of control
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

signals and by pulsing ALE/PROG low for a duration of 200 ns -


500 ns. In the serial programming mode, a chip erase operation is
initiated by issuing the Chip Erase instruction. In this mode, chip
erase is self-timed and takes about 500 ms. During chip erase, a
serial read from any address location will return 00H at the data
output.

Programming the Flash – Serial Mode

The Code memory array can be programmed using the serial ISP
interface while RST is pulled to VCC. The serial interface consists
of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output).

After RST is set high, the Programming Enable instruction needs


to be executed first before other operations can be executed.
Before a reprogramming sequence can occur, a Chip Erase
operation is required. The Chip Erase operation turns the content
of every memory location in the Code array into FFH. Either an
external system clock can be supplied at pin XTAL1 or a crystal
needs to be connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The
maximum serial clock (SCK) frequency should be less than 1/16 of
the crystal frequency. With a 33 MHz oscillator clock, the
maximum SCK frequency is 2 MHz.

Serial Programming

Algorithm
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

To program and verify the AT89S52 in the serial programming


mode, the following sequence is recommended:

1. Power-up sequence:

Apply power between VCC and GND pins.

Set RST pin to “H”.If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1
and XTAL2, apply a 3 MHz to33 MHz clock to XTAL1 pin and wait
for at least 10 milliseconds.

2. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming


Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI/P1.5. The frequency of the
shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1.7 needs to be less than the CPU
clock at XTAL1 divided by 16.

3. The Code array is programmed one byte at a time in either the


Byte or Page mode. The write cycle is self-timed and typically
takes less than 0.5 ms at 5V.

4. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read


instruction which returns the content at the selected address at
serial output MISO/P1.6.

5. At the end of a programming session, RST can be set low to


commence normal device operation.

Power-off sequence (if needed):

Set XTAL1 to “L” (if a crystal is not used).


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Set RST to “L”.

Turn VCC power off.

Data Polling: The Data Polling feature is also available in the


serial mode. In this mode,during a write cycle an attempted read
of the last byte written will result in the complement of the MSB of
the serial output byte on MISO.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Flash Programming and Verification Waveforms – Serial Mode

Figure 13.

Serial Programming Waveforms


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 4

INTERFACING DEVICES

RS232 (serial port).


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

RS-232 (Recommended Standard - 232) is a telecommunications


standard for binary serial communications between devices. It
supplies the roadmap for the way devices speak to each other
using serial ports. The devices are commonly referred to as a DTE
(data terminal equipment) and DCE (data communications
equipment); for example, a computer and modem, respectively.

RS232 is the most known serial port used in transmitting the data
in communication and interface. Even though serial port is harder
to program than the parallel port, this is the most effective
method in which the data transmission requires less wires that
yields to the less cost. The RS232 is the communication line which
enables the data transmission by only using three wire links. The
three links provides ‘transmit’, ‘receive’ and common ground...

The ‘transmit’ and ‘receive’ line on this connecter send and


receive data between the computers. As the name indicates, the
data is transmitted serially. The two pins are TXD & RXD. There
are other lines on this port as RTS, CTS, DSR, DTR, and RTS, RI.
The ‘1’ and ‘0’ are the data which defines a voltage level of 3V to
25V and -3V to -25V respectively.

he electrical characteristics of the serial port as per the EIA


(Electronics Industry Association) RS232C Standard specifies a
maximum baud rate of 20,000bps, which is slow compared to
today’s standard speed. For this reason, we have chosen the new
RS-232D Standard, which was recently released.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The RS-232D has existed in two types. i.e., D-TYPE 25 pin


connector and D-TYPE 9 pin connector, which are male connectors
on the back of the PC. You need a female connector on your
communication from Host to Guest computer. The pin outs of both
D-9 & D-25 are show below

D-Type-9 D-Type-25 Pin outs Function


pin no. pin no.
3 2 RD Receive Data (Serial data input)
2 3 TD Transmit Data (Serial data output)
7 4 RTS Request to send (acknowledge to modem tha
UART is ready to exchange data
8 5 CTS Clear to send (i.e.; modem is ready to
exchange data)
6 6 DSR Data ready state (UART establishes a link)
5 7 SG Signal ground
1 8 DCD Data Carrier detect (This line is active when
modem detects a carrier
4 20 DTR Data Terminal Ready.
9 22 RI Ring Indicator (Becomes active when modem
detects ringing signal from PSTN
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Rs232

When communicating with various micro processors one needs to


convert the RS232 levels down to lower levels, typically 3.3 or 5.0
Volts. Here is a cheap and simple way to do that. Serial RS-232
(V.24) communication works with voltages -15V to +15V for high
and low. On the other hand, TTL logic operates between 0V and
+5V . Modern low power consumption logic operates in the range
of 0V and +3.3V or even lower.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

RS-232 TTL Logic


-15V … -3V +2V … +5V High
+3V … 0V …
Low
+15V +0.8V

Thus the RS-232 signal levels are far too high TTL electronics,
and the negative RS-232 voltage for high can’t be handled at all
by computer logic. To receive serial data from an RS-232 interface
the voltage has to be reduced. Also the low and high voltage
level has to be inverted. This level converter uses a Max232 and
five capacitors. The max232 is quite cheap (less than 5 dollars)
or if youre lucky you can get a free sample from Maxim.The
MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package
contains the necessary drivers and receivers to adapt the RS-232
signal voltage levels to TTL logic. It became popular, because it
just needs one voltage (+5V or +3.3V) and generates the

necessary RS-232 voltage levels. MAX 232 PIN DIAGRAM


+---\/---+
1 -|C1+ Vcc|- 16
2 -|V+ gnd|- 15
3 -|C1- T1O|- 14
4 -|C2+ R1I|- 13
5 -|C2- R1O|- 12
6 -|V- T1I|- 11
7 -|T2O T2I|- 10
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

8 -|R2I R2O|- 9
+--------+

RS232 INTERFACED TO MAX 232

J 2
C 1
U 3 1 u f
9 5

16
8 4 1 3 1 2 P 3R . X0 D
7 3 T 1 O U T 8 R 1 IR N 1 O9 U T

VCC
6 2 R 2 IR N 2 O U T
1 1 0 1 4 T 1 O U T
T X P D 3 1. 1 1 T 2 I TN 1 O 7 U T
C 4 T 1 I TN 2 O U T
5 V 1
3 C 1 +
C0 . 5 1 u 4 f C 1 -
5 C 2 +
C 6 C 2 -
0 . 1 u2 f
0 . 1 u f 6 V +
GND

V -
C 7
M A X 3 2 3 2
15

0 . 1 u f

Rs232 is 9 pin db connector,only three pins of this are used ie


2,3,5 the transmit pin of rs232 is connected to rx pin of
microcontroller

Max232 interfaced to microcontroller

.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

MAX232 is connected to the microcontroller as shown in the


figure above 11, 12 pin are connected to the 10 and 11 pin ie
transmit and receive pin of microcontroller

LED’S :
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Fig:19 LED’s interfacing

LED (light emitting diode) color is characterized by the


wavelength it emits. The peak emission wavelength differs
according to the energy released during recombination. This
energy differs according to the LED material used. Mixed
crystals of GaP & GaAs are used. By varying the mixing ratio
“X”, different luminous colors from red to yellow are obtained.

LEDs can typically draw up to 30mA.A current limiting


resistor is mandatory to protect both the microcontroller & LED.
Even connecting a led through a resistor is not advisable in case
of 8051.A NPN or a PNP transistor may be used. This way even
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

higher currents can be used. Ohms law can be used to calculate


the value of the current limiting resistor , i.e I=V/R.
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

A variable regulated power supply, also called a variable bench


power supply, is one where you can continuously adjust the
output voltage to your requirements. Varying the output of the
power supply is the recommended way to test a project after
having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings
and the parts placement guide.

This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench


power supply. Actually this is quite important because one of the
first projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a
variable regulated power supply. While a dedicated supply is
quite handy e.g. 5V or 12V, it's much handier to have a variable
supply on hand, especially for testing.

Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power


supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt
source. Usually you start with an unregulated power To make a 5
volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC
(Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The LM7805 is simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead
of your unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to
24VDC) to the Input pin, connect the negative lead to the
Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5
volt supply from the Output pin.

CIRCUIT FEATURES

• Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V


output, output current capability of 100 mA
• Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down
output when regulator IC gets too hot
• Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build
• Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable
operation
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only very


common basic components
• Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have
used this circuit succesfully as part of many electronics
projects
• Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory
power supply
• Power supply voltage: Unreglated DC 8-18V power supply
• Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA
• Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics
components + the input transformer cost

BLOCK DIAGRAM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

EXAMPLE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

RESET
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The pin 9 of the microcontroller 8051 is the RESET pin. Upon


applying a high pulse to this pin, the micro controller will reset
and terminate all activities. This is often called as power-on
reset. Activating a power-on reset will cause all the values in
the registers to be lost. It will set program counter to all 0’s.
the reset can be given by either power-on reset circuit or by
using a momentary switch.

RESET value of some 8051 registers:

Regist Reset
er value (hex)
PC 0000
DPTR 0000
ACC 00
PSW 00
SP 07
B 00
P0-P3 FF

Table:10 Reset values table

POWER SUPPLY
Power supply is an important part of operation of the
Microcontroller. Microcontroller operates at +5v DC and also
for other ICs and displays.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION TO ORCAD(SCHEMATIC DESIGN TOOL)

OrCAD is a software tool suite used primarily for electronic


design automation. The software is used mainly to create
electronic prints for manufacturing of printed circuit boards, by
electronic design engineers and electronic technicians to
manufacture electronic schematics and diagrams, and for their
simulation.

The name OrCAD is a portmanteau, reflecting the software's


origins: Oregon + CAD.

The OrCAD product line is fully owned by Cadence Design


Systems. The latest iteration has the ability to maintain a
database of available integrated circuits. This database may be
updated by the user by downloading packages from component
manufacturers, such as Analog Devices or Texas Instruments.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The Cadence OrCAD product line includes affordable, high-


performance PCB design tools that boost productivity for smaller
design teams and individual PCB designers.

To stay competitive in today's market, engineers must take a


design from engineering through manufacturing with shorter
design cycles and faster time to market. To be successful, you
need a set of powerful, intuitive, and integrated tools that work
seamlessly across the entire design flow.

Cadence® OrCAD® personal productivity tools (including


Cadence® PSpice®) have a long history of addressing these
demands. Designed to boost productivity for smaller design
teams and individual PCB designers, OrCAD PCB design suites
grow with your needs and technology challenges. The powerful,
tightly integrated PCB design suites include design capture,
librarian tools, a PCB editor, an auto/interactive router, and
optional analog and mixed-signal simulator.

The affordable, high-performance OrCAD product line is easily


scalable with the full complement of Cadence® Allegro® PCB
solutions.

The OrCAD product line is supported by a worldwide network of


Cadence Channel Partners. For sales, technical support, and
training inquiries please visit the global Cadence Channel Partner
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

listing to find a partner in your region.

CHAPTER 5
PROJECT CIRCUITRY

SCHEMATIC
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

5 V

R 4 7 5 V
5 V 5 V
3 . R3 k4 6 P O T U 2 1

40
L C D _ V C C 3 1 P 0 . 4 R 4 8
P 0 . 5 1 2 P 0 . 0 3 9 2 1 P 2 . 0 4 . 7 K
C 4 3 C 4 4 C 4 5 P 0 . 6 3 P 0 . 1 3 8 P 0 . 0 / A DP 02 . 0 2 / 2A 8P 2 . 1

VCC
1 0 u f 1 0 n f P 0 . 7 4 P 0 . 2 3 7 P 0 . 1 / A DP 12 . 1 2 / 3A 9P 2 . 2
P 0 . 2 / A PD 22 . 2 /2 A 4 1 P0
2

G N D 5 P 0 . 3 3 6 2 . 3 R 4 9 5 V
1 0 0 n f R 5R 0 5R 1 5R 2 5 3 6 P 0 . 4 3 5 P 0 . 3 / A PD 23 . 3 /2 A 5 1 P1 2 . 4
3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 . 3R k5 4 7 P 0 . 5 3 4 P 0 . 4 / A PD 24 . 4 /2 A 6 1 P2 2 . 5 2 . 2 K
P 0 . 0 L C D _ V C C 8 P 0 . 6 3 3 P 0 . 5 / A PD 25 . 5 /2 A 7 1 P3 2 . 6

4
8
P 0 . 1 9 P 0 . 7 3 2 P 0 . 6 / A PD 26 . 6 /2 A 8 1 P4 2 . 7
P 0 . 7 / A PD 27 . 7 / A 1 5 7 1 0 0
P 0 . 2 0 R 5 5 D 1 3 D I S

8
R
3
5 V R - P A C P K1 . 0 1 1 0 P 3 . 0 Q 1 K
P 1 . 1 2 P 1 . 0 P 3 . 0 / 1R 1 X PD 3 . 1 L E D

3
P 1 . 2 3 P 1 . 1 P 3 . 1 /1 T 2 X DP 3 . 2
P 1 . 2 P 3 . 2 / 1I N 3 TP O 2 3 3 C 8 6 U 5 0 1 0 K
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
P 1 . 3 4 3 . 3 T R U 5 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

V R 1 6 C 1 6

2
J 7 P 1 . 4 5 P 1 . 3 P 3 . 3 / 1 I N4 TP 1 3 . 4 T H R
2 P 2 . 4
P 1 . 4 P3 . 4 1 / T5 O P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
P 1 . 5 3 . 5

CV
C 4 6 2 7 p f 6

2
1 0 K 5

1
U 2 2

1
c o n 1 6 U 2 3 1 u f C 4 7 P 1 . 6 7 P 1 . 5 P3 . 5 1 / 6T 1 P 3S . C6 L
9 5 P 1 . 6 P 3 . 6 /1 W 7 RP D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2

16
P 1 . 7 8 3S . D7 A U 4 9 3 B C 5 4 7 4
8 4 P 3 R . 0X P 1 . 7 P 3 . 7 / R D L E D

1
5
1 3 1 2 D N E 5 5 5 2
7 3 T 2 O U T R 1 I RN 1 O 9 U T

1
8 Y 5 1 9 2 9 R 5 6

VC C
4 7 0 M C T 2 E

1
6 2 R 2 I RN 2 O U T C 4 8 8 X T A L 1 P S E N

3
1 1 7 3 8
5 V 1 1 0 1 4 T 2 O U T 9 X T A L 2 3 0 A L EU 2 4
T X P D 3 . 11 1 T 2 I N T 1 O 7U T R S T R S T A L E / P R O2 GK

1
5 V 1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0
C 4 9 T 1 I NT 2 O U T 2 7 p f 3 1 1

GND
1 5 VR 5 7 E A / V P P 2 L E D
3 C 1 + 3
0C . 51 1 u f4 C 1 - A T 8 9 C 5 1
0 . 0 0 1 u
0 . 0 0 1 u

20
C 5 0 5 C 2 +
1 0 u f C 5 2 C 2 - 1 0 k U 2 5 S P D T
0 . 1 u f2 3 5 V
R 5 8 0 . 1 u f 6 V + 2

GND
1 0 k V - 1
C 5 3
M A X 3 2 3 2

15
0 . 1 u f S P D T

2
R S T J P 4

2
1
3
S W 4 5 V 1 2 v J U M P E R 3
J 8

1
3
1 2 D 1 4 U 2 L6 7 8 0 5 / T O 3
3 1 2 1 3 5 V
2 V I N V O U T
1 1 N 4 0 0 1 GN D

C 5 4 C 5 5 C 5 6 4 . 7 K
2

C O N N J A C K 1 0 0 0 u f 1 0 u f 1 u f

G N D 5 V

4
8
7 1 0 0
D I S

8
R
3
Q 1 K
P 0 . 4

3
P 0 . 2 P 0 . 3 2 3 3 C 8 6 U 5 0 1 0 K
T R U 5 1 C
D 5 4 V R 1 6 1 6

2
D 5 2 D 5 3 2 T H R P 2 . 5
L E D

CV

2
1 0 K 5

1
1
L E D L E D D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2
U 4 9 3 B C 5 4 7 4
L E D

1
5
N E 5 5 5 2

1
4 7 0 M C T 2 E

3
1 7 3 8

1
1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0
L E D
5 V 0 . 0 0 1 u
0 . 0 0 1 u

4 . 7 K
5 V

5 V

4 . 7 K
4
8

7 1 0 0
D I S
8
R

3 5 V
Q 1 K
3

2 3 3 C 8 6 U 5 0 1 0 K
4
8

T R U 5 1 C
V R 1 6 1 6 7 1 0 0
2

T H R D I S
8

P 2 . 0
R

2 3
Q
C V

1 0 K 5 1 K
1
1

D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2
3

U 4 9 3 B C 5 4 7 4 2 3 3 C 8 6 1 0 K
U 5 0
L E D T R U 5 1
1
5

N E 5 5 5 2 V R 1 6 C 1 6
2

T H R
1

4 7 0 M C T 2 E 2 P 2 . 2
1

CV
3

1 7 3 8 1 0 K 5

1
1

D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2
3
1

1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0 U 4 9 B C 5 4 7 4
L E D
1
5

N E 5 5 5 2
L E D
1

4 7 0 M C T 2 E
1

0 . 0 0 1 u 1 7 3 8
0 . 0 0 1 u
1

1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0
L E D
0 . 0 0 1 u
0 . 0 0 1 u

5 V 5 V

4 . 7 K 4 . 7 K

5 V 5 V
4
8

4
8

7 1 0 0 7 1 0 0
D I S D I S
8

8
R

3 3
Q 1 K Q 1 K
3

2 3 3 C 8 6 U 5 0 1 0 K 2 3 3 C 8 6 U 5 0 1 0 K
T R U 5 1 C T R U 5 1 C
V R 1 6 1 6 V R 1 6 1 6
2

2 T H R P 2 . 1 2 T H R P 2 . 3
C V

CV
2

1 0 K 5 1 0 K 5
1

1
1

D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2 D 3 4 3 2 Q 1 2
U 4 9 3 B C 5 4 7 4 U 4 9 3 B C 5 4 7 4
L E D L E D
1
5

1
5

N E 5 5 5 N E 5 5 5

SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION
2 2
1

4 7 0 M C T 2 E 4 7 0 M C T 2 E
1

1
3

1 7 3 8 1 7 3 8
1

1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0 1 0 k D 3 5 3 3 0
L E D L E D
0 . 0 0 1 u 0 . 0 0 1 u
0 . 0 0 1 u 0 . 0 0 1 u

T it le
< T it le >

D E N S I T Y B A S E D T R A F F I C C O N T R O L
S iz e D o c u m e n t N u m b e r R e v
A 2 < D o c > < R e v C o d e >

We can break the project into three parts like micro


D a t e W: e d n e s d a y , MS ha er c e 1h t 0 o5 f , 12 0 0 8

controller section, power supply section, and D.C. regulated


power supply section. The Circuit shows the complete diagram
of the Density based traffic control system

Micro controller section contains only micro controller


AT89S52 and a crystal of 11.0592 MHz for oscillator. As micro
controller works on the program inside the memory. As a
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

program generates the login therefore it does not require any


logic circuits. As the controller keeps all the memory and I/O
ports inside it, it contains very less components in its outer
configuration. Power to the IC supplied is +5v DC

The IR sensors are interfaced port 2 pins of microcontroller and


LED’s to the port 0 pins of microcontroller .lcd connected to the
remaining port pins of microcontroller

Power supply is an important part of operation of the


Microcontroller. Microcontroller operates at +5v DC and also for
other ICs and displays.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 7
SDCC COMPILATION TOOL
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

SMALL DEVICE C COMPILER

SDCC is a retargettable, optimizing ANSI - C compiler that targets


the Intel 8051, Maxim 80DS390, Zilog Z80 and the Motorola
68HC08 based MCUs. Work is in progress on supporting the
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Microchip PIC16 and PIC18 series. SDCC is Free Open Source


Software, distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL).

FEATURES

• ASXXXX and ASLINK, a Freeware, retargettable assembler


and linker.
• extensive MCU specific language extensions, allowing
effective use of the underlying hardware.
• a host of standard optimizations such as global sub
expression elimination, loop optimizations (loop invariant,
strength reduction of induction variables and loop
reversing ), constant folding and propagation, copy
propagation, dead code elimination and jump tables for
'switch' statements.
• MCU specific optimizations, including a global register
allocator.
• adaptable MCU specific backend that should be well suited
for other 8 bit MCUs
• independent rule based peep hole optimizer.
• a full range of data types: char (8 bits, 1 byte), short (16 bits,
2 bytes), int (16 bits, 2 bytes), long (32 bit, 4 bytes) and float
(4 byte IEEE).
• the ability to add inline assembler code anywhere in a
function.
• the ability to report on the complexity of a function to help
decide what should be re-written in assembler.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• a good selection of automated regression tests.

SDCC also comes with the source level debugger SDCDB, using
the current version of Daniel's s51 simulator.

SDCC was written by Sandeep Dutta and released under a GPL


license. Since its initial release there have been numerous bug
fixes and improvements. As of December 1999, the code was
moved to SourceForge where all the "users turned developers"
can access the same source tree. SDCC is constantly being
updated with all the users' and developers' input.

AVR and gbz80 ports are no longer maintained.

SDCC SUPPORTS FOLLOWING PLATFORMS

Linux - x86, Microsoft Windows - x86 and Mac OS x - ppc are the
primary, so called "officially supported" platforms.

SDCC compiles natively on Linux and Mac OS X using using gcc.


Windows release and snapshot builds are made by cross
compiling to mingw32 on a Linux host.

Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP users are recommended to use Cygwin


(http://sources.redhat.com/cygwin/) or may try the unsupported
Borland C compiler or Microsoft Visual C++ build scripts.

SUPPORT OF SDCC
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

SDCC and the included support packages come with fair amounts
of documentation and examples. When they aren't enough, you
can find help in the places listed below. Here is a short check list
of tips to greatly improve your chances of obtaining a helpful
response.

1. Attach the code you are compiling with SDCC. It should


compile "out of the box". Snippets must compile and must
include any required header files, etc. Incomplete
information will hamper your chance of a timely response.
2. Specify the exact command you use to run SDCC, or attach
your Makefile.
3. Specify the SDCC version (type "sdcc -v"), your platform and
operating system.
4. Provide an exact copy of any error message or incorrect
output.

Please attempt to include these 4 important parts, as applicable,


in all requests for support or when reporting any problems or
bugs with SDCC. Though this will make your message lengthy, it
will greatly improve your chance that SDCC users and developers
will be able to help you. Some SDCC developers are frustrated by
bug reports without code provided that they can use to reproduce
and ultimately fix the problem, so please be sure to provide
sample code if you are reporting a bug!
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

USING SDCC

Getting Started:

 Download SDCC from http://sdcc.sourceforge.net/


• If you are developing on a Windows platform I strongly
recommend youget
http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/sdcc/sdcc-2.5.0-
setup.exe (orwhatever is the latest revision) because it
has an install wizard which will
copy the files and will ask you if you want SDCC added to your
path(HINT: I recommend you add SDCC to your path!)
• The most up-to-date documentation is at
http://sdcc.sourceforge.net/doc/sdccman.html/. SDCC also comes
with anolder revision of the same documentation which is
installed in C:\Program
Files\SDCC\doc\sdccman.html\index.html by default.
• Students have reported experiencing problems with rev
2.3.0 and rev2.4.0 of SDCC, so make sure you are using rev
2.5.0 or newer.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Download GNU make from

http://ece.colorado.edu/~mcclurel/make.exe.
o You can add make to your path as well.
" If you are developing on Windows XP:
• Right click on “My Computer”
• Select the “Advanced” tab
• Click on “Environment Variables”
• Select “PATH” and “Edit” if it already exists. Otherwise
click “New” and create a PATH variable.
• Add the location of make.exe to the “Variable Value”
" If you are developing on another version of Windows you will
need to investigate further because the Environment variables
maynot be in the same location. For example, in Windows NT look
in
Start/Settings/Control Panel/System and select the Environment
tab to modify the PATH variable.
SDCC Memory Models

SDCC basically has two memory models: Small and Large


• The large memory model will allocate all variables in
external RAM by DEFAULT
" Variables stored in internal RAM must be declared with the
“data”
or “near” keyword
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• The small memory model will allocate all variables in


internal, directlyaddressable
RAM by default
" Variables stored in external RAM must be declared with the
“xdata” or “far” keyword
! SDCC recommends the use of the small memory model for more
efficient code.
However, for this class, since we are using combined program and
data memory
spaces, I think it is safer to use the large memory model.
! Be aware that, regardless of the memory model you choose, if
you do not
explicitly declare a pointer as data/near or xdata/far it will be 3
bytes!

SDCC Basics

Assuming that the location of SDCC is defined in your path, you


can use the

following syntax for your header files:

#include <stdio.h>
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

To use SDCC on the command line, use a command line syntax


similar to the
following (note: a more complete list of flags is shown in the
example makefile
later):
sdcc --code-loc 0x6000 --xram-loc 0xB000 file.c

 SDCC will generate the following output files:


file.asm – Assembler file created by the compiler
file.lst – Assembler listing file created by the assembler
file.rst – Assembler listing file updated by the linkage editor
file.sym – Symbol listing created by the assembler
file.rel – Object file created by the assembler, Input to the linkage
editor
file.map – Memory map for the load module created by the linker
file.mem – Summary of the memory usage
file.ihx – This is the load module in Intel hex format

 By default SDCC uses the small memory model


 The assembler is given the memory locations as .area
directives instead ofORG statements.
 You must remember to use the --code-loc and --xram-loc
directives because this tells the linker where to place things in
memory!
 You can examine the file.rst and file.map output files to verify
that
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

your code and data are assigned to the correct location.


!

SDCC standard library routines

Most standard routines are present (printf, malloc, etc…)

However:
" printf depends on putchar() which is not implemented.
• You must implement putchar()
• This allows you to decide where printf is displayed (on a
terminal via serial port, on an LCD, etc…)
• The putchar() function must have the following format:
void putchar(char c);

• If you need a getchar() function, the format is:


char getchar();

malloc depends on having heap space created but SDCC does


notautomatically create heap space for your program.
• You must provide heap space for malloc to allocate
memory from.

• This can be done by:


#include <malloc.h>
#define HEAP_SIZE 4000
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

unsigned char xdata heap[HEAP_SIZE];


void main()
{
init_dynamic_memory((MEMHEADER
xdata *)heap, HEAP_SIZE);
}

SDC INTERRUPT SUPPORT

 To write an ISR in C, create a function similar to the following


format:
void isr_foo() interrupt 1
{
}

" This format tells SDCC to generate an interrupt vector (at


offset0x0B from the --code-loc address) that calls isr_foo in
response tointerrupt 1.
" It also tells SDCC to generate a RETI instruction instead of a
RETinstruction to return from a call to isr_foo().
o The standard code generated for the interrupt is not very
efficient. SDCC
takes a conservative view and will save registers on the stack
before
executing any of your code in the ISR and it will restore those
registers
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

before executing the RETI instruction.


" You can use the keyword “_naked” to make your interrupt
faster.
This keyword will prevent SDCC from generating any entry/exit
code to save registers for your ISR.
• WARNING: If you use the _naked keyword you must save
and restore any registers that are modified by your ISR or
you must guarantee that no registers are used by your ISR.
• I would only recommend using the _naked keyword if your
ISR only contains inline assembly in which case you know
explicitly which registers are used or you are setting a
single bit (such as a port pin) in which case no registers are
used.
• You can use the _naked keyword on any function, not just
for ISRs. In non-ISR routines you must be aware of the
calling convention used and save/restore the registers you
used within your function as appropriate.
! SDCC serial port initialization
o There is no support routine built into SDCC to initialize the serial
port
o If you want to use the serial port with your C program that you
burn intoEPROM you will have to initialize the hardware first.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 7
FLASH MAGIC
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

FLASH MAGIC

Flash Magic is a PC tool for programming flash based


microcontrollers from NXP using a serial protocol while in the
target hardware Flash Magic is a feature-rich Windows based tool
for the downloading of code into NXP flash microcontrollers. It
utilises a feature of the microcontrollers called ISP, which allows
the transfer of data serially between a PC and the device.

Flash Magic can erase devices, program them, read data and read
and set various configuration information. Rather than providing
the basic features of ISP, Flash Magic adds additional features and
intelligence, allowing complex operations to be performed. For
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

example, erasing can be any collection of pages pages, blocks,


the hex file to be programmed or the entire device. Some devices
store the ISP bootloader in flash memory, so Flash magic
implements methods to protect this code from being erased.

Additional advanced features of Flash Magic include the


automatic programming of checksums, entering ISP mode via a
serial command, execution of Just In Time modules allowing
endless flexibility in the data programmed, control over RS232
signals to place devices into ISP mode, and control over the
timing of such signals.

Flash Magic has been available for free for over six years and
supports all current 8-bit (8051), 16-bit (XA) and 32-bit (ARM)
flash microcontrollers from NXP.

Possible Uses

Some ideas for applications built on the Flash Magic platform:

• Custom ISP tool for in-house use, for example production line
programming where it is essential the user interface is
simplified as much as possible
• End user ISP tool for updating the firmware of products. You
can build the hex file into the application or allow it to be
fetched over the internet. Adverts for new products could be
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

displayed to the user. Use one tool for all your products
involving potentially multiple NXP microcontrollers.
• Gang programming tool. Invoke multiple instances of the
Flash Magic DLL in seperate threads, each using a different
COM port to allow parallel ISP programming
• Future-proofing products. Rather than write your own ISP
tool and have to keep updating it for new NXP devices,
updates to the DLL will automatically add new devices

Screenshots

 Main window

 Hex file information

 Execute from RAM or Flash (LPC2xxx)


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

 Display flash memory

 Device signature

 Start bootloader

 Blank check

 Advanced options - timeouts


DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

 Advanced options – hardware

 Executing a script

Features

• Straightforward and intuitive user interface


• Five simple steps to erasing and programming a device and
setting any options desired
• Programs Intel Hex Files
• Automatic verifying after programming
• Fills unused Flash to increase firmware security
• Ability to automatically program checksums. Using the
supplied checksum calculation routine your firmware can
easily verify the integrity of a Flash block, ensuring no
unauthorized or corrupted code can ever be executed
• Program security bits
• Check which Flash blocks are blank or in use with the ability
to easily erase all blocks in use
• Read the device signature
• Read any section of Flash and save as an Intel Hex File
• Reprogram the Boot Vector and Status Byte with the help of
confirmation features that prevent accidentally programming
incorrect values
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• Display the contents of Flash in ASCII and Hexadecimal


formats
• Single-click access to the manual, Flash Magic home page
and NXP Microcontrollers home page
• Ability to use high-speed serial communications on devices
that support it. Flash Magic calculates the highest baudrate
that both the device and your PC can use and switches to
that baudrate transparently
• Command Line interface allowing Flash Magic to be used in
IDEs and Batch Files
• Manual in PDF format
• Supports half-duplex communications
• Verify Hex Files previously programmed
• Save and open settings
• Able to reset Rx2 and 66x devices (revision G or higher)
• Able to control the DTR and RTS RS232 signals when
connected to RST and /PSEN to place the device into
BootROM and Execute modes automatically. An example
circuit diagram is included in the Manual. Essential for ISP
with target hardware that is hard to access.
• Able to send commands to place the device in BootROM
mode, with support for command line interfaces. The
installation includes an example project for the Keil and
Raisonance 8051 compilers that show how to build support
for this feature into applications.
• Able to play any Wave file when finished programming.
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

• Built in automated version checker - helps ensure you


always have the latest version.
• Powerful, flexible Just In Time Code feature. Write your own
JIT Modules to generate last minute code for programming.
Uses include:
o Serial number generation
o Copy protection and copy authorization
o Storing program date and time - manufacture date
o Storing program operator and location
o Lookup table generation
o Language tables or language selection
o Centralized record keeping
o Obtaining latest firmware from the Corporate Web site
or project intranet
• Sponsored by NXP Semiconductors
• Features automatically updating Internet links including links
to related technical documents, software updates, utilities
and code examples, using EmbeddedHints technology
• Displays information about the selected Hex File, including
the creation and modification dates, flash memory used,
percentage of the current device used
• Completely free!
• Flash Magic works on any versions of Windows, except
Windows 95. 10Mb of disk space is required
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Schematic
DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM