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CCS progress in
- Alberta Government
- Enhance Energy ACTL project
- Shell Quest project
- TransAlta Project Pioneer

Carbon Capture and

Storage Association
- what next for CCS?
Nov / Dec 2009 Issue 12

Global CCS Institute status report

UK policy - on the pathway to clean coal?
Calix - carbon capture for less than €15 per ton?
CO2 Capture Project - research conclusions published
Ineris - towards a framework for CCS risk assessment
CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:33 Page 2

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CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:34 Page 1

CCS advances in Canada
Alberta’s Quest and Pioneer projects have now moved to grant agreement stage and
Alberta has recently signed letters of intent with the two proponents for funding from
its $2B (Cdn) CCS commitment 2
Enhance Energy – ACTL Project
Enhance Energy’s Alberta Carbon Trunk Line (ACTL) will be the first commercial, large-
scale carbon capture and storage project in the province, which is expected to store
Nov/Dec 2009 Issue 12 more carbon than any other CCS project in the world 4
Carbon Capture Journal Shell Quest Project - CCS in the oilsands
213 Marsh Wall, London, E14 9FJ, UK Shell, on behalf of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, a joint venture among Shell Canada (60 per cent), Chevron Canada Limited (20 per cent) and Marathon Oil Sands L.P. 20 per
Tel +44 (0)207 510 4935 cent), is advancing the Shell Quest project, which would capture, transport and store
Fax +44 (0)207 510 2344 CO2 from the Scotford Upgrader in Alberta 5
Keith Forward Carbon Capture and Storage Association - what next for CCS? 2009 has been an important year for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and the
attention given to the importance of the technology has certainly stepped up a notch,
Publisher with developments both on the regulatory and funding side, as well as a growing
Karl Jeffery number of announcements to develop large-scale projects around the world 8
Subscriptions Projects and policy
Global CCS Institute releases two major studies
Advertising and Sponsorship The Global Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Institute has released a report,
Alec Egan ‘Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage,’ which shows
Tel +44 (0)203 051 6548 that despite progress more demonstration projects are urgently needed. It also
engaged L.E.K. Consulting to research and propose a theoretical ‘Ideal Portfolio’ of
Carbon Capture Journal is your one stop CCS projects, as well as a rationale for supporting projects. 10
information source for new technical
developments, opinion, regulatory and CCP publishes research conclusions
research activity with carbon capture, The CO2 Capture Project (CCP), a partnership of eight oil & gas majors, recently
transport and storage. presented the findings from the last five years of work to world energy and
environmental ministers attending the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum in
Carbon Capture Journal is delivered on print London (12-14 October). By Iain Wright, CO2 Capture Project (CCP) 12
and pdf version to a total of 5400 people, all
of whom have requested to receive it, UK policy - on the pathway to clean coal?
including employees of power companies, The UK government has released a series of policy statements designed to speed up
planning permissions and clarify the requirements for CCS in coal fired power plants.
oil and gas companies, government,
engineering companies, consultants, Is it enough? 13
educators, students, and suppliers.
Subscriptions: £195 a year for 6 issues. To
subscribe, please contact Karl Jeffery on Calix – a carbon capture breakthrough Calix Limited has developed a new Calcium Looping technology that may capture carbon
Alternatively you can subscribe online at dioxide at less than €15/tonne. Applications are being developed for power station or
cement works retrofit, hydrogen generation from coal or lignite, and for new power
generation plant based on an IGCC cycle. By Brian Sweeney and Mark Sceats, Calix 19
Front cover: E.ON and Siemens begin CO2 capture pilot in Germany
Canada and Alberta Governments Invest in
E.ON and Siemens are starting up a pilot CO2 capture plant at the E.ON power plant
Major Carbon Capture and Storage Project
From left to Staudinger in Grosskrotzenburg near Hanau, Germany 21
right: The
Honourable Transport and storage
Mel Knight,
Alberta Towards a framework for CCS risk assessment
Energy The main objective of this paper is to present a systematic and conceptual framework
Minister, the of risk assessment methodology for underground CO2 storage. By F.Lahaie and
Lisa Raitt, Canada's Minister of Natural
R.Farret, Ineris, France and P.Bumb, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 22
Resources, and Graham Boyle, Shell Canada New research at CO2CRC Otway Project
V.P., at the official signing of a letter of intent New research on deep saline storage will soon be underway at the CO2CRC Otway
for investments in the Quest carbon capture
and storage project near Edmonton, Alberta
Project, Australia’s only CO2 geosequestration research and demonstration facility 25
Carbon capture journal (Print) ISSN 1757-1995 Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 1
Carbon capture journal (Online) ISSN 1757-2509
CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:34 Page 2


Alberta’s Quest and Pioneer projects move

to grant agreement stage
Alberta, a leading North American energy producer, is emerging as a global leader in advancing the
science of large-scale carbon capture and storage projects. The province has recently signed letters of
intent with two proponents for funding from its $2B (Cdn) CCS commitment.
By The Honourable Mel Knight, Minister of Energy, Alberta

Shell’s Quest project – which is owned by

Shell Canada, Chevron Canada and
Marathon Oil Sands L.P. – signed a letter of
intent in October to receive $745 million
from the province of Alberta.
The Government of Canada is also in-
vesting $120 million through its Clean Ener-
gy Fund in the $1.35 billion project.
The Quest project is expected to cap-
ture 1.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide an-
nually starting in 2015 from Shell’s Scotford
upgrader and new expansion east of Edmon-
A letter of intent has also been signed
with TransAlta Corporation and its partners
Capital Power and Alstom for Project Pio-
neer at the Keephills 3 plant west of Edmon-
ton. Alberta’s investment in the retrofit of
this coal-fired electricity plant is $431 mil-
lion from the CCS fund and an additional $5
million will be provided to support front-end
engineering and design.
The Government of Canada is also con-
tributing $343 million for this project Prime Minister Stephen Harper is joined by TransAlta CEO Stephen Snyder and Alberta Premier
Ed Stelmach as he looks at schematics for Project Pioneer
through the Clean Energy Fund and the fed-
eral econENERGY Technology Initiative.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Al- uses pressure to help increase production over a maximum period of 10 years.
berta Premier Ed Stelmach recently made the during secondary or tertiary recovery and for The next step in the process is for the
joint announcement at the plant. Alberta, it means increased production and project proponents to sign funding grant
TransAlta’s Project Pioneer is expected increased revenues. agreements.
to sequester one million tonnes of CO2 an- Alberta’s investment in the technology We are in discussion with other project
nually starting in 2015 and could be a cata- is also an investment in our economy as it proponents for letters of intent to access the
lyst for CCS implementation at coal-fired will provide many jobs during the construc- remaining funds from the $2-billion commit-
electricity plants around the world. tion phase and will provide many people ment made in the summer of 2008. I am con-
It is clear that both the province of Al- with a specialized knowledge that can then fident announcements of those projects will
berta and the Canadian federal government be shared with others. be made in the very near future.
see carbon capture and storage technology It’s important to note that the project Alberta, like every other jurisdiction in
as a leading solution to greenhouse gas emis- proponents are also making a tremendous fi- the world, has not been immune from the
sion reduction. It is also clear that CCS tech- nancial investment in these projects. Our global economic downturn. You may have
nology has application in a variety of indus- funding formula provides up to a maximum heard that for the first time in more than a
tries. The Quest project will help with up- of 75 per cent of the total incremental costs decade our province ran a deficit budget
grading emissions of oil sands bitumen while to capture, transport and store the CO2. .That has not stopped us from pursuing our
Project Pioneer will be one of the world’s A maximum of up to 40 per cent of the commitment to clean energy and we see
first retrofitted coal-fired electricity plants. approved funding will be distributed during CCS as one of many technologies which will
Both of these projects plan to use some the design and construction stage based on help us on the path forward. We are commit-
of the captured CO2 for enhanced oil recov- achieved milestones and up to an additional ted to the science of solutions.
ery projects (EOR), which is ideal for Alber- 20 per cent of the approved funding will be To learn more about Alberta’s CCS ex-
ta and for Albertans. Enhanced oil recovery granted once commercial operation begins. perience, monitor our progress and read
helps produce oil from conventional wells The remaining 40 per cent of the funding about Alberta’s commitment, visit
drawing from tapped-into reservoirs. EOR will be paid as CO2 is captured and stored

2 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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CCJ12:Layout 1 23/11/2009 17:11 Page 4

Enhance Energy – ACTL Project
Enhance Energy’s Alberta Carbon Trunk Line (ACTL) will be the first commercial, large-scale carbon
capture and storage project in the province, which is expected to store more carbon than any other CCS
project in the world.

Enhance Energy’s founder and president, Su- will encompass drying and compression fa-
san Cole, P. Eng., has almost a decade of cilities at the north end in the Industrial
CCS and enhanced oil recovery experience Heartland; delivery facilities at the south end
making her highly qualified to lead Enhance of the system, which will distribute the CO2
on their ACTL project. to conventional oil and gas fields in the area;
“Prior to starting up Enhance Energy, I and a high vapour pressure pipeline between
was the manager of the Weyburn CO2 De- the source and the delivery points.
velopment project for five years and I spent The initial leg of the ACTL will be 240
three years at EnCana managing their kilometres in length and the pipe will be 40.6
Athabasca Oil Business Unit where we fo- centimetres in diameter. Over time, lateral
cused on water flooding and polymer flood- legs extending south, west, and east will al-
ing of the Pelican Lake heavy oil pool,” says low for multiple entry and exit points
Cole. throughout the system.
The system will initially gather, com-
Overview of the ACTL project press, and store 15,000 tonnes of carbon per
The ACTL project will incorporate carbon day. At full capacity, it will gather, compress
dioxide capture, transportation, enhanced oil and store 40,000 tonnes of carbon per day or
recovery, and storage in Alberta’s Industrial 14.6 million tonnes per year. “The project
Heartland and south-central Alberta. could potentially store more than 2 billion “Everyone at Enhance Energy is looking
Enhance will construct and operate the tonnes of carbon,” says Cole. forward to working on this first-of-its-kind
ACTL, which is part of a larger project in- Enhance says it will ramp up additional CCS project and to becoming part of the CCS
volving the storage of CO2 and EOR proj- supplies over time. “We expect it will take movement in Alberta” - Susan Cole, Enhance
ects. The system will gather, transport, and anywhere from ten to 15 years to get to full Energy’s founder and president
distribute CO2 from the Alberta Industrial capacity because of the current shortage of
Heartland, just east of Edmonton and south pure CO2,” explains Cole. Fairborne Connection and EOR
of Redwater, to the oil production fields just “Our current supplies of CO2 are pure In Alberta, one of four provinces in the West-
east of Clive, Alberta. however, subsequent supplies will need to be ern Canadian Sedimentary Basin in western
The ACTL project will consist of con- cleaned up because they will be coming from Canada, many reservoirs have been depleted
structing a pipeline distribution system that different types of industry like power, petro- such that production is at a minimum and
chemicals, and oilsands upgraders and we are abandonment might well be the next step un-
reliant on more CO2 supplies becoming less enhanced oil recovery methods can re-
available over time.” vitalize them.
Enhance says the combined total cost of Enhance has signed an agreement with
the trunk line and the associated EOR proj- Fairborne Energy Trust to jointly develop a
ects is in the range of CAD $600 million; the CO2 EOR project at two of their oilfields
initial cost of capturing and transporting the near Clive. Where Enhance will operate the
CO2 will be CAD $300 million with the EOR pipeline, Fairborne will operate the EOR fa-
storage component costing another CAD cilities.
$300 million. EOR with injected CO2 is a common
The initial suppliers of high purity CO2 practice in oilfields, having been used for
to the ATCL are expected to be North West more than 30 years. However, Cole says
Upgrading Inc. and Agrium Inc. NWU is an there is currently a shortage of high purity
independent merchant upgrader using gasifi- CO2 needed for EOR. “When the required
cation technology which is fully permitted supplies of high purity CO2 become avail-
and approved for construction and is expect- able, approximately 1.1 billion barrels of in-
ed to be fully operational in 2013. cremental oil reserves could be recovered
Agrium, a fertilizer facility which pro- primarily through CO2 injection in southern
duces CO2 as a by-product from its ammo- Alberta.”
nia production, is located just outside of Red- Environmental Benefits and Benefits to
water. The total volume from NWU and the Oilsands Sector – The capture and trans-
Agrium is expected to be 5,100 tonnes of car- mission of CO2 through the ACTL will con-
bon per day. Enhance will construct and op- tribute to decreasing overall emissions in Al-
erate the capturing facilities at NWU and berta by storing CO2 after EOR operations
Enhance Energy specialises in enhanced oil Agrium where these pure carbon streams will are complete. “A typical car emits 5.6
recovery using CO2 be compressed and build the pipeline system. tonnes of GHG emissions per year. With the

4 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

CCJ12:Layout 1 23/11/2009 17:11 Page 5

amount of CO2 that we will be storing, it in the same place. So we can develop our road. “By constructing our pipeline along-
will be the equivalent of removing 2.6 mil- oilsands in a sustainable manner with a low side CP’s railroad right of way, we minimiz-
lion cars off the road in Alberta annually. CO2 footprint while also increasing conven- ing disturbance of the land and avoid envi-
That’s about a third of all registered vehicles tional oil production.” ronmentally sensitive areas,” says Cole.
in the province,” says Cole. “It is an economic and environmental Enhance submitted its application to
win for Alberta when we are able to store construct the pipeline to Alberta’s Energy
CCS in the oilsands CO2. Studies show the CO2 footprint of the Resources Conservation Board on March 23,
The benefits of the ACTL to oilsands opera- Alberta oilsands with a CCS solution would 2009 and is expecting to receive approval by
tors will be immense. Cole says these Large be in line with any conventional light oil pro- sometime in the first quarter of 2010.
Final Emitters will finally have a viable op- duction that we have in this region,” says Depending on the timing of regulatory
tion to store their CO2 emissions which will Cole. approval, construction of the pipeline and fa-
dramatically help them lower their emissions cilities could begin in 2010 with start-up
and meet Alberta’s new emissions targets. Building the pipeline sometime in 2012.
“We are fortunate we have the right ge- Enhance is also working with Canadian Pa-
ology in Alberta to produce oil and manage cific so the company can construct the
the CO2 emissions from upgrading oilsands pipeline along the right of way of CP’s rail-

Shell Quest Project - CCS in the oilsands

Shell, on behalf of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, a joint venture among Shell Canada (60 per cent),
Chevron Canada Limited (20 per cent) and Marathon Oil Sands L.P. (20 per cent), is advancing the Shell
Quest project, which would capture, transport and store CO2 from the Scotford Upgrader in Alberta.
Shell Quest is a fully integrated CCS project. Upgrader Expansion
It would capture and store up to 1.2 million
tonnes of CO2 per year from the Scotford Hydrogen Manufacturing Unit Location of Quest capture
Upgrader and from the Scotford Upgrader
Expansion, now under construction.
The CO2 would be captured from the
Scotford steam methane reformer units,
which produce hydrogen for upgrading bitu- Upgrader base plant

The CO2 would then be transported by
pipeline to an injection location near the
Scotford Complex and stored approximately
2,300 metres underground in a deep geologi-
cal formation. The CO2 could also be made
available for use in enhanced oil recovery
projects on a commercial basis.

Project Status
In late 2008 and early 2009, Shell drilled two
test wells near the Scotford Upgrader as part
of a CCS appraisal program co-funded by the Aerial view of the Quest site
Alberta Energy Research Institute. The re-
sults of this program will help determine po- Development plan ers and satisfy its own internal governance
tential locations for Quest CCS Project CO2 Shell is developing Quest in four stages: process.
injection sites. Preliminary project development Construction
Several additional years of work are still This includes locating deep, sub-surface geo- If all approvals are received with satisfactory
needed to inform a final capital investment logical formations in which injected CO2 can conditions, construction would take approxi-
decision on Quest. That investment decision be stored. mately three years, and could be followed by
will ultimately depend on a range of factors, Project development project commissioning and start-up approxi-
including the outcome of a structured consul- Shell will continue to advance development mately three to five years later.
tation process, the results of appraisal activi- work, consult with the public and prepare de-
ties and detailed integrated studies, as well tailed engineering designs and plans, incor- Project components
as the ability to meet all regulatory require- porating public input. Capture:
ments. Regulatory and internal approvals Shell is proposing to install facilities at Scot-
Construction would only begin after all Shell will seek regulatory approvals from the ford that would capture CO2 from all three
of these aspects have been addressed success- Government of Alberta, investment approval of the Upgrader’s hydrogen plants. The hy-
fully, with the aim to start operations in 2015. from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project own- drogen plants combine steam and natural gas

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 5

CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:35 Page 6

(methane) to produce hydrogen used for up-
grading, and concentrated CO2, which is ide- SCOTFORD UPGRADE


To Market
al for CO2 capture. SYNTHETIC CRUDE

Transportation: Oil Sands

Bitumen SM R

The liquid CO2 would be transported by 1

pipeline from the Scotford Upgrader to the ( PROPOSED FACILITIES )

injection location(s), which have yet to be se- 2 3 O2 Pipeline
lected but which would be at a distance of be- (CO2 Absorber
V essel)
O2 Pipeline

tween 10 kilometres and 60 kilometres from SCOTFORD UPGRADE



Scotford. The pipeline would run northeast

from Scotford and would follow existing Oil Sands
Bitumen SMR
right of ways to the greatest extent possible
To Market
and would be designed and constructed to the SYNTHETIC CRUDE

CO2 for CO2 for Enhanced

Storage ecovery
Oil Re
latest technical and safety specifications.
The pipeline system could be extended
1 The Shell Quest CC
CCSS project will capture CO2 from
m three hydrogen-manufacturin
hydrogen-manufacturingg units (two existing and
to supply CO2 for third-party enhanced oil one now under consstruction) at the Scotford Upgra
construction) ader These are called steam
Upgrader. steam-m
steam-methane reformation units,
units or SM
recovery depending on the outcome of com-
2 An absorber vessel will
w use chemical amines (calle
ed activated MDEA) to capturee the CO2 from the
mercial discussions. process stream; the CO2 will be released from the
e amine through steam stripping
Storage: 3 t, CO2 will be compressed into
Inn a compressor unit
unit, o its dense phase (a super criti
ical liquid) for safe pipeline tra
Shell proposes to inject the CO2 deep under-
4 The liquefied CO2 will
w travel by pipeline to nearbyy storage sites.
ground into a geological formation known as
5 The CO2 will be injected
ected into deep underground formations
f for storage and cou
uld be used for enhanced oil re
the Cambrian Basal Sands at a depth of 2,000
– 2,500 metres. This for mation is deeper than
the oil and gas deposits in the area and is Quest process schematic
roughly 2,000 metres below any freshwater
aquifers. observe the CO2 storage wells and geologi- could be made available for use in EOR proj-
The injection sites are anticipated to be cal formations. ects in Alberta depending on the outcome of
within 60 kilometres of the Scotford Com- This would provide assurance that the commercial discussions. The
plex. injected CO2 had remained deep below CO2 would be stored permanently in
Monitoring and Verification: ground in the target formation. these oil fields, which would also be required
Shell Quest would use new technology meas- Enhanced Oil Recovery Opportunities: to use sophisticated measuring, monitoring
uring, monitoring and verification systems to CO2 captured from the Scotford Upgrader and verification systems.

Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage

One Day Short Courses
Thursday 4th and Friday 5th March 2010

CO2 Storage - Geology for Engineers (ref:K1732)

Thursday 4th March 2010
This short course is designed for Engineers and Managers with limited or no previous geological knowledge.
The aim is to provide an up-to-date introduction of the geological and geophysical aspects of CO2 Storage.

Risk & Uncertainty in the Geological Storage of CO2 (ref:K1733)

Friday 5th March 2010
This course introduces risk management techniques and explores uncertainties associated with the geological
storage of CO2. It builds upon the previous course, Geology for Engineers, by examining the behaviour of CO2
in the subsurface and how this information is used to estimate properties of the storage site such as capacity.

Location: Raeburn Room, Old College, Edinburgh

For further information visit:
CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:35 Page 7

International Conference:

Carbon Storage
In The North Sea
24 - 25 March, 2010
The Geological Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London
Carbon capture and storage
has the potential to be the size
of North Sea oil and gas
industry and be worth more
than £2bn/yr and sustain more
than 30,000 jobs by 2030.
North Sea CO2 storage space
is estimated at more than
22 billion tonnes which is 180
years' emissions from the UK's
20 largest point sources. But
what are the geological factors
affecting how this space can be
used? How will geology inform
the regulators and the public
and what are the risks and
Convenors: opportunities for the private sector?
Mike Stephenson Keynote presentations on:
(British Geological • Role of the national geological survey
• UK and Dutch North Sea storage capacity
Henk Pagnier • North Sea and other international CCS hubs
(TNO) Abstracts or sponsorship enquiries should be sent to
John Underhill For further information about this conference, please contact:
(University of Steve Whalley, Event Co-ordinator: +44 (0)20 7432 0980
Edinburgh or email:

At the forefront of petroleum geoscience
CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:35 Page 8


CCSA - what next for CCS?

2009 has been an important year for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and the attention given to the
importance of the technology has certainly stepped up a notch, with developments both on the
regulatory and funding side, as well as a growing number of announcements to develop large-scale
projects around the world. Even in a time of economic crisis there have been new opportunities and
prospects for CCS and significant progress has been made that will hopefully lay the foundations for the
development a long-term CCS industry.
By Stephanie Squire and Judith Shapiro, Carbon Capture and Storage Association (CCSA)

What has 2009 brought us? lead to support for both CCS and innovative ing with Government, in particular on the re-
The Carbon Capture and Storage Association renewables of up to €9 billion. cent consultation ‘A framework for the de-
(CCSA) began the year by becoming a found- Details of how to distribute this fund- velopment of clean coal’, which was
ing member of the Global Carbon Capture and ing are, however, proving to be controver- launched in June, and also more generally
Storage Institute (GCCSI) that was launched sial, particularly as it is likely that Member on funding and regulation.
in April, amid much excitement over the role States will also need to provide additional We were pleased to see the announce-
that this new organisation could play. support to the projects. ment earlier this year as part of the consulta-
The GCCSI has since become an inde- The issue of Member State versus EU tion that the UK would support up to four
pendent legal entity and has really hit the Commission project selection is proving to CCS demonstration projects through a levy
ground running and with a commitment of be a difficult problem to resolve and discus- mechanism. We now urge the Government
AUD$100million per year from the Aus- sions, which the industry is engaged in, are to commit to four (rather than up to four) and
tralian Government, the Institute has set am- ongoing. It is hoped that the mechanism for consider how to address support that might
bitious plans to support the aim of accelerat- distribution will be finalised soon. be needed for further roll out, particularly if
ing commercial deployment of CCS. Interestingly, the economic crisis has (as the Committee on Climate Change has
Recent achievements include comple- presented some opportunities for CCS – this recommended) we are to decarbonise elec-
tion of two initial important reports; “strate- has come in the form of recovery packages. tricity by 2030.
gic Analysis of the Global Status of CCS” Staying in Europe, €1.05 billion of funding The UK published its Low Carbon
and “An Ideal Portfolio of CCS projects and for CCS was announced as part of the Euro- Transition Plan in July this year, setting out
Rationale for Supporting Projects” We look pean Energy Programme for Recovery. how to meet the first statutory carbon budg-
forward to continued involvement as the or- Thirteen projects across seven Euro- et of 34% cut in emissions by 2020, as rec-
ganisation grows. pean countries were originally shortlisted as ommended by the Climate Change Commit-
Perhaps the most significant progress potential beneficiaries of the support and of tee. As part of this plan, it is encouraging to
to date on regulation came earlier this year those six have now been presented to the EU note that the Government has emphasised
when the EU CCS Directive was finalised Parliament. The final announcement of the the trinity of renewables, nuclear and clean
and came into force in June (as part of the winners is expected imminently. fossil fuels (CCS) to contribute 40% of UK
EU Climate and Energy package that was Further afield, the U.S. has made sev- electricity from low-carbon sources by 2020.
adopted in December 2008). eral funding announcements this year includ- At present the investment climate for
The CCS Directive establishes an es- ing $2.4 billion for CCS as part of the Amer- CCS in the UK is challenging. The uncer-
sential legal framework for storing CO2 in ican Recovery and Reinvestment Act – in tainty over the number of UK CCS projects
Europe, and Member States now have less terms of projects, Hydrogen Energy has re- to be funded in total (announced as “up to
than two years to transpose the Directive in- ceived a $308 million grant for its IGCC four” including the current competition proj-
to their own legal systems. The UK has been project in Kern County, California. Canada ect) also translates to increased investment
a leader in the area of regulation and the CC- announced C$650 million for large-scale risk.
SA continues to be actively engaged with the CCS as part of its clean energy fund and To achieve the objective of wide-scale
Department of Energy and Climate Change Australia also has its own CCS ‘Flagships CCS deployment from 2020 will require a
(DECC) on details of how this legislation Program’. significant number of CCS projects before
will work. These examples clearly show that the 2020, and a commitment to four projects by
At the same time revisions to the EU race for CCS is now on and the UK will have 2020 (rather than up to four) will enable the
Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) for Phase to work hard if it is to remain amongst the majority of the energy industry in the UK to
III were also finalised as part of the Climate leading countries in this suite of technolo- undertake important learning and build suf-
and Energy package. This Directive has in- gies. In under a year the province of Alberta ficient supply chains for further roll out.
troduced a crucial source of funding for CCS has selected its three winning projects to This will enable CCS to move down the
in the form of 300 million allowances benefit from $2 billion, whereas the UK an- cost curve at an early stage and bringing for-
(EUAs) set aside from the New Entrants Re- nounced its competition in 2007 and a win- ward the point at which CCS can be de-
serve in phase III (2013-). ner has yet to be chosen. ployed commercially.
The background to this funding is the Having said that, there have been excit- Aside from engagement with Govern-
EU aim to have 10-12 CCS projects in oper- ing announcements in the UK throughout ment, other activities of the CCSA have in-
ation across Europe by 2015 – as agreed at this year and the Association has certainly cluded jointly holding a dialogue on CCS
the 2007 EU Spring Council. Depending on been very busy, with membership continu- with Green Alliance in September. The event
when these EUAs are auctioned, this could ing to grow. Activities have included engag- brought together industry, NGOs and other

8 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:35 Page 9

stakeholders to discuss policies and regula-
tion relating specifically to CCS.
It was exciting to see over two days that 2(&'1RUWK$PHULFD

whilst there are areas where different stake- 2(&'(XURSH 
holders disagree on how to progress, there 2(&'3DFLILF

were also many areas of broad agreement &KLQD ,QGLD
and much enthusiasm about the need to roll 2WKHU 


out this important climate change mitigation &2FDSWXUHG ZRUOG
The Carbon Sequestration Leadership
Forum (CSLF) held its ministerial meeting

in October in London. The CSLF is an inter- 
national initiative of 24 countries, focussed
on facilitating the development and deploy- 

ment of CCS technologies. 

A CSLF stakeholder meeting, co-host- 

ed by the CCSA, took place alongside the

ministerial meeting and the International En-  

ergy Agency (IEA) also published its ambi-         

tious CCS roadmap at the ministerial meet-

ing, setting out the role of CCS in meeting a Global deployment of CCS 2010–2050 (CO2 captured and number of projects) (Source: CCS
global 50% reduction in emissions by 2050. Technology Roadmap, © OECD/IEA, 2009)
Statements that came out of both the
CSLF meetings and the Major Economies level of development by 2020 will require CCS development and deployment and
Forum (that followed not long after) were $130 billion of extra capital, 73% of this whilst the EU ETS is considered the long-
encouraging and an important contribution from OECD Governments. term mechanism to incentivise low-carbon
to building momentum and underlining the The UNFCCC agreement at Copen- technologies, the current carbon price is in-
importance of CCS in the run up to Copen- hagen must therefore allow for both large- sufficient and too uncertain to provide invest-
hagen. This year has, in fact, seen new im- scale public financing and ongoing market ment certainty to CCS project developers.
petus to international activities on CCS and incentives to provide support for CCS devel- Once the first CCS projects are built,
this has become a large focus of our work. opment. On a wider point, the issues of costs can begin to come down and further
knowledge sharing and technology transfer projects will also benefit from technology
What will the coming months bring us? are proving difficult in the discussions lead- improvements. However, additional funding
The UNFCCC meeting in Copenhagen in ing up to the meeting. must be found in the period until CCS will
December is, of course, the major event for It is likely that details of actions and be economically viable under the EU ETS
the climate. The expectations are high, but agreements may well be negotiated beyond and this is particularly the case for first-of-
what outcomes can we really hope for? The the Copenhagen meeting, and we expect fur- a-kind projects, which will be faced with the
Association is pushing hard for CCS to be ther progress in this area in 2010. added burden of investing in the infrastruc-
recognised and supported in any future post- Next year we also hope to see some im- ture that will support a long-term CCS in-
2012 agreement as an essential technology portant announcements on CCS from the UK dustry.
to addressing climate change. Government. In particular the Association is Finally, one major issue is now begin-
Indeed, without CCS it may prove ex- looking forward to seeing the winner of the ning to have an impact on the development
tremely expensive, and perhaps even impos- current competition announced. of CCS projects in several European coun-
sible to avoid dangerous climate change The Committee on Climate Change tries – namely public perception.
whilst the inevitable use of fossil fuels con- recommended in their recent report that the The lack of awareness, but more im-
tinues. next competition for the further one to three portantly, the lack of public acceptance for
The major issue for CCS will be the (or as we hope, three at least) demonstration CCS projects, has the ability to represent one
need to develop a mechanism to finance projects should be announced, with the aim of the major barriers to the deployment of
CCS projects in developing countries, of seeing these projects coming online in CCS and Governments around the world
whether this be as part of a reformed Clean 2015 or 2016, (perhaps just a year after the must work together to tackle this issue as
Development Mechanism (CDM) or a new deadline for the current competition project). early as possible.
mechanism altogether. We would urge the Government not to Important activities are happening
Developing countries will be unable to fi- run further competition for the additional around the world to develop guidelines for
nance CCS on their own and it is therefore im- one to three projects as a series of individual public engagement and these must be pro-
perative that a post-2012 agreement includes a competitions, as such an approach will only moted and disseminated effectively, so that
mechanism that enables these countries to de- delay the development of CCS in the UK. project developers can include a public en-
ploy CCS whilst continuing to develop their Instead we recommend holding one gagement process that ensures successful
economies in a low-carbon manner. open competition for these projects as soon project implementation.
The IEA estimates that, in order to meet as possible, allowing as many projects as Overall progress this year has been pos-
our required mitigation pathway, 100 CCS possible to bid across a variety of capture itive for CCS, and 2010 could be even better.
projects will need to be operating worldwide technologies, transport systems and storage The Association looks forward to another
by 2020 and more than 3000 by 2050 (see options. busy and exciting year in the world of CCS.
Figure above). The IEA calculates that this Funding remains the major barrier to

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 9

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Projects and Policy

Global CCS Institute releases two major studies
The Global Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Institute has released a report, ‘Strategic Analysis of the
Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage,’ which shows that despite progress more demonstration
projects are urgently needed. It also engaged L.E.K. Consulting to research and propose a theoretical ‘Ideal
Portfolio’ of CCS projects, as well as a rationale for supporting projects.
In May 2009, a consortium led by Worley- to not only deploy more projects, more • Developing national strategies where
Parsons and comprising Schlumberger, Elec- quickly, but to deploy more types of proj- absent to provide incentives to innovate or
tric Power Research Institute and Baker & ects, and in more places, so that we can learn invest in CCS technology.
McKenzie was engaged to undertake the how to design the best possible facilities, • Establishing a regulatory framework
Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of bring down costs and create a valid business that assigns a value to carbon
Carbon Capture and Storage. case for CCS."
The consortium was tasked to under- The Global CCS Institute – an initiative The ideal portfolio
take a comprehensive survey of the status of to accelerate the worldwide commercial de- The world needs to broaden the commercial
CCS and to develop a series of reports ployment of at-scale CCS – commissioned a development of CCS projects across indus-
analysing CCS projects, the economics of WorleyParsons-led consortium to undertake tries, geographies and technologies in order
CCS, policies supporting CCS development what is the most comprehensive review and to accelerate deployment, according to the
and existing research and development net- analysis of the world’s current CCS projects. Global CCS Institute’s second key report.
works. A fifth report - the Synthesis Report - The research was undertaken to ad- The portfolio study consists of two sec-
was also developed and this summarises the vance the understanding of the status of CCS tions: the Ideal Portfolio which describes the
findings of the first four reports, and pro- projects, the costs involved, the status of range of projects that would address differ-
vides a comprehensive assessment of the supporting policy initiatives, the research ent hurdles to CCS deployment; and the Ra-
gaps and barriers to the deployment of large- and developments efforts being pursued, and tionale for Supporting Projects which de-
scale CCS projects, including strategies and the gaps and barriers to deployment at scale. scribes possible ways in which the Global
recommendations to address these issues. Key findings of the report which CCS Institute can identify and support CCS
demonstrate the depth of the action current- projects as they relate to an Ideal Portfolio.
CCS global status ly being taken include: Global CCS Institute CEO Nick Otter
‘Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of • There are 213 active or planned proj- said “The iron and steel, and cement indus-
Carbon Capture and Storage’ shows that the ects with 101 of commercial scale – demon- tries are responsible for over 20 per cent of
majority of advanced projects are focussed strating the existence of a significant the world’s CO2 emissions. If CCS is to con-
on coal-fired power generation, recognising pipeline of potential projects being investi- tribute to the deep cuts in emissions the
the need to implement solutions that address gated around the world. world needs, then industry must be part of
the world’s current and future use of coal in • There are 62 fully integrated, com- the solution.”
a carbon constrained environment. mercial scale projects each of which demon- The report naturally prioritises the
It says that there is growing action be- strates every stage of the CCS process chain Power Generation sector, given its own con-
ing taken to achieve the G8 objective of de- of CO2 capture, transport and storage. Sev- tribution to global emissions and the scale
ploying at least 20 commercial scale CCS en of these projects are already operating and and effort it is putting into CCS, recom-
projects globally by 2020. Despite this 55 are at various stages of progress making mending a minimum of 17 projects types but
progress the report also showed that due to them potential candidates for contributing to spreading them across different fuel and
commercial, technical and regulatory hur- the G8 objective. technology combinations.
dles there is the urgent need to rapidly iden- • The leading developers of fully inte- The report recognises that some indus-
tify and advance a larger and more diverse grated, commercial scale projects include try sectors, including gas extraction and pro-
portfolio of projects to ensure success. participants in the Europe (37%), USA cessing, while representing only a small
The study reveals that in order to accel- (24%), Australia (11%) and Canada (10%), share of global emissions, already carry out
erate the deployment of CCS projects the with distribution throughout Asia, South CO2 separation. These industries can pro-
world must exploit cost advantages that ex- America and Africa relatively low. vide early opportunities for CCSdevelop-
ist in advancing projects in developing coun- The report highlights that widespread ment, and are also prioritised in an Ideal
tries such as China and India, and industries take-up of CCS is faced with the stark risk Portfolio due to their ability to accelerate de-
such as natural gas processing and fertiliser of high project failure rates typical with the ployment.
production in which CO2 capture is inherent adoption of new technologies, but that this It is recommended that the majority of
in their design. can be overcome by targeted project support, projects in an Ideal Portfolio be located in
The study also confirms that greater ef- and appropriate incentives for development. North America, Europe and China due pri-
forts towards CCS need to be made within Recommendations put forward by the report marily to their share of global emissions.
the cement, aluminium, iron and steel indus- call for governments to partner with indus- Australia and Japan are also classified as pri-
tries, given their significant contribution to- try to address the challenges facing project ority regions with an allocation of approxi-
wards CO2 emissions. success. mately 15 per cent of projects, due to their
Global CCS Institute CEO Nick Otter The recommendations suggest urgent favourable policy and regulatory environ-
said, "We know that many of the CCS tech- action on three major fronts: ments.
nologies are available today to be applied • Actively working with the 55 active The reports can be downloaded from:
across a range of industries to help reduce or planned fully integrated projects to im-
emissions. This report demonstrates the need prove their likelihood of success.

10 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

CCJ12:Layout 1 16/11/2009 12:35 Page 11

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Projects and Policy

CCP publishes research conclusions
The CO2 Capture Project (CCP), a partnership of eight oil & gas majors, recently presented the findings
from the last five years of work to world energy and environmental ministers attending the Carbon
Sequestration Leadership Forum in London (12-14 October).
By Iain Wright, CO2 Capture Project (CCP)
The CCP is an industry wide effort to devel- A Well Integrity Field Study – Addressing Potential for CO2 capture from extraction
op the technologies and operational ap- critical issues for CO2 storage of heavy oil
proach to accelerate the deployment of car- Conflicting data has existed on the long-term A novel advanced oxy-firing technology -
bon capture and storage. In acknowledge- well integrity – a crucial issue for CO2 stor- chemical looping combustion (CLC) - has
ment of its contribution to the advancement age. The CCP’s ambitious Well Integrity been developed, which has the technical and
of CCS the group received the prestigious Field Study addressed the risks that the pres- economical potential in the mid-term for
CSLF Recognition award. Established in ence of injected and stored CO2 would have scaling up to capture CO2 from heavy oil
2000, the CCP has built a reputation as a on the containment integrity of existing and steam extraction processes. Significant de-
technical authority on CCS. newly drilled wells. velopment challenges remain, but the poten-
The CCP’s findings, published in a The field study, at a natural CO2 pro- tial rewards are huge.
book entitled 'Advances in CO2 Capture and duction well in Colorado, reached a number
Storage Technology', represent five years of of crucial conclusions. A chief finding was Post-combustion - most likely short-term
research and more than 150 exploratory proj- that cement placement was actually more option for gas fired power stations
ects. They are the result of a collaborative significant in resisting CO2 migration along The lower concentrations of CO2 in gas fired
effort between its members: BP, Chevron, the barrier system than the choice of cement power station flue gas make this a challeng-
ConocoPhillips, Eni, Petrobras, Shell, Sta- itself. ing – but important – area for capture tech-
toilHydro and Suncor. These oil & gas ma- It proved that a well’s barrier perform- nology development. Post-combustion iden-
jors worked alongside governments (includ- ance is not necessarily compromised by CO2 tified as most likely short-term option for
ing the US Department of Energy, the EU alteration, and that good drilling and instal- capturing CO2 from gas fired power sta-
and the Norwegian Research Council) and lation practices are more important than ma- tions, although pre-combustion may be more
60 academic institutions and leading envi- terial choice for long term well stability – a viable in the long-term. The CCP has the
ronmental and industry groups. crucial finding. A second study is underway challenge of identifying and further devel-
A summary of the findings from ‘Ad- at the Buracica Field, Brazil, and continued oping significantly lower costs for CO2 tech-
vances in CO2 Capture and Storage Technol- research is planned. nology.
ogy’ and details on how to obtain a copy can
be found on www.co2capturepro- CO2 Capture What next for the CO2 Capture The CO2 Capture Project (CCP) has made Project?
Highlights from the Results Book ‘Ad- crucial progress in identifying technologies The CCP will now enter its third phase – us-
vances in CO2 Capture and Storage’ include: with the highest potential. Around ten poten- ing insights from the first two phases to fur-
tial capture technologies, spanning the range ther test and trial high potential technologies.
CO2 Storage of techniques: post-combustion, pre-com- The third phase will provide practical solu-
CO2 Capture Project (CCP) studies have ad- bustion and oxy-fuel were identified from tions to the need of the oil & gas industry to
dressed outstanding issues and confirmed more than 200 capture technologies re- reduce its own CO2 emissions from both tra-
that CO2 can be stored underground safely viewed. These technologies have been de- ditional and unconventional operations,
and securely. veloped further and are now being evaluated without incurring considerable extra costs.
before being taken forward for demonstra- It is clear that with the right encourage-
Development of a Certification Frame- tion. ment, carbon capture and storage is capable
work: Providing a simplified workflow of playing a significant role in CO2 mitiga-
protocol for assessing CO2 storage sites. Identification of a preferred CO2 capture tion, and the oil & gas industry is well placed
The CCP developed a Certification Frame- method for oil refineries to make a significant contribution to its de-
work for the geological storage of CO2 to Significant progress has been made towards velopment.
provide a simple, transparent guide to site CO2 capture from the oil refining process. The CO2 Capture Project has made sig-
certification, essential to help decision mak- As the second largest industrial emitters of nificant progress over the last eight years to-
ers to manage the CO2 storage process. CO2 oil refineries face specific and consid- wards addressing the remaining technical
This simple, transparent and compre- erable challenges. Oxy-fuel combustion has questions surrounding carbon capture and
hensive framework was developed in part- been shown to offer the greatest potential, storage. It has provided an example of how
nership with three leading institutions in both technically and economically, for cap- public-private partnerships can work to rap-
CO2 storage and addresses the need for a turing CO2 emitted by the largest source in idly close technical gaps.
consistent and accessible approach to under- oil refineries, the Fluid Catalytic Cracking If CCS is to become part of the solution
standing risks associated with CO2 storage. unit (FCC). for managing climate change, governments
It consists of three parts: A pilot test in an industrial scale refin- and industry will not only collaborate on
1) platform for input of geological data ery is scheduled for next year. The CCP is technology development but also on deploy-
2) specialized tools that predict the be- also working to extend oxy-firing technolo- ment. CCS will need to receive a clear sig-
haviour of CO2 in the subsurface and gy to other CO2 emitting units of the refin- nal that it has the support of government.
3) risk calculation. ery, namely process heaters and boilers.

12 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Projects and Policy

UK policy - on the pathway to clean coal?
The UK government has released a series of policy statements designed to speed up planning
permissions and clarify the requirements for CCS in coal fired power plants. Is it enough?

Six draft National Policy Statements (NPS), representatives at the Institute of Chemical En- “We have the skills and the expertise to
one overarching and one for each of the fol- gineers. deliver global solutions - all we’re waiting on
lowing areas: fossil fuels, nuclear, renewables, The response calls for action to enable is Government to take the lead and provide the
transmission networks and oil and gas CCS to be introduced more rapidly than the steps to get us there. In the current climate there
pipelines, have been released to guide planning proposed timeline, and for a more extensive is no incentive for utility providers to sink bil-
decisions on energy infrastructure. demonstration programme to be put in place. lions of pounds into projects that have no cer-
Alongside the NPSs, a ‘Framework for According to the company, unless the tain future.”
the Development of Clean Coal’ was pub- current policy details are changed there is a risk The ICE report features papers from six
lished, setting out the requirements for new and that the DECC proposals will fail to meet ob- leading experts on different aspects of CCS in-
existing coal plant. Following a consultation in jectives and no new coal-fired power plants or cluding regulation, storage, transportation, in-
June, the document confirmed: CCS demonstrations will be built. vestment, pre and post combustion alternatives
No new coal without Carbon Capture and Doosan Babcock believes that clean coal and its role in creating a low carbon economy.
Storage (CCS): With immediate effect, to gain will be less expensive than other low carbon The six papers are:
development consent all new coal plant will options, much cleaner and more secure than 1. Carbon capture and storage – an essen-
have to show that they will demonstrate the full unabated gas-fired power, more reliable and tial part of our low carbon economy, Dr Jeff
CCS chain from the outset on at least 300 MW less expensive than intermittent wind, and Chapman, The Carbon Capture & Storage As-
net of their total output. more relevant to global needs. sociation
A programme of up to four commercial- Doosan Babcock proposes a “Middle Globally, energy generation still relies
scale CCS demonstrations, including both pre- Way” which should satisfy both electricity largely on fossil fuels. Capturing and storing
combustion and post-combustion capture tech- companies and NGOs while delivering all four the emissions from this process is going to be
nologies, will be funded by a new CCS Incen- government objectives, plus a large contribu- fundamental in the global fight against climate
tive. Legislation to introduce this has been pro- tion to carbon dioxide reductions by 2020. change.
posed for the forthcoming Parliamentary ses- A ‘Middle Way’ approach would include 2. Carbon Capture and Storage – the tech-
sion. a commitment by Government to at least four nologies, Peter Whitton, Progressive Energy
A long term transition to clean coal: The clean coal projects (not just up to four) cover- Ltd
demonstration plants are expected to retrofit ing at least three capture technologies and two There are currently several carbon cap-
CCS to their full capacity by 2025, with the or three options for storage in time to announce ture technology alternatives ready for commer-
CCS Incentive able to provide financial sup- this in the run up to the Copenhagen meeting. cial use. The fundamental division is between
port for their retrofit. “A more ambitious programme of ‘pre-combustion’ and ‘post-combustion cap-
A rolling review process, which is demonstrations funded by a contract for differ- ture technologies.
planned to report by 2018, will consider the ence levy scheme could provide almost 5GW 3. Carbon capture and storage – moving
case for new regulatory and financial measures of CCS capacity by 2020,” said Iain Miller, to implementation, Alastair Rennie, AMEC
to further drive the move to clean coal. CEO, Doosan Babcock Energy Ltd. Carbon capture and storage can offer big
Also confirmed is that the Government “This would generate reliable, low car- benefits but it is costly and requires political
has received two bids - from E.ON and Scot- bon electricity at an acceptable cost. The ‘Mid- will. Transport and storage solutions could of-
tish Power - to proceed to the next stage of the dle Way’ is central to achieving the objectives fer international dividends but further planning
current CCS demonstration competition. It is set out in the DECC Consultation and urgent is needed.
expected that contracts for the detailed design action is needed to ensure plans for CCS in the 4. Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide,
stage will be concluded early next year. UK remain on track.” Steve Murphy, Co2 Deep Store
The UK Government also published its The major issue remaining unresolved in
guidance on carbon capture readiness, which UK lagging on CCS - ICE report the CO2 storage debate is how to tackle the
is intended to give practical advice on the type The Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) report, long-term possibility of leakage.
of information Section 36 applicants need to "Carbon Capture and Storage – Time to Deliv- 5. Winners, losers, China, NPV and self-
submit to the Secretary of State to demonstrate er" outlines the steps needed to deliver CCS service check-outs: the role of policy in carbon
that a proposed new combustion plant can be not only domestically but also on a global capture and storage investment decisions, Ian
built carbon capture ready (CCR). scale. The UK has the potential to be a world Templeton, head of Advisory team, Climate
The CCR requirements only apply to new leader in CCS technology, creating a major ex- Change Capital
combustion plant which have an electrical gen- port opportunity, but needs Government to pro- Investment in CCS is crucial. Unfortu-
erating capacity at or over 300 MW and which vide a clear strategic overview to avoid unnec- nately the rush to make quick political deci-
are of a type covered by the Large Combustion essary delays, the report says. sions means thus far incentives have not been
Plant Directive. “The UK was quick on the uptake in the an integral part of the policy-making process.
global race to deploy CCS but now we have 6. Carbon capture and storage regulation,
Doosan Babcock urges more ambition fallen behind other nations. If we want to keep Andrew Raingold, deputy director, Aldersgate
from UK Government a competitive lead and take advantage of the Group
Doosan Bacock issued a response to the DECC export opportunity it presents, progress needs A clear regulatory framework for the de-
consultation on the development of clean coal to be greatly accelerated,” said ICE Vice Pres- ployment of CCS is essential to ensure its ef-
following the meeting of key energy industry ident Geoff French. fective implementation.

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 13

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Projects and Policy

Policy, company and regulation news
Alstom and AEP formally commission
Mountaineer CCS demonstration
Federal and state officials joined Alstom
and American Electric Power (AEP) at
AEP's Mountaineer Plant to formally
commission the world’s first project to
both capture and store CO2 from a coal-
fired power plant.
AEP’s Mountaineer plant is a 1,300-
megawatt electrical (MWe) coal-fired unit
that was retrofitted earlier this year with Al-
stom’s patented chilled ammonia CO2 cap-
ture technology on a 20-MWe slipstream of
the plant’s exhaust flue gas.
The slipstream of flue gas is chilled and
combined with a solution of ammonium car-
bonate, which absorbs the CO2 to create am-
monium bicarbonate. The ammonium bicar-
bonate solution is then is pressurized and
heated in a separate process to safely and ef- AEP’s 1300MW Mountaineer coal-fired power plant in New Haven, West Virginia, is using
ficiently produce a high-purity stream of Alstom’s chilled ammonia technology to capture CO2 from a 20MW slipstream and store it
CO2. underground
The CO2 will be compressed and piped
for storage into deep geologic formations,
roughly 1.5 miles beneath the plant surface. "Our customers are increasingly de- In conjunction with a significant con-
Approximately 90 percent of the CO2 from manding full support, from the flue gas out- tribution from the Norwegian Government,
the 20-MW slipstream will be captured and let to the downhole, to ensure that their new the Global CCS Institute has also provided
permanently stored. power plants are CCS ready. Assessing this AUD $2.4 million to the World Bank CCS
AEP has applied for federal stimulus readiness will be a mandatory requirement Trust Fund in further support of CCS capac-
funding to scale-up the Alstom chilled am- for all large fossil-fuelled power plants in ity building. This funding will be aimed at
monia technology to 235-MWe at Moun- Europe by 2011. Similarly, the State of creating opportunities for developing coun-
taineer Plant. The proposed commercial- Queensland in Australia recently announced tries to explore CCS potential, realise the
scale demonstration will capture and geolog- that no new coal fired power station will be benefits of domestic technology develop-
ically store approximately 1.5 million metric approved in the state unless it is CCS ready" ment and progress and facilitate appropriate
tonnes per year of CO2. said Andreas Lusch, Senior Vice President, policy initiatives.
The Mountaineer CCS demonstration Alstom Power Thermal Systems.
project began capturing CO2 Sept. 1 and The first wave of large-scale CCS CSLF begins capacity building program
storing it Oct. 2, and is designed to capture demonstration projects, such as AEP’s
at least 100,000 metric tonnes of CO2 annu- Mountaineer in the United States or Vatten- A new Capacity Building Program will as-
ally. fall’s Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, also re- sist the 24 members of the Carbon Seques-
quires an integrated approach along the val- tration Leadership Forum (CSLF) in im-
Alstom and Schlumberger in CCS ue chain. This agreement is designed to of- plementing CCS demonstrations and help
partnership fer this type of comprehensive service, both accelerate commercial deployment. for new and existing power plants. The Program will assist all CSLF mem-
Alstom and Schlumberger have signed an bers in developing the "information, tools,
agreement for mutual collaboration in the Global CCS Institute provides project skills, expertise and institutions required to
joint offering of CCS-ready studies. deployment funding implement CCS demonstrations and then
The studies will consist of a technical move rapidly into commercial operation,"
analysis of a power plant to identify how it The Global Carbon Capture and Storage the Program Plan’s Mission Statement says.
should be adapted to accommodate an Al- Institute has announced the injection of CSLF said the Capacity Building Pro-
stom CCS system. The studies will also in- AUD $3.6 million towards ensuring the gram will address the fact that CCS is "new
clude an evaluation of potential CO2 storage creation of the right level of knowledge and the capacity to widely implement it is
sites for the power plant, as well as an eval- and expertise to accelerate the deploy- not yet adequate in either emerging or indus-
uation of required investments for future ment of CCS projects globally. trialized economies."
CO2 transport and storage. Of the funding, AUD $1.2 million will The Program Plan said while specific
This is designed to facilitate the future be directed towards the CSLF’s Capacity needs vary by nation, four basic tasks are re-
conversion of power plants to CCS and the Building Program, with the aim to identify quired to implement CCS:
securing of environmental permits as well as capacity building activities in key develop- • Identifying and characterizing CO2
optimising time-to-market periods and asso- ing countries, and to deliver both technical sources and potential reservoirs, and then
ciated costs. and non-technical workshops globally. matching sources to potential reservoirs;

14 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Projects and Policy

• Analyzing and formulating policy and megawatt (MW) electricity and emits around alytical tools; methods to interpret geophysi-
legal/regulatory frameworks; four megatonnes of CO2 per year. cal models; and carbon dioxide capture.
• Conducting pre-feasibility, feasibility, Tejo Energia has also begun to build a
and regulatory studies to evaluate and sup- new combined cycle gas turbine plant. The Twelve projects to be selected for
port decisions about proposed projects; 530 million euro project will use natural gas major US CCS funding
• Implementing projects through plan- as fuel and is expected to fully operate in the
ning, financing, construction, operation, and first quarter of 2011. By 2011 and with an U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu has an-
monitoring. installed capacity of 1,430 MW (600 MW nounced the first round of funding from
Four capacity building program initia- produced by the coal-fired power plant and $1.4 billion from the American Recovery
tives will accelerate the deployment of CCS, 830 MW by the new gas plant), the Pego and Reinvestment Act.
CSLF said: area will be the most important electricity The funding will be for the selection of
(1) disseminating practical information; producing region in Portugal. 12 projects that will capture CO2 from in-
building capacity in emerging economies; (Source: Martina Novak, The Bellona dustrial sources for storage or beneficial use.
(3) assisting activities by government and Foundation, an environmental NGO based The first phase of these projects will in-
regulatory agencies; and (4) the building of in Norway.) clude $21.6 million in Recovery Act fund-
academic and research institutions for CCS. ing and $22.5 million in private funding for
The Program Plan said greater levels of DOE funds joint training and research a total initial investment of $44.1 million.
funding than previously committed are need- projects The remaining Recovery Act funding will be
ed to support the new initiative, and antici- Forty-three research projects that will ad- awarded to the most promising projects dur-
pates expenditures of $5 million annually for vance CCS technologies while providing ing a competitive phase two selection
the remaining four years of the CSLF term. graduate and undergraduate student process.
training opportunities at universities The initial duration of each project se-
First CCS project in Portugal across the country will be supported by lected is approximately seven months. Proj- $12.7 million in U.S. Department of Ener- ects will be subject to further competitive gy funding. evaluation in 2010 after successful comple-
Tejo Energia will assess the feasibility of Spread over three years, the regional se- tion of their Phase 1 activities. Projects that
applying CCS at its Pego coal power questration training projects and funding will best demonstrate the ability to address their
plant, according to Bellona. be managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s mission needs will be in the final portfolio
The project is co-funded by the National National Energy Technology Laboratory. that will receive additional funding for de-
Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), The projects are funded through the sign, construction, and operation.
through the EU-funded Operational Agenda 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery The projects include:
for Competitiveness Factors (COMPETE) and Act and are aimed at the broad objectives of * Air Products and Chemicals Inc. (Al-
will be jointly developed by the University of advancing CCS scientific, technical, and in- lentown, Pa.)— A state-of-the-art system to
Évora and the National Laboratory for Energy stitutional knowledge while simultaneously concentrate CO2 from two steam methane
and Geology (LNEG), Tejo Energia (the plant producing the expertise and workforce need- reformer waste streams will be designed,
owners) and Pegop (plant operators). ed for the emerging carbon capture and stor- constructed, and demonstrated at Port
The Pego coal-fired power plant is age industry. Arthur, Texas. More than one million tons of
owned by Tejo Energia, a joint venture be- Projects have been selected across the CO2 will be delivered per year via pipeline
tween International Power (50%), Endesa US and collectively they will focus on pro- for sequestration into the Oyster Bayou oil-
(39%) and Energias de Portugal (EDP) (11%). viding advanced research training in simula- field for enhanced oil recovery by Denbury
The power plant, located near the river Tejo in tion and risk assessment; monitoring, verifi- Onshore LLC. (DOE Share: $961,499)
central Portugal, has a capacity of around 600 cation, and accounting; geological related an- * Archer Daniels Midland Corporation

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 15

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Projects and Policy

(Decatur, Ill.)— Archer Daniels Midland
Company, a member of DOE’s Midwest Ge-
ological Sequestration Consortium, will
partner with other research organizations to
demonstrate Dow ALSTOM’s advanced
amine process to capture CO2 from industri-
al flue gases and sequester the CO2 in the
Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir. (DOE Share:
* Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific
Northwest Division (Richland, Wash.)—
Battelle researchers will partner with Boise
White Paper LLC and Fluor Corporation to
demonstrate geologic CO2 storage in deep š4(c_bb_edje
flood basalt formations in the State of Wash- š[d^WdY[Z[d

ington. Fluor Corporation will design a cus- šš[[dl_hedc[djWbh[ifedi_X_b_jo


tomized version of its Econamine Plus™

carbon capture technology for operation with
Hydrogen Energy California’s proposed IGCC plant in Kern County, California (image: HECA)
the specialized chemical composition of ex-
haust gases produced from combustion of
black liquor fuels. (DOE Share: $500,000)
* C6 Resources (Salno, California)— transport compressed CO2 through a 12-mile trial sources, compressed, and transported
Objective is to capture and transport by pipeline that connects to Denbury’s Green via two new intra-state pipelines for CO2 en-
pipeline approximately one million tons per Line pipeline system in Louisiana so that it hanced oil recovery and deep saline seques-
year of CO2 streams from facilities located can be used for enhanced oil recovery in the tration research in Kansas. Beneath each en-
in the Bay Area, Calif., to be injected more Hastings and Oyster Bayou oilfields in hanced oil recovery target, a major saline
than two miles underground into a saline for- Texas. (DOE Share: $540,000) aquifer spanning most of the State of Kansas
mation. C6 Resources, an affiliate of Shell * Leucadia Energy LLC (New York, will be used for CO2 injection. (DOE Share:
Oil Company, will conduct the project in col- N.Y.)— Leucadia Energy and Denbury On- $2,696,556)
laboration with Lawrence Berkeley National shore will demonstrate advanced technolo- * Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative
Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore Na- gies that capture and sequester CO2 emis- Inc. (Cadillac, Mich.)— Investigators will
tional Laboratory. (DOE Share: $3,000,000) sions from an industrial source. Mississippi demonstrate advanced amines and additives
* CEMEX Inc. (Houston, Texas)— CE- Gasification LLC, a Leucadia affiliate, is supplied by Hitachi and Dow to capture
MEX USA will partner with RTI Internation- building a petcoke-to-substitute natural gas 300,000 tons of CO2 per year. Wolverine
al to demonstrate a dry sorbent CO2 capture plant in Moss Point, Miss., to demonstrate Power Supply Cooperative will be building
technology at one of its cement plants in the large-scale recovery, purification and com- a 600-megawatt circulating fluidized bed
United States. CEMEX will design and con- pression of 4 million tons per year of CO2. power plant near Rogers City, Mich. (DOE
struct a dry sorbent CO2 capture and com- (DOE Share: $840,000) Share: $2,723,512)
pression system, pipeline (if necessary), and * Praxair Inc. (Danbury, Conn.)—
injection station. This commercial-scale car- Praxair will partner with BP Products North DOE and Hydrogen Energy sign IGCC
bon capture and sequestration demonstration America, Denbury Resources, and Gulf agreement
project will remove up to one million tons Coast Carbon Center to demonstrate capture
of CO2. (DOE Share: $1,137,885) and sequestration of CO2 emissions from an The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
* ConocoPhillips (Houston, Texas)— existing hydrogen-production facility in an has signed a cooperative agreement with
ConocoPhillips will demonstrate new ad- oil refinery into underground formations for Hydrogen Energy California (HECA) to
vancements that improve conversion effi- CO2 enhanced oil recovery. This demonstra- build and demonstrate an IGCC plant
ciency and economies of scale for carbon tion will be performed at the BP refinery, and with CCS in Kern County, California.
capture systems at a petcoke-based 683- a lateral pipeline will be built to connect to HECA, which is owned by Hydrogen
megawatt integrated gasification combined Denbury’s Green Pipeline to transport one Energy International, BP Alternative Ener-
cycle (IGCC) power plant adjacent to its ex- million tons of CO2 per year. (DOE Share: gy, and Rio Tinto, plans to construct an ad-
isting refinery in Sweeny, Texas. About 85 $1,719,464) vanced integrated gasification combined cy-
percent of the CO2 from the process stream * Shell Chemical Capital Company cle (IGCC) plant that will produce 250
will be captured and over five million tons (Houston, Texas)— The objective of this megawatts of electricity using a blend of 75
sequestered into a depleted oil or gas field. project is to capture, condition, and transport percent coal and 25 percent petroleum coke.
(DOE Share: $3,014,666) by pipeline approximately one million tons Approximately 90 percent of the CO2
* Leucadia Energy LLC (New York, per year of by-product and off-gas CO2 produced from the gasification process, or
N.Y.)— Partnered with Denbury Onshore, streams from facilities located along the about 2 million tons per year, will be trans-
Leucadia Energy will demonstrate advanced Mississippi River between Baton Rouge and ported via pipeline to the Elk Hills oilfield,
technologies that capture and sequester more New Orleans for geologic storage. (DOE less than four miles away, where it will be
than 4 million tons of CO2 emissions at the Share: $3,000,000) used for enhanced oil recovery.
Lake Charles co-generation petroleum coke- * University of Utah (Salt Lake City, The project is part of the Clean Coal
to-chemicals (methanol) project to be locat- Utah)— More than one million tons of CO2 Power Initiative (CCPI), a cost-shared col-
ed near Lake Charles, La. The project will per year will be captured from various indus- laboration between the federal government

16 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Projects and Policy

and private industry to increase investment
in low-emission coal technology by demon-
strating advanced coal-based power genera-
tion technologies prior to commercial de-
ployment. The project will be cost-shared
and administered by DOE’s Office of Fossil
Energy and the National Energy Technology
The estimated capital cost for the proj-
ect is approximately $2.3 billion. The feder-
al cost-share is limited to $308 million, or
just under 11 percent of the total project
costs. The project consists of three phases:
project definition (phase I), design and con-
struction (phase II), and demonstration
(phase III). Sequestration of 2 million tons
per year of CO2 is due to begin by 2016.

Toshiba completes CCS pilot plant

The Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) Meri-Pori power plant in Finland where Siemens’
capture technology will be used (Image ©Fortum)
Toshiba Corporation has completed con-
struction of a pilot plant to support devel-
opment and validation of its carbon cap- Siemens, Fortum and TVO cooperate on UK Centre for Low Carbon Futures
ture technology. Finnish project created
The pilot plant is located in Sigma
Power Ariake Co. Ltd.'s Mikawa Power The Centre for Low Carbon Futures, a
Plant, in Omuta City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Siemens Energy has been selected as the cap- £50 million virtual project, will combine
Japan. ture technology partner for the FINNCAP - the expertise of universities in Hull, Leeds,
At the Mikawa pilot plant, Toshiba will Meri-Pori CCS project by the owners of Sheffield and York to research issues re-
deploy and validate its latest separation and Meri-Pori power plant, Finnish utilities For- lating to climate change.
capture technology. The Mikawa pilot plant tum and Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The centre has two main aims - to cre-
is designed to capture 10 tons of CO2 a day The coal-fired power plant is located at ate a sustainable regional economy and to re-
from actual live flue gas of the boiler of the Pori in Western Finland and has an installed search ways of coping with climate change.
coal-fired thermal power plant. capacity of 565 MW. The CCS demonstra- It is supported by Yorkshire Forward, a re-
The pilot plant will be used to verify tion is planned to treat approximately 50 per- gional development agency.
the performance and operation of the system cent of Meri-Pori’s flue gas and to capture Researchers will provide practical so-
when practically applied to thermal power 90 percent of the CO2 it contains. lutions for ways in which Yorkshire organi-
plants, including but not limited to the veri- Meri-Pori's CCS demonstration is sations and businesses can reduce their car-
fication of the effects of flue gas contents on among the largest post-combustion capture bon emissions. It is hoped that suitable meth-
system operation. projects yet announced in Europe. Fortum ods and technologies could be used across
The knowledge will then be used to and TVO plan to apply for the European the country and the rest of the world.
help design systems and equipment for utili- Flagship Programme with Siemens capture It's first four pilot projects will be fo-
ty-scale power plants, which will finally be technology combined to a ship transporta- cused on climate change, low carbon supply
optimally integrated with other power plant tion and geological storage solution. chains, biorenewables and carbon capture
equipment, such as turbines and boilers. The selection for the first tranche of the technology.
Toshiba initiated its R&D into CCS in Flagship Programme is expected to take
2006, focusing on an amine based chemical place in 2011 and the final investment deci- CCS cannot significantly reduce tar
absorption system that consumes less energy sion in 2011-2012. The plant is scheduled to sands emissions - WWF report
in the CO2 separation and capture process, be in operation in 2015.
and has verified through small scale testing "We have selected Siemens post-com- A study produced by The Co-operative Fi-
that its performance matches the leading lev- bustion carbon capture technology for our nancial Services and WWF-UK claims to
els in the industry. CCS plant, out of several other technolo- debunk the idea that CCS will significant-
The company established a new CCS gies," says Tapio Kuula, President and CEO ly counter the high levels of greenhouse
development and promotion organization in of Fortum. "The Siemens technology seems gases emitted in the production of oil from
October 2008, and is seeking to further ac- especially promising in terms of energy effi- tar sands deposits in Alberta, Canada.
celerate practical application and commer- ciency and emissions control. Meri-Pori The report, 'CCS in the Alberta oil
cialization of its technology. CCS plant is one of the key projects in For- sands – a dangerous myth,' examines the po-
Toshiba's goal is to establish a business tum’s CO2-reduction programme." tential for CCS to prevent CO2 from enter-
able to meet emerging needs for commercial The development of Siemens' post- ing the atmosphere as a result of tar sands
scale CCS systems for thermal power plants combustion capture technology is funded by production and concludes that the process
by 2015. The company targets net sales of the German Federal Ministry of Economics could not possibly achieve what has been
100 billion yen in 2020 in CCS-related busi- and Technology and part of the COORETEC claimed.
ness. initiative. The study says that:

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 17

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Projects and Policy

* Whilst the amount of CO2 emitted GE Oil & Gas secures
during production needs to be reduced by $400M Gorgon
around 85% to make tar sands oil compara- contract
ble with conventional oil, even the most op-
timistic forecasts for CCS see production GE Oil & Gas has
emissions reduced by 10 to 30% at selected been awarded a com-
locations by 2020 and 30 to 50% across the petitive bid worth
industry by 2050. over $400 Million to
* Even under the most optimistic sce- deploy equipment for
narios for the application of CCS, the pro- LNG production
jected production emissions from tar sands along with CO2 stor-
developments would be greater than the age at Gorgon in Aus-
whole of Canada’s 2050 carbon budget were tralia.
it to reduce emissions by 80% compared GE will supply
with 1990 levels, as the climate science re- Chevron with:
quires. • Three Main Re-
* The maximum potential of CCS frigerant Compression
would be insufficient to reduce lifecycle Trains required for
emissions of tar sands oil to levels needed to Gorgon’s production of
meet emerging international low carbon fuel 15 million tonnes per Map of the Gorgon Project (image ©Chevron)
standards such as those in California and the annum (MTPA) LNG –
EU. equating to three ship-
Paul Monaghan, Head of Social Goals ments a week leaving
at the Co-operative Financial Services said, Gorgon’s purpose-built LNG loading jetty;, Part of a consortium appointed to run
"Last year we published a report which • Six Compression Trains required to the network on behalf of the UK govern-
found that Canada’s tar sands could increase drive Gorgon’s carbon C02 project, the ment’s Technology Strategy Board (TSB),
atmospheric CO2 by more than 10 parts per world’s largest - injecting up to four times the new energy knowledge transfer network
million, which would take us right to the more carbon dioxide than any other project (KTN) was unveiled at Innovate ‘09 in Lon-
edge of runaway climate change. The indus- worldwide. don.
try’s response was that CCS would address The Gorgon natural gas fields are locat- At the meeting Dr Brian Cane, Direc-
this threat. Today’s report shows that even ed at Barrow Island, around 130km off West- tor of the Energy Generation and Supply
the most wildly optimistic scenarios for the ern Australia. Gas will be extracted and de- KTN, hosted a workshop on 'Supporting and
development of CCS fail to bring emissions livered via subsea and underground pipelines Enabling Innovation in Energy'. The session
down to those of today’s conventional fossil to gas treatment and liquefaction facilities included representation from the Technolo-
fuels." on Barrow Island's south east coast. gy Strategy Board, the Energy Technology
Three 5-MTPA GE Main Refrigerant Institute, the Research Councils and The
International award for SINTEF CCS Compression Trains, each comprising two Carbon Trust, and attracted over 100 people.
project GE Frame-7 Gas Turbines plus liquefaction A UK-wide network, the Energy KTN compressors, will be used for the production was established to open up opportunities for
SINTEF’s DYNAMIS project received the of liquefied natural gas by chilling to collaboration and knowledge sharing across
"CSLF Recognition Award" at the Car- –160°C, ready for shipping, before re-gasifi- all energy sectors.
bon Sequestration Leadership Forum’s cation and pipeline transportation for use by ITF’s KTN role is to focus on maximis-
(CSLF) ministerial meeting in London for domestic and industrial customers. ing oil and gas resources The network will
its contribution to CCS research. Prior to liquefaction CO2 will be also deliver opportunities for developing
The DYNAMIS project is the first stripped out and injected into the depleted new technologies in offshore wind, wave and
phase of the EU’s HYPOGEN programme, natural gas wells 1,300-meters deep to en- tidal, carbon abatement technologies, includ-
which is intended to lead to the construction sure its safe storage and the reduction of ing carbon capture & storage and biomass,
of an advanced full-scale power station that emissions. Six surface operating, 15 MW hydrogen and fuel cells and future emerging
will generate both hydrogen and electric electric-motor driven GE Compression opportunities.
power, and will be fitted with CO2 capture Trains will be used. Membership of the Energy KTN will be
and storage technology. The facility will be The GE Main Refrigerant Compression free of charge and open to the entire energy
operational by 2015. Trains and the GE Compression Trains for community, including industry, investors,
DYNAMIS has already carried out a CO2 sequestration will be manufactured and academia, innovators, government bodies
thorough evaluation of the potential for full- tested in Florence and Massa, Italy, then and regulators.
scale hydrogen and electricity generation shipped in 2011 and 2012. Registered members will benefit from
complemented by CO2 capture and storage, access to services such as research and de-
and the project has focused on the techno- ITF secures contract for UK new energy velopment funding, project financing, sup-
logical, economic and societal aspects of the technology transfer network ply chain opportunities and market and poli-
process. International collaboration is a cy information. The KTN’s services will be
prominent feature of the project, which is ITF, the oil Industry Technology Facilita- delivered through a range of networking
supported by industrial companies and or- tor has secured a three year, six figure events and via an interactive web portal and
ganisations from all over Europe. sum contract to deliver a new energy net- enquiry help desk.
work for the UK industry.

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Separation and Capture

Calix – a carbon capture breakthrough
Calix Limited has developed a new Calcium Looping technology that may capture carbon dioxide at less
than €15/tonne. Applications are being developed for power station or cement works retrofit, hydrogen
generation from coal or lignite, and for new power generation plant based on an IGCC cycle.
By Brian Sweeney and Mark Sceats, Calix
This article describes the history of the tech- duced, and numerous laboratory and pilot
nology and the Endex reactor which is the key plant studies worldwide had demonstrated
to its practical implementation. It outlines the that the sintering was severe, with the sorp-
main applications and the development path tion capacity being reduced from about 70%
of the company. to 17% in the first 10 or so cycles.
The sintering problem has been the sub-
The History ject of intense research in the past seven
Making lime from limestone is the oldest in- years, and continuous improvements have
dustrial process; with the possible exception been reported using a number of strategies.
of the fermentation of alcohol! The decompo- However, the large throughputs of lime are
sition of calcium carbonate, limestone, to pro- such that Calcium Looping in 2009 has been
duce lime in fires produced the first fertilizers relegated to technology of interest to remedi- Figure 1: The CaO:CaCO3 Phase Diagram
in pre-history, and its production in kilns was ation of emissions from cement plants3, where
a well established pre-Roman technology. the lime can be consumed.
Today, the calcination of lime is a basic Calix has solved the sintering problem,
process in the production of Portland cement, and is confident that Calcium Looping will
and lime itself is one of the most common find major applications in all areas of both
chemicals, used in about eighty substantial fossil fuel and biofuel emissions.
markets. The reverse process to calcination, A second issue in Calcium Looping has
called carbonation, uses lime to capture CO2 been the high energy flux required to drive
and has been widely studied over the last cen- the process. In the conventional approach to
tury. CaO Looping, a large amount of energy must
Modern kilns operate close to equilibri- be supplied to the high temperature Calciner
um, and the direction of the reaction – calci- (at 850-950 °C) and this is released in the low-
Figure 2: The Conventional Calcium Looping
nation or carbonation - varies in a kiln de- er temperature Carboniser (at 650-800 °C). Reactor
pending on the local partial pressure of the This heat required is about 30-40% of the
CO2 and the temperature. These both vary thermal power of a power plant. The heat flows spontaneously from the
across the kiln depending on the heat and While the heat released in the Carbonis- carboniser to the cooler calciner. The heat is
mass flows, and within the stones as they cal- er can be used to generate power, the capture carried by the sorbent transfer and through the
cine. The reactions are well understood. plant is too large to warrant the investment. reactor walls. In principle, the separation of
Calcium Looping for carbon capture The conventional CaO Looping Cycle is CO2 can be realized without any external
was first patented in 1994 as a temperature shown in Figures 1 and 2 to illustrate these thermal energy.
swing reactor1. This process separates the cal- points. • using the high initial reaction rates
cination and carbonation processes into two on the surface of the particles, which give 2-
separate reactors – a Calciner and a Carbonis- The Breakthrough 3% carbonation in 2 or 3 seconds for particles
er, and then loops the lime particles between Scientific breakthroughs often happen when less than 150 microns.
the reactors for a continuous extraction two disciplines come together and an old This is sufficient to capture 90% of the
process. problem is viewed from a new perspective. CO2 and avoids sorbent sintering. The resi-
In the Carboniser the lime, as CaO, cap- Calix scientists, with their knowledge of ac- dence time is so small that the size of the re-
tures the CO2 from an input flue or fuel gas tive sorbent preparation techniques, realized actor is very compact – essentially pipes
to produce CaCO3, and when transported to that the problems of the conventional Calci- about 10-30 m high and 1-3 m in diameter.
the Calciner the sorbent is regenerated and the um Looping could be eliminated by:
CO2 is released in a pure gas stream, for com- • adjusting the pressures and temper- The Endex reactor
pression, transport and sequestration. atures in the Calciner and Carboniser so that Calix calls this configuration the Endex reac-
By 2004, the IEA had singled out Calci- the exothermic carbonation reaction occurs at tor – for a coupled endothermic-exothermic
um Looping as a potential candidate for CO2 a higher temperature than the endothermic reactor. This class of chemical reactors was
capture, but noted that the major problem to calcination. first described by Australian researchers,
be resolved was the sintering of the CaO sor- This means that the heat is retained with- Rowena Ball and Brian Grey in 19994.
bent2. Sintering is the loss of the CO2 capture in the reactor. The carbonation reaction in- Endex reactors are non-linear systems,
capacity of the lime as the surface area is re- creases the temperature by some 50 deg C as and when applied to CaO Looping, the reac-
the sorbent flows through the carboniser. And tor operates as a gas switch. Calix has shown
1A.B.M.Heesink and H.M.G.Temmink, “Process it falls again through the calcining step.
for removing Carbon Dioxide Regeneratively 4B.F.Gray and R.Ball, “Thermal Stabilisation of
from Gas Streams”, PCT WO94/01203 (1994) 3“CO2 Capture Technologies for Cement Chemical Reactors. The mathematical
2International Energy Authority, “Prospects Industry”, A.Boaoaga, O.Masek and J.E.Oakey, description of the Endex reactor”
for CO2 Capture and Storage”, 2004 Energy Procedia, 1, 133-140 (2009) Proc.R.Roc.Lond. A, 455, 163-182 (1999)

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 19

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Separation and Capture

that the stability regime for the Endex CaO about 3-6%, and
Looping reactor is very wide, with the switch- Calix is working
ing occurring at low temperatures. to minimise it.
The Endex configuration for CaO Loop- The most
ing is shown in Figures 3 and 4. Ideally, the immediate con-
Endex reactor operates as a pressure swing re- sequence is that
actor with continuous solids flow. the flue or fuel
The primary outcome of the Endex re- gases preferably
actor is that the dominant barrier to adoption should be com-
of Calcium Looping, namely sorbent sinter- pressed for effi-
ing, is overcome. This is done by holding the cient CO2 cap-
Calciner at a low temperature to minimise ture. This
thermal sintering; by minimizing the carbon means that the
dioxide pressure in the calciner so that CO2 use of pressur- Figure 5: The Endex Calcium Looping Cycle
catalysed thermal sintering is minimised; and ized fluid bed
by holding the degree of carbonation to be (PFBC) com-
small so that irreversible mesopore filling is bustor reactors is preferred for post-combus- form chemically the fuel gas to produce CO2.
negligible. tion capture, while fuel gases such as natural In the conventional IGCC process, the WGS
gas and Syngas are already pressurized and and CO2 Capture processes occur in separate
The Implementation can be used directly. reactors at low temperatures, resulting in high
The implementation challenges of CaO Loop- Atmospheric combustors are currently capital costs and inefficiencies.
ing in the Endex configuration are no longer used for power plants and industrial process- The WGS-Endex reactor is able to sepa-
associated with the sorbent, but are now typi- es such as cement, and iron and steel produc- rate the CO2 and produce hydrogen from
cal engineering challenges such as minimiz- tion. Calix has identified an approach to at- Syngas and steam without thermal energy in-
ing heat losses and transporting solids at high mospheric capture by substituting the excess puts. Other fuel gases, such as natural gas
temperature between the reactors. air intake into gas turbine plants by flue gas, and LPG can also be used to produce hydro-
However, maintaining the CO2 pressure and extracting the CO2 at high pressure after gen through variants of this theme.
in the Calciner low requires that it must be the combustor. This compression comes at no
evacuated and this requires mechanical ener- cost because it is a replacement for excess air. The Cost
gy. This energy penalty is relatively small, In the separation of CO2 from fuel gas- The cost of CCS is the critical number that
es, the Endex re- will determine whether the Endex technology
actor becomes an will be economically viable. With a negligi-
integral part of ble thermal energy penalty and a small me-
the fuel process- chanical energy penalty discussed above, the
ing, because the cost of CO2 capture is most likely determined
high temperature by the capital costs.
of the CaO Loop- Provided that the Endex reactor can be
ing causes the fu- matched to the temperature and pressure of
els to decompose the input gas without penalty, then the capital
at high pressures. costs of an Endex reactor is expected to be
In a simple relatively small.
example, if syn- The cost of the Endex reactor is expect-
gas is injected in- ed to scale simply with the gas input flow rate.
to a Calcium In the low carbonation limit considered
Looping Endex above, the dominant heat transfer between the
reactor with reactors occurs by the transport of the sorbent
steam, the extrac- between the reactors, so that the wall heat
tion of CO2 transfer can be small. Thus the reactors can
through the for- be substantially thermally insulated, and car-
Figure 3: The Conventional Calcium Looping Cycle
mation of CaCO3 bon steel can be used.
spontaneously The reactors will be compact – with
drives the reactor cross-sections of the order of metres and the
to produce hydro- height being a 20 to 30 meters. Because of the
gen, in a process thermal coupling, the reactors operate au-
known as the Sor- tothermally and have an intrinsic stabilitly, so
bent Enhanced the control systems are expected to be rela-
Water Gas Shift tively simple.
(SEWGS). Estimates of several configurations are
In general that the capital cost for large plants, exceed-
terms, the Car- ing 500 MWe, will be less than €200 per
boniser of the En- MWe, the energy penalty for capture and
dex reactor can compression will be 6%, to give a cost of CO2
Figure 4: The Endex Calcium Looping Reactor be used to trans- capture less than €15 per tonne. Initially, the

20 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Separation and Capture

systems will be smaller, and the first-of-a- sation.
kind factor will be significant. No matter how good our technology
About the authors
breakthrough, there is a considerable task to Brian Sweeney is the Director of Business
The development of Calix catch up with the suite of first generation tech- Development commercialising the carbon
It is widely agreed that there is no solution to nologies and their incremental improvements capture technology of Calix (Europe) Lim-
climate change which does not include exten- current in demonstration. In a prudently con- ited. He has an extensive background in the
sive application of carbon capture and stor- servative industry processes must be proven energy industry having worked with Shell
age. CCS is a major global industry in gesta- before they will be adopted. and Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group.
tion. Calix has demonstration plants planned Mark Sceats is the Chief Scientist of Cal-
While the political issues are being de- worldwide at increasing scale in which En- ix Limited, Australia. He is a materials sci-
bated, and the remuneration mechanism for dex reactors can be developed and tested for entist with a background in technology
carbon sequestration is being resolved, Calix particular applications – pre- and post com- commercialization.
is developing its technology, fine tuning the bustion capture, with various fuels including
applications and preparing for commerciali- coal, lignite, natural gas and syngas.

Capture news
E.ON and Siemens begin CO2 capture South
pilot in Germany Charleston, West Virginia, USA.
E.ON and Siemens are starting up a pilot The pilot
CO2 capture plant at the E.ON power plant uses pro-
plant Staudinger in Grosskrotzenburg prietary ad-
near Hanau, Germany. vanced-amine
A lab-proven post-combustion capture technology
process developed by Siemens is to be em- jointly devel-
ployed under real operating conditions at the oped by Al-
power plant’s hard-coal-fired Staudinger stom and Dow
Unit 5. The pilot plant will be operated with to capture ap-
part of the flue gas from Unit 5. proximately
E.ON and Siemens intend to run the fa- 1,800 metric
cility until the end of 2010. The results tons of CO2
achieved and the operating performance of per year.
the pilot plant will serve as the basis for The pilot
E.ON’s Staudinger plant in Grosskrotzenburg near Hanau, Germany (Source:
large-scale demonstration of the technology, will operate for
which is scheduled to start operation in the the next two
middle of the next decade. years, generat-
It will test the cleaning agent’s long- ing reliable, long-term data that can be used Alstom acquires Lummus Global
term chemical stability and the efficiency of to optimize this technology for implementa- engineering unit
the process under real power plant condi- tion at coal-fired power plants across the Alstom has acquired the former engineer-
tions. In parallel, the technology will be fur- globe. ing office of Lummus Global, a leading
ther optimized in terms of energy consump- In 2008, the two companies entered in- provider of technology for the hydrocar-
tion. to a Joint Development Agreement to devel- bon processing industry, in Wiesbaden,
The project is being sponsored by the op this technology. In March 2009, the com- Germany.
German Federal Ministry of Economics un- panies announced their plans to design and The unit, renamed ALSTOM Carbon
der the terms of the COORETEC Initiative. construct the plant. Capture GmbH, will be integrated into Al-
It is part of the federal government’s 5th En- "This pilot plant is designed to evalu- stom’s CO2 Capture Systems activity.
ergy Research Program “Innovation and ate the technology operating under power The unit consists of over 100 employ-
New Energy Technologies” and promotes re- plant conditions, test proprietary innovations ees with the full set of skills and capabilities
search and development in the field of low- jointly developed by Dow and Alstom and required for the design and delivery of CO2
CO2 power plant technologies. provide data necessary to finalize the design capture plant.
of large-scale demonstration plants that will Alstom says the acquisition will enable
Alstom and Dow open CO2 capture apply this technology," said Philippe Jou- it to make its CO2 capture technologies
pilot plant bert, Alstom Executive Vice President and available to its customers with greater re- President of Alstom Power. sponsiveness and efficiency. It will support "Integrating this process with new ad- the increasing demand for studies, FEED
Alstom and The Dow Chemical Company vanced coal and gas fired power generation packages, pilot plants and demonstration
have begun operation at a pilot plant to equipment will allow customers to minimize units driven by the need to accelerate the
capture CO2 from the flue gas of a coal- CO2 emissions while generating electricity commercialisation of effective and efficient
fired boiler at the Dow-owned facility in as cost effectively as possible." large scale CCS facilities.

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 21

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Transport and Storage

Towards a framework for CCS risk assessment

The main objective of this paper is to present a systematic and conceptual framework of risk assessment
methodology for underground CO2 storage.
By F.Lahaie and R.Farret, Ineris, France and P.Bumb, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Project Objective with their intrinsic characteristics, (ii) a log- quire minimal site characterization data and
Various risk assessment methods have been ical classification of hazardous events that provide a simple and uniform way to rank
tentatively applied in recent years to the con- are likely to cause damages, (iii) a check-list several sites based on expected performance
text of geological carbon storage. The main of possible events, that are likely to initiate and the certainty of the information avail-
objective of this paper is to present a system- or to prolong risk scenarios. able. The SRF approach is too qualitative to
atic and conceptual framework of risk as- b. Once this exercise is completed, an certify sites for which more site characteri-
sessment methodology for underground CO2 event tree is the best way to represent the re- zation data and associated modelling are
storage. sults (even if it was not used formally in step needed.
We have used the so-called event-tree (a): this kind of representation is a risk mod- 3. The third approach is the Vulnerabil-
analysis method in identifying all the possi- el of the system, that illustrates the cause- ity Evaluation Framework (USEPA, 2008)
ble events and their corresponding causes consequence relationship, includes the inter- useful for guiding the development of regu-
which might can occur due to the under- actions between sub-systems and between lations, for educating stakeholders about po-
ground CO2 storage and try to relate them events, and shows the result in a meaningful tential risks, and for delineating regions with
by event-tree charts. way to other experts (or stakeholders). This better or worse potential for safe and effec-
Risk Analysis consists in identifying will help the experts to eventually identify tive geological carbon storage.
relevant scenarios, and to describe them in the relevant top scenarios that are represen- For assessing sites, several approaches
order to give a full image of the risk inher- tative of the whole risk model. have been developed or adapted from other
ent to a CCS system. In this respect, we first c. It is necessary to complete this applications such as:
need to identify all relevant and plausible method with modelling and with probabilis- 1. The FEP approach involves the gen-
scenarios. In a second step, we need to rank tic data, in order to estimate the S and P (ei- eration of a comprehensive list of FEPs that
these scenarios, or to characterise them in ther in a quantitative or in a qualitative way). are codified in a database. The user can rank
terms of severity S and probability P: this is For instance, modelling will generate quan- the importance or relevance of given FEPs
the risk analysis (or risk estimation). titative data in order to estimate the severity and associated scenarios for performance
S and P are the 2 two criteria that are of some phenomena, hence modelling can be failures, such as excessive leakage and seep-
relevant, according to ISO/CEI 73 guide, seen as a specific step of a generic risk as- age.
where risk is described as the combination sessment 2. In the PRA approach of Rish (2005),
of probability of occurrence of damage and developed for UIC Class I hazardous waste
its severity. This characterisation in S and P Review of risk assessment injection wells, probabilities of events and
is not fulfilled in this paper, only the princi- methodologies applied to co2 storage distributions of formation and well proper-
ples are described here. To evaluate the potential risks associated ties are used as input for probabilistic calcu-
After this risk analysis, the level of risk with geological carbon sequestration various lations of the likelihood of various detrimen-
can be compared to the acceptable level, this risk assessment methodologies are devel- tal events.
is the risk evaluation (or risk assessment): if oped which are carried out to select the In the next phase of the assessment, the
the risk is too high, appropriate management promising sites from a number of candidate consequences of a scenario or of an event are
measures can be suggested in order to lower sites and lead to the evaluation and potential expressed in terms of impact of long-term
the S or the P. This entire process, the man- certification of particular sites as safe and ef- high concentrations of CO2 at key receptors.
agement of risk, is outside the scope of this fective geological carbon sequestration sites. The consequences are evaluated by model-
paper, however some relevant measures for There is a growing body of work in risk ling and simulation. The product of this
managing risks are listed here as described assessment in the areas of geological carbon probability and the consequence estimate
in literature. sequestration screening and ranking and sin- from the simulation enables the risk to be
The experience of INERIS in risk gle-site certification. In the area of screen- calculated.
analysis (both on industrial systems and on ing and ranking, three approaches have been 3. The system modeling approach (e.g.,
underground sciences) suggests that: described in the literature. CO2 PENS, Stauffer et al., 2009) takes a
a. The identification of risk scenarios 1. Bowden and Rigg (2004) invoke a much broader view and analyzes the entire
necessitates a systematic approach, that quantitative probabilistic approach that in- system from the point of capture of CO2
gathers the scientific knowledge about phe- volves risk measures applied to key perform- from flue gas, through transportation by
nomena and events, and that ensures that all ance indicators. This approach uses the pipeline, to injection and trapping in the
sub-systems are considered, as well as all RISQUE method which involves assembling reservoir and includes economic aspects.
possible events. an expert panel to develop and rank poten- The system modeling approach is designed
To be systematic, we have to be sure tial scenarios and events. to use probabilistic methods for modeling
that all relevant events are considered, even 2. The second approach (Oldenburg, uncertainty.
if their probability is low; the best way to 2008) is a spreadsheet-based approach that 4. Certification framework approach is
achieve this is to consider (i) a pre-determi- focuses on near-surface risk of CO2 leakage use to evaluate the degree to which a geo-
nation of the targets at stake as well as the called the Screening and Ranking Frame- logical carbon sequestration site is expected
pre-definition of the relevant sub-systems work (SRF). The SRF was designed to re- to be safe and effective in a risk-assessment

22 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Transport and Storage

context. Certification framework approach based on probability and leads to the identi- are determined by equations of state. Advec-
relate effective trapping to CO2 leakage risk fication of prevention and protection means. tion, dispersion, diffusion, buoyancy, aquifer
which takes into account both the impact and 8. Multi Criteria Assessment (MCA) is flow rates and local formation fluid pressure
probability of leakage. Certificate frame- a useful tool for characterising and better un- are taken into account in the modelling of
work uses: derstanding differences in stakeholder as- the carbon dioxide movement.
a. Wells and faults as the potential leak- sessments of CCS and its implications. Mul- All methods used for risk analysis or
age pathways, ti-criteria analysis can be used as a heuristic risk assessment are based on a data base of
b. Compartments to represent environ- to reveal some of the more arcane but impor- events and scenarios that are formalized (e.g
mental resources that may be impacted by tant scientific uncertainties. The multi-crite- in FEPs) or not (e.g in the mind of the ex-
leakage, ria evaluation of CCS was conducted in two perts).
c. CO2 fluxes and concentrations in the stages: There exists a series of methods that are
compartments as proxies for impact to vul- a. The first stage explores in detail the very relevant, but cannot be considered sys-
nerable entities, various carbon storage reservoirs included tematic either because they focus on a given
d. Broad ranges of storage formation in the study; a set of evaluation criteria to as- kind of scenario (e.g. near-surface such as
properties to generate a catalog of simulated sess the alternative storage reservoirs inde- SRF, or well-integrity such as P&R, or CO2
plume movements, and pendently of the scenarios was defined for leakage through faults or wells such as the
e. Probabilities of intersection of the this purpose. certification framework, etc. or because they
CO2 plume with the conduits and compart- b. In the second stage assessment is entail a very specific type of analysis that ne-
ments. conducted using a set of criteria relating cessitates detailed data and hence cannot
5. Evidence support logic (ESL) analy- specifically to the scenarios. consider all types of events: e.g. probabilis-
sis framework enables to represent evidence 9. The Swift Technique: The structured tic analysis, or detailed modelling such as
and uncertainty in the sub-decisions that What-If Technique (SWIFT) is a systematic CO2 PENS or CQUESTRA.
contribute to the overall decision. This team-oriented technique for hazard identifi- As already said, models are very useful
framework also addresses uncertainty that cation. The following protocol was used for to characterise more precisely the severity of
arises as a result of lack of knowledge or in- the SWIFT review of CO2 sequestration. risks (e.g. extent of migration or leakage),
completeness of data and is applied to a a. Define reservoir types. but are not themselves a full method for sys-
range of problems that arise in assessing the b. Brainstorm possible hazards. tematic risk analysis. Besides, specific tools
performance and safety of underground stor- c. Structure the hazards into a logical like Screening and Ranking Framework
age of CO2. sequence for discussion. Start with the ma- (SRF) focus on technical risks but give a
6. The Performance & Risk (P&RTM) jor ones, and prioritize selection of others. generic frame in order to end up with a glob-
assessment approach for Well Integrity: d. Consider each hazard in turn. Con- al indicator-hence they derive from our ob-
Quantitative Performance & Risk (P&RTM) sider possible causes of the event. Consider jective of systematic, generic, analysis of a
assessment methodology for well integrity possible consequences (in terms of rate and risk model.
based on a regular assessment and preven- quantity of CO2 released) if the event oc- Other methods such as MCA and Vul-
tion of potential CO2 leaks. curs. Consider safeguards that are planned nerability Evaluation Framework are related
This methodology gives the operators a to be in place to prevent the event occurring. to social consideration more than technical
decision-making tool and a strong support Consider frequency and consequence rela- risk assessment. They include the decision
for demonstrating safety to regulators. This tive to natural gas production. Record dis- makers (and the way they take their deci-
methodology focuses on the Risks of both cussion on SWIFT log sheets. sion) and the perception of risk, hence they
contamination of subsurface formations and e. Reconsider whether any hazards are outside our scope.
hazardous releases on surface. The follow- have been omitted. Use checklists and pre- Some systematic methods enable us to
ing aspects are considered in the proposed vious accident experience to check for com- consider all kinds of scenarios and often in-
Performance & Risk (P&RTM) assessment pleteness. sist on cause-consequence relationships: e.g.
methodology: f. Consider possible impacts of the re- MOSAR, PRA, SWIFT. Most of them are
a. Predicting the evolution of the well leases on human and environmental re- driven from the experience of industry in as-
integrity over short, medium and very long sources. sessment of technological risks, and were
time scales (up to 10,000 years); 10. CQUESTRA (A risk and perform- not applied to the whole CCS yet.
b. Optimising the potential CO2 stor- ance assessment code for geological seques- The approach we develop here is close
age site. Different options of the conversion tration of carbon dioxide): A computational- to the What-If or PRA methods, completed
strategy of an existing field or development ly efficient semi-analytical code, CQUES- by a so-called event-tree analysis method. It
of a new CO2 storage site could be consid- TRA, is used for the probabilistic risk assess- therefore consists in (i) identifying all the
ered; ment and rapid screening of potential sites possible events and their corresponding
c. Mitigating risks and planning safety for geological sequestration of carbon diox- causes which might can occur due to the un-
control. ide. The rate of dissolution and leakage from derground CO2 storage, through a systemat-
7. MOSAR method (Organized and a trapped underground pool of carbon diox- ic approach, and (ii) try to relate them by
Systemic Method of Risk Analysis) analyses ide is determined. event-tree charts.
the technical risks of a human plant and to The program considers potential mech-
identify the prevention means to neutralize anisms for escape from the geological for- Methodology used (event tree analysis)
them. This methodology creates a typology mations such as the movement of the buoy- The basic goal of the risk analysis and as-
grid of under-systems danger sources adapt- ant phase through failed seals in wellbores, sessment method discussed in this paper is
ed to a CO2 geological storage site. Risk sce- the annulus around wellbores and through to identify all the possible events and their
narios can then be built and organized hier- open fractures in the caprock. Solubility, associated caused which may occur due to
archically in a grid by means of gravity density and viscosity of the buoyant phase geological carbon storage. It is applicable in

Nov - Dec 2009 - carbon capture journal 23

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Transport and Storage

principle to any part of the CCS chain.
No Impacting phenomenon Potential effects
However, in a preliminary step, we de-
cided to apply it on the injection and storage 1 Massive emission of CO2 mixture at the surface (emission is Toxic and ecotoxic
parts of the system. proposed to be defined as ―massive as soon as its flow rate
The methodology used to construct is sufficient for CO2 mixture concentration to exceed the
these trees is as follows: minimal threshold of lethal effects on humans)
1. Collection of a series of articles 2 Slow emission of CO2 mixture at the surface (emission is Ecotoxic
about the risks of storing the CO2 under- proposed to be defined as ―slow as soon as its flow rate is
ground. not sufficient for causing lethal effects on humans but
2. Analyzing and reading the article one sufficient for causing lethal effects on other species)
by one. Once a undesired event is discussed 3 Pollution by CO2 mixture: CO2 concentration in one Ecotoxic
in the article, a line in the excel spreadsheet compartment of environment (subsurface, soil, water, sea, Disturbances of human
is fulfilled detailing about: except air), exceeding the minimal impact threshold of lethal activities
a. Possible event that might occur be- effects for a defined species.
cause of underground storage of CO2. 4 Pollution by brine Ecotoxic
b. Storage compartment concerned with Disturbances of human
the possible event i.e. cap-rock, reservoir, activities
well etc. 5 Disturbance of the regional hydraulic regime Disturbances of human
c. The individual (s) cause (s) of the un- activities
desired event.
6 Ground movement Deformation or
d. Favourable conditions for the occur- acceleration of the
rence of undesired event (if the evidence on earth surface
this point are provided in the article).
7 Pollution by CH4 Overpressure
e. The methods or model to quantify the
likelihood or intensity of such undesired
event (if the evidence on this point is pro-
Table 1 - Seven impacting phenomena (IP)
vided in the article).
f. Prevention or monitoring technique
can be implemented to avoid (or limit the ef- such as oil/gas production, mining etc. which the excel spreadsheet (acting as a detailed
fects of) the undesired event (if stated in the are greatly affected by the underground leak- database) which is fulfilled by the analyzing
article). age of CO2. and reading the series of articles one by one
3. By aggregating all possible unde- Depending on the impact on these tar- on risks of storing the CO2 underground. A
sired events and their corresponding causes, gets we have again classified 5 different complete flow sheet is formed in the same
working to relate them by the event-tree types of effects which includes toxic effects way for all other impacting phenomena.
analysis technique. on human and ecotoxic effect on plants and
An event tree analysis technique is a vi- animals; Thermic effects on human, plants Conclusion
sual representation of all the events which and animals; Overpressuring effect on hu- We have focused on the systematic and de-
can occur in a system (underground storage man, plant and animals; Deformation and ac- tailed approach for risk assessment method-
of CO2). This tree analysis technique pro- celeration of the earth surface on human, ology of underground CO2 storage through
vides a highly effective structure within plants, animals and human activities; and event-tree analysis technique. Most of the
which we can explore undesired events disturbances of human activities. events shown are based on the detailed liter-
which might occur due to underground CO2 Finally, we have classified the scenar- ature survey and the excel sheet database
storage, and investigate the possible out- ios of risks associated with underground which has been developed prior to the tree
comes of choosing those events. storage of CO2 on the basis of the 7 impact- construction.
We have classified the scenarios of ing phenomena (IP) which includes their as- In this study we have mainly focussed
risks associated with underground storage of sociated potential effects; (a) Massive emis- on the injection and the underground storage
CO2 on the basis of the 7 impacting phe- sion of CO2m (mixture of CO2 and impuri- system of CO2 respectively on the basis of
nomena (IP) (see Table 1) and relate them ties) at the surface; (b) Slow emission of the the various compartments that includes well
with the 5 potentially different effects on the CO2m at the surface; (c) Pollution by system, cap-rock and reservoir system, over-
defined 3 targets described below. The en- CO2m; (d) Pollution by brine; (e) Distur- burden and suface environment system.
tire storage site and its surroundings are di- bance of the regional hydraulic regime; (f) This methodology is a systematic ap-
vided into various compartments to distin- Ground movement; (g) Pollution by CH4. proach and includes the majority of the
guish the leakage through wells, environ- In this paper we have worked to classi- events on the basis of the prior literature sur-
ment and cap-rock, reservoir etc. fy the scenarios of risks for the IP # 2: Slow vey. But, it is obvious that the current risk
For constructing event-tree analysis, emission of CO2 mixture (CO2m) at the sur- description methodology, in the shape of the
we have defined 3 specific targets that will face to illustrate the methodology, the de- events and their causes description is not suf-
be affected directly or indirectly by the CO2 tailed scenarios of risks for IP # 2 can be ficient.
leakage. The first and most important targets found in Appendix # A of the full paper. In order to make the CO2 storage tech-
is humans, CO2 leakage affects the safety We have considered the events: Slow nique valid, a consistent and rigorous risk study
and health of the humans. The second target upflow of CO2m from the lower overburden has to be carried out before storage of CO2.
is plants and animals; which are adversely rocks up to the surface; and lateral leakage
affcted by the underground leakage of the of CO2m up to the surface. We have further This is an edited version. For more
information contact: Prateek Bumb
CO2. The third target is human activities classified the specific event of the basis of

24 carbon capture journal - Nov - Dec 2009

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Transport and Storage

Transport and storage news
New research at CO2CRC Otway Project ects in the short to medium term by providing DOE Mississippi project injects one a picture of the long term UK capacity. million tons of CO2
New research on deep saline storage will It will cost in excess of £3.5 million,
soon be underway at the CO2CRC Otway and will carry out a review of potential sites The CO2 storage project in Mississippi
Project, Australia’s only CO2 geosequestra- suitable for storing CO2 offshore and help has become the fifth worldwide to reach
tion research and demonstration facility. to answer the question of exactly how much the milestone of more than 1 million tons.
While final corporate and Government storage capacity is practically available in The project, sponsored by the U.S. De-
approvals are required, a new stage is the UK. partment of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil
planned to research the ways carbon dioxide The UK is potentially well served with Energy (FE), is located at the Cranfield site
is trapped in deep reservoir rocks (saline for- offshore CO2 storage capacity in depleted in Southwestern Mississippi. It is led by the
mations), the most promising types of rock oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration
formation for large-scale storage. and, although various estimates have been Partnership (SECARB). The Cranfield site
Plans include drilling a second injec- made of the total amount available, those fig- is operated by Texas-based Denbury Re-
tion well later this year. Depending on the ures vary widely. sources Inc., the project's host.
results of smaller injections (under 10,000 Obtaining a more accurate estimate of The Cranfield project combines the use
tonnes), a larger scale injection could be part storage capacity will enable the Govern- of CO2 injection with enhanced oil recovery
of future plans. ment, CO2 emitters, storage operators and (EOR), followed by CO2 injection into
developers to make more informed choices deeper and larger-volume brine, or saline,
ETI launches UK carbon storage on the realistic extent and roll out of carbon formations.
capacity appraisal capture and storage in the UK. A major accomplishment of the Cran- The United Kingdom CO2 Storage Ap- field project has been successful deployment
The UK Energy Technologies Institute has praisal Project (UKSAP) is led by Senergy of "in-zone" (in the injection zone) and
launched a project which could see the Alternative Energy Ltd and also involves "above zone" (above the injection zone)
UK as the first country with a comprehen- technical contributions from the British Ge- pressure-response monitoring techniques,
sive assessment of national CO2 storage ological Survey, the Scottish Centre for Car- said the DOE.
capacity. bon Storage (University of Edinburgh, Heri- Real-time data collected since July
The project started in October 2009 and ot-WattUniversity), Durham University, 2008 has demonstrated these techniques are
will be completed by March 2011. It will GeoPressure Technology Ltd, Geospatial cost-effective methods for CO2 monitoring,
complement planned activities around the as- Research Ltd, Imperial College London, verification, and accounting (MVA) that can
sessment of sites for CCS demonstration proj- RPS Energy and Element Energy Ltd. be deployed nationwide.

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