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1, 2005

ASYMMETRY ESTIMATION CRITERIA IN INTERNATIONAL

AND EUROPEAN STANDARDS1 )

Janusz BIA£EK, Andrzej W¥SOWSKI

Technical University of Radom

Summary: The criteria for estimating the asymmetry of arc furnace circuit impedances, refer- Key words:

ring to the theory of symmetrical components, have been presented. In contrast to the criteria Arc furnaces

recommended as yet by IEC and CENELEC, they give homogeneous estimation of asymmetry of Current unbalance

circuit impedances, heating powers and unbalance of arc currents. Moreover they make it Impedance asymmetry

possible to take into account functional dependences among them and, consequently, to improve Power asymmetry

the analysis of unbalanced operation states of EAF, as well as their balancing.

and European EN 60676:2002, as well as Polish Standard PN-

During the processes of the recent enlargement of the EN 60676 estimation of supply circuit asymmetry is based on

European Union, National Standards were coordinated with the maximal difference between phase impedances, while

the Standards of EU member states, particularly with IEC and asymmetry factor Kas-z is defined by the formula:

CENELEC Standards. This creates a good opportunity to

reflect and perhaps correct some currently valid requirements.

Z max − Z min

Therefore, the authors suggest reconsidering the proposal K as − z = ⋅100% (1)

Z

to change the estimation criteria for 3-phase arc furnace cir-

cuit asymmetry. or, respectively for reactances:

The criteria proposed by the authors are based on the

method of asymmetry differential-angular coefficients [1], re-

X max − X min

ferring to the generally applied theory of symmetrical com- K as − x = ⋅100% (2)

ponents [7, 13]. Consequently, they enable a complex analy- X

sis of asymmetry of different supply circuit parameters (im- (asymmetry of circuit resistances was also taken into consi-

pedances, source voltages), and different parameters deter- deration in the previous version of these Standards).

mining EAF unbalanced operation states (arc resistances and According to the method of asymmetry differential-angu-

currents as well as heating powers). The acceptance of these lar coefficients [1, 3, 14, 21], the value in phase j, e.g. the

criteria for estimating EAF circuit asymmetry would enable value of reactance Xj, may be treated as a sum of mean value

relatively simple and clear estimation of e.g. heating power X and differential values determined by differential modulus

asymmetry expected during furnace operation. WX (equal in each phase) and differential angle aX (aXA = aX,

aXB = aX 120 0, aXC = aX + 1200) according to the formula:

2. ASYMMETRY OF ARC FURNACE CIRCUIT

form in Figure 1. Impedances Z j = R j + jX j appearing in

each phase j (j = A, B, C) of this circuit refer to an arc supply

circuit (H.V. supply system, furnace transformer and secon-

dary heavy current line), while heating resistances rj refer to

arcs, charge and, partially, electrodes (non-linearity of arcs is

omitted for simplification).

If reactances and resistances in each phase are the same,

the circuit is symmetric and, consequently, phase currents

and heating powers are equal in each phase. However, in real

furnaces (mainly in a heavy current line) phase resistances

and reactances of supply circuit are not equal, due to diffe-

rent clearances between phase conductors and different di-

stances between a transformer and electrode clamps in each

phase. This leads to the appearance of the asymmetry phe-

nomenon in the circuit; phase heating resistances depend

Fig. 1. Simplified circuit of 3-phase arc furnace and supply system

upon the position of electrodes and may be equal or not.

1) Work supported by the Committee for Scientific Research (Warsaw) within the framework of research project No. 8 T10B 051 14

Janusz BIA£EK, Andrzej W¥SOWSKI: Advantages of Changing 3-phase Arc Furnaces Asymmetry Estimation Criteria... '!

X j = X + WX cos α Xj treated as equivalent. However in the case of asymmetrical

(3)

circuit, the criteria proposed by the authors, apart from esti-

mation of circuit impedance asymmetry, make it possible to

The values of WX and aX can be calculated from the formulas

carry out a detailed analysis of current unbalance and he-

ating power asymmetry generated during furnace operation.

X B − XC

WX cosα X = X A − X , WX sinα X = (4a)

3

3. FUNDAMENTAL DEPENDENCES

Additionally, the differential coefficient of reactance asym-

metry kX =WX/X can also be introduced. Similarly, we have R, For the circuit presented in Figure 1 full circuit phase vol-

WR, kR, aR for circuit resistances and r, Wr, kr, and ar for tage in phase j equals:

heating resistances.

The mean value of supply circuit impedances can be defi-

ned from the obvious formula

(

U fj = I j Z j + r j = I j Z fj) (9)

Z = Ze jϕ z = R + jX (5) of positive sequence component Uf1, currents by means of

positive sequence component I1 and negative sequence com-

while differential modulus D and differential angle d defined ponent I2, and total phase impedances together with heating

below have been proposed for evaluation of their asymmetry resistances, by mean value:

In accordance with propositions of the authors [3, 19, 21] and their asymmetry (for both phase sequences) by:

one can estimate the asymmetry of circuit supplying EAF

impedances by means of asymmetry differential-angular co-

jδ f

efficient kZ, treated as compound of two factors: differential D f = Df e = De jδ + Wr e jα r (11a)

coefficient kZ (kZ =D/Z) and differential angle d:

jδ "f (11b)

D j@ = D" e jδ + Wr e − jα r

"

kZ = kZ e j@ = e (7a) D"f = D"f e

Z

One can generalize this proposition also in the case of we obtain the following two equations from (9):

phase sequence A,C,B (apart from A,B,C). Then some cor-

rections should be accepted: differential angle aX= aX U f 1 = I 1 Z f + 0 ,5I 2 D"f (12a)

instead of aX (for each phase aXj= aXj ), determined from

formulas:

0 = 0 ,5 I 1 D f + I 2 Z f (12b)

X B − XC

WX cosα X " = X A − X ; WX sinα X " = − (4b)

3 From equation (12b) we obtain the relation determining

current unbalance generated in the circuit:

(similarly aR= aR and ar= ar), and consequently:

ψ I2 jϕ

k i = ki e i = = −0,5(De jδ + Wr e jα r )/(Z f e f )

j

(13)

D = D" e jä" = WR e jα R " + jWX e jα X " (6b)

"

I1

D" j@ heating resistances in each phase provokes current unba-

kZ = kZe j@ = e (7b)

Z lance defined by unbalance factor ki = 0,5D/Zf and angle of

phase shift between positive- and negative-sequence com-

These parameters are closely connected with the theory ponents ψ i = δ − ϕ f ± 180o , operation with current balance

of symmetrical components and they may be determined from requires introduction of asymmetry of heating resistances

the formulas: defined by Wr = D and ar = d ± 180o.

Heating power in phase j is defined by:

(

D = 2 Z A + aZ B + a 2 Z C / 3 ) (8a)

Pj = I 2j r j (14a)

"

(

D = 2 Z A + a Z B + aZ C / 3

2

) (8b)

or, applying the proposed method:

In the case of ideal symmetry of supply circuit the values

Pj = P + WP cosα Pj = P(1 + k P cosα Pj ) (14b)

of asymmetry estimation criteria both Kas-z (formula 1) and

kz or kz (formulas 7a and 7b) equal zero; hence, they can be

For estimation asymmetry of heating powers the authors The apparatus for measurements and control as well as

propose a differential coefficient of asymmetry kP=WP/P, computerized control systems used in steelworks provide all

enabling evaluation of the size of power asymmetry, i.e. diffe- the necessary metrological information and no new additio-

rences between phase heating powers and the mean value of nal measurements are necessary [2].

them, and differential angle ap determining the manner of The proposed criteria and iteration method may be easily

division these differences among three phases (e.g. the gre- adapted for the estimation of operation conditions ensuring

atest heating power appears in phase A when ap = 60 60o) e.g.

creating together differential-angular coefficient of heating dynamic symmetrisation of refractory wear (indexes of

power asymmetry: Schwabe) experimentally verified by thermographic

measurements on the 50-ton furnace [20],

k P = k p e jα P (15) maximisation of heating powers or minimisation of unit

losses [17, 18],

Asymmetry of heating powers depends upon current choice of phase transformation ratios of Yd11 transfor-

unbalance and heating resistance asymmetry, according to mer supplying carbide furnace for the purpose of he-

the formula: ating powers symmetrisation [14, 22], (importance of such

subjects can be confirmed by the Thesis [10] presented

recently in Germany), or supply network currents balan-

I12 r

kp = [2k i + (1 + ki2 )k r + k i k r ]

* *

(16) cing [14, 16].

P

P = I12 r[1 + ki2 + ki kr cos (yi ar)] (17) It seems that a convincing argument for the acceptance of

the proposed criteria for the estimation of supply circuit im-

It follows from the formulas above that operation with pedance asymmetry of 3-phase EAF is their connection, by

equal heating resistances will lead to generation of heating functional relations, with parameters defining current unba-

power asymmetry defined by differential modulus WP = lance and heating power and resistance asymmetry (if neces-

2I12rki or differential coefficient kP = 2ki/(1+ki2 ) and diffe- sary, also voltage unbalance or asymmetry of other conve-

rential angle aP = yi. Whereas operation with current balan- nient parameters), so they would be more useful indeed for

ce will be connected with heating power asymmetry defined arc furnace users, than the criteria currently recommended in

by WP = I12D or kP=D/r and aP = d +180o. International, European and National Standards.

Formulas (16), (17) and (13) make it possible also to deter- An additional argument is a possibility to extend these

mine operation conditions ensuring the symmetry of heating criteria on other 3-phase receivers and arrangements for

powers or, if necessary, their favourable asymmetry (e.g. to instance they make considerably easier the choice of trans-

decharge preheated phase A it is recommended to decrease formation ratios in each phase of a transformer supplying

power in this phase: PA<PB=PC, it corresponds to condition asymmetrical 3-phase receivers in order to decrease voltage

aP =180o). An iteration method [15,17], has been proposed unbalance in power supply systems (EMC problems) [16].

to solve this and similar problems.

6. LIST OF SYMBOLS

4. ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED CRITERIA

The proposed method for the estimation of the asymme- a 120o turn operator

try of 3-phase circuit parameters is connected with the tradi- A, B, C phases of furnace

tional method of symmetrical components, in effect, they give D, D differential modulus of supply circuit phase

similar and compatible criteria for the evaluation of asymme- impedance asymmetry (phase sequence ABC

try of circuit impedances and heating powers and unbalance or ACB)

of arc currents (also asymmetry of other parameters if ne- Df, Df differential modulus of full circuit phase

eded). The need for this homogeneity is confirmed by asym- impedance asymmetry (phase sequence ABC

metry factors in the form analogical to formulas (1) and (2), or ACB)

recommended in various publications, concerning phase in- Ij current of any phase (j = A, B, C)

ductances [11], heating powers [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9], RMS values I1, I2 positive and negative sequence components

of arc currents and voltages [6], and even the values of ne- of currents

twork voltages [12]. j quadrature operator

The essential advantage of the acceptance of the new criteria ki unbalance coefficient of currents

would be obtaining functional dependences among parameters kP differential coefficient of heating power asymmetry

defining circuit impedance, heating resistance and power asym- kr, kR, kX differential coefficient of heating resistance and

metry and current unbalance see formulas (16) and (13). In of supply circuit resistance and reactance

effect, the furnace user can quickly perform a preliminary analy- asymmetry

sis of furnace unbalanced operation states in a more simple and kz, kz differential coefficient of supply circuit impedance

clear way than it is possible using previous criteria. asymmetry (phase sequence ABC or ACB)

Janusz BIA£EK, Andrzej W¥SOWSKI: Advantages of Changing 3-phase Arc Furnaces Asymmetry Estimation Criteria... '#

Kas-z, Kas-x asymmetry factor of supply circuit 10. O b e n a u f N . - D .: Regelung für Drehstrom Lichtbogenoefen

bei die Lichtbogenspannungen und unsymmetrisch einstellbare

impedances and reactances Transformatorspannungen. Dissertation. T. U. Clausthal 1992.

Pj, P heating power in any phase j and their mean 11. S w i n d e n D . J . : The arc furnace. Monograph, The Electrici-

ty Council. London 1980.

value 12. T s a y M . T . , C h a n S . Y.: Improvement in system unba-

rj, r heating resistance in any phase j and their mean lance and loss reduction of distribution feeders using transfor-

value mer phase rearrangement and load diversity. Electrical Power

and Energy Systems. 25, 2003.

Rj, R supply circuit resistance in any phase j and 13. UIE: Guide to Quality of Electrical Supply for Industrial Instal-

their mean value lations. Part 4. Voltage Unbalance. Power Quality UIE Wor-

king Group. Edition 1998.

Ufj phase voltage of any phase j 14. W ¹ s o w s k i A . : Current and voltage unbalance balancing

Uf1, positive sequence component of phase operation of arc or arc-resistance furnaces. ETEP, 3, 1999.

voltages 15. W ¹ s o w s k i A .: Déséquilibre des courants assurant la répar-

tition désirable de la puissance aux arcs dans un four a arc UHP.

WP differential modulus of heating power IEEE Conference MONTECH86. Montréal 1986.

asymmetry 16. W ¹ s o w s k i A . : Choice of the phase transformation ratios of

a Yd11 transformer with the view of symmetrizing the load of a

Wr, WR, WX differential modulus of heating resistance and mains by a carbide furnace (in Polish). Przegl¹d Elektrotech-

of supply circuit resistance and reactance niczny. 8, 1995.

asymmetry 17. W ¹ s o w s k i A .: Possibilities of heating power increase of an

arc furnace at operation with a current unbalance (in Polish).

Xj, X supply circuit reactance of any phase j and Archiwum Elektrotechniki, 3/4, 1985.

their mean value 18. W ¹ s o w s k i A . , B e n g h a l e m K . , K r e k o r a H .: De-

creasing of unit power losses in EAF operating with current im-

Xmax, Xmin maximal and minimal value of supply circuit balance. 3rd European Electric Steel Congress. Bornemouth 1989.

reactances 19. W ¹ s o w s k i A . , B i a ³ e k J . : Advisability of changing the

criterion of assessment on a three-phase arc furnaces in Polish

Z mean value of supply circuit impedances Standard PN-93/E-06204 (IEC676(1980)). Przegl¹d Elektro-

Zfj, Zf impedances of full circuit in any phase j and techniczny, 4, 1999.

their mean value 20. W ¹ s o w s k i A . , B i a ³ e k J . , K ³ o d z i ñ s k i L . : Me-

thods of balancing of arc furnace operation. 2nd European Elec-

Zmax, Zmin maximal and minimal value of supply circuit tric Steel Congress. Florence 1986.

impedances 21. W ¹ s o w s k i A . , B i a ³ e k J . , N o w o c i e ñ A .:

Begründung eines Anderungsvorschlags für des Kriterium zur

aP differential angle of heating power asymmetry Beueurteilung des Asymmetrie von Lichtbogenöfen in den inter-

ar, aR, aX differential angle of heating resistance and nationalen Normempfehlungen. Elektrowärme International. B4,

of supply circuit resistance and reactance 1988.

22. W ¹ s o w s k i A . , T r i f i N . : Choice of phase transforma-

asymmetry tion ratios of a furnace transformer with the aid of formalized

d, d differential angle of supply circuit impedance Jablonskis method. Przegl¹d Elektrotechniczny, 4, 1994.

asymmetry (phase sequence ABC or ACB)

df, df differential angle of full circuit impedance Acknowledgement

asymmetry (phase sequence ABC or ACB) The authors would like to thank Mr. Eugeniusz Wilusz for

yi angle of phase shift between positive and revising the manuscript.

negative sequence components of currents

Dr Janusz Bia³ek (1947-2003)

_ , _* (under symbol) complex value, complex was senior assistant at the Faculty of Transport of

conjugate value. Politechnika Radomska in Radom/Poland. He rece-

ived his Doctors degree in Electrical Engineering

from Politechnika Warszawska in Warsaw in 1981.

7. REFERENCES His field of interest were balancing of arc furnace

operation, measurement of unbalanced and distor-

ted electrical sizes in 3 phase circuits, application of

1. B i a ³ e k J . : Method of heating power symmetrising in arc

furnace (in Polish). Thesis. Politechnika Warszawska. Warszawa computers for control of EAF operation. In the years 1987-88 he

1980. worked as Gast-Dozent at Technical University Clausthal-Zellerfeld

2. B i a ³ e k J . : Measurement of current and power asymmetries where, under the guidance of Professor K.- H. Bretthauer, he develo-

with the aid of a minicomputer. 3rd Conference Sources and ped and studied the model of 50-ton EAF. He was a member of the

Effects of Power Systems Disturbances. London 1982. Polish Committee on Electroheat. He died in Radom in May 2003.

3. B i a ³ e k J . , W ¹ s o w s k i A .: Some remarks on the method

of arc furnace asymmetry estimation in IEC Standard Recom-

mendations. Elektrowärme International. B5. 1984. Dr Andrzej W¹sowski (1935)

4. B r e t t h a u e r K . - H . , F a r s c h t s c h i A . A . : Symmetrie- is Professor at the Faculty of Transport of Poli-

rung der elektrischen Groessen von Lichtbogenoefen. Elekro- technika Radomska in Radom/Poland. He received

warme International. B5. 1976. Doctors degree in Electrical Engineering from Po-

5. H e r i n g M .: Fundamentals of Electroheat, part I (in Polish). litechnika Warszawska in Warsaw in 1965. His main

Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne. Warszawa 1992.

6. I g n a t o v I . I . , C h a i n s o n A . V .: Matematiceskoe mode- fields of interest are voltage flicker and unbalance

lirovanie elektriceskich rezimov dugovych staleplavilnych pecej, in power systems, estimation of arc power of EAF

Elektricestvo. 8, 1985. in real operation conditions as well as rationaliza-

7. K o w a l s k i Z . : Asymmetry in electric power systems (in Po- tion of the performance of arc furnaces taking into account their

lish). Pañstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Warszawa 1987. asymmetry. He is a member of the Polish Committee of Electroheat,

8. K r u c z i n i n A . M . , S a w i c k i A .: Arc furnaces and ap- and member of the Electroheat Section of Electrotechnical Commit-

pliances (in Polish). Serie MONOGRAPHS No. 74. Wydawnic-

two Politechniki Czêstochowskiej. Czêstochowa 2000. tee in the Polish Academy of Science.(Politechnika Radomska, Wy-

9. K u r b i e l A . : Electroheat arc appliances (in Polish). Wydaw- dzia³ Transportu, ul. Malczewskiego 29, PL 26-600 Radom, tel.:

nictwa Naukowo-Techniczne, Warszawa 1988. +(4848)3617717, Fax: +(4848)3617075, E-mail: a.wasowski@pr.ra-

dom.pl).

'$ Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, Journal Vol. XI, No 1, 2005

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