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expenditures. A capital expenditure the benefits of which are

expected to be received over period of time exceeding one year.

The followings are some of the examples of capital expenditure

plant & machinery, goodwill etc.

2. Cost of addition , expansion , improvement or alteration in

fixed assets

3. Cost of replacement of permanent assests.

4. Research and development project cost or capital expenditure

involves non- flexible long – term commitment of funds . It

involves the planning & control of capital expenditure

“ Capital Budgeting is long term planning for investing &

financing proposed capital outlays”

Need or importance

1. Involves the exchange of current funds benefits to be

achieved in future

2. The future benefits are expected to be listed over a series of

year

3. The funds are invested in non- flexible & term activities

4. It has significant effect on the profitability of the concern

5. In involves huge funds generally

6. They are irreversible decisions

7. They are strategic investment decisions

Process of C.B.

Implementation proposal

Performance review

Methods of Capital Budgeting

A)Traditional Methods

1) Pay- back period method or payout or pay off

method

2) Improvement of Traditional Approach to pay

back period method.

3) Rate of Return Method or Accounting

method

B) Time – adjusted Method or discounted method

1) Net present value method

2) Internal rate of return method

3) Profitability Method

4) Terminal value method

Pay- Back period Method

It is also called as payout or pay off period method represents

period in which the total investment in permanent asset pay

back itself. Thus it measures the period of time for the

original cost of project to be recovered from additional

earning of project itself.

manner:-

1) Calculate annual net profit before depreciation & after

taxes these are called annual cash inflows.

2) Divide initial outlay (cost) of project by the annual cash

inflows, where the project generates equal annual cash

inflows.

Pay back period = Cash outlay of the project

Annual cash inflows.

3) Where the annual cash inflows are unequal the pay back`

period can be found by adding up the cash inflows until

total is equal to initial cash outlay of project.

Advantages:

The main advantages of this method is that it is simple to

understand and easy to calculate. It saves in cost, it requires

lesser time and labour as compared to other methods of capital

budgeting.

Disadvantages of pay-back method:

It does not take into account cash inflows earned after the pay

back period and hence true profitability of project cannot be

correctly assessed.

Illustration 1. A project costs Rs. 1,00,000 and yields an annual

cash inflow of Rs. 20,000 for 8 years. Calculate its pay-back

period

Solution:

The pay –back period of the project is as follows

Pay back period =Initial outlay of the project

Annual Cash Inflow

= 1,00,000= 5 years.

20,000

Illustration 2.

Determine the pay back period for a project which requires a

cash outlay of Rs. 10,000 and generates cash inflows of Rs.

2,000, Rs. 4,000, Rs. 3,000 and Rs. 2,000 in the first, second,

third and fourth year respectively.

Solution :

Total cash outlay = Rs. 10,000

Total cash inflow for the first 3 years =Rs. 2,000+4,000+3,000= Rs.9,000

Upto the third year the total cost is not recovered but the total cash inflows for the four

years are Rs. 9,000+2,000= Rs. 11,000 i.e. Rs. 1,000 more than the cost of the project. So

the pay back period is somewhere between 3 and 4 years. Assuming that the cash inflows

occur evenly throughout the year, the time required to recover Rs. 10,000 will be

1,000/2,000)12=6 months

Hence pay back period is 3 years and 6 months.

(a) Post pay back profitability method:

Post pay back profits X 100

Investment

One of the serious limitation of pay-back period is that it does

not take into account the cash inflows earned after pay-back

period. So an investment over this method is made by taking

into account the post pay-back profits.

profit of Rs. 80,000 after depreciation @ 12% p.a. but before tax of

50% . Calculate the pay back period

Solution:

Rs.

Profit before tax 80,000

Less tax @ 50% 40,000

Profit after tax 40,000

Add back depreciation @ 12% on Rs.5,00,000 60,000

1,00,00

Profit before depreciation but after tax or annual cash inflows

Pay back period = Cost of the Project

Annual Cash inflow

= 5,00,000 = 5 years

1,00,000

Total investment

conditions are satisfied:-

1. equal cash inflows are generated every year.

2. The project under consideration has long life which must be

at least twice pay back period.

(c)Post pay back period method:-

Post pay back period method takes into account the period

beyond pay-back method. This method is also known as surplus

life over pay-back method. The project which gives greatest

post pay-back may be accepted.

requires an investment of Rs. 20,000. You are require to rank

these projects according to the pay back method from the

following information:

profitability and (iii) post-back profitability index:

(a) Initial Outlay Rs. 50,000

Annual cash inflow (after tax but before depreciation) Rs.

10,000

Estimated Life 8 years.

Annual cash inflow (after tax but before depreciation):

First three years Rs. 15,000

Next Five years Rs. 5,000

Estimate life 8 years

Salvage Rs. 8,000

Solution

(a) (i) Pay back period = Investment

Annual Cash inflow

= 50,000 = 5 years

10,000

(ii) Post pay back profitability= Annual cash inflow

(estimated life-pay back period)

= 10,000(8-5)= Rs. 30,000

50,000

(b) (i) As the cash inflows are not equal during the life of the

investment, the pay back period can be calculated as

1st year’s cash inflow Rs. 15,000

2nd year cash inflow Rs. 15,000

3rd year’s cash inflow Rs. 15,000

4th year’s cash inflow Rs. 5,000

Rs. 50,000

Hence the pay back period is 4 years:

(ii) Post pay back profitability = Annual cash inflowxRemaining

Life after pay back period= Rs. 5,000x 4 = Rs. 20,000

(iii) Post pay-back profitability Index = 20,000x1000= 40%

50,000

Under this method the present values of all cash outflows &

inflows are computed at an appropriate discount rate. The time

period at which the cumulated present value of cash inflows

equal the present value of outflow is known as discounted pay

back period.

Illustration 6: Calculate discounted pay-back period from the

information given below :

Cost of Project Rs. 6,00,000

Life of the project 5 years

Annual Cash Inflow

Cut off rate 10%

Solution:-

Calculation of Present Values of Cash inflows

Rs. discount Value Present Value

factor Rs.

1. 2,00,000 .909 1,81,800 1,81,800

2. 2,00,000 .826 1,65,200 3,47,000

4. 2,00,000 .683 1,36,600 6,33,800

5. 2,00,000 .621 1,24,200 7,58,000

year is Rs. 4,97,200 and it is Rs. 6,33,800 at the end of fourth year.

Hence discounted pay-back period falls in between 3 and 4 years.

To be exact.

1,36,600

(e)Accounting Rate of Return Method:-

This method take into account the earnings expected from the

investment over their whole life. It is known as accounting rate

of return method. Under this method the accounting concept of

profit (net profit after tax & depreciation) is used rather than

cash inflows. The project of higher rate of return is selected. It

can be used in several ways:-

(1) Average rate of return method:

It establishes the relationship between average annual profit to

total investment

Average annual profit X 100

Net investment in profit

(2) Return per unit of investment method:

Total profit X 100

Net investment

(3) Return on average investment method:-

Total profit X 100 or T.P.

Average investment Total investment

2

This is the most appropriate method

Average annual profit X 100

Average investment

(2) Divide the initial outlay (cost Outlay of the project by

the annual cash inflow, where the project generates constant

cash inflows.

Thus, where the project generates constant cash inflows

Pay-back period = Cash outlay of the project or Original cost of

the asset

Annual Cash Inflows

depreciation and after taxes) are unequal, the pay-back period

can be found by adding up the cash inflows until the total is

equal to the initial cash outlay of project or original cost of the

asset.

3. RATE OF RETURN METHOD

This method takes into account the earnings expected from

the investment over their whole life. It is known as Accounting

Rate of Return method for the reason that under this method, the

Accounting concept of profit (net profit after tax and depreciation)

is used rather than cash inflows. According to this method, various

projects are ranked in order of the rate of earnings or rate of return.

The project with the higher rate of return is selected as compared

to the one with lower rate of return. This method can also be used

to make decision as to accepting or rejecting a proposal. The

expected return is determined and the projet which has a higher

rate of return than the minimum rate specified by the firm called

the cut off rate, is accepted and the one which gives a lower

expected rate of return than the minimum rate is rejected.

The return on invetment method can be used in several ways as

follow:

(a) Average Rate of Return Method. Under this method average

profit after tax and depreciation is calculated and then it is divided

by the total capital outlay or total investment in the project. In

other words, it establishes the relationship beteen average annual

profit to total investments.

Thus,

= Total Profits (after dep. & taxes) X 100

Net Investment in the project X No. of years of profit

Or Average annual profits X 100

Net investment in the Project.

has a scrap value of Rs. 20,000 after five years. It is expected to

yield profits after depreciation and taxes during the five eyars

amounting to Rs. 40,000. Rs. 60,000, Rs. 70,000, Rs. 50,000 and

Rs. 20,000. Calculate the average rate of return on the investment.

Solution:

Total profit= Rs. 40,000+60,000+70,000+50,000+20,000= Rs. 2,40,000

Average profit= Rs. 2,40,000 = Rs. 48,000

5

Net Investment in the project = Rs. 5,00,000-20,000 (Scrap value)= Rs. 4,80,000

Average Rate of Return =Average Annual profit X 1000

Net Investment in the Project.

= 48,000 X100 =10%

4,80,000

variation of the average rate of return. In this method the total

profit after tax and depreciation is divided by the total investment

i.e.

Return per unit of Investment= Total profit (after depreciation & taxes) X 100

Net Investment in the Project.

investment shall be:

2,40,000x100= 50%

4,80,000

(c) Return on Average Investment Method. In this method the

return on average investment is calculated. Using of average

investment for the purpose of return on investment is preferred

because the original investment is recovered over the lisfe of the

asset on account of depreciation charges. For example:

A machine costs Rs. 1,00,000 and has no scrap value after five

years. It is depreciated on straight line method.

The outstanding investment in the project is calculated as follows:

(1) Beginning of the first year Rs.

1,00,000

(2) At the end of the first year Rs.

80,000

(3) At the end of the second year

Rs. 60,000

(4) At the end of the third year Rs.

40,000

(5) At the end of the fourth year

Rs. 20,000

(6) At the end of the fifth year

Rs. 3,00,000

Average investment = 3,00,000 = Rs. 50,000

6

Or, Say, average Investment= Total Investment

2

= 1,00,000 = Rs. 50,000

2

Return on Average Investment:

Total Profit after depreciation and taxes X 100

Total Net Investment

2

Illustration 9. Taking the same figures as given in illustration 7, the

return on average investment

= 2,40,000 X 100 =100%

4,80,000

2

(d) Average Return on Average Investment Method. This is

the most appropriate method of rate of return on invetment. Under

this method, average profit after depreciation and taxes is divided

by the average amount of invetment; thus:

Average Return on Average Investment

=Average Annual Profit after dep and taxes X100

Average Investment

=Average Annual Profit X100

Net Investment

2

Illustration 10. Taking the same figures as given in illustration 7,

the average return on average investments:

4,80,000 2,40,000

2

= 20%

Advantages of R.R.M.

1) It uses all earnings of a project.

2) It is based upon accounting concept of profit.

Disadvantages:

1) As like the pay-back record it also ignores the time

value of money.

2) It doesn’t take into consideration

B. Time Adjusted or Discounted cash flow method:-

There are three following methods

1. Net present value method

Following steps are taken into account in the processing of N.P.v.

(a) First of all determine an appropriate rate of interest that

should be selected as the min. required rate of return called

cut-off rate or discount rates.

(b) Compute present value of total investment outlay. If the

total investment is the to be made in initial year the

present value shall be same as cost of investment.

(c) Compete present value of total cash inflows (profit before

dep. & after tax) at above determined discount rate.

(d) Calculate net present value of each project by subtracting

the present value of cash outflows from the present value

of cash outflows for each project.

(e) When present value of cash inflows either exceeds or is

equal to the present value of cash outflows may be

accepted otherwise should be rejected.

Present value of Rupee = 1

(1+r)n

r=rate of interest /disc. Rate.

n=number of years.

Advantages: it recognizes the time value of money and takes

into account earnings over entire life of project so proposal can

be evaluated easily.

Disadvantages: It is difficult to operate and understand. It may

not give good result while comparing projects with unequal

investment of funds. It is not easy to determine appropriate

discount rate.

(2) Internal rate of return method

In this method cash flows of project are discounted at suitable

rate by hit and trial method, which equates the net present value.

So calculated to the amount of the investment. The internal rate

can be defined as that rate of discount at which present value of

cash inflows is equal to present value of cash outflows

1) Determine future net cash flow before depreciation but after

taxes.

2) Determine rate of discount at which value of cash inflows.

3) Accept proposal of IRR is higher than or equal to minimum

required rate of return………

(3) Profitability Index Method or Benefit Cost Ratio:

It describes the relationship between present value of cash

inflows and present value of cash outflows. Thus:

P.I. =Present value of cash inflows

Initial cash outlays

Net P.I. = N.P.U.

Initial cash outlay

N.P.I. can also be found as P.I-1. The proposal is accepted if the

profitability index is more than on and is rejected in case of

profitability index is less than one.

Advantages & Disadvantages of profitability:

It is slight modification of Net Present Value method. In the case

of different project this method is mot suitable method. The other

advantages and disadvantages of themethod are same as those of

net present value method.

Difference between NPV & IRR.

(1) Discount rate : Under NPV method discount rate or cut off

rate is pre-determined. But under IRR it is calculated by hit & trial

method.

(2) Market Rate: The NPV method consider interest rate or cost

of capital. On other hand under IRR does not consider market

interest rate & it seeks to determine the minimum rate of interest at

which funds invested in project could be repaid by its earnings.

(3) Reinvested rate: Under NPV the cash flows reinvested at cut-

off rate in IRR cash flows are reinvested at IRR.

(4) NPV method is more reliable than IRR due to pre-determined

cut –off rate.

(Present value of Re 1 payable or receivable annually for N years)

Year 8% 10% 12% 14% 15% 20%

01 0.92593 0.90909 0.89286 0.87719 0.86957 0.83333

02 .85734 .82654 .79719 .76947 .75614 .69444

03 .79383 .75131 .71178 .67497 .65752 .57870

04 .73507 .68301 .63552 .59208 .57175 .48225

05 .68058 .62092 .56743 .51937 .49718 .40188

06 .63017 .56447 .50363 .45559 ..43233 .33490

07 .58349 .51361 ..45305 .39964 .37594 .27908

08 .54027 .46651 .40388 .35056 .32690 .23257

09 .50025 .42410 .36061 .30874 .28426 .19381

10 .46319 .38554 .32197 .26974 .24718 .16151

* For a more complete set of Present Value Tables see Appendix A

at the end of the book.

Illustration 13. From the following information calculate the net

present value of the two projects and suggest which of the two

projects should be accepted assuming a discount rate of 10%.

Project X Project Y

Initial investment Rs. 20,000 Rs.

30,000

Estimated Life 5 years

5 years

Scrap value Rs. 1,000 Rs.

2,000

The profits before depreciation and after taxes (cash flows) are as

follows:-

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year

4 Year 5

Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.

Project X 5,000 10,000 10,000

3,000 2,000

Project Y 20,000 10,000 5,000

3,000 2,000

Solution:

Calculations for Net present value.

Project X

Year Cash flows Present value Present Value

Rs. of Re.1 @ 10% of Net Cash

(discount flows

factor) Using Rs.

present value

tables

Rs.

1. 5,000 .909 4,545

2. 10,000 .826 8,260

3. 10,000 .751 7,510

4. 3,000 .683 2,049

5.(Scrap value) 1,000 .621 621

Present Value of all cash inflows Rs. 24,227

Less present value of initial investment Rs. 20,000

(because all the investment is to be made in the

first year only, the present value is the same as

the cost of the initial investment) Rs. 4,227

Net present value.

PROJECT Y

Year Cash flows Present Value Present Value

Rs. of Re.1 @ 10% of Net Cash

(discount flows

factor) Using Rs.

present value

tables

Rs.

1. 20,000 .909 18,180

2. 10,000 .826 8,260

3. 5,000 .751 3,755

4. 3,000 .683 2,049

5. 2,000 .621 1,242

6. 2,000 .621 1,242

(Scrap Value) 34,728

Less Present Value of initial investment Rs. 30,000

Net Present Value Rs. 4,728

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