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+ dsr-

Chapter2
AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
. half waverectifier
Single-phase,
Uncontrolled:R load,R-L load,R-C load
Controlled
Freewheelingdiode
. full waverectifier
Single-phase,
Uncontrolled:R load,R-L load,
Controlled
Continuousanddiscontinuous current mode
. Three-phaserectifier
uneontrolled
controlled

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Rectifiers
DEFINITION: ConvertingAC (from
mainsor other AC source)to DC power by
usingpowerdiodesor by controllingthe
firing anglesof thyristors/controllable
switches.

o Basicblock diagram

AC input DC output

Input canbe singleor multi-phase(e.g.3-


phase).
o Outputcanbe madefixed or variable

' Apptications:DC welder,DC motordrive,


Batterycharger,DCpowersupply,HVDC

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half-wave,R-load
Single-phase,

Outputvoltage(DCor average),
1t
vm=
Vo=Vour= -7_[V*sin(rrr)dar - 0.3I\Vm
.Q/0
o

Output voltage(rms),

t/
Yo'RMS - dcu) - 0.5vm
; lf-sin(rcr)

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Half-wavewith R-L load

+
yR
+
4 vo
+
vL

KVLI vs =vR *vL

V* sin(or)= i(ar)R + Ldi{{fi)


dar
First orderdifferentialeqn.Solution :
i(ffi)=if(ca)*inGrt)
iy :fotced response;in naturalresponse,
From diagram,forcedresponseis :
(v\
- 0)
i"yGn)-l + l'sin(ar
\L)
where:

Z* R2 + (aL)z

0 = tan-' [ * )

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R-L load
Naturalresponseis whensource- 0,

i(ar)R+LqP Q
dcn
which resultsin :
ir(cu)= trr-cnfc'n ;T = Ll R
Hence

i(ffi)= if (or)* inGa)=(ryJ .sin(ar m


- q + Ae-ffi)
\z )
A canbe solvedby realisinginductor current
is zerobeforethe diodestartsconducting,i.e:
lrt \
t(0)=[ ry f.sin(O
*0)* Ae-olm
\z )
+ A=(ry1,i,,1-
o)=k\ sin(d)
\
\Z) \Z)

Thereforethe currentis given as,

(v \ |
- 0)
i(c,x)-l + l. [sin(rrro\ r+ oi*,(A\--culrnl
sin(d)e
\ Z
r
)
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R-L waveform

Note:
v7 is negativebecausethecurrentis decreasing,
i.e
-di
Vt'r - L-
dt
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Extinctionangle
Note that the dioderemainsin forward biased
longer thann radiarts(althoughthe sourceis
negativeduring that duration)Thepoint when
cuffent reacheszerois whendiodeturnsOFF.
This point is known astheextinctionangle,p.
(v \ | o,---1
=l . -
i(P) + | lri"fB 0)+sin(d)r-F'*]- e
\z,/
which reducesto :
sin(p - 0)+ sin(d)e-Flan - 0
f be solvednumerically.
"*ronly
Therefore,thediodeconductsbetween0 andp

therectfierwith R - L load,
To summarise

- q+ sin(d
)e-uI rnl
k).
\Z )
[tr,1*
L '

i(ax1- for 0<0x<p


0
otherwise
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RMS cuffent, Power
The average(DC) currentis :
,2n lP
Io=* !t1o4a*-! li7,Dac,x
Lteo zod
TheRMS currentis :

r, nus
= TTIi, @)drn
= r*>dat
l* i* !,r
POWER CALCULATION
Power absorbedby theload is :
/\, A

Po= (Iru,fS)' . R
PowerFactoris computedfrom definition:
P
pf =;
J
whereP is therealpowersuppliedby thesource,
whiehequalto thepowerabsorbedby theload.
S is theapparentpowersuppliedby the
source, i.e
/\
s - (v".RMSIU
o*s)
+pf=+
r{
(%,nr,rs
}lI nms)
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Half waverectifier,R-C Load

fv*sin(cu) whendiodeis ON
vo =
lrrr-(cu-e)tc'xc whendiodeis OFF
=V*sin d

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Operation

Let C initially uncharged.Circuit is


energisedat cI=0

Diode becomesforward biasedasthe


sourcebecomepositive

When diodeis ON the output is the same


as sourcevoltage.C chargesuntil V-
into load (R).
After er=17/2,C discharges

The sourcebecomeslessthanthe output


voltage

Diode reversebiased;isolatingthe load


from source.

. The outputvoltagedecaysexponentially.

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Estimationof 0
The slopeof the functionsare:
a(v*sinc,r)
=V* cos(t)t
d'(ux)
and
d.V*sing ' ,-(*-eY r'hc \I
d(rfi)
( tI \ t,
=v-"sindf -
"' l. r-(*-e\ c'xc
\ nRC)
At efi = O,theslopesareequal,
(IR'c ( 1r
V*cosl =Vmsin
' d | - -:^ l. t-te-q)t
\ nRC)
_.V*cosd _ 1
----t

V*sin9. oRC
11 = _
tan? - aRC
1, r 1/ \
0 = tan-t (- z;PtC)=- tan-'(tnC) + 7t
For practicalcircuits,rtR.Cis large,then :

7r- -++ r =g
0 = -tan(*)+
22
d is verycloseto thepeakof thesinewave.Therefore
and V*sin? =Vm
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Estimationof cr
At Gx.=2n* a,
v* sin(Zn+ a) = (v* sin0)e-(2n+a-0)I @RC
or
- 0
sin(a- (sin01t-rzn+u-o)!fuRC
This equationrnustbesolvednumericallyfor a

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RippleVoltage
Max outputvoltageis Vrrr*.
Min outputvoltageoccursat rtr - 27r+ a
LVo =Vm^ -V*in
=V* -Vmsin(2n+ a) =V* -vmsin a
If Vg =V* ande - Irl2, andC is largesuchthat
thene = ft12.
DC outputvoltageis constant,
Theoutputvoltageevaluatedat ef,= 2n + s rsi

=v*€e#*)
=r*,-(#)
Theripplevoltageis approximated
as:
-(29
=V* -V*e \nlRC) -V*l
( -r+l)
\(DRC
)
LVo l- e |
t)
-( zo\ A
UsingSeries : e [anc) -I., +
expansoin
(rlP-C

+ LVo=v*(3g-\-u*
'\r,xc
) fRC
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CapacitorCurrent
The currentin the capacitorcan be expressedas:

'- \ / = QdvoU)
i-ft)
d(t)
In termsof ffi,:

i"(a)= qcdvo{c*)
d(c,x)
But
lv*sin(rrr) when diodeis ON
vo\ffi)= r*c whendiodeis OFF
lr*sin d 'r-(*-elt

Then,substitutingvo(cfi),
a{Vm cos(at)
whendiodeis ON,
i.e (2n + a) < (rx3 (2n + 0)

i"{eu)-
V*sin0 .u-(*-e)tc,xc
R
when diodeis OFF,
i.e(0) < (rr"3 (2n + a)
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PeakDiodeCurrent
Note that :
ir=iD=ip+ig
The peakdiodecurrentoccursat (Zrc+ a),Hence.
I ,,prrk - caCVmcos(Zn
+ a) = uCVmcosa

Resistorcuffentat (2n + a) canbe obtained:

+ a) -v*sina
ip(zn+ a) -v*sinQn
RR
Thediodepeakcurrentis :
= otVmcosa +V* slna
iD,prak
R

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Example
A half-waverectifierhasa 120Vnns sourceat 60H2.The
load is =500 Ohm,C=100uF.Assumeo and0 arecalculated
as48 and93 degreesrespectively.Determine(a) Expression
for outputvoltage(b) peak-topeakripple (c) capacitor
current(d) peakdiodecurrent.

vm-120"12-t6g.7v:
0 =93o =I.62rad;
a - 48o -0.843rad
V* sin0 - 169.7sin(1.62rad)= 169.5V;

(a) Output voltage:


lv * sinla) = |69.l sin(6) (oN)
'o\*-' = I
v"(0I)
c'xc
lv*sing ' '-(m-eY (oFF)

.169.7
sin(ra) (oN)
= s'ss) (oFF)
ft ol.s"-kt-,ozxt
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Example(cont')

(b)Ripple:
Using:LVo=V** -V-in
LVo=V* -vmsin(Zn + d) -vm -vmsin a = 43V
UsingApproximation:
( Ll,
2n\ rl 169.7
LV^=V,| l--'* =-=56.7V
"'\(DRC)
JRC 60x500x1002

(c) Capacitorcurrent:

frrcV*cos(rrr) (ON)
i,(cx)= v^sr!{0)
1_ .r-(a_e)Kanq (oFF)
l.n

ffi) A (oN)
= [6.4cos(
t- 0.339.r-(cn-toz)r(ts.ss)
A (oFF)

(d) Peakdiode current:

= caCV*cosa.,#"
iD,peak

* (2x nx60)(100u)r69.7 '7 sn(l '62rad)


cos(0.843rad)*169
s00
= (4.26+ 0.34)= 4.5AA

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Controlledhalf-wave

u
Averagevoltage:
r4
vo=*lr*sin(cufieft=ht*cosal
-ro
a
27t'
RMS voltage

1It
t/
Yo.RMS - atn
;!V*sin(r,l)l
d

v
- !-ry t-9+
=. /:-m [tt- cos(Zatildcu
\ r
\4oi- 2 1T

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Controlledh/w, R-L load
+
yR
+
vo
+
vL

=(?).sin(rrr- 0)* er#


i(or)=if (ca)+in(m)
Initialcondition : i(a)* 0,

(a* o\* e,#


i(a)=o=(y). sin
-a
'r
+A=-l(Y" - t))'
L\ z-|sin(a
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ControlledR-L load
Substitutingfor A andsimplifying,

fru r T 'o-*'1
yul .l rin(ra- e)-
-' sin(a- 0)r-*
ll
i(c,x)-|\z)L--' "/" lfora < a <B
I l
lO otherwise
ExtinctionangleB mustbesolvednumerically

- e)-sin
o=e)l'rn(F
i(p)= (B- t #1
/Ll
Angle y = (f - 9) is calledtheconductionangel.

Averagevoltage:
,f rr
vo= [r* =
sin(rnVutr u - cos
Pf
*
lJte
a
ff["ot
Averagecurrent :
,F
Io =- li(cnpat
z.Jt,
a
RMScurrent:

rnus=l*?'(*v,
The powerabsorbedby the load :
Po=IRMS?'R
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Examples
1. A half waverectifierhasa sourceof 120VRMS at 60H2.
R=20 ohm,L=0.04H0andthe delayangleis 45 degrees.
Determine:(a) the expressionfor i( cil), (b) average
current,(c) the powerabsorbedby the load.

2. Designa circuit to producean averagevoltageof 40V


acrossa 100ohm load from a 120VRMS, 60Hz supply.
Determinethe powerfactorabsorbedby the resistance.

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