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AN OVERVIEW OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT

SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY:

DR. LUXMI ISHA JOSHI

KANWALROOP KAUR

KIRAN

PRIYANKA SARAO

M.COM(HOMS) SEM- 2

INTRODUCTION

Change is one essential and inescapable component of life. Those who escape change cannot
survive for long. Organizations, typically have to accept and incorporate change in their day to
day routine in order to survive and prosper and stay ahead of competition. Change may be
individual, technological, structural or cultural. Accepting and implementing change becomes
difficult, as it involves moving from a familiar and comfortable work setting, towards
something which might be more challenging. Implementation of change depends largely on
people’s acceptance of the changed working conditions.

Change management can be referred to as “the adoption of an idea, procedure, process or


behaviour that is new to an organization” (Pierce & Delbecq, 1977). Berger (1994) had defined
change management as "the continuous process of aligning an organization with its
marketplace and doing it more responsively and effectively than its competitors" (p. 7).
Lichtenstein (2000) stated that “organizational change is a transformative change through a
complex adaptive system model of change, which comprises of three stages: increased
organizing, tension and a threshold and newly emerging configuration”. It is the movement of
an organization from the existing plateau towards a desired future state in order to increase
organizational efficiency and effectiveness (George & Jones, 2002; Cummings & Worley,
2005). Bumes (2000) described change as a multi-level, cross-organizational process that
unveils a disorganized and incompetent trend over a period of time and comprises a series of
interlocking projects. He also identified organizational change management as a continuous
process consisting of experiment and adaptation, intended to match an organization's
capabilities to the needs of a volatile environment. Struckman and Yammarino (2003)
considered change as a process or an action. They defined organizational change as "a managed
system, process or behavioral response over time to a trigger event" (p. 10).

Researchers have long been focused on managing and implementing change within the
organizations through factors such as motivation, leadership and organizational culture, which
are however important and vital, but these cannot be the sole factors that help in implementing
change within organizations. The four factors that determine the result of any transformational
initiative are

The DURATION of time until the change program is over, and if it is one comprising of a
longer span of time, then the same analyzed over frequent time intervals. Mostly change is
resisted because it might take a long period of time for its implementation and so it is felt that
change which requires a long period of time for its implementation has higher chances of its
failure, which is certainly not the case, as research suggests that any transformational initiative
which takes a longer time span for its accomplishment, heightens up its chances of success,
while the one with a shorter time period might have increased chances of failure.

The second factor is the PERFORMANCE INTEGRITY of the people responsible for the
implementation of the change. This depends on the skills and competencies of the task force,
which has been entrusted with the task of implementing the change and here it becomes
essential that specific tasks are given to people, keeping in mind their skills and competencies.

The third factor is the COMMITMENT which is displayed by the top management and those
which are most affected by the change. Employees resist change because it is a detachment
from the usual course of action, and if they are convinced that the change is for their best
interests, they might not be so resistant to accept change.
The fourth factor is the EFFORT which is above the usual amount of efforts to be put to
implement the change which must be done by the top management and the employees affected
by the change.

These four factors which can also be referred to as the DICE (Duration, Integrity, Commitment
and Effort) framework, provide an indication of the success or failure of any change program,
and the same can be known by asking the executives to calculate the DICE scores.

Although, we have always been considering resistance, as the enemy of change, and it has long
been felt that resistance is a hindrance to change and past researches also indicate the same, but
researchers have now found that managing resistance also helps in managing change and that
resistance, if managed and utilized properly, can help in managing change.

Schein (1988) considers resistance to change to be one of the most frequent occurring of
organizational phenomena. A number of authors have defined resistance. For instance, Ansoff
(1988, p. 207) defines resistance as a multifaceted phenomenon, which introduces
unanticipated delays, costs and instabilities into the process of strategic change, whereas
Zaltman and Duncan (1977, p. 63) define resistance as “any conduct that serves to maintain the
status quo in the face of pressure, to alter the status quo”. Thus, resistance, in an organizational
setting, is an expression of reservation which normally arises as a response to, or as a reaction
to change (Block 1989, p. 199). This is normally experienced by management as any employee
actions perceived as attempting to stop, delay, or alter change (Bemmels and Reshef, 1991, p.
231). Thus, resistance is most commonly associated with negative attitudes of employees or
counter-productive behaviours.

Another way of predicting and anticipating change is through change management models,
which have been given by various researchers.

LEWIN’S FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS

One of the earliest models of change was developed by Kurt Lewin in as early as 1947. The
model developed by him has 3 stages, namely; Unfreeze, Change and Refreeze. The unfreeze
stage involves a disturbance in the existing state of equilibrium, which may be by introducing
a new process, a new machine equipment or anything which causes a change in present
behaviours and attitudes, then with the help of this disturbance in the present state, a refreezing
takes place, which is nothing but, incorporating these changes into the routine and then again
establishing a new state of equilibrium.
BECKHARD’S CHANGE PLAN

Richard Beckhard (1969) developed a change plan which incorporates the processes as below:

• Setting goals and defining the future organizational situations desired after the change.

• Identifying current conditions in relation to the goals.

• Defining the transition state activities and commitments needed to meet the future state.

• Developing strategies for managing the transition or the change, based on the study of
aspects expected to influence the beginning of change.

This model takes into consideration a long range approach, and is aimed at improving the
performance and the competence of the organization as a whole.

THE CONTINUOUS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL

The continuous change process approach looks at change from the perspective of the top
management and indicates that change is continuous. It incorporates Lewin's concept into the
implementation phase. Management perceives that certain forces or trends call for change and
the issue is put to the organization's usual problem-solving and decision-making procedures.
Top management states its goals in terms of what the organization or certain processes or
outputs will be like after change. Alternatives for change are generated, evaluated and an
acceptable alternative is chosen. Early in the process, the organization might seek the assistance
of a change agent- a

person who will be responsible for managing the change and all the efforts. The change agent

might also help management recognize and define the problem or the need for the change and
may be involved in generating and analysing potential plans for action. Under the direction and
management of the change agent, the organization implements the change through Lewin's
unfreeze, change and refreeze process. In the final stage, evaluation and control, the change
agent and top management assess the degree to which the change is having the desired impact.
The more closely the change agent is involved in the process, the less distinct the steps become.

As the change agent becomes engrossed in defining and solving the problem with the members
of the organization, he or she becomes a "helper" to the organization. Throughout the process,
the change agent brings new ideas and alternatives that help members address the old problems
in new and innovative ways.

Management of change is an essential ingredient, if organizations wish to survive and prosper


in the long run. As much as this is the task of the top management and the managers, employees
also are bound to accept any kind of change.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

N’Cho, J. (2017) in his paper Contribution of talent analytics in change management


within project management organizations: The case of the French aerospace sector aims
to explore the potential benefits of talent analytics in the context of change management within
project management organizations. The results indicate that firms can use TA to enhance their
TM process by identifying the best HR, selecting the best talent based on the requirements of
each project phase, collecting and analysing information to attract millennial people, defining
the right time in the right way to develop talent while complying with the department’s needs,
and when needed, redeploying talent across the project phases to meet emerging challenges.

Osman, K., et,al. (2017) their study Configuration and Change Management Approach in
Product Variant Design of Chillers is based on a Configuration and Change Management
(CCM) approach to variant designing of chiller products. The approach was primarily
developed to help designers (professionals) working in this field (development of thermal
engineering systems, specifically in the selection and configuration of chillers) in their decision
making processes, so that they could reach a potentially satisfactory solution as quickly and
efficiently as possible. This aims to find the most acceptable chiller variant in the process of
product configuration and making changes in product architecture.

Lloyd, D, et,al. (2017) in their study A supporting tool for requirements change
management in distributed agile development an approach to manage requirements changes
in distributed agile development is introduced. This suggested approach works to fill the gap
between the industry and research by combining the academic technique and industrial
practice. This approach is based on a proposed feature model called a features tree and is
associated with a supporting software tool that helps to manage the requirement changes in
distributed agile development. The tool is tested and evaluated in real environments by
software development professionals using an exhaustive set of criteria and the results are
promising.

Jokinen, L., et,al. (2017) their study Engineering Change Management Data analysis from
the perspective of Information Quality is based on analysis of Engineering Change Objects
and semi-structured interviews in a case company, where the number of ECRs has been
increasing significantly. The goal of the research was to find out reasons for varying ECR
processing times. However, the data used for this research do not clearly show how often and
how much time is spent on improving the ECRs after the initial request phase.

Brones, F., et,al. (2017) their study Reviews, action and learning on change management
for eco-design transition expands the boundaries of research in the eco-design field by
integrating the emerging Transition Management approach designed for sustainability issues.
We developed an Eco-design Transition Framework and explored it through an in-depth action
research. Hence, the main contribution of the research covered in this article, combining
multistep reviews, action research and learning, is a novel eco-design transition approach and
framework for managing the soft side of eco-design integration.

Schuh, G., et,al., (2017) in their study Technical change management for the maintenance
of product platforms introduced a new method for synchronizing the lifecycle of modules
with the lifecycle of the respective platform products. The goal of this approach is to maximize
the number of technical changes which can be implemented into products while minimizing
development costs as well as changing efforts within production. At the end strategies are
shown how to physically changed modules into different product lines of a modular product
platform.

Schuh, G., et,al. (2017) in their study Enabling agility in product development through an
adaptive engineering Change Management creates an adaptive engineering change
management (ECM) for rapid engineering changes which are identified as central enablers for
the agile product development of physical products. Due to a lack of in-depth studies in this
field, an agile development project in a manufacturing company has been investigated. The
findings of the case study are based on action research. Challenges and requirements faced by
the case company have been identified in workshops and interviews. A broad study of closely
related literature improved the understanding and helped in the generation of a framework for
an adaptive ECM. The result of the work is thus a framework for an adaptive ECM that meets
the specific requirements of agile product development for physical products.

Jayatilleke, S. & Lai, R (2017) in their study A systematic review of requirements change
management presents a systematic review of research in Requirements Change Management
(RCM). This paper has provided information about the current state-of-the-art techniques and
practices for RCM and the research gaps in existing work. Benefits, risks and difficulties
associated with RCM are also made available to software practitioners who will be in a position
of making better decisions on activities related to RCM. Better decisions will lead to better
planning which will increase the chance of project success.

Martinsuo, M. & Hoverfält, P (2017) in their study Change program management:


Toward a capability for managing value-oriented, integrated multi-project change in its
context identify and summarize proposals to guide forthcoming program management
research. The results reveal three main themes of on-going research: managing over the change
program lifecycle, managing programs in their context, and program managers' capabilities.
The roots of change program management in organization theories are apparent; structural
contingency theory and information processing theories have dominated in previous empirical
research, but are clearly being extended to agency, stakeholder, and actor-network theories.

Hussain Al-Moosa, N. & Sharts-Hopko, N (2017) in their study Using Change


Management to Redesign Oman's Health Professions Education Sector examines the
systems and process needed to enhance the quality of the Ministry of Health educational
programs during a period of transition. Our formation is currently taking place to transform all
the Ministry of Health educational Institutes to Oman College of Health Sciences. A descriptive
qualitative study took place between December 2012 and November 2013 at the Ministry of
Health Educational Institutes, Muscat, Oman. A sample of 20 participants made up four focus
groups, and three semi structured interviews. Four main themes emerged: the effect of change,
management of change, the effect of transition, and management of transition. The study found
that change towards upgrading the current health education institutions to a college had a
positive impact on participants, however, the absence of a clear vision and change management
strategy resulted in adverse psychological impact on participants in the journey towards
implementing this change.
Saeed, A., et,al. (2016) in their study Assessment of UT (University of Tehran) change
management in quality Orientation process based on ADKAR model quality orientation
process of Tehran University was evaluated. For effective change human resource of
organization must have five qualities: Awareness about need to change; Desire to make the
change happen; Knowledge about how to change; Ability to change; Reinforcement to retain
the changes. With these human resource qualities, work dimension (for example: structures
and process of doing work) need to well set with planned changes. These research conclusions
show that UT human resource, sense high need and desire to change in quality.

Volker, S & Prostean, G (2016) in their study Research of Automotive Change


Management and Combined Risk- Management Models focuses on the issue to tailor an
automotive specific mechanism to guide the requirement change through all the stages
determined by a typical automotive development until the settled feature meets the customer.
The ability to control the requirement modification involves effective and reproducible
procedures to deliver the so-called Request-for-Change (RfC, i.e. [1]) as specified. The
Change-Management (CM) process should support all the stakeholders with information like
the RfC transition status (i.e. reject, planned, implemented) and impact reports to the initial
agreed objectives fixed by contract, which are product features, budget, schedule and quality.
The research will not be limited, but focus the investigation of impacts of RfC during the early
phase of the project, which are the Concept-Validation and Debugging-Phase. The second part
of this paper will undertake the construction of risk management models, utilizing the RFC
documentations and impact analysis information produced by the CM process. The research
will lead to the understanding of the impact caused by a single RfC, and eventually
summarizing the total risk faced by the project at any desired instance within the product life
cycle. Finally the research will suggest a visualization model, which cultivates the data of
continuous flow of requirement changes into early-warning system and fever curve of the
project or a particular project milestone.

Koch, J., et,al., (2016) in their paper Context model design for a process-oriented
Manufacturing Change Management presents a context model for a process-oriented
Manufacturing Change Management (MCM), designed to support the understanding of the
concept of MCM in academia and industry as well as to create a sound basis for a subsequent,
more detailed design of the different MCM-related elements (e.g. MCM process). The context
model comprises not only tangible elements (e.g. factory, product), but also intangible elements
(e.g. change causes, MCM process) and their relations. Accompanying the context model
design, requirements for a detailed design of MCM-related elements are formulated, while the
element “change cause” as the starting point of any change in manufacturing is already further
detailed and described. Concerning the context model design and the formulation of MCM
requirements, both consider not only findings from a broad literature review, but also from
different expert interviews and workshops.

Juszczyk, M., et,al., (2016) in their study Current issues of BIM-based design change
management, analysis and visualization addresses the problems of a BIM-based design
change analysis, design change management and visualization of the changes made to BIM
models. A concise discussion of the general problems of design change management in terms
of BIM is presented. The advancement of native BIM tools and their functionalities dedicated
specifically to design change management; namely, tracking and analysis of design changes on
the basis of BIM models is also discussed. Subsequently, a number of examples are presented
to illustrate the results of recent developments in the visualization of design changes.

Wadood, S., et,al. (2016) in their article Influence of Change in Management in


Technological Enterprises determines the relationship between change in management and
managing strategies, leadership styles and technological innovation. The data are collected
from 167 employees of Samsung, Rocket Internet, Apple Inc., and Google, through the
questionnaire. The employees represent different job levels, i.e., managerial and non-
managerial. Statistical tools, such as reliability test of Cronbach’s Alpha, descriptive statistics,
correlation and linear regression were applied on data. By using the linear regression estimation
statistic, the study provides evidence that there is a significant relationship between change in
management and managing strategies, as well as technological innovations.

Wilberg, J., et,al. (2015) in their study Using a Systemic Perspective to Support
Engineering Change Management takes a novel approach by adopting a systemic
perspective. The self-organizing nature of complex systems is of particular interest because
efficient ECM is a learning process that requires constant adaptation on different organizational
levels. This paper describes how self-organization can be incorporated in ECM processes. A
case study at a large construction project illustrates how ECM can facilitate self-organization.
Iljins, J., et,al., (2014) in their research study Project based internationalization as a driving
force for change management in higher education institutions in Latvia takes into
consideration the theoretical and empirical research in internationalization, change
management and project management. From theoretical research questions are proposed
regarding internationalization factors in Latvia. This research confirms that currently
internationalization in Latvian Higher Education institutions is mainly project based and brings
change with it. It was concluded that the process of internationalization in the Higher
Education of Latvia is based on developmental change and it is a driving force for changes in
the system.

Khachian, A., et,al. (2013) in their study The role of the organizational internal
environment in the establishment of change management in nursing and midwifery
Schools explains the manager’s perspective on change management at nursing and midwifery
schools in Tehran. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach; a descriptive
exploratory method was applied with triangulation. Snowball sampling was used for selection
of participants who were managers at different levels. The inclusion criterion was atleast one
year of work experience. In this research, no variable was measured. Data were gathered
through semi structured interviews in which a guide and field notes were used. Data was
considered saturated with the repetition of codes according to the guidance of conventional
content analysis. This trustworthiness was achieved by a prolonged field experience, member
check, peer check and sharing the content with two experts in qualitative research. Ten
participants (seven females and three males) between 38 and 54 were interviewed. Two had
Master’s degree and eight held a PhD in nursing. Only three were at high managerial level at
their school. After the interviews, 124 conceptual codes, 15 subgroups and 3 core concepts
were extracted. Ultimately, the concept of change management was postulated as the purpose
of this study. Its influencing factors were identified. The study has implications for use in the
faculties of nursing and midwifery, as a model according to organizational culture.

Anees, M., et,al, (2012) in their study Evaluation of change management efficiency of
Construction contractors provided a deeper insight into the change orders (CO) in the large
building construction projects according to the different parties involved (owner, designer,
consultant and contractor) with respect to the Egyptian industrial construction sector. A
questionnaire survey discussing all persistent aspects of change order with a selected sample
of Egyptian construction contractors companies was conducted in order to have a good
representation for all the entities working in the construction industries. The Questionnaire was
sent to consultants, designers and others working in the field. Results revealed the main causes,
effects and controls of the change orders in large building projects. This study also evaluates
the change orders control of a selective respondent of contractors and investigates their change
management efficiency by applying an evaluation check list based on most of the evaluation
criteria recognised.

Thirumaran.M, et,al. (2012) in their study Evaluation of Change Factors for Web Service
Change Management proposes a new model for implementing change requests by business
analysts themselves. This model is distinctively done for business analysts to perform changes
in the services on their own instead of depending on the programmers. Furthermore a predictive
model is contrived using cellular automata for supporting business analysts. The predictive
model includes the change factors like order of execution; similarity measure, schema
validation, and mapping function and time/space complexity which appears when a particular
change request is executed.

Todnem, R (2005) in his article Organisational change management: A critical review


argued that the successful management of change is crucial to any organisation in order to
survive and succeed in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business
environment. However, theories and approaches to change management currently available to
academics and practitioners are often contradictory, mostly lacking empirical evidence and
supported by unchallenged hypotheses concerning the nature of contemporary organisational
change management. The purpose of this article is, therefore, to provide a critical review of
some of the main theories and approaches to organisational change management as an
important first step towards constructing a new framework for managing change. The article
concludes with recommendations for further research.

Gill, R (2002) in his article Change Management—or Change Leadership argues that, while
change must be well managed, it also requires effective leadership to be successfully
introduced and sustained. An integrative model of leadership for change is proposed, reflecting
its cognitive, spiritual, emotional and behavioural dimensions and requirements. The model
comprises vision, values, strategy, empowerment, and motivation and inspiration. The paper
concludes with a brief account of the application of the model in varied strategic change
situations.
Pearce, C & Sims, H (2002) in their article Vertical Versus Shared Leadership as
Predictors of the Effectiveness of Change Management Teams: An Examination of
Aversive, Directive, Transactional, Transformational, and Empowering Leader
Behaviors investigated vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of
71 change management teams. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of
a team, whereas shared leadership (C. L. Pearce, 1997; C. L. Pearce & J. A. Conger, in press;
C. L. Pearce & H. P. Sims, 2000) is a group process in which leadership is distributed among,
and stems from, team members. Team effectiveness was measured approximately 6 months
after the assessment of leadership and was also measured from the viewpoints of managers,
internal customers, and team members. Using multiple regression, the authors found both
vertical and shared leadership to be significantly related to team effectiveness ( p< .05),
although shared leadership appears to be a more useful predictor of team effectiveness than
vertical leadership.

Rouibah, K & Caskey, K (2001) in their study Change management in concurrent


engineering from a parameter perspective concerns engineering change management
(ECM) when product development involves more than one company. A review of ECM related
papers finds a lack of those that address multi-company design efforts. This approach is based
upon recent work in collaborative engineering, which uses elementary engineering decisions,
captured as parameters, to drive the collaboration. The relationship between parameters
determines the involvement of suppliers and engineering partners. This allows design partners
to be informed early as to the impact of design changes. We describe the use of this approach
in simultaneous ECM, its implementation within a product data management (PDM) system,
and initial test results.

Eick, S. et,al. (2001) in their article Does Code Decay? Assessing the Evidence from Change
Management Data approach this phenomenon, which we term code decay, scientifically and
statistically. We define code decay and propose a number of measurements (code decay
indices) on software and on the organizations that produce it, that serve as symptoms, risk
factors, and predictors of decay. Using an unusually rich data set (the fifteen-plus year change
history of the millions of lines of software for a telephone switching system), we find mixed,
but on the whole persuasive, statistical evidence of code decay, which is corroborated by
developers of the code.
Aladwani, A (2001) in his article Change management strategies for successful ERP
implementation suggests that the marketing concepts and strategies are adaptable to the ERP
implementation context. In this paper, I argue that successful ERP implementation requires
matching appropriate strategies with the appropriate stage to overcome resistance sources
(habits and perceived risks) effectively. The suggested approach demonstrated how this goal
may be accomplished.

Kramer, J & Magee, J (1990) in their article The Evolving Philosophers Problem: Dynamic
Change Management presents a model for dynamic change management which separates
structural concerns from component application concerns. This separation of concerns permits
the formulation of general structural rules for change at the configuration level without the
need to consider application state, and the specification of application component actions
without prior knowledge of the actual structural changes which may be introduced. In addition,
the changes can be applied in such a way as to leave the modified system in a consistent state,
and cause no disturbance to the unaffected part of the operational system. The model is applied
to an example problem, "evolving philosophers". The principles described in this model have
been implemented and tested in the Conic environment for distributed systems.

OBJECTIVES

The two main objectives which were fulfilled in the previous research papers relating to change
management are as follows:

(1) To build theories and approaches for organisational change management as an important
step towards constructing a new framework for managing change.

(2) To build techniques that help in minimising resistance to change. It appears that the classical
adversarial approach remains the dominant means of managing resistance because such
learning is not reflected in modern management techniques.
NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE

1. Survival and success:

To survive and succeed in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business
environment change management is very important in the organizations. Without change no
organization can grow and expand.

2. Reduce Delays:

To reduce change-associated cost and time delays, change management is very crucial for the
organizations.

3. Mitigating failures:

By enabling the evaluation of change dependencies and effects, change management helps in
controlling and mitigating failure factors in projects.

4. Open minded workplace:

In order to ease tension and create a smooth implementation process, employees are made to
understand changes in a better way. Through this a workplace is created which is open minded
and inviting to change.

5. Transitions:
Change management plays an important role in successful organizational transitions. However,
many organizations find that implementing the right strategy can be challenging.

6. Productivity:

It tends to increase productivity and service in all the departments in an organization.

7. Driving more successful change:


Effective change management drives greater benefit realization and achievement of results and
outcomes. When change management capabilities are built, it ensures greater success on
critical projects and initiatives in the organizations.

8. Handling changes:

Given the amount of and frequency of changes occurring in organizations now-a-days,


becoming better at implementing and handling the change is essential.

9. Preparing the organization for the future:

The horizon for many organizations, and even industries, includes significant changes that are
necessary to remain competitive and successful.

10. Effective change management practices:

For making the change management practices effective across the organizations a standard
approach is followed.

11. Building internal capabilities:

Change management is viewed as an essential organizational capability and individual


competency for employees.

12. Evaluation of Changes:


In order to find out the existing and already occurred changes, predict potential changes and prevent
their impacts, and coordinate changes throughout the entire project, change management is
required.
ANALYSIS:

This study has characterized the status of change management research in light of existing
empirical studies. After reviewing various previous empirical researches, it is analysed that
change management is very important in the achievement of energy efficiency goals in
organisation’s projects. The first objective of this article was to build theories and
approaches for organisational change management. After reviewing various research
papers, we have analysed that Change management is not a distinct discipline with rigid
and defined boundaries. The theory and practice of it draw on a number of social science
disciplines and tradition. Nowadays, organization uses various approaches to manage
change, for example, first, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has emerged to facilitate
efficient information exchange and sharing among different disciplines in an interactive
environment and it has been well developed and widely implemented in the architecture,
engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, second, ADKAR model is used for effective
change management for which employees of organization must have five main qualities:
1-Awarness: awareness about need to change 2-Desire: desire to make the change
happen 3-Kowledge: knowledge about how to change 4- Ability: ability to change 5-
Reinforcment: reinforcement to retain the changes. These five qualifications are necessity
of organizational change, and many more models and approaches.
Our second objective was to build techniques that help in minimising resistance to
change. After reviewing previous research papers, we analysed that resistance to change
occurs mainly due to following reasons: first, difference in the opinion of management
and employees of the organisation, second, instances of resistance workers who simply
do not wish to move offices, third, prefer working near a particular friend, forth,
employees are uncertain of the outcomes of implementing new technology, fifth,
resistance due to political factors such as favouritism or it can be due to poor
management styles like lack of communication or inconsistent messages etc. All this lead
to demoralise people and to a lack of commitment to change. Managing this problem is
very important for the management otherwise it leads to non-fulfilment of goals.
Following are the few techniques to manage this issue: participative techniques are the
best method of handling resistance or it can be manged by providing incentives,
communicating the need for change as well as the impact on employees and the benefits to
the employee etc.

SUGGESTIONS:

There is no one root cause for changes which makes change management a challenging task.
Therefore, even with an abundance of research on change management, there is still room for
improvement. Given the complexity of changes, it is important to identify the processes in
place to manage them. It is clear from the available literature that there is no consensus on how
to manage change. In some instances, it is based on the type of organization and the
environment and in many cases, it is based on the type of changes. Following are the general
suggestions which help in managing change in organisation:

 There should be effective leadership in organisation for managing change.


 Interaction among all levels of staff should be encouraged to create opportunities
for relationship development whereby trust and respect would be earned through
action.
 Employee participation is greatly influenced by the skills and personal style of
those directing the change and directly managing them.
 Many articles mention that organizational leaders should try to challenge the
status quo, increase risk-taking and creativity, and transcend boundaries through
information-sharing and teamwork.
 Start change at the periphery, then let it spread to other units without pushing it
from the top.

REFERENCES:

1. Al-moosa, N. H., & Sharts-hopko, N. (2017). Using Change Management to Redesign


Oman’s Health Professions Education Sector. Health Professions Education, 3(2),
108–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2016.09.001
2. Aladwani, A. M. (2001). Change management strategies for successful ERP
implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 266–275.
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