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INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Teaching the preschoolers is a very challenging task. It involves the value of

nurturing young yet innocent learners and the value of perseverance and endurance of the

teachers. (Sarmiento, 2012)

The Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Law which was enacted in

2000,recognizes the importance of early childhood and its special needs, affirms parents

as primary caregivers and the child's first teachers, and establishes parent effectiveness,

seminars and nutrition counseling for pregnant and lactating mothers. (UNESCO

International Bureau of Education (IBE) Geneva, Switzerland 2006)

Early childhood education experiences according to Barnard (2001) positively

affect later home and school involvement in education.

Preschool teachers play a very important role for a successful learning experience.

It is the child’s first experience ought to foster lifelong love of learning, and generally a

sense of achievement. According to Fu, Stremmel and Hill (2002) an effective teacher

has the ability to engage the children while at the same time offers lessons through

playful and engaging avenues. This ability should include the roles that teacher are

practicing not only for benefit of the children but also for teachers to be assessed in their

roles.
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Sarmiento (2012) observed that the teacher’s roles vary from one another. One of

the problems of preschool teachers is that they do not have formal trainings on the

explicit instruction and support in expanding children’s cognitive and language skills.

School-based early educational programs hire elementary school teachers who may have

undergone trainings on teaching toddlers and still need additional training in child

development, language acquisition, early literacy observation and assessment. This

professional development for preschool staff should be based on knowledge from

scientifically-based research of how children develop their cognitive, language literacy

and others.

Kern, Kruse and Roehrig (2007) found that teacher’s beliefs about teaching and

learning are strongly influencing the curriculum implementation. In other words, once the

teachers are defending the ideology of the curriculum being implemented, then the

performance of the teacher in the real classroom setting is affected positively during

implementation.

In Turkey, a study entitled “Problems that Preschool Teachers Face in the

Curriculum Implementation” found out that there are many problems preschool teachers

face in the curriculum implementation which includes the physical facilities, evaluation,

plans and activities, teaching and learning process , social environment, goals and

objectives.( Erden ,2010).

Teachers’ welcome the universal kindergarten. The need for more competent

teachers, classrooms, and instructional materials increase. According to the Deped


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Secretary, Armin Luistro, one of the problems in implementing the universal

kindergarten is the limited number of permanent teaching positions available and the

qualification of the preschool teachers prompting the department to find alternative

means to fill the gap. Teachers also need to be knowledgeable in teaching with the

prescribed roles that need to be practices.

This study helped determine the extent of practice of classroom roles, problems

encountered and performance rating of kindergarten teachers in selected schools in

Division of Bukidnon school year 2014 -2015.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study aimed to ascertain the kindergarten teacher’s practice of

classroom roles, the problems they encountered and their classroom performance.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the kindergarten teachers in terms of the following

demographic variables :

a. number of years in teaching kindergarten

b. educational qualifications,

c. number of Early Childhood Education seminars attended?

2. What is the level of kindergarten teachers’ practice of classroom roles as:

a. a nurturer

b.an observer
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c. a planner,

d. an interactor,

e. an evaluator,

f. a communicator?

3. What is the level of difficulty of problems encountered by the kindergarten

teacher in the classroom in terms of the following :

a. instructional materials availability,

b. classroom environment,

c. administrative support,

d. parents support,

e. pupils behavior ?

4. What is the level of kindergarten teachers’ performance in the classroom?

5. Is there a significant relationship between kindergarten teacher’s performance,

demographic profile, classroom roles, level of difficulty of problems

encountered?

6. Which variable best predicts the kindergarten teachers’ classroom

performance?

Objectives of the Study

This study was to ascertain the level of kindergarten teacher’s practice of classroom

roles, the problems they encountered and their classroom performance.


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Specifically, it aimed to:

1. describe the profile of the kindergarten teachers in terms of the following

demographic variables:

a. number of years teaching in kindergarten,

b. educational qualifications,

c. number of Early Childhood Education seminars attended;

2. ascertain the level of preschool teacher’s performance of classroom roles

as:

a. a nurturer,

b. a communicator

c. a planner,

d. an interactor,

e. an evaluator,

f. a communicator;

3. determine the level of difficulty of the problems experienced by the

kindergarten teachers in the classroom in terms of the following:

a. instructional materials availability,

b. classroom environment,

c. administrative support,

d. parent’s support,

e. pupil’s behavior ;

4. evaluate the kindergarten teacher’s performance level in the classroom .


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5. correlate classroom performance, demographic profile, practice of classroom

roles, and level of difficulty problems encountered.

6. identify the variables that best predicts teachers’ classroom performance .

Significance of the Study

This study would be significant to the following beneficiaries:

To the kindergarten teachers the result of this study will provide them significant

information about their roles in the development of their classroom performance. It will

also encourage them to enhance their professional growth in handling kindergarten

pupils.

To the school administrators, this study will provide them information about the

roles of kindergarten teachers which will serve as reference in planning for in-service

training and other necessary interventions to improve the quality of instruction.

To the parents, the result of this study will prompt them to perform more their

duties and responsibilities in rearing their children in order to promote children’s total

well-being. As first teachers of their children they can monitor their children’s progress

and can pattern from the preschool teachers practices and use it as reinforcement of their

child at home.

To the community, they will appreciate better the early childhood education

program and the roles of the preschool teachers. This will generate support from the

barangay development plan to further promote and develop the program.


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Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study focused on assessing the extent of the kindergarten teachers’ practice

of classroom roles, level of problems they encountered and their classroom performance

in the selected schools in Division of Bukidnon for the school year 2014-2015. The

subject respondents were the kindergarten regular and kindergarten volunteer teachers in

the districts of Quezon I, Quezon II, Don Carlos I, Maramag I, and Maramag II. Stratified

random sampling design was employed by the study.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as they are used in study for better

understanding.

Administrative Support is everything that school administrators should provide

to their teachers and pupils in school including classroom materials and supplies,

facilitating teacher involvement in the decision making process, and furnishing reliable

mentors for new teachers.

Classroom Environment is a place where teachers get to express their creativity

and mold young minds to learn and love the learning process. A fun environment with

bright, vibrant colors and other mentally stimulating components are what most people

expect when they picture a kindergarten classroom.


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Classroom Practices result to quiet studying, group interaction, team building and

orderly students. Classroom practices include how teachers interact with students in a

group and a one-on-one basis, the way the physical classroom is arranged, and where

students are situated in relation to one another and the teacher. By incorporating the best

classroom practices, a positive environment for learning can be created, and children can

grow in their knowledge.

Classroom Performance Rating is the score teacher obtained from an

evaluation using the competency based appraisal system.

Communicator a person who communicates, especially one skilled at conveying

information, ideas, or policy to the public.

Demographic Profile the characteristics of a human population or part of it,

especially its educational background, number of years in teaching kindergarten and

number of early childhood education seminars attended.

Early Childhood Education is the formal teaching and care of young children by

people other than the family or in settings outside the home. It is also defined as before

the age of formal setting. It child refers to the many skills and milestones that the child

are expected to reach at the age of five. In this study, early childhood development is

education for pre-literate children before the age of six or seven which is according to

(Nissen , 2010)are taught to develop basic skills and knowledge through creative play and

social interaction, as well as sometimes formal lessons.

Educational Qualifications is the skill, quality or attribute that make a person a

person qualified to a certain job.


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Evaluator is an assessor, inspector or surveyor.

Interactor can extend children’s current knowledge and skills through mutual

participation in experiences. The teacher’s goal is to help and encourage the children,

allowing them to develop self-confidence and inner discipline so that there is less needs

Instructional Materials Availability has long been recognized as an important

factor in educational attainment it includes basic learning materials' refers to textbooks,

other reading materials, equipment and tools used for instruction in the first level of

education, such as chalkboards, maps, scissors and simple science equipment as well as

non-durable supplies used by the pupil and teacher, such as notebooks, pencils and chalk.

Kindergarten Teachers refer to those teachers trained or untrained on early

childhood education curriculum assigned in the different schools to teach and handle the

preschool education. It refers to teachers in public and private elementary schools.

Number of years in teaching is equivalent to number of teaching experience as a

preschool teacher.

Nurturer according to Patricia (2010), there are many positive roles every

preschool teacher should possess. One such role is to nurture. Since many of these

children enrolled in preschool are of a young age and new to the school setting, it is

important the preschool teacher nurtures the children and treats them in such a way that

they feel safe and cared for. This helps provide a favourable learning and creative

environment for children.

Observer according to Hyson (2004) during the early childhood years, through

observation the teacher bring close the young child into close contact with reality through
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sensory investigation and practical activity and then relies on the child’s unfolding inner

programs of curiosities and sensitivities to ensure that the child will learn what he or she

needs. This shows that the younger pupil in each level, the teacher is more active

demonstrating the use of materials and presenting activities based on their observation as

an assessment of the child’s requirements.

Parent support has been defined and measured in multiple ways, including

activities that parents engage in at home and at school and positive attitudes parents have

towards their child's education, school, and teacher.

Planner is the one who makes plan. It is said that teachers’ planning and

preparation is the key part of effective teaching. Many teachers already get too little time

to accomplish many tasks. This is relevant to the findings of Back (2007) that educational

policy makers fail to see why more than a few minutes before class, preparation is

necessary.

Problems Encountered are the situations faced by kindergarten teachers in school

which they find it difficult.

Pupils Behavior is the way in which the learners behave inside the classroom.

Role Practices refer to the act perform repeatedly by the preschool teachers in

order to develop the skills in teaching and developing the preschoolers under their care,

such as: nurturer, observer, planner, interactor, evaluator and communicator. It is

something done repeatedly in order to acquire or polish a skills. (Sarmiento, 2012).

Role or social role is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and

norms as conceptualized by actors in a social situation. It is an expected free or


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continuously changing behavior and may have a given individual social status or social

position. It is vital to both functionalist and interactionism understandings of society.

Roles are occupied by individuals, who are called actors.

Seminar a single session or short, often one-day meeting on and discussion of a

specialized topic, usually at an advanced or professional level.

Trainings are process of teaching a skill or job aims to acquire new skills and

knowledge.
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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies of the variable:

classroom roles practiced by kindergarten teachers’, problems faced in the practice of

those roles and their classroom performance. Conceptual framework and the research

paradigm are also found in this chapter.

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Number of years in Teaching Kindergarten

On the deployment of kinder teachers, teaching experience in kinder/preschool

both in public and recognized private schools shall be considered and shall follow

specific criteria indicated in Section 5.3.2 of DepEd Order 12, s. 2012

Teaching experience can be differentiating aspect among preschool teachers in

classroom management skills or selecting and using appropriate methods for teaching in

their classrooms. However, results of this study indicated physical facilities and

evaluation as the most problematic areas for preschool teachers during curriculum

implementation. In terms of problems related physical facilities, solution of which is not

in the hands of being experienced or not, preschool teachers cannot be the first

responsible ones to overcome deficiencies in infrastructure. Moreover, it can be

concluded that parents’ attitude can be the reason of detecting no effect of teaching
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experience in having problems related evaluation. The teachers, regardless of their

teaching experience, may feel uncomfortable when writing an evaluation about a child if

the parents show serious reactions for the evaluation written for their child. So, this may

lead teachers to soften or change their comments related children in evaluation part.

As this is a new aspect both for experienced and inexperienced teachers, this might be

one of the reasons why there is no significant difference among preschool teachers in

relation to their years of teaching experience. Erden,(2008)

Educational Qualifications

Qualifications to be preschool teachers will vary from one state to another but the

abilities and roles practiced by teachers should be instilled in their daily teaching.

(Sarmiento, 2008)

DepEd Order 81, s. 2012, kindergarten teacher-applicants must be a holder of

any of the following degrees: Bachelor in Early Childhood Education (ECE), Bachelor of

Science Preschool Education, Bachelor of Science (BS) in Family Life and Child

Development, Bachelor in Elementary Education with specialization in Preschool or

Early Childhood Education, Bachelor in Elementary Education major in Teaching Early

grades. Also qualified are Bachelor in Secondary Education holders with additional

diploma in ECE including practice teaching in kindergarten education as well as those

who majored in related courses with at least 18 units in ECE/Child Development

including those in Day Care centers. (deped.gov.ph.)


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Luistro said, “We must adhere to quality standards in preparing our young

learners, it therefore follows that our teachers must be equipped with the required

standard as regards competence and qualifications.” DepEd has started implementing

universal kindergarten in all public schools nationwide since 2011 as the entry point in

the K to 12 Basic Education Reform Program. “Kindergarten is mandatory and offered

free in all public schools nationwide as part of their first school experience under K to

12,” Luistro said.

Number of Early Childhood Education Seminars Attended

Early childhood development is defined as “a set of concepts, principles, and

facts that explain, describe and account for the processes involved in change from

immature to mature status and functioning.

Development is generally divided into three broad categories: physical

development, cognitive development, and social emotional development (Berk, 2000).

Physical development addresses any change in the body, including how children grow,

how they move, and how they perceive their environment. Cognitive development

pertains to the mental processes (e.g., language, memory, problem solving) that children

use to acquire and use knowledge. Emotional and social development addresses how

children handle relationships with others, as well as understand of their own feelings.

The ECCD program addresses the long-standing concern with creating an

equitable platform for learning and providing the best start for all children, by ensuring
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that every Filipino child has access to some form of ECCD and school readiness

programs before UNICEF, in collaboration with government and non-government

partners, supports ECCD initiatives and participates in promoting parental awareness and

appreciation of the value of ECCD. (www.unicef.org/philippines/8900.html).

Classroom Roles of Kindergarten Teachers

Preschool teachers play a very important role for a successful learning experience.

It is the child’s first experience ought to foster lifelong love of learning, and generally a

sense of achievement. (Sarmiento, 2012)

According to Fu, Stremmel and Hill (2002) an effective teacher has the ability

to engage the children while at the same time offers lessons through playful and engaging

avenues. This ability should include the roles that teacher are practicing not only for

benefit of the children but also for teachers to be assessed in their roles. (Sarmiento,

2012)

Qualifications to be preschool teachers will vary from one state to another but the

abilities and roles practiced by teachers should be instilled in their daily teaching.

(Sarmiento, 2012)

The preschool teacher’s role have become very important because of the need for

the teachers to teach preschool classes due to the implementation of K+12 or universal

kindergarten which was based from the Senate Resolution No. 499 K- 12 Education

Program. The enhanced K-12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been
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officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students have

to undergo a new system of education. .

The K-12 program will require all incoming students to enrol into two or more

years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 systems will basically include all the Universal

Kindergarten, 6 years Elementary, 4 years of junior high school and additional 2 years of

senior high school. (Sarmiento, 2012)

According to Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT), the universal

kindergarten program expects to enrol 2.5 million children. About 30,000 teachers will be

hired to serve these new kindergarten pupils. The preschool teachers should be trained

and we’ll be equipped with regards to their role practices and responsibility as preschool

teachers. This is parallel to the study of New (2000) that the overall level of highly

trained staff, particularly teachers, is important in terms of preschool quality and

outcomes for children. This shows that through trainings there will be an increase in the

level of teacher’s ability in practicing their roles and responsibility in teaching in teaching

as preschool teachers. (Sarmiento, 2012)

Classroom Role of Kindergarten Teachers as a Nurturer

According to Patricia (2010), there are many positive roles every preschool teacher

should possess. One such role is to nurture. Since many of these children enrolled in

preschool are of a young age and new to the school setting, it is important the preschool

teacher nurtures the children and treats them in such a way that they feel safe and cared
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for. This helps provide a favourable learning and creative environment for children.

(Sarmiento, 2012)

Researchers in the field and early childhood educators both view the parents as an

integral part of early childhood education process. Often educators refer to parents as the

child’s first and best teacher who nurtures their child in every aspect. (Sarmiento, 2012)

Bergen, Reid and Torreli (2001) stated that much of the first three years in life is

spent in the creation of child’s first “sense of sell” or the building of a first identity. This

is crucial part of children’s make up hoe they first see themselves, how they think they

should function, how they expect others should function in relation to them. For this

reason, nurturing and early care must ensure that in addition to employing carefully

selected and trained caretakers, program policy must emphasize links with family, home

culture, and home language, meaning preschool teachers must uniquely care for each

child.

According to the study of Thomas and Chess (2006), if a young child does not

receive sufficient nurturing, nutrition, parental/preschool teachers’ interaction, and

stimulus during the crucial period, the child may be left with a developmental deficit. It

hampers his or her success in preschool and beyond. Children should receive attention

and affection from parents and mentors to develop them in a healthy manner.

Nurturing a child encompasses all aspects of development: social, emotional,

cognitive, and physical. In every action, a teacher should nurture appropriate growth and

development. This indicator as a role of preschool teacher is very important in order to


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support and sustain the need of the children in developing as a whole person. (Sarmiento,

2012)

Preschool teachers fulfil the role as a nurturer and a role model. Small children

need positive encouragement and love; preschool teachers have to compliment children

tell them what a good job they are doing, how much they are making their parents and

teachers proud, and how kind, talented and creative they are. This is in relation to the

study of Coplan (2007) that preschool teachers have the responsibility to boost self-

esteem of their students. They should also be a positive role model: preschool teachers

should be patience and flexibility, and speak only in a way they wouldn’t mind their

children emulating.

Classroom Role of Kindergarten Teachers as an Observer

According to Hyson (2004) during the early childhood years, through

observation the teacher bring close the young child into close contact with reality through

sensory investigation and practical activity and then relies on the child’s unfolding inner

programs of curiosities and sensitivities to ensure that the child will learn what he or she

needs. This shows that the younger pupil in each level, the teacher is more active

demonstrating the use of materials and presenting activities based on their observation as

an assessment of the child’s requirements. (Sarmiento, 2012)


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It was also pointed out by Demham (2004)that dependent and conflicting

teacher-child relationships, may interfere in child’s ability to participate in school

experience and negatively influence their learning and academic achievement. When the

children encounter new experience or change, the teacher should observe the child’s

responses and determine the level to which responses and determine the level of

experience causes stress. These observations allow the teacher to determine the level of

support the child may require to feel secure.

According to Keogh (2003) when teachers organize child centered classroom

environments they are preparing an emotional climate that is conducive to learning. Thus,

as educators they cause learning communities in which children are valued; children

experience psychological safety and security.

As it was observed, it is essential to be constantly observing and feeling the

individual children. According to some teachers, children were not treated all equally

because it is the simplest observation that every child is different from others, and they

need an approach in teaching that will fit their abilities and behaviour. Thus, the teacher

should have constant understanding to honour and value the rights of children under the

Constitution and to show respect to their thoughts and feelings (Sarmiento, 2012).

Classroom Role of Kindergarten Teachers as a Planner

Teachers’ planning and preparation is the key part of effective teaching. Many

teachers already get too little time to accomplish many tasks. This is relevant to the
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findings of Back (2007) that educational policy makers fail to see why more than a few

minutes before class, preparation is necessary. Paperwork, lesson planning, preparing

materials and the environment, and negotiating require teachers to have strong

management skills. Managing a classroom needs organizational skills, attention to detail

and commitment.

Airasian (2004) stated that the teachers must care to listen to a child including

interpreting words and action. Listening carefully helps teachers determine a child’s

needs and aids in furthering the child’s development.

One of the most important parts of teaching takes place along before the teacher

begins any lesson. Planning, developing and organizing instruction are a major part of

any teacher’s job. If teacher is effective at planning their lessons, they will find that their

day- to-day teaching tasks are much easier. As planner, the preschool teachers plan

appropriate learning experiences for individual child and the whole group.

(Sarmiento,2012)

A good plan includes consideration of what should happen, why, to or with

whom, when and how. Coplan (2007) stressed that goals should be set for each class and

each child. Teacher must be careful how they say, because ideally, the child is in charge

of his education. As teachers, they must provide an environment where the child can

explore and learn what is needed. At this age, they have just come out of a stage of three

years where they have learned a certain order to the world, have learned many language

skills and have learned a lot of social skills.


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Planning is made because it results in better teaching and more participative

learning. It is a means to an end, not an end itself. It is eventually an experience for

anticipatory teaching. Teachers make daily plans for all activities in all subject areas.

Thomas and Chess (2006) suggested that the creation of emotional healthy,

nurturing classroom requires careful organization of the physical environment,

predictable routines. Appropriate play activities and a positive emotional climate support

emotional competence, environment expectations and demands which reflect the unique

nature of the children in the classroom and establish a “good fit” with each child. The

characteristics and behaviour style of each child must be respected and should be

considered in planning both the physical and social environment within the classroom.

Patricia (2005) stated that good planning is the first step to an effective classroom,

and one of the six main teacher character tasks that excellent teachers should master. A

well-planned class reduces stress on the teacher and helps minimize disruptions. When

the teachers know what they want to accomplish and how they are going to do it they

have a better opportunity to achieve success with the added benefit of less stress.

Classroom Role of Kindergarten Teachers as an Interactor

Teachers as interactors can extend children’s current knowledge and skills through

mutual participation in experiences. The teacher’s goal is to help and encourage the

children, allowing them to develop self-confidence and inner discipline so that there is

less needs to intervene as the child develops. Fu, Stremmel and Hill (2002) stated that in
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the early childhood years the teacher brings the young child into close contact with reality

through sensory investigation and practical activity and relies on the child’s unfolding

inner program of curiosities and sensitivities to ensure that the child learned what he or

she needs. With the young pupils at each level, the teacher is more active, demonstrating

the use of materials and presenting activities based on an assessment of the child’s

requirements.

According to Breedekamp & Coople (2001) being an early childhood teacher

requires to be willing to wear many hats. As an experienced teacher, they are already

prepared to be flexible. As a new teacher, the job description may change on a daily

basis. In most cases the roles of an early childhood teacher will be very similar to

interactors. As an early childhood teacher, they are challenge to find new experiences to

share with children.

Early childhood teachers support learning by providing activities and materials

that children find engaging. By facilitating learning, supplying a developmentally

appropriate environment, interesting materials, and adequate time to explore, play and

interact, children find learning easy and fun.

According to Philips (2004) interacting relationships with teachers are responsive

to children’s unique needs necessary to foster healthy development in many areas,

including self-regulation and peer relationship.

According to Demham (2004), teacher generally plays a performance role in the

classroom as he or she leads or models many whole-group activities involving the

interaction of the academic and the artistic with an explicit spirituality. Motivation is a
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fundamental aspect of successful learning. Interaction gives learners the opportunity to

use language successfully and to measure their progress which in turn should lead in an

increase in motivation

Airasian (2004) indicated that children are assessed by mean other than traditional

tests and grades. Instead, parents receive extensive descriptive information about their

children daily life and progress and share in culminating productions of performances.

Portfolios or other products of children’s individual and group work may be displayed

and sent home at key intervals and transitions.

According to Sheridan (2009), preschool constitute the first step of educational

system. Despite along preschool tradition, an academic teacher education and

comprehensive preschool system, nevertheless have limited knowledge of the

constitution of teaching as a professional in preschool.

Hemmeter and Ostrosky (2006) stated that during daily routines, and activities,

one of the teacher’s important roles is to carefully observed and evaluate children’s

specific behaviours and responses. These evaluations help the teacher create as an

emotional profile of the child and serve to guide the children’s behaviour and responses,

applying supportive strategies and role modelling.

All instruction should be built around assessment. Back (2007) stated that when a

teacher sits down to develop a lesson, they begin by determining how they will measure

whether the pupils learned and what they are trying to teach. While the instruction is the

meat of the course, the assessments are the measure of success. It is important that

teachers spend some time creating and refining assessments for their students.
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Classroom Role of Kindergarten Teachers as a Communicator

Preschool teachers communicate with many people throughout the day: parents,

children and administrators. Early childhood teachers prepare to communicate with all of

these people. Teachers must feel comfortable opening up, asking questions, seeking

advice and sharing their experiences.

For a child, successful preschool experience is very much dependent on quality of

teachers. If they have been treated, communicated and taught well, children always be

inclined to go back to schools. It is the role and responsibility of preschool teachers to

instil a sense of comfort and lifelong love of learning in the child.

There is evidence that these practices support the development of young

children. Kontos and colleagues (2002) found that preschool aged children experience

more complex interactions with peers when engaged in creative activities than other types

of activities (e.g., language arts or gross motor).

In Kontos, et al., the creative activities were those that were open ended without a

finished product expected. McCormick and colleagues (2003) evaluated the 25 top-

performing primary programs in Kentucky and found that one variable that differentiated

those classrooms from the lowest performing classrooms was the provision of choice in

selection of materials and activities. This study supports that the use of developmentally

appropriate practices in primary classrooms positively impacts child outcomes.

A challenge in defining developmentally appropriate teaching strategies has been

the emphasis on child-centered approaches. Whereas child-centered approaches originate


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from constructivist theory, didactic or teacher-directed instruction originates from a

behaviorist perspective (Stipek, 2004). Because of the theoretical orientation from which

child-centered practices derive, some have viewed them as synonymous with

developmentally appropriate practices.

Stipek (2004) found that teachers serving large numbers of low achieving

children were more likely to use direct instruction than child-centered instructional

techniques.

Grisham-Brown, Hemmeter, and Pretti-Frontczak (2005) argue that in blended

programs where teachers encounter groups of children with wide ability levels, it is

appropriate for teachers to employ the full continuum of teaching behaviors.

Grisham-Brown and colleagues (2005) indicate that collaboration between

educators, families, and other support personnel is essential for implementing a high

quality curriculum for children in blended classrooms.

As of 2008, over 40 states and the District of Columbia have developed pre-

kindergarten standards, many across all areas of development (Neuman&Roskos, 2005).

The arrival of standards into programs serving children from birth to 8 years of age has

challenged those who want to ensure the implementation of developmentally appropriate

practices during a standards-based climate that emphasizes accountability.

Goldstein (2007) found in a qualitative study that kindergarten teachers could

address content standards in a developmentally appropriate manner by “recognizing and

building on the curricular stability in kindergarten, employing instructional approaches

that accommodate the children's developmental needs, setting limits, acquiescing to


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demands for developmentally inappropriate practices and materials, engaging in

proactive education and outreach, accepting additional responsibilities, and making

concessions” .

Grisham-Brown (2008) and Gronlund (2006) have proposed that curricula driven

by early learning standards can be appropriate, if standards are addressed at different

levels, depending on the needs of the children.

Specific guidelines are available regarding children's development. The National

Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the Division for Early

Childhood (DEC) advocate the use of authentic assessment practices as the primary

approach for assessing young children (Division for Early Childhood, 2007; National

Association for the Education of Young Children and National Association of Early

Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education, 2003).

Authentic assessment strategies involve documenting learning and development of

children during real-life activities and routines by familiar adults Bagnato ( 2005).

Research has shown that many teachers prefer authentic assessment approaches

over more traditional assessment methods and there are positive relationships between

the use of authentic assessment practices, other classroom practices, and child outcomes

Bagnato, (2005).

Appropriate assessment practices for young children have been compromised by

the accountability climate in education in the early 2000s. Early childhood leaders have

advocated the use of authentic assessment approaches for accountability purposes,


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indicating that these methods are more appropriate for young children (Meisels et al.,

2003; Neisworth & Bagnato, 2004; Grisham-Brown, 2008).

Emerging research shows that authentic assessment approaches, used for

accountability purposes, can yield technically adequate assessment data (Grisham-Brown,

Pretti-Frontczak, & Hallam, in press), thereby not compromising the results of high-

stakes assessment.

Grisham-Brown and colleagues (2005) provide specific examples of how to

involve families in child assessment, selection of children's priorities, and curriculum

development.

Preschool teachers teaching practices could be vitally important in developing the

different skills needed by the children in preparation for their school work. Such skills

include the development of motor skills, cognitive skills, socio-emotional skills and time

management skills.

Better-educated teachers have more positive, sensitive and responsive interactions

with children, provide richer language and cognitive experiences, and are less

authoritarian, punitive and detached. The result is better social, emotional, linguistic, and

cognitive development for the child (Barnett, 2004).

Development is generally divided into three broad categories: physical

development, cognitive development, and social emotional development (Berk, 2000).

Physical development addresses any change in the body, including how children grow,

how they move, and how they perceive their environment. Cognitive development

pertains to the mental processes (e.g., language, memory, problem solving) that children
28

use to acquire and use knowledge. Emotional and social development addresses how

children handle relationships with others, as well as understand of their own feelings.

Problems Encountered By Kindergarten Teachers

Edith (2000) said that there were many problems they encounter in teaching

kindergarten classes. One of those is lack of in service trainings and budgets for the

instructional materials for the teachers. This in service trainings and seminars are very

important for the continuous knowledge and skills that the kindergarten teachers should

gain.

Kindergarten teachers also have a problem in planning, because of insufficient

and unavailability of instructional materials that prevent them from giving the needed

activities for the pupils. This is explained from the study of Azzi-Lessing (2009) that

deficiencies in providing materials negatively affect the kindergarten teachers’

performance of implementing the activities.

In addition, the kindergarten teachers complained about the absence of

administrative support for the needed instructional materials of the pupils. In

kindergarten, emphasis on the art and visual is a common theme because parents want to

see something concrete on the output of their children.

Philips (2004) stated that kindergarten teacher must also cater to the basic needs

of the children by ensuring and providing them a comfortable nurturer environment for

the little ones within their core.


29

In the Philippines, Dela Fuente (2005) and Bautista (2008) conducted a study

about the implementation of kindergarten education revealed that kindergarten teacher

were least competent in implementing services to preschool children and providing

enrichment activities. The teachers were moderately competent in providing nutrition and

health care. The practices of the preschool teachers in implementation of preschool

education provide significant effect to the improvement of the health status of the

preschoolers. The number of healthy children had increased significantly after program.

When the preschool teachers were compared based on the age and experience, it was

found out that there was significant difference in the competencies of the preschool

teacher’s.

Finally, in the study of Costales (2007) about the effect of preschool education to

children’s performance of those was stayed in their home. It also revealed that the

preschool teachers who were performing their roles satisfactorily improve the

performance of the preschoolers. The preschool teachers have also encountered problems

on lack of parental and community support in carrying activities of preschool education.

Problems Encountered in Terms of Instructional Materials Availability

The abundance and quality of the materials and equipment in schools do influence

the behavior and attitudes of students and teachers. Given a favorable environment,

adequate reading materials, strong parental tutoring and favorable classroom lead to

development of interest and positive outlook of the child (Saguinhon, 2001).


30

Problems Encountered in Terms of Classroom Environment

Preschool teachers explained that crowded classrooms cause a decrease in the

overall quality of the education carried out in classroom settings. For teachers, first of all,

this eliminates the one-to-one interaction with children. Teachers had to deal with the

overall performance of the children rather than finding a chance to interact with each

child individually. Also, the more children preschool teachers have in the classroom, the

more they get tired physically and this affects their classroom performance accordingly

another consequence of being in small classroom environment is the increase in

aggressive behavior among children. The preschool teachers emphasized that when there

is less personal space left to each child, they cannot move freely as to express themselves.

For teachers, it is unrealistic to expect 5-6 year-olds to sit on their chairs for long hours.

Children are full of energy and have to move to release their energy however small

classroom environment prevents their free movements so this results in aggression among

the children in the classroom. Erden, (2010)

The school environment is important to child’s performance. Despite the different

pupil’s outcomes and the variety of determinants a school effect is evident. Children

spend a considerable amount of their lives in school and school environment is therefore

of importance to a child’s outcomes. Research within the framework of effective schools

has established that factors in the school environment play part in pupil’s performance

(Coronado, 2011).
31

The success of a school system could be measured in terms of pupils’ academic

performance with a clean and safe environment where learning takes place. Hence, the

school as an agency in the community has the responsibility in improving the

environmental conditions. The most common factors which affect the learning process

are the intellectual, physical, emotional, and social factors that may be found in the

individual himself. Health, sanitation, and environmental improvement should be geared

to the needs of the pupils or the community in general (Aguilar, 2009).

The success of a school system could be measured in terms of pupils’ academic

performance with a clean and safe environment where learning takes place. Hence, the

school, as an agency in the community has the responsibility in improving the

environmental conditions (Aguilar, 2009).

Saguinhon (2001) said that the physical environment of the school or classroom

affects the behavior of people and their attributes to school and learning. He also added

that the scholastic performance of the student is highly influenced by the type of school

buildings and equipment for learning available for them. Poor classroom buildings and

accommodation in rural areas are highly evident than in urban areas. Given a favorable

environment, adequate reading materials, strong parental tutoring and favorable

classroom lead to development of interest and positive outlook of the child.


32

Problems Encountered in Terms of Administrative Support

Educational administration involves the management of learning materials,

teaching agents and processes that affects the environment of an educational institution.

Monitoring the activity within these institutions allows for more effective setting to learn

and increase mental capacity for all the students and instructors alike.

Ladd (2009), use administrative and survey data on North Carolina School. She

finds that teachers’ perceptions of school leadership, measured through school –level

averages of responses to school climate surveys, are most predictive of teachers’

intentions to remain in the school or to find alternative jobs. Ladd’s finding is in keeping

with other research that also finds effects of school leadership.

Khedekar (2011) explained that the school management, referred as educational

management in general, embraces planning at macro levels with goals, principles,

approaches and procedures for micro level institutional planning and administration. She

also expounded that through educational management, decision making and problem

solving will be easy along with communicating and managing information and building

effective items.

Khedekar (2011) used the System Approach in a school setting where ingredients

of effective school management are congested in one single concept. Inputs include

physical resources (infrastructure, facilities, physical environment, building classrooms);

curriculum resources (activities, time frame, subject matters, instruction material) and

human resources (leader, non-teaching staff, and administrative body process comprise
33

the teaching-learning process, strategies, methods, media for teaching, relationship

(student-principal, student-teacher, student-peer). Outputs consists attainment of

instructional objectives, academic of student and attitudinal change.

Problems Encountered in Terms of Parent’s Support

Saguinhon (2001) stated that every person has a unique way of dealing with life.

It is an individual’s option to develop his or her skills and to achieve the demands of life.

The success or failure of a person depends to a large extent on his early training at home

and in school.

Concerned parents naturally want their children to grow with a positive self-

image (Tumangday, 2002). Effective parents know that the children blossom when they

receive encouragement and praise, much like flowers that receive sun and water. Gould

(2001) wisely notes that children respond best to those acts and words that they perceive

as encouraging, and worst to punishment and degrading comments, which inflict

encouragement. Encouragement enables. Discouragement disables.

Good parents model the virtues of honesty, integrity, compassion, kindness,

loyalty, perseverance, etc. that they hope to instill in their children. They make certain

that their deeds match their creeds and their acts are consistent with their words. Good

fathers and mothers live normal imprints on their children for the rest of their lives (Para

chin, 2008).
34

White (2001) stated that no other job on earth is more complicated, more

demanding, or more time-consuming than that of rearing children. Yet many parents take

on this high calling with less formal training than they received while learning the ABCs.

Training children is not simply a matter of doing the right things. It is being the right kind

of person. It is not about technique, it is about who and what we are.

Parents are highly sensitive and vulnerable if it is ever implied that their child

might lack something in mental abilities. Parents of slow learners should deemphasize the

importance of academic excellence and focus instead on the child’s strengths and good

qualities. The worth of the individual must not be measured by his/her IQ (Pelt, 2010).

Through proper discipline, children learn how to function in a family and society

that is full of boundaries, rules, and laws by which we all must abide. With it, children

gain a sense of security, protection, and often feel accomplished. Without proper

discipline, children are at risk for a variety of behavioral and emotional problems.

Moreover, children cannot grow up to be healthy, happy well-functioning adults

unless they are genuinely loved by their parents. Children need to know they are special,

important, and irreplaceable; otherwise they will not be able to get past this much need

affirmation. They will seek to find it in drugs, bad relationships, and rebellion. They will

not be equipped emotionally to stand toe to toe with pear pressure.

It is important to model the language you want to hear from your child. If you

treat your child with respect, and speak politely to him, you can expect the same in

return. This is important not just for courtesy, but also because it keeps your relationship
35

on a healthy level and teaches her the skills he will need for adult life (Copper et al.,

2008).

Parents should respect their children as members of God’s creation. Parents

should treat children with the dignity they deserve. They should be courteous and kind as

well as firm and consistent. Parents should also look for the good in the child rather than

dwell on the bad. They need to respect their children’s feelings to have them more willing

to cooperate. “Courteous treatment defuses a child’s resistance. Treat a child with respect

and you will have a better chance of getting the same in return” (Kuzma, 2009).

The home is the first school where the education of the child is to begin. Here,

with his parents as instructors, he is to learn the lessons that are to guide him throughout

life – lessons of respect, obedience, reverence, and self-control. The educational

influences of the home are a decided power for good or for evil (White, 2001).

Parents believe that education is a lifelong learning process and that education is a

service that should and must be available to all people at all times regardless of the age

when they demand this important service. Be it a parent, youth or senior citizen, if the

education system can be of service to him, then he responds to it (Francisco, 2002).

Problems Encountered in Terms of Pupil’s Behavior

Pupils need to be made accountable for their work, and there should be some

consequences for low effort. But punishment has to be used judiciously for the positive

effect to outweigh the negative. And to some extent, punishment should not be given for
36

the poor performance if there is evidence that the student has done his or her best

(Francisco, 2002).

Kindergarten Teachers’ Classroom Performance

The teachers are important component of the school system. In them lies the

success and failure of the teaching-learning process. Their greatest task is the formal

acquisition of learning experiences for children and youth. The teacher who is

responsible as facilitator of learning must be dynamic and committed enough to employ

some techniques to make learning more effective, more concrete, more realistic,

challenging and capable of maintaining the learners’ interests.

A teacher must have patience, perseverance, and understanding about the child.

These are effective tools for the success of teaching and learning. A teacher who teaches

in any field must have the innate love for children and love of teaching profession. The

key to happy school atmosphere is very often simply the fact that teacher likes the

children and let them know and feel it. A teacher can cause class to be involved with the

important happiness that they consider a special mission to spread good cheer until it is

felt throughout the entire school (Saguinhon, 2001).

Lamban (2008) reported in his studies that teachers’ competence and practices

best predicts pupil’s cognitive performance. Competent teachers with positive

instructional practices encourage their pupils perform better than those who are under
37

with low performing teachers. He further stressed that teachers play important role in the

learning process

Conceptual Framework

Piaget’s cognitive development theory claims that a child’s development is

essentially the emulation of the learning acquired from experience within the

environment and that development is the result of explicit and implied teaching by other

people so that accordingly, environment plays a great role in human development as cited

by Ayco (2009). The focus of this theory is the development of the natural thought from

birth to adulthood. Understanding the theory depends on an understanding of both the

biological assumptions from which it is derived and the implications of those

assumptions for defining knowledge (Bulosan, 2008).

Working with preschool children is a serious responsibility that the preschool

teachers play in the early childhood development .They served many roles that permit a

focus on the whole child. All aspects of preschooler development and learning including

contact and cooperation with the children’s family are within the teachers’ domain.

In the handbook of Limena (2008) the many roles played by the preschool

teachers are divided into the following categories namely: nurturer, observer, planners,

interactors, evaluators and communicators.

Hemmeter and Ostrosky (2006) stated that during daily routines, and activities,

one of the teacher’s important roles is to carefully observe and evaluate children’s
38

specific behaviours and responses. These evaluations help the teacher create an

emotional profile of the child and serve to guide the children’s behaviour and responses,

applying supportive strategies and role modelling. If they have been treated,

communicated and taught well, children always be inclined to go back to schools. It is the

role and responsibility of preschool teachers to instil a sense of comfort and lifelong love

of learning in the child.


39

Research Paradigm

Independent Variables Dependent Variable

Demographic variables

a. number of years teaching in


kindergarten,
b. educational qualifications,
c. number of ECE seminars attended;

Classroom roles : Kindergarten

; a. nurturer, Teacher’s Classroom


b. observer,
c. planner, Performance.
d. interactor,
e. evaluator
f. communicator

Difficulty of the Problems Encountered:

a. instructional materials availability,


b. classroom environment,
c. administrative support,
d. parent’s support,
e. pupil’s behavior ;

Figure 1.The research paradigm showing the relationship between the independent variables and dependent
variables.
40

Hypothesis of the Study

The following null hypotheses were formulated and to be tested at 0.05 level of

significance:

1. There is no significant relationship between the kindergarten teacher’s

classroom performance, demographic profile, classroom roles, and

difficulty problems encountered.

2. There is no variable that best predicts kindergarten teacher’s classroom

performance.
41

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods and procedures which were used in this study.

It includes the research design, locale of the study, participants and the sampling

procedure, research instruments, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of

data.

Research Design

In this study, the researcher was using a descriptive –correlational research

design. It is descriptive because it aims to describe teachers’ level of practice of

classroom roles, problems faced and teachers’ performance. This study also deals with

the relationship of teachers’ practice of their roles and problems encountered in relation

to teachers’ performance.

Locale of the Study

The investigation was conducted in the Department of Education in the

selected schools of the Division of Bukidnon , in School year 2014-2015. Bukidnon

is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the North Mindanao region. Its

capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders ,clockwise staring from the north is

Misamis Oriental ,Agusan del Sur ,Davao del Norte ,Cotabato ,Lanao del Sur , and Lanao
42

del Norte. According to the Census of Population by the National Statistics Office (

NSO) the province is inhabited by 1,299,192 residents.

The name “Bukidnon” means “highlander” or “mountain dweller”.Bukidnon is

considered to be the food basket of Mindanao. It is the major producer of rice and corn in

the region. Plantations in the province also produce pineapples, bananas and sugarcane.

Division of Bukidnon is divided into two; the north and south .It has a total of 33

districts. The researcher conducted the study to the selected public elementary schools in

the South District of the Division and 104 kindergarten teachers were employed as

respondents in this study. The figure 1 in page 41 shows the locale of the study.
43

C
A
B
.

Figure 1. Map of Bukidnon highlighting the locale of the study in Division of


Bukidnon

Legend:
A. Quezon Districts I and II
B. Don Carlos District I
C. Maramag Districts I and II
44

The Participants and the Sampling Procedure

The respondents of the study were kindergarten teachers in the public

elementary schools in the Department of Education, in selected Districts of Division of

Bukidnon school year 2014-2015.

Table 1. Distribution of the respondents in the selected districts of Division of


Bukidnon
NAME OF DISTRICTS NUMBER OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS

1.Quezon I District 40
2.Quezon II District 24
3.Don Carlos I District 12
4.Maramg I District 18
5.Maramag II District 10
TOTAL 104

Research Instruments

The researcher used a survey questionnaire as the main tool to assess the

classroom roles practiced by kindergarten teachers, the problems they met in the practice

of their roles and the Competency - Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers

(CB-PAST). The instrument was composed of four parts. It will make use of the Likert

Scale with a rating of 1 to 5.

The first part includes the personal background of kindergarten teachers’ which

includes the number of years in teaching kindergarten, educational qualifications and


45

kindergarten seminars and trainings they had attended. The teachers need to check and

list down their corresponding answers.

This instrument was pre-tested to groups of preschool teachers . The data

were gathered, tabulated and tested for validity and reliability through SPSS and resulted

a high reliability with the Cronbach’s Alpha Numeric Coefficient of .899 for the

kindergarten teachers’ practice of classroom roles indicators and a Cronbach’s Alpha

Numeric Coefficient of .974 for the problems encountered by the kindergarten teachers’

indicators

The second part was on the kindergarten teacher performance of classroom

roles. These roles include; as a nurturer, as an observer, as a planner, as an interactor, as

an evaluator and as a communicator. The responses of the respondents for each item will

be gauged on the 5 point Likert Scale with: always- 5 points; often - 4 points;

occasionally-3 points, seldom-2 points and never- 1 point. The questions are adapted

from the handbook of pre-schoolers by Limena (2008).

A criterion which served as guide in determining the appropriate description and

values of the results was based on the following:

Scale Interval Qualitative Description Qualifying Statement

5 4.20-5.0 Always Practice Role is practiced all the time


4 3.40-4.19 Often Practice Role is practiced most of the time
3 2.60-3.39 Occasionally Practice Role is practiced sometimes
2 1.80-2.59 Seldom Practice Role is practiced rarely
1 1.00-1.79 Never Practice Role is not practiced at all

The third part includes the problem faced by kindergarten teachers in the practice of

their classroom roles. This includes the instructional materials availability, classroom
46

environment, administrative support, and parent support and pupils behavior inside the

classroom.

The following scale was used for problems they faced:

Scale Interval Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation


5 4.20-5.0 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic
4 3.40-4.19 Disagree Not Problematic
3 3.60-3.39 Undecided Moderately Problematic
2 1.80-2.59 Agree Less Problematic
1 1.00-1.79 Strongly Agree Not Problematic

The fourth part includes the performance rating of kindergarten teachers in

the practice of their classroom roles. The questions are adapted from the Competency -

Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST).Old and new

kindergarten teachers both regular and volunteer answered the performance rating.

A criterion which served as guide in determining the appropriate description and

values of the results was based on the following:

Scale Appraisal Rating Qualitative Interpretation


3.51 and above Outstanding No performance index of below proficient in any of
the standards.
2.51 and above Very Satisfactory No performance index value of below basic in any
of the standards.
1.51- 2.50 Satisfactory No performance index value of below basic in any
of the standards.
1.00 and above Below Basic With at least one performance index values below
basic in any of the standards.
47

Data Gathering Procedure

The following steps were done in gathering data for this study. First, the

researcher asked permission from the Schools Division Superintendent to conduct the

study. Once permission was obtained; written permission were given to administrators to

conduct the study in their respective schools. The second step was the administration and

retrieval of questionnaires. The survey questionnaire was given to the respondent of

the study and was personally retrieved by the researcher or retrieved by friends. When

answering was done, the questionnaire was retrieved right away.

Lastly, the data gathered were analyzed, and the results obtained were

interpreted.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

The following statistical tools were used in the analysis and interpretation of data.

Descriptive statistics was used to describe the performance levels of kindergarten

teachers, practice of classroom roles, and extent of difficulty of problems encountered.

Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to determine the strength of

relationship and multiple linear regression analysis were used to determine the extent of

contribution/influence of the independent variables to teacher’s performance rating.


48

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the results of the study on

the practice of classroom roles, extent of difficulty of problems encountered and

performance of kindergarten teachers. The order of presentation follows the sequence of

the problems identified in the study. The first part describes the professional

qualifications of kindergarten teachers. The second part portrays the correlation of the

kindergarten teachers’ classroom performance, practice of classroom roles and extent of

difficulty of problem’s encountered. The third part presents the variable that best predicts

kindergarten teacher’s performance.

Profile of Kindergarten Teachers

The kindergarten teachers’ profile in terms of their numbers of years in teaching,

educational qualifications and numbers of seminars attended during the school year

2014-2015 were presented in Table 1.

Number of Years in Teaching Kindergarten

The distribution of respondents according to number of teaching experience,

educational attainment and number of seminars attended is found in Table 1. In the

Number of Years of teaching Kindergarten , 33 (31.7%) respondents have 2 years of

experience, followed by 24 (23.1%) respondents and 32 (15.4%) respondents each

reached 3 to 4 years of teaching experience in kindergarten, 11 (10.6%) respondents


49

have 5 years teaching experience, 3 (2.9%) respondents have 6 years teaching experience

and only 1 respondent had taught one year. It implies that majority of the preschool

teachers have only 2 years of teaching experience as a kindergarten teacher.

This finding is very true since the kindergarten in public schools officially started

only 2 years ago and this is its third year. The findings revealed that kinder teachers

taught kinder only when the K-12 began.

Table 2. Distribution of respondents according to number of years in teaching


kindergarten.

Number of Years in Teaching Kindergarten FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


(N=104) (%)
1 24 23.1
2 33 31.7
3 16 15.4
4 16 15.4
5 11 10.6
6 3 2.9
1 1 1.0
Total 104 100

Educational Qualification

Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage of the kindergarten teachers’

educational qualifications in order to teach kindergarten pupils. Majority, 63 or (60.6%),

finished BS ECED with preschool training, BEED with preschool units or BEED with or

without preschool trainings; 38 or (36.5%) of the respondents are BEED graduate with

MA units in ECED/MAED. Only 3 teachers (2.9%) obtained Masteral degrees.


50

Table 3. Distribution of respondents according to educational qualifications of


kindergarten teachers.

Educational Qualifications FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


(N=64) (%)
1. BS ECED or 63 60.6
BEED with preschool units,
BEED with or without preschool trainings
2.BEED with MA units in ECED/ 38 36.5
MAED
3.MA graduate in ECED /MAED 3 2.9
Total 104 100

The table implies that most of the teachers (60.6%) who taught kindergarten in

selected schools in the Division of Bukidnon were either BS ECED, BEED with

preschool units or BEED without preschool trainings. There were only 3 or 2.9% who

have Masteral degrees in either ECED or MAED. Kindergarten teachers who have

Masteral units are 38 or 36.5%.

The findings are in line with what the Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) said

that “The preschool teachers should be trained and will be equipped with regards to their

role practices and responsibility as preschool teachers. This is parallel to the study of

New (2000) that the overall level of highly trained staff, particularly teachers, is

important in terms of preschool quality and outcomes for children. This shows that

through trainings there will be an increase in the level of teacher’s ability in practicing

their roles and responsibility in teaching as preschool teachers.

In the same vein, Ingersoll (2001) reported that requiring teachers to teach

classes for which they have not been trained or educated harms teachers and students.
51

Seminars Attended

Table 4 shows the frequency and percentage of the kindergarten teachers

seminars attended. It shows that 41 respondents (39.4 %) have\attended only 2

seminars,40 respondents (38.5%) have attended 1 seminar, 12 (11.5%) never attended

any seminar and 11 respondents(10.6%) have attended 3 seminars .

Table 4. Distribution of respondents according to number of ECED seminars


kindergarten teachers had attended.

Number of ECED Seminars Attended FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


(N=104) (%)
0 12 11.5
1 40 38.5
2 41 39.4
3 11 10.6
Total 104 100

The result implies that the kindergarten teachers hired in selected schools of

Division of Bukidnon need to have additional trainings to be more updated on ways of

teaching kindergarten pupils effectively and efficiently. Sarmiento (2008) said “Teacher’s

roles vary from one another.” One of the problems of preschool teachers is that they do

not have formal trainings on the explicit instruction and support in expanding children’s

cognitive and language skills. School-based early educational programs hire elementary

school teachers who may have undergone trainings on teaching toddlers and still need

additional training in child development, language acquisition, early literacy observation


52

and assessment. This professional development for preschool staff should be based on

knowledge from scientifically-based research of how children develop their cognitive,

language literacy and others.”

Classroom Roles of Kindergarten Teachers

As a Nuturer

Table 5 presents the different roles practiced by kindergarten teachers in the

classroom for selected schools in the Division of Bukidnon School Year 2014-2015. It

also displays the means and the corresponding descriptive rating on each item of every

dimension. It shows that among the indicators: “I maintain safe environment”

(mean=4.83) and tops all the indicators .Safety and safe environment is always priority in

preschools. The teachers also claimed that they provide feeding program regularly

(mean=3.51).One indicator which occasionally practiced is “inviting medical workers to

check the children’s physical and dental health” mean (2.89). Overall, they always

practiced the nurturing roles (4.32).In conclusion most of the kindergarten teachers in the

selected schools in the Division of Bukidnon did not check and monitor regularly the

condition of the health their young pupils most especially to those teachers assigned to far

plunge schools.

The findings of the study conforms to the study of Thomas and Chess (2006) that

if a young child does not receive sufficient nurturing, nutrition, parental/preschool


53

teachers’ interaction, and stimulus during the crucial period, the child may be left with a

developmental deficit. It hampers his or her success in preschool and beyond. Children

should receive attention and affection from parents and mentors to develop them in a

healthy manner.

Table 5. Ratings for teachers’ classroom roles as Nurturer

QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Indicators MEAN DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I make each child feel 4.74 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
special and valued as an
individual.
2.I teach good manners 4.74 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
and right
conduct daily
3.I conduct physical 4.60 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
exercise every morning.
4. I establish an 4.56 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
atmosphere of warmth,
comfort, stability,
dependently and
enthusiasm in the
classroom.
5.I provide feeding 3.51 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
program regularly.
6. I invite medical workers 2.89 Occasionally Roles practiced sometimes
to check the children’s Practice
physical and dental health.
OVERALL MEAN = 4.32 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time

Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles praticed once or not at all
54

Thomas and Chess (2006) suggested that the creation of emotional healthy,

nurturing classroom requires careful organization of the physical environment,

predictable routines. Appropriate play activities and a positive emotional climate support

emotional competence, environment expectations and demands which reflect the unique

nature of the children in the classroom and establish a “good fit” with each child. The

characteristics and behaviour style of each child must be respected and should be

considered in planning both the physical and social environment within the classroom.

Patricia (2010) said that there are many positive roles every preschool teacher

should possess. One such role is to nurture. Since many of these children enrolled in

preschool are of a young age and new to the school setting, it is important that preschool

teacher nurtures the children and treats them in such a way that they feel safe and cared

for.

Nurturing a child encompasses all aspects of development: social, emotional,

cognitive, and physical. In every action, a teacher should nurture appropriate growth and

development. This indicator as a role of preschool teacher is very important in order to

support and sustain the need of the children in developing as a whole person. (Sarmiento,

2008).

As an Observer

The table 6 shows the ratings of the classroom role of kindergarten teacher as

observer. Majority of the indicators were practiced always. “I observe children in all
55

areas of development: physical, social, emotional and intellectual.” has the highest mean

of (4.55), followed by “I observe pupils movement and progress in all the activities in

and outside the classroom.” with a mean value of (4.40) and ‘I observe children’s

behavior and provide enrichment activities.” with a mean value of (4.38) .While the three

indicators “I maintain a written record of observation concerning each child’s

development” (4.14) has the lowest mean value with a qualitative description often

practiced ,second is “I interpret observations within the context of the whole child” with a

mean value of (4.19) and I use insights gained through observation to plan, evaluate and

communicate with a mean of (4.29).

Table 6.Ratings of Classroom role as an Observer

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I observe children in all areas of 4.55 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
development physical, social,
emotional and intellectual.
2. I observe pupils movement and 4.40 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
progress in all the activities in and
outside the classroom.
3. I observe children’s behavior and 4.38 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
provide enrichment activities.
4. I use insights gained through 4.29 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
observation to plan, evaluate and
communicate.
5. I interpret observations within the 4.19 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
context of the whole child.
6. I maintain a written record of 4.14 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
observation concerning each child’s
development.
OVERALL MEAN 4.33 Always Practiced Roles Practiced all the time
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced freqently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles praticed once or not at all
56

This implies that the teachers in the selected schools of Division of Bukidnon

observed their children in all areas of development but lack written records concerning

the child’s development.

It was also pointed out by Demham (2004) that when the children encounter

new experience or change, the teacher should observe the child’s responses and

determine the level to which responses and determine the level of experience causes

stress. These observations allow the teacher to determine the level of support the child

may require to feel secure.

According to Keogh (2003) when teachers organize child centered classroom

environments they are preparing an emotional climate that is conducive to learning. Thus,

as educators they cause learning communities in which children are valued; children

experience psychological safety and security.

Teacher should have constant understanding to honor and value the rights of

children under the Constitution and to show respect to their thoughts and feelings This

shows that the younger pupil in each level, the teacher is more active demonstrating the

use of materials and presenting activities based on their observation as an assessment of

the child’s requirements. (Sarmiento, 2008)

As a Planner

Table 7 shows the ratings of the teachers as a planner. It discloses that the

indicator “I organize the learning activities based on the listing of skills” (4.17) is often

practiced. Generally, the kindergarten teachers rated themselves as a Planner has a mean
57

of 4.31.This implies that the Kindergarten Teachers in selected schools of Division of

Bukidnon practiced planning at all times.

Teachers’ planning and preparation is the key part of effective teaching. Many

teachers already get too little time to accomplish many tasks. This is relevant to the

findings of Back (2007) that educational policy makers fail to see why more than a few

minutes before class, preparation is necessary.

Table 7.Ratings of classroom role as Planner

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I make daily plans for all 4.52 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
activities in every subject area.
2. I integrate similar concepts 4.36 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
and relate it to the different
lessons in all subject area.
3.I prepare IM’s that are 4.34 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
realistic, interesting and
enjoyable
4. I modify plans on the basis 4.25 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
of children’s interest and
individual needs.
5.I provide materials for 4.22 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
children that are manipulative,
puzzle and blocks to develop
creativeness
6. I organize the learning 4.17 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
activities based on the listing of
skills.
OVERALL MEAN 4.31 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles praticed once or not at all
58

Paperwork, lesson planning, preparing materials and the environment, and

negotiating require teachers to have strong management skills. Managing a classroom

needs organizational skills, attention to detail and commitment.

Patricia, T. (2005) stated that good planning is the first step to an effective

classroom, and one of the six main teacher character tasks that excellent teachers should

master. A well-planned class reduces stress on the teacher and helps minimize

disruptions. When the teachers know what they want to accomplish and how they are

going to do it they have a better opportunity to achieve success with the added benefit of

less stress.

As an Interactor

Ratings for teachers’ as classroom role as an interactor is shown in Table 7.

Generally, they practiced most of the time the role as an interactor. The highest indicator

is “I promote group cohesiveness, self-respect and respect for others” with a mean of

4.62. The least is “I produce a wide variety of experiences and give children ample

opportunities to interact with the environment” (4.19) is often practiced. In general they

always practiced the interacting roles with a mean of (4.42).It implies that kindergarten

teachers in selected schools of Division of Bukidnon need to let their children interact

with the environment by bringing them to field trips or tours inside or outside the

classroom setting where they can interact with their classmates and with the environment
59

as well. The result is in relation to what Fu, Stremmel and Hill (2002) stated that in the

early childhood years the teacher brings the young child into close contact with reality

through sensory investigation and practical activity and relies on the child’s unfolding

inner program of curiosities and sensitivities to ensure that the child learned what he or

she needs. With the young pupils at each level, the teacher is more active, demonstrating

the use of materials and presenting activities based on an assessment of the child’s

requirements.

Table 8. Rating of classroom role as an Interactor


Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE
DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I promote group cohesiveness, 4.62 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
self-respect and respect for others.
2. I assist children in resolving 4.56 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
conflicts in positive way.
3. I encourage children to work 4.53 Always Practice Roles of practiced all the time
together and independently when
appropriate.
4. I tell and retell funny stories to 4.48 Always Practice Roles of practiced all the time
make the children enjoy the
learning activities.
5. I promote children’s decision 4.41 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
making and critical thinking
6. I conduct a variety of games 4.20 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
that provide several exercises for
enrichment.
7. I produce a wide variety of 4.19 Often Practice Roles practiced all the time
experiences and give children
ample opportunities to interact
with the environment.
OVERALL MEAN 4.42 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Legend:

Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation

4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time


3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles praticed once or not at all
60

According to Breedekamp & Coople (2000) being an early childhood teacher

requires to be willing to wear many hats. As an experienced teacher, they are already

prepared to be flexible. As a new teacher, the job description may change on a daily

basis. In most cases the roles of an early childhood teacher will be very similar to

interactors. As an early childhood teacher, they are challenge to find new experiences to

share with children.

Early childhood teachers support learning by providing activities and materials

that children find engaging. By facilitating learning, supplying a developmentally

appropriate environment, interesting materials, and adequate time to explore, play and

interact, children find learning easy and fun.

According to Philips (2004) interacting relationships with teachers are responsive

to children’s unique needs necessary to foster healthy development in many areas,

including self-regulation and peer relationship.

As an Evaluator

Rating of teachers’ role as an evaluator is shown in Table 9. There are 7

indicators under this role. The highest indicator is ‘The teacher conducts oral and

performance test to all pupils with a mean 4.29. On the other hand, the indicators that are

practiced often include I use skillfully a variety of techniques such as observing,

questioning, inventories and task-taking and I evaluate the results of formal tests and

scorings in the light of the child’s daily classroom behavior (4.14) respectively. This
61

implies that the evaluation of formal tests and scoring were frequently done only. The

teachers frequently used variety of techniques in observation, questioning, and task-

taking. This indicator is an important factor in the role as evaluator.

Overall, the kindergarten teachers always practice the role of evaluator with a

mean of 4.29 . In fact, as stressed by Yuson (2004) it is one of the major responsibilities

of the preschool teacher to make the parents aware of progress made by the child. Most

of the preschool teachers have play base curriculum designed keeping in view the age of

the kids. These play programs prepare the children for the school environment.

Table 9.Ratings of role as an Evaluator

Indictors MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I provide a variety of exercise to measure 4.25 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
learning outputs.
2.I conduct oral and performance test to all 4.56 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
pupils.
3.I am aware of different learning styles. 4.42 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
4.I assess pupil’s performance through 4.41 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
observation.
5.I minimize competition among children 4.16 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
6.I use skillfully a variety of techniques such 4.14 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
as observing, questioning, inventories and
task-taking.
7.I evaluate the results of formal tests and 4.14 Often Practice Roles practiced frequently
scorings in the light of the child’s daily
classroom behavior.
OVERALL MEAN 4.29 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles practiced once or not at all
62

It is the ability to instil joy of learning. And this experience will forever stay in the lives

of children as well as the teacher.

For a child, successful preschool experience is very much dependent on quality of

teachers. If they have been treated, communicated and taught well, children are always

inclined to go back to schools. It is the role and responsibility of preschool teachers to

instil a sense of comfort and lifelong love of learning in the child.

There is evidence that these practices support the development of young children.

Kontos and colleagues (2002) found that preschool aged children experience more

complex interactions with peers when engaged in creative activities than other types of

activities (e.g., language arts or gross motor).

As a Communicator

Table 10 shows the ratings of classroom role as a communicator. The indicators

were mostly practiced. Only one indicator has a mean of 4.15 “I develop an effective

system of regular reports to parents about their child’s progress.”


63

Table 10. Ratings of classroom role as a communicator

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
1. I develop pupils’ single 4.59 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
greetings and courteous
expression.
2. I teach pupils, rhymes, 4.55 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
poems, and dialogues and
make it meaningful and
enjoyable.
3.I develop the children to act 4.52 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
out simple rhymes, poems
and jingle
4. I use a variety of means for 4.23 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
communication (eg.
conferences, meetings,
visits).
5. I develop an effective 4.15 Often Practice Roles practiced all the time
system of regular reports to
parents about their child’s
progress.
OVERALL MEAN 4.41 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time

Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practice roles praticed once or not at all

The overall mean is (4.41) It implies that the kindergarten teachers have to

improve communication with the parents in terms of regular reporting about the progress

of their children. Generally, the indicators were practiced frequently (mean=4.41).

In fact, as stressed by Yuson (2004) it is one of the major responsibilities of the preschool

teacher to make the parents aware of progress made by the child. Most of the preschools

have play base curriculum designed keeping in view the age of the kids. These play

programs prepare the children for the school environment. It is the ability to instil joy of
64

learning and this experience will forever stay in the lives of children as well as the

teacher.

Summary of Kindergarten Teachers of Classroom Roles

The summary of Kindergarten Teachers’ Classroom performance of their roles is

revealed in Table 11.

Table 11. Summary of Kindergarten Teachers Practice of Classroom Roles

CLASSROOM MEAN QUALITATIVE QUALITATIVE


ROLES DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION
INDICATORS
Nurturer 4.32 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Interactor 4.42 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Communicator 4.41 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Evaluator 4.29 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Observer 4.33 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Planner 4.31 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
OVERALLMEAN 4.34 Always Practice Roles practiced all the time
Legend:

Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation


4.20-5.00 5 Always Practice roles practiced all the time
3.40- 4.19 4 Often Practice roles practiced frequently
2.60- 3.39 3 Occasionally Practice roles practiced sometimes
1.80- 2.59 2 Seldom Practice roles practiced rarely
1.00- 1.79 1 Never Practiced roles practiced once or not at all

The six indicators of classroom roles were always practiced by the teachers. The

overall mean is 4.34, which described as roles are practiced all the time. It implies that

the kindergarten teachers in selected schools of Division of Bukidnon are nurturer,

observer, planner, interactor, evaluator and communicator.


65

This is supported by the handbook of Limena (2008) the many roles played by

the preschool teachers are divided into the following categories namely: nurturer,

observer, planners, interactors, evaluators and communicators.

Difficulty of Problems Kindergarten Teachers Experienced

Problems Encountered in Terms of Instructional Materials Availability

Table 12 shows the problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of

instructional materials availability. It can be seen that all indicators were perceived by the

teachers as moderately problematic with a mean value of 3.05. It implies that

instructional materials are not available all the time. The kindergarten teachers described

this problem as moderately problematic.

Edith (2000) said that there were many problems they encountered in teaching

kindergarten classes. One of these is lack of in service trainings and budgets for the

instructional materials for the teachers. These in- service trainings and seminars are very

important for the continuous knowledge and skills that the kindergarten teachers should

gain. Kindergarten teachers also have a problem in planning, because of insufficient and

unavailability of instructional materials that prevent them from giving the needed

activities for the pupils. This is explained from the study of Azzi-Lessing (2009) that

deficiencies in providing materials negatively affect the kindergarten teachers’

performance of implementing the activities.


66

Table 12. Difficulty of Problems encountered by Kindergarten Teachers in terms


Instructional Materials Availability

Indicators Mean Qualitative Interpretation


1.All pupils are provided with enough Moderately Problematic
Mathematics, English, Filipino and 3.28
Science workbooks.
2.It is good that the workbooks are stated 3.17 Moderately Problematic
in English language and not in Mother
Tongue.
3.It is good that the curriculum guide is 3.00 Moderately Problematic
stated in English and not in Mother
Tongue.
4.The class has a television set and audio 2.99 Moderately Problematic
video facilities which are useful in daily
lesson.
5.Toys, blocks and other manipulative are 2.91 Moderately Problematic
unlimited to accommodate all pupils.
6.The plastic chairs and tables are 2.88 Moderately Problematic
children sized, durable and enough to
accommodate all pupils per session
OVERALL MEAN 3.05 Moderately Problematic
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic
1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
3.40-4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

Problems in Terms of Classroom Environment

In Table 13 are shown in the indicators rating for problems in classroom

environment. Among the 5 indicators, described by kindergarten teachers as moderately

problematic in terms of classroom size and characteristics, comfort rooms, hand washing

facilities and even water supply. Philips (2004) stated that kindergarten teacher must also
67

cater to the basic needs of the children by ensuring and providing them a comfortable

nurturer environment for the little ones within their core

Table 13. Difficulty of Problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of


classroom environment.

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


INTERPRETATION
1. Pupils have their classes in a completely 3.02 Moderately Problematic
furnished classroom building.
2. The classroom size is suitable for
kindergarten pupils’ conducive learning. 2.93 Moderately Problematic
3. The pupils have a well-ventilated 2.88 Moderately Problematic
standard sized classroom.
4. Their classrooms have comfort rooms, 2.88 Moderately Problematic
hand washing, tooth brushing facilities
and even water supply.
5.The classroom is safe, quiet and 2.61 Moderately Problematic
conducive for learning.
OVERALL MEAN 2.86 Moderately Problematic
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic
1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 ndecided Moderately Problematic
3.40- 4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

Problems in Terms of Parent Support

Table 14 shows that the indicators and ratings of problems in terms of parent

support : “Parents are open- minded individuals who listen and shared their knowledge

during meetings and willing to contribute some amount for the school beautification if

necessary” is the only indicator teachers rated with a mean value of 2.51 or less

problematic .All the other indicators were rated moderately problematic.


68

Table 14. Difficulty of problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of parent


support.

INDICATORS QUALITATIVE
MEAN INTERPRETATION
1. Parents provide all the needs of their pupils in 3.02 Moderately Problematic
school.
2.Parents together with their pupils always 2.87 Moderately Problematic
participate in school activities.
3. Parents are model of helpfulness and 2.85 Moderately Problematic
punctuality to their child.
4.Parents always attend in the Homeroom/GPTA 2.83 Moderately Problematic
meeting.
5. Parents make sure that their pupils are well 2.81 Moderately Problematic
groom and have eaten their meals before going
to school.
6. Parents strongly support the school based 2.81 Moderately Problematic
feeding program.
7. Parents are open- minded individuals who 2.51 Less Problematic
listen and shared their knowledge during
meetings and willing to contribute some amount
for the school beautification if necessary.

OVERALL MEAN 2.81 Moderately Problematic


Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation

1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic


1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
3.40- 4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

This is supported by the study of Sarmiento (2008) who said that “ Researchers

in the field and early childhood educators both view the parents as an integral part of

early childhood education process. Often educators refer to parents as the child’s first and

best teacher who nurtures their child in every aspect. Finally, in the study of Costales

(2007) about the effect of preschool education to children’s performance of those was
69

stayed in their home. It also revealed that the preschool teachers who are performing their

roles satisfactorily improve the performance of the preschoolers. The preschool teachers

have also encountered problems on lack of parental and community support in carrying

activities of preschool education.

Problems in Terms of Administrative Support

Table 15 shows the ratings of teachers in difficulty of obtaining administrative

support .The overall mean of administrative support which is 2.20 or less problematic.

Except one indicator which falls in Undecided. This states that “The kindergarten

volunteer teachers always received their honorarium monthly.” The kindergarten teachers

complained about the absence of administrative support for the needed instructional

materials of the pupils. In kindergarten, emphasis on the art and visual is a common

theme because parents want to see something concrete on the output of their children

Sarmiento,(2008)
70

Table 15. Difficulty of Problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of


administrative support.

INDICATORS MEAN QUALITATIVE


INTERPRETATION
1. The kindergarten volunteer teachers always 2.61 Moderately Problematic
received their honorarium monthly.
The school administrators are updated in the 2.37 Less Problematic
activities related to kindergarten and relay it to the
kindergarten teachers on time.
2. The school administrators submit the kindergarten 2.26 Less Problematic
teachers’ monthly reports on time.
The school administrators are willing to support the 2.23 Less Problematic
kindergarten pupils and teacher’s needs and
activities.
3. The school administrators fairly treated their 2.16 Less Problematic
teachers both regular and volunteers.
4. The school administrators include the 2.13 Less Problematic
kindergarten pupils as part of the complete
elementary school system.
5. The school administrators include their 1.92 Less Problematic
kindergarten teachers both volunteer and regular in
the allocation of supplies from MOOE.
6. The school administrators are fair in treating the 1.93 Less Problematic
pupils from kindergarten up to the graders.
OVERALL MEAN 2.20 Less Problematic
Legend:

Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation

1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic


1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
3.40- 4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

Problems in Terms of Pupil Behavior

Pupil’s behavior is found in Table 16. There are 7 rated as moderately Problematic.

The teachers see this problem because the children went to school late, they were absent

without sending an excuse letters, they went to school without wearing complete uniform
71

and supplies and untidy or not well groomed, they manifest to lack of proper care and basic

needs at home, they were not well nurtured, loved and cared by their family and they were

sometimes bullied or they bully others. In general the pupils behavior is moderately

problematic.

Table16. Problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of pupils’ behavior.

INDICATORS MEAN QUALITATIVE


INTERPRETATION
1. My pupils go to school with complete school 2 .16 Moderately Problematic
uniform and supplies.
2. My pupils never been absent without informing 2.94 Moderately Problematic
me.
3. My pupils are well-groomed and manifest 2.89 Moderately Problematic
neatness upon entering the classroom.
4. My pupils always arrive to school on time. 2.70 Moderately Problematic
5. My pupils are given proper care and basic needs 2.66 Moderately Problematic
at home.
6. My pupils are well nurtured, loved and cared by 2.62 Moderately Problematic
their parents and other members of their family.
7. My pupils avoid bullying their classmates. 2.61 Moderately Problematic
8. My pupils avoid from cutting classes. 2.59 Less Problematic
9. My pupil can only transfer to another school 2.56 Less Problematic
after they get a certificate of transfer from our
school principal.
10. My pupils are obedient and respectful to 2.48 Less Problematic
everybody in school.
11. My pupils are attentive and participative. 2.45 Less Problematic
12. My pupils are interested to join in social 2.39 Less Problematic
activities like games, poems, songs, dances and
field demonstrations.
13. My pupils have enjoyed their rights as a child. 2.29 Less Problematic
OVERALL MEAN 2.65 Moderately Problematic
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic
1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
3.40- 4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic
72

Summary of Extent of Problems Encountered by Kindergarten Teachers

Summary of problems encountered is presented in Table 17. It can be seen that

the overall mean is 2.70 which means that the teachers have problems involving

instructional materials Availability, Classroom Environment, Parent Support is prominent

in Kindergarten schools. Administrative Support and Pupils Behavior are less

problematic.

Table 17. Summary of Difficulty of Problems encountered

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED MEAN QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION


Instructional Materials Availability 3.05 Moderately Problematic
Classroom Environment 2.83 Moderately Problematic
Parent Support 2.81 Moderately Problematic
Pupils Behavior 2.65 Moderately Problematic
Administrative Support 2.20 Less Problematic
Overall Mean 2.70 Moderately Problematic
Legend:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
1.0-1.79 1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic
1.80- 2.59 2 Agree Less Problematic
2.60-3.39 3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
3.40- 4.19 4 Disagree Problematic
4.20-5.0 5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

Edith (2000) said that there were many problems they encounter in teaching

kindergarten classes. One of those is lack of in service trainings and budgets for the

instructional materials for the teachers. These in-service trainings and seminars are very

important for the continuous update on knowledge and skills that the kindergarten

teachers should gain.


73

Performance of Kindergarten Teachers

The performance of the kindergarten teachers is revealed in Table 18. Among the

104 respondents, majority or 60 of them (57.69%) had a Very Satisfactory rating, 23

(22.11%) of them have 0utstanding performance, 20 (19.23%) got Satisfactory

performance rating but there is one teacher who falls on the Below Basic performance.

This implies that majority of kinder teachers have a good performance, ranging from

Very Satisfactory to Outstanding.

Table 18. Performance of the Kindergarten Teachers in School Year 2014-2015.

INDICATORS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


(%)
1.00-1.50 Below Basic 1 0.97
1.51-2.50 Satisfactory 20 19.23
2.51-3.50 Very Satisfactory 60 57.69
3.51-4.00 Outstanding 23 22.11
Total = 104 100

The findings of the study in Table 17 affirmed that Teachers’ performance is

necessary in achieving quality education in our Philippine education system (Toribio,

2002).The attainment depends on the performance of the teacher for he/she is the central

figure in all teaching activities.


74

Diversity of Learners

Table 19 displays the distribution of average grade of kindergarten teachers by

school in. It shows the frequencies, percentages and qualitative rating for each range

reflects the teacher’s level of performance in terms of diversity of learners.

Table 19. Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of Diversity of Learners

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1.I showed fairness and consideration 3.39 Proficient
to all learners regardless of socio-
economic background.
2. I set objectives that are within the 3.31 Proficient
experiences and capabilities of learners.
3. I recognized multi-cultural 3.21 Proficient
background of learners when providing
learning opportunities.
4. I utilized varied designs, techniques 3.19 Proficient
and activities suited to the different
kinds of learners.
5. I paced lessons appropriate to the 3.18 Proficient
needs and difficulties of learners.
6. I provided appropriate intervention 3.15 Proficient
activities for learners at risks.
7. I adopt strategies to address needs of 3.18 Proficient
differently-abled learners.
OVERALL MEAN 3.23 Proficient

Legend:

Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation


3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 -2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards
75

The level of performance and its corresponding numerical value in range were

based on the Competency Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers. It can be

observed that the performance level of the teachers in handling diverse learners regarding

diversity learners is Proficient. The performance of the teachers has an overall mean of

3.23.

It implies that the teachers are proficient in dealing with their learners.

Curriculum, Content and Pedagogy

Table 20 shows that the kindergarten teachers have uniform perceptions regarding

this field. They have proficient performance in curriculum, content and pedagogy. The

top indicator is I aligned the lesson objectives, teaching methods, learning activities, and

instructional materials or resources appropriate to the learners with a mean of 3.30.

It implies that the teachers are proficient in performing the delivery of curriculum,

content and pedagogy by using strategies, ICTs for planning and designing teaching-

learning strategies, instructional approaches that accommodate the children's

developmental needs, setting limits, acquiescing to demands for developmentally

materials, engaging in proactive education and outreach, accepting additional

responsibilities, and making concessions” (2007, p. 51).


76

Table 20. Performance in Terms of Teachers Curriculum, Content and Pedagogy

INDICATORS MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1. I aligned the lesson objectives, teaching methods, 3.31 Proficient
learning activities, and instructional materials or
resources appropriate to the learners.
2. I used integration of language, literacy, numeracy skills 3.30 Proficient
and values in teaching.
3. I linked the current content with past and future lessons. 3.26 Proficient
4. I engaged and sustained learner’s interest in the subject 3.24 Proficient
by making content meaningful and relevant to them.
5. I delivered accurate and updated content knowledge 3.23 Proficient
using appropriate methodologies, approaches and strategies.
6. I established routines and procedures to maximize 3.21 Proficient
instructional time.
7. I selected prepared and utilized available technology and 3.19 Proficient
other instructional materials appropriate to the learners and
the learning objectives.
8. I explained learning goals, instructional procedures and 3.17 Proficient
content clearly and accurately to students.
9. I provided appropriate learning tasks, portfolio and 3.13 Proficient
projects that support development of good study habits.
10. I created situations that encourage learners to use high 3.12 Proficient
order thinking skills through the use of local language
among others if needed.
11. Integrated scholarly works and ideas to enrich the 3.12 Proficient
lesson.
12. I used available ICT resources for planning and 2.98 Proficient
designing teaching-learning activities.
OVERALL MEAN 3.20 Proficient
Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51- 2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards

Goldstein found in a qualitative study that kindergarten teachers could address

content standards in a developmentally appropriate manner by “recognizing and building

on the curricular stability in kindergarten, employing inappropriate practices and


77

Grisham-Brown (2008) and Gronlund (2006) have proposed that curricula driven by

early learning standards can be appropriate, if standards are addressed at different levels,

depending on the needs of the children.

Performance Planning, Assessing and Reporting

Table 21 shows the level of performance in terms of planning, assessing and

reporting of teachers. Among the performance competencies, the teachers were

proficient in these activities. The children’s record are accurate, used test results to

improve teaching and learning. By conducting meetings with the learners, the teachers

will be able to know what to report in their progress. Teachers’ planning and preparation

is the key part of effective teaching.

Many teachers already get too little time to accomplish many tasks. This is

relevant to the findings of Back (2007) that educational policy makers fail to see why

more than a few minutes before class, preparation is necessary. Paperwork, lesson

planning, preparing materials and the environment, and negotiating require teachers to

have strong management skills. Managing a classroom needs organizational skills,

attention to detail and commitment.


78

Table 21. Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of Planning, Assessing


and Reporting

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1.I interpreted and used test results to improve teaching 3.25 Proficient
and learning.
2.I conducted regular meetings with learners and parents 3.24 Proficient
to report learners’ progress.
3. I constructed valid and reliable formative and 3.23 Proficient
summative tests.
4.I provided timely and accurate feedback to learners to 3.20 Proficient
encourage them to reflect on and monitor their own
learning growth.
5.I kept accurate records of grades/performance levels 3.19 Proficient
of learners.
6.I used tools for assessing authentic learning. 3.13 Proficient
7.I used appropriate non-traditional assessment 3.15 Proficient
techniques and tools. (i.e. Portfolio, journals, rubric,
etc.)
8.I managed remediation activities. 3.12 Proficient
9.I identified Teaching-learning difficulties and possible 3.08 Proficient
causes.
Overall Mean 3.21 Proficient
Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 -2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards

Performance in terms of Learning Environment

Table 22 revealed that the kindergarten teachers were highly proficient (3.52) in

providing equal opportunities for all learners regardless of gender. Generally, the

teachers performed proficiently in providing learning environment. It implies that the

teachers are fair and just in treating their pupils, gender equality are important. Since

many of these children enrolled in preschool are of a young age and new to the school
79

setting, it is important the preschool teacher nurtures the children and treats them in

such a way that they feel safe and cared for. This helps provide a favourable learning and

creative environment for children. (Sarmiento, 2008)

Table 22.Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of Learning


Environment

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1. I provided equal opportunities for all 3.52 Highly Proficient
learners regardless of gender.
2. I maintained a safe and orderly 3.41 Proficient
classroom free from distractions.
3. I used individual and cooperative 3.33 Proficient
learning activities to improve capacities
of learners for higher learning.
4. I created situation that develop a 3.33 Proficient
positive attitude among learners towards
their subject and teacher.
5. I inspired learners to set and value high 3.23 Proficient
performance targets for themselves.
6. I handled behavior problems quickly 3.20 Proficient
and with due respect to children’s rights.
OVERALL MEAN 3.43 Proficient
Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 -2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards
80

Performance in Terms of Community Linkages

Table 23 shows the teacher’ community linkages level of performance. The top

indicator is I informed learners, parents and other stakeholders regarding school policies

and procedures (3.24). The teachers performed proficiently in these competencies. The

teachers’ performance often exceeds expectations.

Table 23. Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of Community


Linkages

INDICATORS MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1.I involved parents/community in sharing 3.30 Proficient
accountability for learners’ achievement.
2.I informed learners, parents and other 3.24 Proficient
stakeholders regarding school policies and
procedures.
3.I got involved in/ shared community 3.22 Proficient
information on school events and
achievement.
4.I led students to apply classroom learning 3.18 Proficient
to the community.
5.I used varied and available community 3.13 Proficient
resources (human, materials) to support
learning.
6.I used community as a laboratory for 3.07 Proficient
teaching and learning.
OVERALL MEAN 3.19 Proficient
Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 - 2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards
81

This is supported by the (Article III: The Teacher and the Community of Code of

Ethics of Professional Teachers) Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the

people in the community informed about the school work and accomplishments as well

as its needs and problems.

Performance in Terms of School Regard for Learning

The table 24 reflects the school regard for learning. It can be gleaned that all

indicators in this area were observed as proficient. The teachers’ performance often

exceeds expectations. They abide and implemented school policies, punctual in

accomplishing tasks and demonstrated appropriate behavior in dealing with learners,

peers and superiors. This is supported by Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be

imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence, and faith in one

another, self-sacrifice for the common good and full cooperation with colleagues. When

the best interest of the learners, the school, or the profession is at stake in any

controversy, teachers shall support one another. (Article V of Code of Ethics of

Professional Teachers)
82

Table 25. Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of School Regard for
Learning

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1. I abide by and implemented school policies 3.35 Proficient
and procedures.
2. I demonstrated appropriate behavior in 3.35 Proficient
dealing with learners, peers and superiors.
3. I demonstrated punctuality in accomplishing 3.30 Proficient
tasks and attendance on all occasions.
4. I maintained appropriate appearance and 3.24 Proficient
decorum at all times.
OVERALL MEAN 3.31 Proficient
Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 -2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards

Performance in Terms of Personal, Social Growth and Professional Development

Table 25 shows the Personal, social growth and professional development.

Among the indicators, majority of the teachers are highly proficient in abiding the Code

of Ethics for Professional Teachers (3.38). Generally, the teachers are proficient in their

personal, social growth and development. The performance often exceeds in

expectations.
83

Table 25. Kindergarten Teachers level of Performance in Terms of Personal, Social


Growth, and Professional Development

Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE


DESCRIPTION
1.I abide by the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers 3.56 Proficient
2.I improved teaching performance based on feedback from 3.42 Proficient
mentors, learners, peers, superiors and others.
3.I accepted accountability for learners’ outcomes. 3.37 Proficient
4.I used self-assessment to enhance strengths and correct my 3.36 Proficient
weaknesses.
5.I reflected on the quality of my own teaching. 3.36 Proficient
6.I maintained stature and behavior that upholds the dignity of 3.34 Proficient
teaching.
7.I updated myself with recent developments in education. 3.32 Proficient
8.I manifested personal qualities like enthusiasm, flexibility, 3.31 Proficient
caring attitude, collegiality among others.
9.I demonstrated my educational philosophy of teaching in the 3.30 Proficient
classroom.
10.I participated actively in professional organizations. 3.24 Proficient

OVERALL MEAN 3.38 Proficient


Legend:
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 - 2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards .

This is in accordance to Section 2. That “Every teacher shall uphold the highest

possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparations for the career of

teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his profession.(Code of

Ethics of Professional Teachers ,Article IV).”


84

Summary of Kindergarten Teachers Level of Performance

Table 26 summarizes the Level of Performance of Kindergarten Teachers. It can

be seen that the overall performance of the teachers are proficient. Their performance

often exceeds expectations. The teachers of Quezon District are proficient in all levels of

performance.

Table 26 . Summary of Kindergarten Teachers Level of Performance

Performance Indicators MEAN QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTION


Personal, Social Growth and 3.38 Proficient
Professional Development
School Regard for Learning 3.31 Proficient
Community Linkages 3.26 Proficient
Learning Environment 3.28 Proficient
Diversity of Learners 3.23 Proficient
Planning, Assessing and Reporting 3.21 Proficient
Curriculum, Content and Pedagogy 3.20 Proficient
OVERALL MEAN 3.27 Proficient
Legend:

Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation


3.51- 4.00 Highly Proficient (HP) Performance consistently exceeds expectations.
2.51-3.50 Proficient (P) Performance often exceeds expectations.
1.51 - 2.50 Basic (B) Performance meets basic expectations based on standards.
1.00-1.50 Below Basic (BB) Performance on the job frequently fall below standards
85

Correlation Analysis on Kindergarten Teachers Performance

Relationship between the level of performance and classroom roles, problems

encountered and demographic profile are shown in Table 27.

Table 27. Correlation analysis of the relationship between kindergarten teachers’


classroom performance on classroom roles and problems encountered and
demographic profile

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES r Significance

Classroom Roles
Nurturer .112 .273 ns
Observer -.0.42 .683 ns
Planner .073 .472 ns
Interactor .136 .181 ns
Evaluator .014 .893 ns
Communicator -.147 .148 ns
Problems encountered
Instructional Material
Availability .059 .567 ns
Classroom environment .125 .222 ns
Parent Support .228 .024**
Administrative support .098 .339 ns
Pupil’s Behavior .130 .201 ns
Demographic Profile
Years of teaching experience
Educational attainment -.045 .662 ns
Seminars attended .014 .889 ns
-.085 .406 ns
Ns –not significant
**.Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2 –tailed)
* . Correlation is significant at 0.05 level (2- tailed)

It can be gleaned that only the variable parent support is the only correlate to

teachers’ performance and has a p value of less than 0.05 level of significance. It
86

implies that there is no significant relationship between the kindergarten teachers

performance, classroom roles and demographic profile. Therefore, Null hypothesis

number one is rejected.

Indicators on classroom roles had shown that correlation of nurturer to teachers

performance .112 observer is a negative and no significant value of - .042 planner .073

interactor .136 evaluator .014 and no significant value of -.147 respectively .While the

indicators under educational qualifications implies no significant relationship to

performance number years teaching kindergarten with no significant value of -.045

educational attainment of .014 and number of ECE seminars attended of no significant

value of -.085 . The extent of problems encountered in terms of instructional materials

availability significant value of .567 classroom environment of .125 ,administrative

support of .98 and pupils behavior of .130 This implies that it doesn’t matter if what

classroom roles a kindergarten teacher practiced in the classroom ,number of years

teaching experience ,educational attainment and number of seminars attended ,problems

encountered in terms of instructional materials availability, classroom environment,

administrative support and pupils behavior has no relation to their classroom

performance.

In problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of parent support it

was found significantly correlated to kindergarten teachers performance at .228

correlation .This means that the more positive the parents support to their pupils in

providing them with basic needs the better will be the kindergarten teachers classroom

performance. This is supported by Sarmiento 2008 “Researchers in the field and early
87

childhood educators both view the parents as an integral part of early childhood

education process. Often educators refer to parents as the child’s first and best teacher

who nurtures their child in every aspect.”

. It implies that there is no significant relationship between the kindergarten

teacher’s performance, classroom roles and demographic profile. Therefore, Null

hypothesis number one is rejected.

Predictors of Kindergarten Teachers Classroom Performance

Table 28 reflects the result of regression analysis on the predictors of kindergarten

teachers’ classroom performance.

The coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.05, indicating that 5% of the variance

in the level of performance is influenced by parent support. Hence these lead us to reject

the second null hypothesis which states “There is no variable that best predicts

kindergarten teacher’s classroom performance”.

Its beta weight .223 , this signifies that preschool parents have high support to their

pupils and teachers in school .The findings explain that the parents support influenced

teachers classroom performance which means when preschool parents have high support,

teachers performance are more likely high. This is the overall parent support.

Correlation coefficient (r) in the regression analysis indicates the total contribution

of the combinations of all the independent variables: classroom roles, problems


88

encountered , professional qualifications and to kindergarten teachers performance (Y).R2

the coefficient of determination tells that proportion of the total variations in teachers’

performance is explained jointly by or associated jointly with all of the independent

variables .

The kindergarten parents’ support is the only significant predictor of teachers’

performance. The findings explain that the parents support influenced teachers classroom

performance which means when preschool parents have high support, teachers

performance are more likely high. This is the overall parent support.

Table 28. Regression table with kindergarten teachers’ performance as dependent


variable and classroom roles, and problems encountered and professional
qualifications are the independent variables

Model Unstandardized Standardized t-value Sig.


Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 3.007 .111 27.196 .000
Parent’s support 0.85 .037 0.223 2.309 .023

R= .223 R2 =.050 F= 5.330 P=.023

The regression equation is as follows:

Y=3.007 + .085 X

Where:

Y= Kindergarten Teachers Performance

X = Parent Support
89

The equation above means that in every point increase of parent support the

kindergarten teachers’ performance also increases. This implies that the higher the

parent support to their pupils in school the higher the level of teachers performance in

class. It is supported by Lamban (2008) reported in his studies that teachers’ competence

and practices best predicts pupil’s cognitive performance. Competent teachers with

positive instructional practices encourage their pupils to perform better than those who

are under the low performing teachers. He further stressed that teachers play an

important role in the learning process. Hence these lead us to reject the second null

hypothesis which states “There is no variables that best predicts kindergarten teacher’s

classroom performance”. Thus, there is a variable that predicts kindergarten teachers

performance; it is Parent Support.


90

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter contains the summary of findings, the conclusions extracted from the

given findings and the recommendations based from the conclusions.

Summary

This study was to ascertain the level of kindergarten teacher’s practice of classroom

roles, the problems they encountered and their classroom performance. Specifically, it

aimed to: determined the profile of the kindergarten teachers in terms of the following

demographic variables: number of years teaching in kindergarten, educational

qualifications, ECE seminars attended; ascertained the level of preschool teacher’s

performance of classroom roles as :a nurturer, observer , a planner, an interactor, an

evaluator, a communicator; determined the extent of difficulty of the problems

experienced by the kindergarten teachers in the classroom in terms of the following: a.

instructional materials availability, b. classroom environment, c. administrative support,

d. parent’s support, e. pupil’s behavior; evaluated the kindergarten teacher’s performance

level in the classroom ; correlated classroom performance, teachers’ practice of

classroom roles, extent of difficulty problems encountered and demographic profile.

Finally, identify the variables that best predicts teachers’ classroom performance.

In the light of the discussion made on the study, the following findings are

drawn, based on the objectives of the study.


91

In number of years of teaching kindergarten , 33 respondents (31.7%) have 2

years of experience, followed by 24 respondents (23.1%) and 32 respondents (15.4%)

each reached 3 to 4 years of teaching experience in kindergarten, 11 respondents

(10.6%) have 5 years teaching experience , 3 respondent (2.9%) have 6 years teaching

experience and only 1 respondent have teach once. Majority of the kindergarten

teachers 63 of the respondents (60.6%) finished BS ECED with preschool training ,

BEED with preschool units and BEED with preschool trainings/without trainings, 38

respondents (36.5%) of them are BEED graduate with MA units in ECED/MAED. Only

3 teachers (2.9%) obtained Masteral degree. It was revealed that 41 respondents (39.4

%) have\attended only 2 seminars, 40 respondents (38.5%) have attended 1 seminar, 12

(11.5%) never attended any seminar and 11 respondents(10.6%) have attended 3

seminars .

The kindergarten teachers always practiced their classroom roles as nurturer,

observer, planner, interactor, evaluator and communicator it has an overall mean of 4.34

the qualitative description is always practiced and the qualitative interpretation is

practiced all the time.

In difficulty of problems encountered by kindergarten pupils in the classroom

in terms of instructional materials availability, classroom environment, parent support

,pupils behavior and administrative behavior majority of them answered moderately

problematic.

Among the 104 respondents, majority of them 60 (57.69%) reached a very

satisfactory rating, 23 (22.11%) of them have outstanding performance, 20 (19.23%) got


92

satisfactory performance rating but 1 teacher falls on the Below Basic performance.

This implies that majority of them have a good performance, ranging from Very

Satisfactory to Outstanding.

Only the variable parent support has a p value of less than 0.05 level of

significance. It implies that there is no significant relationship between the kindergarten

teachers performance, classroom roles demographic profile. Therefore, Null hypothesis

number one is accepted.

In problems encountered by kindergarten teachers in terms of parent support it

was found significantly correlated to kindergarten teachers performance at .228

correlation .This means that the more positive the parents support to their pupils in

providing them with basic needs the better will be the kindergarten teachers classroom

performance.

The coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.50, indicating that 50% of the variance

in the level of teachers development is influenced by parent support. Hence these lead us

to reject the second null hypothesis which states “There is no variable that best predicts

kindergarten teacher’s classroom performance”. Thus, there is a variable that predicts

kindergarten teacher’s performance; it is Parent Support.


93

Conclusions

The following are drawn from the findings mentioned above:

Majority of the teachers finished a bachelor’s degree only . Most of them have

teaching experience in kindergarten classes ranging from one to five years. The

kindergarten teachers lack trainings and seminars.

The six indicators of classroom roles are always practiced by the kindergarten

teachers. It implies that the kindergarten teachers in selected schools of Division of

Bukidnon are nurturer, observer, planner, interactor, evaluator and communicator.

Majority of the preschool teachers’ performance of classroom role is practiced at all time.

Problems involving instructional materials availability, classroom environment,

parent support are prominent in Kindergarten schools as moderately problematic.

Whereas administrative support and pupils behavior are less problematic.

Majority of the kindergarten teachers in the selected schools of Division of

Bukidnon obtained a Very Satisfactory level of performance.

There is no significant relationship between kindergarten teachers’ performance

and the practices of classroom roles, extent of difficulty of problems and demographic

profile. Null hypothesis is accepted. Only the variable parent support has a p value of

less than 0.05 level of significance.

There is a variable that predicts kindergarten teachers’ performance; it is parent

support.
94

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions given, the following are then advanced for

consideration.

Teachers are suggested to be motivated in upgrading professional growth,

teachers’ attendance to trainings and seminars so that preschool teachers will continually

go for professional advancements to strengthen and deliver quality education.

Assessment and evaluation of professional competencies and performance of

the kindergarten teachers are advised to be implemented, not only in terms of

educational background, but also interpersonal skills, and expertise in his or her field of

specialization and classroom roles.

Kindergarten teachers are encouraged to continue their standing performances.

Qualifications of teachers may be assessed from time to time so that they can prepare,

plan and implement the goals and objectives that they have set to reach the outstanding

level of performance.

Supervisors and teachers are advised to look into their very own classrooms so

that problems of school climate, administrative and pupil’s behavior will be reported to

the higher personnel so that it can be addressed. DepEd/LGU must work together in

providing and allocating resources for the rehabilitation and for the constructions of basic

facilities that are useful in the school.

Classroom performances of the kindergarten teachers are encouraged to be highly

proficient always. Teachers’ competence and practices best predicts pupil’s performance.
95

Competent teachers with positive instructional practices encourage their pupils perform

better than those who are under with low performing teachers.

Parents are enjoined to be supportive with their children in terms of education.

The higher the parent support to their pupils in school, the higher the level of teachers

performance in class.
96

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APPENDICES
103

Appendix 1: Letter to the Schools Division Superintendent.

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: __________

JESNAR DEMS S. TORRES, Ph.D.


OIC Schools Division Superintendent
Division of Bukidnon
Sumpong, Malaybalay City

Sir:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan ,Maramag
,Bukidnon.

I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct my study, entitled “Classroom
Roles, Extent of Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in
your respective elementary schools in Division of Bukidnon.

This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree.

Anticipating with thanks your favorable response regarding this request.

Very truly yours, Approved by:

SUSAN M. ERMAC JESNAR DEMS S. TORRES, Ph.D.


Researcher OIC Schools Division Superintendent
104

Noted:

VIRGENCITA B. CARO,Ph.D. JUDITH D. INTONG, Ph.D.


Adviser Dean, Graduate School

Appendix 2.Letter to the Public Schools District Supervisor

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: __________

MAGDALENA A. ROLLO Ph.D.


Public Schools District Supervisor
Quezon I District
Poblacion,Quezon,Bukidnon

Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan Maramag,
Bukidnon .

I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles, Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon.

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Schools Division


Superintendent, Division of Bukidnon.

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
105

Researcher

Approved by:

MAGDALENA A. ROLLO,Ph.D.
Public Schools District Supervisor
Appendix 3.Letter to the Public Schools District Supervisor

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: __________

LYDIA B. JUBAN Ph.D.


Public Schools District Supervisor
Quezon II District
Salawagan ,Quezon,Bukidnon

Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Maramag
,Bukidnon .
I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles, Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon.

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Schools Division


Superintendent, Division of Bukidnon.

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher

Approved by:
106

LYDIA B. JUBAN, Ph.D.


Public Schools District Supervisor

Appendix 4.Letter to the Public Schools District Supervisor

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: __________

NELO DUMAPIAS
Public Schools District Supervisor
Maramag I District
Maramag, Bukidnon

Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan,Maramag
,Bukidnon .
I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles,Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon.

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Schools Division


Superintendent, Division of Bukidnon.

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher

Approved by:
107

NELO DUMAPIAS
Public Schools District Supervisor

Appendix 5 .Letter to the Public Schools District Supervisor

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date:__________

________________________
Public Schools District Supervisor
Maramag II District
Dologon ,Maramag ,Bukidnon

Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan,Maramag
,Bukidnon .
I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles,Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon.

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Schools Division


Superintendent, Division of Bukidnon.

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher
108

Approved by:
___________________________

Public Schools District Supervisor

Appendix 6.Letter to the Public Schools District Supervisor

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date:__________

CYNTHIA B. ABUCAYAN Ph.D.


Public Schools District Supervisor
Don Carlos I District
Don Carlos, Bukidnon

Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Maramag
,Bukidnon .
I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles, Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon.

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Schools Division


Superintendent, Division of Bukidnon.

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher
109

Approved by:

CYNTHIA B. ABUCAYAN Ph.,D.


Public Schools District Supervisor

Appendix 7. Letter to the School Principal.

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: __________

Mr./Mrs._____________
_____________________
_____________________

Sir/Madam:

The undersigned is a teacher of Zubiri Village Elementary School presently taking up


Master of Arts in Education at Central Mindanao University, Musuan ,Maramag
,Bukidnon.

I would like to ask permission from your office to conduct a study, entitled “Classroom
Roles, Problems Encountered and Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your
respective elementary schools in the Division of Bukidnon, District of Quezon I and II.

This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in
Education (Administration and Supervision).

Attached herewith is an approved letter of request from the Public Schools District
Supervisor

Your kind approval on this request will be highly appreciated.

Thank you very much and more power.


110

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher

Appendix 8 .Letter to the respondents.

Republic of the Philippines


Central Mindanao University
University Town, Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
GRADUATE SCHOOL

Date: _____________

Sir/Madam:

The researcher would like to solicit your most honest response by filling in all items in
the survey questionnaire entitled, “Classroom Roles, Problems Encountered and
Performance of Kindergarten Teachers” in your respective elementary schools in the
Division of Bukidnon.

This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in
Education (Administration and Supervision).

Rest assured that the responses you give will be kept confidential.

Please do not leave any items unanswered. Your sincere cooperation will be highly
appreciated.

Thank you very much, God bless and more power.

Very truly yours,

SUSAN M. ERMAC
Researcher
111

Appendix 5.Questionnaire for the respondents


PART I. Demographic Profile. Direction: Please supply the needed data or check on the
right option.
A. Name of Teacher :(optional )_
Number of years in teaching kindergarten: _____
B. Educational Qualification:
__BEED without preschool trainings __BEED with preschool trainings
__BEED with MA units in ECED __ BS ECED
__MA graduate in ECED ___others pls. specify.
C. List of Kindergarten workshops, seminars and trainings attended. Please check the
corresponding workshop/seminar you attended as a kindergarten teacher.
____1 .A Three Days Seminar Workshop on 40-Week Kindergarten Curriculum
____2. Orientation on Kindergarten Teachers
____3. Technology on Preschool and SPED Seminar
4. Others pls. specify_____________________
Part II. Kindergarten Teachers Practice of Classroom Roles. Direction: This questionnaire
is about the Classroom Roles Practiced by Kindergarten Teachers .Your honesty in
answering the following scales will greatly be appreciated and will be a great help. Please
check encircle the frequency of performing the practice in the column where your
responses fall please rate as honest as possible. Your answer will be treated with utmost
confidentiality. Thank you.
Weight Description Interpretation
5 Always Practice The role and practices is practiced all the time
4 Often Practice The role and practices is practiced frequently
3 Occasionally Practice The role and practices is practiced sometimes
2 Seldom Practice The role and practices is practiced rarely
1 Never Practice The role and practices is practiced once or not at
all

A. CLASSROOM ROLES SCALE


1.As a Nurturer I practiced the following : 5 4 3 2 1
1. I consider the child’s physical and socio-emotional well-being as well
as his/her intellectual and physical growth.
2. I maintain safe environment..
3. I make each child feel special and valued as an individual.
112

4. I establish an atmosphere of warmth, comfort, stability, dependently


and enthusiasm in the classroom.
5. I provide feeding program regularly.
6. I invite medical workers to check the children’s physical and dental
health.
7. I conduct physical exercise every morning.
8.I teach good manners and right conduct daily
2. As an Observer I practiced the following:
1. I observe children in all areas of development physical, social,
emotional and intellectual.
2. I interpret observations within the context of the whole child.
3. I use insights gained through observation to plan, evaluate and
communicate.
4. I maintain a written record of observation concerning each child’s
development.
5. I observe children’s behavior and provide enrichment activities.
6. I observe pupils movement and progress in all the activities in and
outside the classroom.
3. As a Planner I practiced the following:
1. I integrate similar concepts and relate it to the different lessons in
all subject area.
2. I provide materials for children that are manipulative, puzzle and
blocks to develop creativeness
3. I modify plans on the basis of children’s interest and individual
needs.
4. I make daily plans for all activities in every subject area.
5. I organize the learning activities based on the listing of skills.
6. I prepare IM’s that are realistic and interesting and enjoyable.
4. As an Interactor I practiced the following:
1. I produce a wide variety of experiences and give children ample
opportunities to interact with the environment.
2. I encourage children to work together and independently when
appropriate.
3. I promote group cohesiveness, self-respect and respect for others.
4. I assist children in resolving conflicts in positive way.
5. I promote children’s decision making and critical thinking.
6. I tell and retell funny stories to make the children enjoy the
learning activities.
7. I conduct a variety of games that provide several exercises for
enrichment.
5. As an Evaluator I practiced the following:
1. I am aware of different learning styles.
113

2. I use skillfully a variety of techniques such as observing,


questioning, inventories and task-taking.
3. I evaluate the results of formal tests and scorings in the light of the
child’s daily classroom behavior.
4. I minimize competition among children
5. I provide a variety of exercise to measure learning outputs.
6. I conduct oral and performance test to all pupils.
7. I assess pupil’s performance through observation.
6. As a Communicator I practiced the following :
1. I develop an effective system of regular reports to parents about
their child’s progress.
2. I use a variety of means for communication ( eg. conferences,
meetings, visits).
3. I teach pupils, rhymes, poems, and dialogues and make it
meaningful and enjoyable.
4. I develop pupils’ single greetings and courteous expression.
5. I develop the children to act out simple rhymes, poems and jingle
*Based on Limena (2008) Handbook of Preschool Teachers
114

Part III. Problems Encountered. Direction: Please rate the following problems that you
encountered in the practice of the different classroom roles. The following scale will be
used for problems you encountered in your class and school.
The following scale will be used for problems they faced
Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Interpretation
1 Strongly Agree Not Problematic
2 Agree Less Problematic
3 Undecided Moderately Problematic
4 Disagree Problematic
5 Strongly Disagree Highly Problematic

I. Instructional Materials Availability 5 4 3 2 1


1. All pupils are provided with enough Mathematics, English, Filipino
and Science workbooks.
2. The class has a television set and audio video facilities which are
useful in daily lesson.
3. The story books are stated in Mother Tongue and not in English.
4. It is good that the curriculum guide is stated in English and not in
Mother Tongue.
5. It is good that the workbooks are stated in English language and not
in Mother Tongue.
6. The plastic chairs and tables are children sized, durable and enough to
accommodate all pupils per session.
7. Toys , blocks and other manipulative are unlimited to accommodate
all pupils.
II. Classroom Environment
1. The classroom size is suitable for kindergarten pupils conducive
learning.
2. Their classrooms have comfort rooms, hand washing, tooth brushing
facilities and even water supply.
3. The classroom is safe, quiet and conducive for learning.
4. The pupils have a well-ventilated standard sized classroom.
5. Pupils have their classes in a completely furnished classroom
building.
III. Parent Support
1. Parents together with their pupils always participate in school
activities.
115

2. Parents strongly support the school based feeding program.


3. Parents provide all the needs of their pupils in school.
4. Parents are open- minded individuals who listen and shared their
knowledge during meetings and willing to contribute some amount for
the school beautification if necessary.
5. Parents make sure that their pupils are well groom and have eaten
their meals before going to school.
6. Parents always attend in the Homeroom/GPTA meeting.
7. Parents are model of helpfulness and punctuality to their child.
IV. Administrative Support
1. The school administrators are willing to support the kindergarten
pupils and teacher’s needs and activities.
2. The school administrators include the kindergarten pupils as part of
the complete elementary school system.
3. The school administrators include their kindergarten teachers both
volunteer and regular in the allocation of supplies from MOOE.
4. The school administrators are fair in treating the pupils from
kindergarten up to the graders.
5. The school administrators are updated in the activities related to
kindergarten and relay it to the kindergarten teachers on time.
6. The school administrators submit the kindergarten teachers’ monthly
reports on time.
7. The kindergarten volunteer teachers always received their honorarium
monthly.
8.The school administrators fairly treated their teachers both regular and
volunteers .
IV. Pupils Behavior
1. My pupils always arrive to school on time.
2. My pupils never been absent without informing me.
3. My pupils avoid from cutting classes.
4. My pupils go to school with complete school uniform and supplies.
5. My pupils are well-groomed and manifest neatness upon entering the
classroom.
6. My pupils are obedient and respectful to everybody in school.
7. My pupil can only transfer to another school after they get a
certificate of transfer from our school principal.
8. My pupils are given proper care and basic needs at home.
9. My pupils are well nurtured, loved and cared by their parents and
other members of their family.
10. My pupils are attentive and participative.
11. My pupils are interested to join in social activities like games,
poems, songs, dances and field demonstrations.
116

12. My pupils avoid bullying their classmates.


13. My pupils have enjoyed their rights as a child.

Source: ERDEN, E.(2010).Problems that preschool teachers face in the curriculum


implementation

Appendix 6.The Competency - Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-
PAST).Please rate yourself by encircling the appropriate rating that applies to you in
every item.
4- Highly Proficient (HP) Teacher performance consistently exceeds expectations.
3- Proficient (P) Teacher performance often exceeds expectations.
2-Basic (B) Teacher performance meets basic expectations based on
standards.
1-Below Basic (BB) Teacher performance on the job and outputs frequently
fall below standard.

PART-I COMPONENTS AND PERFORMANCE STANDARDS


I. INSTRUCTIONAL COMPETENCE
A. DIVERSITY OF LEARNERS Appraisal Rating
1 2 3 4
1. Set objectives that are within the experiences and
capabilities of learners.
2. Utilized varied designs, techniques and activities suited
to the different kinds of learners.
3. Paced lessons appropriate to the needs and difficulties
of learners.
4. Provided appropriate intervention activities for learners
at risks.
5. Recognized multi-cultural background of learners
when providing learning opportunities.
6. Adopt strategies to address needs of differently-abled
learners,
7. Showed fairness and consideration to all learners
regardless of socio-economic background.

B.CURRICULUM CONTENT and PEDAGOGY Appraisal Rating


1 2 3 4
1.Delivered accurate and updated content knowledge using
appropriate methodologies, approaches and strategies.
2. Used integration of language, literacy, numeracy skills and
117

values in teaching.
3. Explained learning goals, instructional procedures and
content clearly and accurately to students.
4. Linked the current content with past and future lessons.
5. Aligned the lesson objectives, teaching methods, learning
activities, and instructional materials or resources appropriate
to the learners.
6. Created situations that encourage learners to use high order
thinking skills through the use of local language among others
if needed.
7. Engaged and sustained learner’s interest in the subject by
making content meaningful and relevant to them.
8. Integrated scholarly works and ideas to enrich the lesson.
9. Established routines and procedures to maximize
instructional time.
10. Selected, prepared and utilized available technology and
other instructional materials appropriate to the learners and the
learning objectives.
11. Provided appropriate learning tasks, portfolio and projects
that support development of good study habits.
12. Used available ICT resources for planning and designing
teaching-learning activities.

C.PLANNING ,ASSESSING AND REPORTING Appraisal Rating


1 2 3 4
1.Constructed valid and reliable formative and summative
tests.
2. Used appropriate non-traditional assessment techniques and
tools. (i.e. Portfolio, journals, rubric, etc.)
3.Interpreted and used test results to improve teaching and
learning.
4. Identified Teaching-learning difficulties and possible
causes.
5. Managed remediation activities.
6. Used tools for assessing authentic learning.
7. Provided timely and accurate feedback to learners to
encourage them to reflect on and monitor their own learning
growth.
8.Kept accurate records of grades/performance levels of
learners.
9. Conducted regular meetings with learners and parents to
report learners’ progress.
118

II. SCHOOL, HOME, COMMUNITY LINKAGES


D. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Appraisal Rating
1 2 3 4
1. Provided equal opportunities for all learners regardless of
gender.
2. Maintained a safe and orderly classroom free from
distractions.
3. Used individual and cooperative learning activities to
improve capacities of learners for higher learning.
4. Inspired learners to set and value high performance
targets for themselves.
5. Handled behavior problems quickly and with due respect
to children’s rights.
6.Created situation that develop a positive attitude among
learners towards their subject and teacher.

E. COMMUNITY LINKAGES Appraisal Rating


1 2 3 4
1. Involved parents/community in sharing accountability
for learners’ achievement.
2. Used varied and available community resources
(human, materials) to support learning.
3. Used community as a laboratory for teaching and
learning.
4. Got involved in/ shared community information on
school events and achievement.
5. Led students to apply classroom learning to the
community.
6. Informed learners, parents and other stakeholders
regarding school policies and procedures.

III. PERSONAL, SOCIAL GROWTH AND PROFESSIONAL


CHARACTERISTICS
F. SOCIAL REGARD FOR LEARNING Appraisal Rating
1 2 3 4
1. Abide by and implemented school policies and
procedures.
2. Demonstrated punctuality in accomplishing tasks and
attendance on all occasions.
3. Maintained appropriate appearance and decorum at all
times.
4. Demonstrated appropriate behavior in dealing with
learners, peers and superiors.
119

G. PERSONAL,SOCIAL GROWTH AND Appraisal Rating


PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 1 2 3 4
1. Maintained stature and behavior that upholds the
dignity of teaching.
2. Manifested personal qualities like enthusiasm,
flexibility, caring attitude, collegiality among others.
3. Demonstrated my educational philosophy of teaching in
the classroom.
4. Updated myself with recent developments in education.
5. Participated actively in professional organizations.
6. Reflected on the quality of my own teaching.
7. Improved teaching performance based on feedback
from mentors, learners, peers, superiors and others.
8. Used self-assessment to enhance strengths and correct
my weaknesses.
9. Accepted accountability for learners’ outcomes.
10. Abide by the Code of Ethics for Professional
Teachers.