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Introduction Dental hygiene has been considered as important since long. In order to maintain dental hygiene, numerous dental products are available in the market. Numerous chemicals find use in their preparation as well as in dentistry. Although it is well known that clean teeth keeps good health and clean teeth cannot decay, it is not possible to clean the teeth continuously all the years. Numerous factors contribute to dental decay and the problem of oral hygiene arises. A large number of inorganic chemicals and their preparations are known which find application in the practice of dental and oral disorders. As they come in contact with the human body, they are regarded like other drugs and pharmaceuticals. Dental products include (i) Anticaries (ii) Cleaning and (iii) Polishing agents. Anticaries Agents Dental caries or tooth decay is more or less a disease of the teeth caused by acids produced by the action of microorganisms on carbohydrates. This disease is characterized by decalcification of tooth accompanied by foul mouth odour. The exact cause and mechanism of dental caries is not known with certainty. However, it is accepted that dental caries first of all starts on the surface of the teeth. Acids produced by bacterial metabolism of fermenting carbohydrates act on teeth, produce lesions where bacteria get located and dental caries gets produced. To prevent dental caries and to maintain clean and healthy teeth it becomes necessary to use dentifrices. Primary function of dentifrices is to clean the accessible surface of the teeth. There are substances having known therapeutic value. Use of ammoniated tooth paste, urea ammonia containing powders, antibiotic containing mixtures and antienzyme compounds have been in use. These compounds are having their advantages and limitations.
fluorides find use in dental practice. When a fluoride having salt or solution is taken internally.5 to 1 ppm is provided which is sufficient. However. increased density of bones. transported and deposited in the bone or developing teeth and remainder gets excreted by the kidneys. This is not true because those who receive slow continued ingestion of fluoride may suffer from mottling of teeth. it is readily absorbed. Alternatively. convulsions and even heart failure. A small quantity (1 ppm) of fluoride thus becomes necessary to prevent caries. Sodium fluoride tablets or solution of sodium fluoride in a dose of 2. ground water is totally lacking fluoride. It is possible to administer fluoride by two routes (i) orally and (ii) topically. Administrations of traces of fluoride having salts or their use in topical use to the teeth have been reported to give encouraging results. 2 . known as fluoridation (Note: not fluorination) is able to help in reducing and preventing dental caries. In such places occurrence of dental caries has been becoming in alarming proportions. Ranchi Role of Fluoride Role of fluoride in preventing dental caries has been well accepted.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences.2 mg per day are used. Due to beneficial effects in treating dental caries and in some types of osteoporosis. Fluoride ion is a trace material which occurs in our body. Role of Phosphate Besides fluorides. BIT Mesra. Addition of fluoride to the municipal water supply. For topical application 2 per cent solution is generally used on teeth. gastric disturbances. muscular weakness. if more quantity of fluoride (more than 23 ppm) is ingested it is carried to hones and teeth and gives rise to mottled enamel known as dental fluorosis. The use of fluoridation of public water supply has been the most common and effective way of oral administration. it can he given in drinking water or fruit juice in such a concentration to have about 1 ppm per day. The deposited fluoride on the surface of teeth does not allow the action of acids or enzymes in producing lesions. Water supply containing about 0. inorganic phosphate salts have been found to he useful reducing the denial caries. In some parts of the world. It is generally adequately obtained from food and water. Phosphate ions are needed for stronger bones as well as healthy teeth.
Fluoride also gets absorbed slowly from gums when applied as paste and incorporated into the teeth. calculated with reference to the dried 3 . oral gel or varnish for systemic use or as mouth wash for local use in the mouth. Sodium fluoride and other soluble fluorides are readily absorbed from GIT. hydrofluoric acid is produced. This is weak acid and is poisonous. On acidification of salt solution.99 It is having not less than 98. wt: 41.2 mg of NaF contains 1 mg of fluoride ion and each g of NaF is equivalent to 23. Role of phosphate as cleaning agent is also important. Preparation: It may be prepared by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid with sodium carbonate. 2HF + Na2CO3 2NaF + H2O + CO2 Another method involves the double decomposition of calcium fluoride with sodium carbonate wherein insoluble calcium carbonate can be removed by filtration. Mol. odorless crystals or as white powder.0 per cent of NaF. Ranchi Phosphate salts both the soluble and insoluble forms are obtained from normal diets. Fluoride ion enters the enamel of teeth and becomes part of enamel structure and thus becomes effective.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. BIT Mesra. It also decreases microbial acid production. Sodium fluoride Formula: NaF substance. Approximately 2. Sodium Fluoride in 2 per cent aqueous solution is widely used topically. Its aqueous solutions corrode ordinary glass bottles and hence the solution should be prepared in distilled water and stored in dark. occasionally the solution is applied to the surface of dry teeth periodically over several times inn year. Action and uses: Sodium fluoride due to its fluoride ion is an important agent in dental practice for retarding or preventing dental caries. Aqueous solution of salt yields alkaline reaction. pyrex bottles.8 m mol of sodium and fluoride. tablet. The phosphates are normally given in deficiencies. CaF2 + Na2CO3 2NaF + CaCO3 Properties: It forms colorless. It is soluble in water but is insoluble in alcohol. Sodium fluoride can he administered as solution. Fluoridised teeth have been resistant to microorganisms causing dental caries.
It is soluble in water hut insoluble in alcohol and organic solvents. It is also used for fluoride supplement of diets (for prevention of caries).5 per cent of fluoride.salty taste. A freshly prepared 8 per cent solution of stannous fluoride is applied to the cleaned dry teeth. Sodium monofluorophosphate U. It is freely soluble in water.3 per cent and not more than 25. It corresponds to the formula Na2PO3F (mole mass 143. Because of instability of prepared aqueous solutions. Uses: It is used to prevent dental caries.9). mouth wash or dentifrice (toothpaste).P. It is believed SMFP is able to induce better fluoridation of dental enamel and decreases its demineralization.S. Aqueous solution of stannous fluoride deteriorates rapidly on standing because of oxidation of stannous cation to stannic form causing turbidity.0 per cent) finds use Mot wt: 156. Thus. Ranchi A modification of sodium fluoride application is the use of acidified phosphate-sodium fluoride gels. Properties: It is a white crystalline powder having unpleasant astringent. Stannous fluoride Formula: SnF2 water. particularly toothpastes. calculated on the dried basis.7 in dentistry.2 per cent of stannous (Sn2+) ions and not less than 22. than sodium fluoride. yielding near neutral solution. Stannous fluoride solution is obtained from using tin fluoride capsules by dissolving in It contains not less than 71. It is preferred to be included in dentifrices. A single application has been reported to be sufficient for six to twelve months. fluoridation of municipal water supply and in mouth washes. stannous fluoride solution must he freshly made. fresh solutions are prepared at the time of application. It is also known as SMFP. It is a white odorless powder. These preparations usually contain the equivalent of approximately 1.23 per cent of fluoride and 1 per cent phosphoric acid. It has an unpleasant taste and may cause discoloration of teeth on over-usage. A fresh solution (about 8. 4 . BIT Mesra.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. similar to sodium fluoride and SMFP in the form of solution. gel.
pumice powders also serve as dentifrice agents. P. even if the material reaches them during application. Calcium carbonate I. antiseptics. fluoride. They may be termed as medicated dentifrices. deodorants etc. The cleaning action is dependent upon abrasive property and the rubbing force used. is used in dentifrices.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Flavors and colours are usually added to dentifrice formulations. When exposed to air. sodium metaphosphate are common dentifrice in toothpaste and tooth powders. It is most frequently 5 . some useful substances may be included in dentifrices for providing better oral hygiene and supply of trace materials (e. Dibasic calcium phosphate I. BIT Mesra. It occurs as a dihydrate (CaHPO4 2H2O. Similarly. As brushing teeth with pastes has become a daily practice. In a very fine powder form.06). One can apply it with finger or preferably with a tooth brush. The main drawback is that it will not be able to clean surfaces inside cavities and crevices between teeth. It forms a common ingredient of tooth powder and toothpaste. it effloresces losing water to form anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4: mole mass 136. This calcium salt is having 1:1 ratio of calcium to phosphorus. both powders and pastes. it finds use in dentifrices. for improving their acceptance. P. Some tests have been designed for this but those are not comparable when tested in vivo. Ranchi Cleaning Agents or Dentifrices Dentifrice is a material which is used for cleaning of teeth and adjacent gums. (See Indian Pharmacopoeia) Precipitated chalk. Its chemistry and properties have been described in greater detail in earlier chapter. It furnishes both abrasive and antacid effect in the mouth.09). It is also known as dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium orthophosphate or calcium hydrogen phosphate. A good cleaning agent must remove stains from teeth and to achieve this suitable abrasiveness is essential.g. Calcium phosphate dibasic and tribasic. calcium carbonate. It becomes difficult to evaluate abrasiveness. Dentifrices are applied as powders or pastes. Uses. which is having a fine powdery texture. mole mass 172.). The role of phosphate as anticaries and dentifrice is well-known. It provides good flow properties and is odourless and tasteless.
the perception to heat and cold has been felt strongly. The numbing effect is of short duration like that of local anaesthetic. grayish-white powder with fineness. Polishing Agents One main requirement of good dentifrice is to have polishing effect on the cleaned teeth. The moderate abrasive quality makes it suitable for toothpaste and tooth powders. fine and coarse pumice powder. Therefore. Uses: Depending upon the particle size it finds use in industry as a filtering and distributing medium. Due to its grittiness. It is gritty in nature. It forms an ingredient in dental preparation as dental abrasive. pregnant woman and lactating mothers. tasteless. As a salt it is able to supply both calcium and phosphorus which is needed for the growth in children. Desensiting Agents Usually teeth are somewhat sensitive to heat and cold. The overall effect provides whiteness to the teeth. BIT Mesra. hard. It is possible to achieve the polishing effect by abrasive action. It also finds due to use as abrasive in metal polishes. Besides. Externally it finds use as dentifrice having cleaning action. On sifting it is categorized into superfine. It is a product obtained from volcanic origin. This property is shown by astringent type compounds and due to which they get incorporated in dental products. potassium and sodium. some desensiting agents are used in dental preparations so as to reduce sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold. very light. 6 . Ranchi recommended for oral administration as an electrolyte replenisher. having polishing effect some desensisting agents are added in dentifrices for reducing sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold. Properties: It forms odourless. Especially during teeth decay or in toothache. Pumice It is a substance of variable composition consisting of complex silicates of aluminium. It is stable in air and is insoluble in water.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. it is used in soaps and cleaning powders.
It finds use in 10 per cent solution to be applied to the teeth as desensitising agent. Examples of desensiting agents include strontium chloride and zinc chloride. Strontium chloride Formula: SrCl2. Ranchi The exact mechanism of action of desensiting agents is not known with certainty. Uses: It acts as desensitising agent in dental remedies. However. concentrated and allowed to crystallise. It effloresces in dry air. it finds use as a good astringent when used in solution for topical applications. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Ammonical silver nitrate solution is also used for its astringent action. BIT Mesra. All these have been described in earlier chapters. Properties: It forms colourless crystals or white granules. Strontium chloride is not official in any Pharmacopoeia. It is also able to decrease hypersensitivity of teeth and gums. Mouth Washes Mouth washes having zinc sulphate (for its mild antiseptic and astringent action) or zinc chloride (for its deodorant and desensitising action) or potassium permanganate (for its anti-infective and astringent action) or sodium bicarbonate (for its antacid property) or sodium chloride (for irritation) are generally used in dental practice for various reasons. 7 .Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Zinc chloride (See Details in Astringents) Formula: ZnCl2 Uses: As discussed earlier.6H2O Preparation: It is prepared by adding strontium carbonate to hydrochloric acid until effervescence gets ceased. The solution is filtered. they act probably like local anesthetic.
Dentifrices are not able to clean surfaces inside cavities and crevices between teeth.Inorganic Medicinals Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4. What are their uses? 14. Write down the role of fluoride in preventing dental caries. Write down the examples of cleaning agent. BIT Mesra. 12. Write down the properties and uses of stannous fluoride. Write down the action and uses of sodium fluoride. 3. Describe briefly various inorganic chemicals used in dental products. What are Anticaries agents? Give examples. Fluoride b. their chemistry and specific application in oral hygiene products. Calcium carbonate d. 16. Sod. Stannous fluoride 25. Define: a. 8. 11. uses and assay of: sodium fluoride and dibasic calcium phosphate 18. What are anticaries agents? 27. their chemistry and specific applications in oral hygiene products. 7. 19. 23. 2. Compare their relative efficacies. 20. 5. In what concentration sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride are used as Anticaries agent? 13. 24. Write down the uses of zinc chloride in dental preparations. Ranchi QUESTIONS 1. Desensitizing agents 26. What are the diseases due to excess of fluorides? 6. What do you mean by dental hygiene? Broadly classify the products use to maintain dental hygiene. What are polishing agents? Explain 21. Anticaries agents c. Write notes on the following: a. Write the preparation of sodium fluoride. Describe the method of preparation. Define dentifrices. Write down the properties of sodium fluoride. Give a brief account of fluorides used in dental products. Why? 15. Write short note on desensitizing agents. even if the material reaches them during application. Zinc chloride c. Write down the role of phosphate as dental product. What is the role of fluoride as anticaries? 8 . Write down the mechanism of action of fluorides and phosphates. advantages and limitations. 17. 22. 10. Write a short note on mouth washes. Write a short note on calcium carbonate. Describe briefly various inorganic chemicals used in mouth washes. 9. Dentifrices b.
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