You are on page 1of 68

ANTON DE KOM UNIVERSITY OF SURINAME

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINING

2.12 – 2.07 Ga Late- to post-collisional


peraluminous granitoid magmatism in the
Marowijne Greenstone Belt of Suriname

Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment


of the requirement for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE
in
MINERAL GEOSCIENCES

by
Samantha C. Kromopawiro

Paramaribo, February 2019


Approval

To: Prof. Dr. Th. E. Wong,


Coordinator of the Master of Science course Mineral Geosciences

The thesis written by Samantha C. Kromopawiro, entitled “2.12 – 2.07 Ga Late- to post-
collisional peraluminous granitoid magmatism in the Marowijne Greenstone Belt of Suriname”,
has been approved with respect to style and intellectual content and is referred to you for
judgement.

We have read this thesis and recommend that it be approved.

Prof. Dr. S. B. Kroonenberg


Professor at the Anton de Kom University of Suriname
Supervisor

Date of defense: February 15th, 2019


The thesis of Samantha C. Kromopawiro is approved.

…………………………………..
Prof. Dr. Th. E. Wong
Coordinator of the Master of Science course Mineral Geosciences
Head of the department Geology and Mining

i
TO THOSE IN NEED OF SOME INSPIRATION

ii
Abstract

Granitoid magmatism within the Marowijne Greenstone Belt occurred during several episodes
between 2.19 and 2.07 Ga. The first episode emplaced TTG-suites in multiple phases between
2.19 – 2.16 Ga and 2.15 – 2.11 Ga. During the second TTG phase, processes within the
continental crust yielded within-plate granite plutons, such as the Tibiti granite (~2119 Ma), to
emerge as the result of possible lithospheric structural activities, unrelated to subduction. The
Tibiti granite is classified as a calc-alkalic peraluminous biotite granite, derived from an
intermediate to mafic magma source. The second episode of magmatism within the
greenstone belt, took place during syn- to late-, and maybe even post-collisional events
between 2.10 – 2.07 Ga. During this episode, the Phedra granite was emplaced (~2093 Ma)
within a syn-tectonic setting. This granitic unit is classified as an alkalic- to alkali-calcic
peraluminous two-mica granite, with an intermediate derived sedimentary magma source
rock. The Akinto Soela granite (~2074 Ma) was emplaced at a slightly later stage of the second
magmatic episode with late- to post collision characteristics. This granite is classified as an
alkalic- to alkali-calcic granite, with both peraluminous and metaluminous affinities, suggesting
assimilation of mafic rock material. This unit shows differentiation within its composition, from
the occasional hornblende and no muscovite, to no hornblende and minor muscovite.
Considering the ages, the Akinto Soela, Phedra and the Patamacca granites are interpreted
to be from the same magmatic pulse, showing variation in composition, mainly due to their
tectonic environment and precursor magma source rocks.
Gold mineralization related to any of these granitic occurrences is ruled out, as these units
demonstrate ages that are older than the mineralization events. Other resources such as Sn,
Nb, Ta and Be in pegmatites would be better exploration targets within close vicinity of these
plutons.

iii
Acknowledgements

Sincere gratitude goes towards Prof. Dr. Kroonenberg, whose support and encouragement
throughout the final stages of the master’s course was indispensable and truly appreciated,
and to Prof. Dr. Wong whose constant speeches of motivation ensured the completion of this
thesis. A special thank you is addressed to Dr. Kriegsman, who made time available to assist
in the age dating processes for this report. The exploration companies Hazlo Geo-Solutions,
Ponsor Mining and Kuldipsingh Mining are thanked for their field assistance. Chervin is
thanked for assisting with the petrography. And finally, the most profound gratitude goes
towards my family and friends for their support in all forms possible, especially during the final
stages of writing.

iv
Table of Content

Abstract................................................................................................................................. iii
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................... iv
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1
2. Geological Setting ............................................................................................................. 2
2.1 Regional Geology ........................................................................................................ 2
2.2 Geology of Suriname ................................................................................................... 4
2.2.1 The Marowijne Greenstone Belt ............................................................................... 5
2.2.2 TTG Plutonism in the Marowijne Greenstone Belt .................................................... 5
2.3 Granitoids of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt ............................................................... 5
3. Methodology ................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 Literature study and previous work ............................................................................ 10
3.2 Field work and sampling ............................................................................................ 10
3.3 Petrographic analysis ................................................................................................ 10
3.4 Geochemical analysis ................................................................................................ 11
3.4.1 X-Ray Fluorescence ............................................................................................... 11
3.4.2 LA-ICP-MS ............................................................................................................. 11
3.5 Zircon U-Pb Age Dating ............................................................................................. 11
3.6 Assessment and Interpretation .................................................................................. 12
4. Results ............................................................................................................................ 13
4.1 Compilation of previous work ..................................................................................... 13
4.2 Field observations ..................................................................................................... 13
4.3 Petrographic Observations ........................................................................................ 18
4.3.1 Akinto Soela thin sections ....................................................................................... 18
4.3.2 Phedra thin sections ............................................................................................... 22
4.3.3 Tibiti thin sections ................................................................................................... 23
4.3.4 Mineralogical classification ..................................................................................... 23
4.4 Geochemistry ............................................................................................................ 24
4.4.1 Major element classification .................................................................................... 24
4.4.2 Trace element classification.................................................................................... 30
4.4.3 REE and Spider diagrams ...................................................................................... 33
4.5 U-Pb zircon age dating .............................................................................................. 37
5. Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 41
Magmatic evolution of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt .................................................... 42
Evidence for a granite batholith under the Marowijne Greenstone Belt ............................ 44
6. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 47

v
Recommendation ................................................................................................................ 50
References ......................................................................................................................... 51
Appendices ......................................................................................................................... 57

vi
List of Figures

Figure 1: Simplified geological sketch map of the Guiana Shield .......................................... 2


Figure 2: A geodynamic evolution model for the Guiana Shield ........................................... 3
Figure 3: Simplified geological map of Suriname with the main units .................................... 4
Figure 4: Geological map of the Suriname ........................................................................... 6
Figure 5: Location map of the collected samples from the different granitoids ..................... 13
Figure 6: Images of the exposed Akinto Soela Granite........................................................ 14
Figure 7: Sample of the Phedra granite ............................................................................... 15
Figure 8: Photographs of the pink Tibiti granite ................................................................... 16
Figure 9: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Akinto Soela Granite (Ponsor Mining) 19
Figure 10: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Akinto Soela Granite (Kuldipsingh
Quarry) ............................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 11: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Phedra granite ................................ 22
Figure 12: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Tibiti granite .................................... 23
Figure 13: General classification and nomenclature of felsic plutonic rocks ........................ 24
Figure 14: Diagram showing the XRF results of TU Delft lab versus the results of the Utrecht
University ............................................................................................................................ 26
Figure 15: Classification of the granitoid rocks on the TAS diagram .................................... 27
Figure 16: ASI-classification of the granitoid rocks .............................................................. 28
Figure 17: ASI-diagram (Al/Ca+Na+K vs SiO2) for the classification of the granitoids into I-
and S-types......................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 18: MALI index. ........................................................................................................ 29
Figure 19: Harker diagrams of the Akinto Soela granite samples ........................................ 30
Figure 20: Harker diagrams of the Akinto Soela, Phedra and Patamacca samples ............. 30
Figure 21: Tectonic discriminant diagrams .......................................................................... 31
Figure 22: Rb-Hf-Ta triangular plot for acid-intermediate intrusive magmatism ................... 32
Figure 23: REE patterns after Evenson et al. (1978). .......................................................... 34
Figure 24: REE normalization patterns after Sun and McDonough et al. (1989) .................. 34
Figure 25: Spider diagram after Sun and McDonough (1992) ............................................. 35
Figure 26: Geochemical patterns of the Akinto Soela samples............................................ 36
Figure 27: Geochemical patterns of the Phedra sample ...................................................... 36
Figure 28: Geochemical patterns of the Tibiti sample .......................................................... 36
Figure 29: CL images of the Tibiti granite ............................................................................ 37
Figure 30: CL images of zircons from the Phedra granite .................................................... 38
Figure 31: Concordia diagram of the Phedra zircons measurements .................................. 38
Figure 32: CL images of selected zircons of the Akinto Soela granite ................................. 39

vii
Figure 33: Concordia diagram of the Akinto Soela zircons measurements .......................... 39
Figure 34: Schematic diagram illustrating the possible source regions of magmatism of the
northeastern Marowijne Greenstone Belt ............................................................................ 43
Figure 35: Map illustrating the modeled topography of the granite batholith ........................ 45
Figure 36: Geological map of the area of the Stofbroekoe Mountains ................................. 46

viii
List of Tables

Table 1: Sample descriptions and geographical location coordinates.................................. 17


Table 2: Analytical results of major- and trace element concentrations. .............................. 25
Table 3: Results of the major element concentrations by the TU Delft and the Utrecht
University. ........................................................................................................................... 26

ix
Abbreviations

cm – centimeter
Ga – giga-annum (billion years)
GMD – Geologische en Mijnbouwkundige Dienst (Geology and Mining Services)
HREE – heavy rare earth element
I-type – igneous type
km – kilometer
LA-ICP-MS – Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry
LREE – light rare earth element
Ma – mega-annum (million years)
mm – millimeter
MSWD – mean square of weighted deviation
n– population
ORG – ocean ridge granite
ppm – parts per million
QAPF – quartz – alkali-feldspar – plagioclase – feldspatoid
REE – rare earth element
S-type – sedimentary type
Syn-COLG – syn-collisional granite
TTG – Tonalite, Trondhjemite, Granodiorite
VAG – volcanic arc granite
WPG – within plate granite
XPL – crossed polarized light
XRF – X-Ray Fluorescence

µm – micrometer
g/cm –
3
grams per cubic centimeter
<LD – below detection limit

x
1. Introduction
The Marowijne Greenstone Belt is host to two of the largest gold districts of Suriname and its
potential for additional mineral resources is still high with more valuable discoveries yet to be
made. However, this metamorphic belt is considered underexplored in comparison to
neighboring countries. This report attempts to understand the geochronology of magmatism
within the northeastern greenstone belt and possibly identify their spatial context.

The aim of this study is to use geochemical and petrographic analyses to understand the
characteristics and chronology of several of the granite occurrences in this belt and compare
these to known granitic units in Suriname and neighboring countries. Three (3) granite units
are studied for this report, including the Akinto Soela, Tibiti and Phedra granites. Recent work
on the Brinck pluton and the Patamacca granite are used for comparison. To characterize the
granitic units and identify their place in the geological setting of the greenstone belt, the
following research question is asked:
- What is the geotectonic evolution of granitoid magmatism in the Marowijne Greenstone
Belt?

In order to answer this question, several characteristics need to be identified. The tectonic
setting, the magma source, but most importantly, the ages of the granitic rocks need to be
known. Understanding these plutonic bodies and their geological setting may not only lead to
the discovery of other potential resource commodities, but might also give further insight as to
where and how to continue exploring and expanding current resources, such as gold, within
the greenstone belt.

This report is divided into several chapters that finally lead to the concluding answer to the
research question. In chapter 2, an introduction is given on the geological setting and locations
of the granitoids of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt. Chapter 3 summarizes the various
methods and analytical techniques conducted on the samples. In chapter 4, the results are
presented in the form of diagrams, followed by the corresponding discussions in chapter 5.
The concluding remarks are presented in chapter 6 and an approach for additional work is
summarized in chapter 7.

1
2. Geological Setting

2.1 Regional Geology


The Guiana Shield is located on the northern edge of the Amazonian Basin and extends from
Venezuela, through Guyana, Suriname and French Guyana, all the way to Brazil (Figure 1).
The Precambrian Basement of Suriname forms part of this shield. The main tectonic event
was the Trans Amazonian Orogeny, which Delor et al. (2003a) divided in to two main events,
D1 (2.26 – 2.13 Ga) and D2 (2.11 – 2.06 Ga), initially referring to structural stages, but
documented by Delor et al. (2003a) as the main Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal stages.

Figure 1: Simplified geological sketch map of the Guiana Shield (Delor et al., 2003a) with Suriname highlighted in
red.

CENOZOIC: 1 - Alluvium cover; MESOZOIC: 2 - dolerite and sediment; PALEOZOIC: 3 - Amazon margin sediment; NEOPROTEROZOIC: 4 –
alkaline basalt, 5 - alkaline plugs; MESOPROTEROZOIC: 6 - granite, 7 - sediment, 8 - basic sill/dyke (Avanavero), 9 - sediment (Roraima Group),
10 - acid plutono-volcanism; TRANSAMAZONIAN tectonothermal episode: 11 - granitoid, 12 - ultrabasic plug, 13 - greenstone belt, 14 - granulite
(Central Guiana); ARCHEAN: 15: granulite and migmatite (Imataca).

2
Delor et al. (2003a) characterizes the main stages for the formation of the Guiana Shield
(Figure 2) as follows:
- The Eorhyacian stage (2.26 – 2.20 Ga) of mantle extraction and extensive ocean floor
magmatism as result of the separation of the Amazonian and African plates.
- The Mesorhyacian stage (D1) (2.18 – 2.13 Ga) of isoclinal folding and low-grade
metamorphism (Kroonenberg et al., 2016) as the result of N-S convergence and
collision of the Amazonian and African Cratons, through southward-directed
subduction of oceanic crust, followed by dominant TTG magmatism and regionally
associated greenstone belt formation (Delor et al., 2003a).

Figure 2: A geodynamic evolution model for the Guiana Shield (Delor et al., 2003a).

- The Neorhyacian stage (D2) (2.11 – 2.06 Ga) is split up in to the deformation stage
(D2a) (2.11 – 2.08 Ga) and the tectonic stage (D2b) (2.07 – 2.06 Ga).

3
During the D2a stage, more granitic magmatism and migmatization of earlier TTG-
greenstones occurred in response to the closure of the island-arc basins, due to
sinistral sliding caused by continuing convergence. Detrital basin opening also
occurred in areas where crustal stretching was maximum (pull-apart basins).
During the late D2b stage, further crustal stretching lead to dextral shearing and
emplacement of syn-tectonic granites and high-grade metamorphism of the Bakhuis
granulite belt.
- The late-Transamazonian Orosirian stage (2.01 – 1.93 Ga) of younger high-grade
metamorphism and acid volcanic activity.

2.2 Geology of Suriname

Figure 3: Simplified geological map of Suriname with the main units, after Bosma et al. (1977), modified by
Kroonenberg et al. (2016).

Suriname lies in the central part of the Guiana Shield and consists of 80% Precambrian rocks
and 20% Cretaceous to recent sediments (Figure 3). The Precambrian basement of Suriname
consists of a low-grade Marowijne Greenstone Belt in the northeast, two high-grade
metamorphic belts, the Bakhuis Granulite Belt in the northwest and the Coeroeni Gneiss Belt
in the southwest, and a vast granitoid-volcanic complex in the central part of the country. A
sandstone remnant of the Roraima Supergroup, the Tafelberg formation, overlays the
basement and Proterozoic and Early Jurassic dolerite dykes transect the older rock formations
(Kroonenberg et al., 2016).

4
2.2.1 The Marowijne Greenstone Belt
The main Paleoproterozoic Marowijne Greenstone Belt in the northeastern part of Suriname
shows an asymmetrical syncline structure with the Paramaka Formation in the outer side and
the younger Armina Formation in the core of the syncline. Diapiric TTG bodies, including small
mafic to ultramafic plutons, intruded the Paramaka Formation in the southwest, while smaller
two-mica granites intruded the Armina Formation in the northeast. The ultramafic- and TTG
plutonism is considered by Kroonenberg et al. (2016) to have occurred simultaneously with
the Paramaka Formation, but before the deposition of the Armina Formation. The Rosebel
Formation overlays both the Armina and Paramaka Formations unconformably. The
Marowijne Greenstone Belt borders a belt of migmatitic gneisses, the Sara’s Lust Gneiss, on
both flanks of the syncline structure (Kroonenberg et al., 2016).

2.2.2 TTG Plutonism in the Marowijne Greenstone Belt


The older rocks of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt, mainly the Paramaka and the Armina
Formations, were subjected to both TTG and granitic plutonism. The Kabel Tonalite occupies
large parts of the greenstone belt and suggest diapiric ascent as deformed metavolcanics of
the Paramaka Formation wrap around the outlines of the intrusions (Veenstra, 1983). Delor et
al. (2003a) and Veenstra (1983) reported tonalites to be concentrated at the contact zones,
while the central parts are made up of trondhjemites and granodiorites.
Individual plutons of two-mica granite have been identified to intrude mainly the Armina
Formation (Kroonenberg et al., 2016). These plutons also suggest a diapiric ascent as they
are slightly gneissose and the margins have many lens-shaped metasedimentary enclaves
with a strike similar to the adjoining metasediments (Bosma et al., 1984). The contact zone of
these two-mica granites and the well-foliated coarse-grained Taffra Schist contains numerous
pegmatite veins (Montagne, 1964).

2.3 Granitoids of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt


Granitoids are the most common plutonic rocks on earth; they are felsic in composition with
predominantly feldspars and quartz minerals, with minor mica and amphibole (Best, 2003).
Their textural characteristics vary from aphanitic to phaneric and sometimes porphyritic. They
make up the abundance of the continental crusts, mainly in parts that are thickened by
orogeny, either convergence or subduction related (Best, 2003). They are generally a mixture
of mantle derived mafic melts and melts of crustal rocks that may or may not contain
metasedimentary components (Frost et al., 2001). The disturbance in thermal and pressure
balance beneath the Earth’s surface, as the result of the tectonic events, causes the solid

5
crust underneath the area of influence to partially melt. Sometimes, parts of the Earth’s upper
mantle can melt as well and create magma chambers, which can feed upward lying plutonic
bodies. The rate at which a plutonic rock or body crystallizes is extremely slow and therefore,
many granitoid rocks post-date the thickening event by tens of millions of years (Pearce et al.,
1984; Harris et al., 1986).

The various granitic occurrence studied in this report are all located in the Marowijne
Greenstone Belt. Figure 4 illustrates the various units of this belt, including all granitic
occurrences, with brief descriptions of each in the following paragraphs.

Figure 4: Geological map of the Suriname after Bosma et al. (1977) and Kroonenberg et al. (2016) with the
northeastern Marowijne Greenstone Belt highlighted in black. The Greenstone Belt is comprised of an older
volcanic-sedimentary complex of the Paramaka and Armina Formation, intruded by granitoids, which are overlain
by sediments of the Rosebel Formation. Locations of the various granitic occurrences are indicated on the map.

The Akinto Soela Granite


The Akinto Soela granite initially cropped out in a small rapid in the Mapane Creek, a tributary
of the Commewijne River. The area is located in the district of Para, approximately 75 km
south-east of the country’s capital Paramaribo and 15 km east of the Suriname River.
The rapid exposes a granitic unit, which is described by O’ Herne (1958) as a medium- to
coarse grained biotite-rich, sometimes porphyritic, microcline granite. So far, this biotite granite
is the only one of its kind found in northeastern Suriname; all other granitic units in the
Greenstone Belt consist of both biotite and muscovite in their mineralogical composition.
Several other similar granitic outcrops are exposed along the Mapane Creek and other smaller
creeks in the area, however, insufficient evidence was found to classify the outcrops as one

6
big massif at the time of O’ Herne’s investigation. This is the reason that the biotite-granite,
the two-mica-granite and the magmatic gneiss in the area were classified as one single unit,
G3 (Granite 3) by O’ Herne (1958).
For the 1977 geological map of Suriname by the GMD (1977) this particular area was re-
evaluated and a new outline for the Akinto Soela granite was generated and is classified as
Unit 23, biotite-granite (Figure 4). The contact relationships with the surrounding units have
not been properly identified yet, mainly due to extensive weathering, but the combination of
topography, regolith and actual outcrop data has resulted in the particular lung-shaped outline
of this granitic unit.
After O’ Herne’s work in 1958, no other investigations were conducted on the actual Akinto
Soela biotite-granite, and this report is the first attempt since then, to understand the
relationship with other granitic units in the northwestern part of the country. Several small
mining companies have done work in the area and exposed unweathered rock, which made it
possible to continue this research.

The Phedra Granite


The Phedra granite is classified on the geological map of Suriname as a muscovite-biotite
granite (unit 27) (Bosma et al., 1977; Kroonenberg et al., 2016). This granite was mined for
aggregates by the government of Suriname, but mining activities in the area have decreased
since then. Although mining activities of this unit was ongoing for several years, no detailed
geochemical work was conducted on this particular granite, except for one sample sent for
analysis by Veenstra (1983). The geochemical results of this sample is also taken into account
in the classification schemes used for this report. The Phedra granite was the first rock in
Suriname to be sampled for age dating by Priem et al. (1966, 1971), giving Rb-Sr whole rock
isochron ages of 1810 ± 40 Ma and Rb-Sr and K-Ar biotite-muscovite ages between 1760 and
1970 Ma. These ages are now considered inconclusive as more accurate dating techniques
have been developed.

The Patamacca Granite


The Patamacca granite is well known by its large exposure called the ‘Kale Rots’ located in
the Patamacca area of the Marowijne District in northeast of Suriname. Bosma et al. (1977)
and Kroonenberg et al. (2016) classified this granite as a two-mica granite on the geological
map of Suriname. Hakstege (1986) described the Kale Rots outcrop as a homogeneous
granite with a massive coarse grained texture and locally variable sized mica, quartz and
feldspar crystals. Drill core was studied of moderately weathered rock and a porphyritic variety
of this granite was observed, containing finer grains and increased amounts of biotite and
feldspar megacrysts.

7
A recent study on the Patamacca granite was conducted by Yang (2014). He classified this
granite as peraluminous S-type, derived from high-grade meta-pelitic parent lithology, and
suggests an origin in a syn-collisional tectonic setting, most likely emplaced during the period
of oblique plate convergence and sliding between the Amazonian and African plates.

The Brinck Pluton


The Brinck pluton, first discovered by Brinck (1955), is located in the southern part of the
IAMGOLD Rosebel Gold Mine’s concession, close to several gold deposits and prospects
(Ramlal, 2018). The pluton was described as a peraluminous granite with garnet and
normative sillimanite (Brinck, 1955). Ramlal (2018) did a thorough study on the Brinck pluton
and identified this granitic body to have a trondhjemitic to granitic composition and containing
a fine grained hypabyssal rock. All rock types from the Brinck pluton have volcanic arc granite
(VAG) characteristics, suggesting subduction tectonic setting (Ramlal, 2018). All TTG rocks
of the Brinck pluton have a calc-alkaline affinity and show a strong enrichment in LREE, with
a pronounced negative Eu anomaly in the felsic members. Overall, the plutonism took place
in an island arc setting, after extrusion of the Paramaka volcanics in a back-arc extensional
phase (Ramlal, 2018). Age dating indicates two phases of TTG magmatism at ca. 2.19 - 2.16
Ga and 2.12 - 2.11Ga, similar to what is known from the stratigraphy in French Guiana that
suggest trondhjemites and granites to have been generated during each of these phases of
TTG magmatism (Ramlal, 2018).

The Tibiti Granite


The Tibiti granite is classified on the geological map of Suriname as a biotite granite (unit 23)
(Bosma et al., 1977; Kroonenberg et al, 2016). This occurrence is surrounded by several other
granitic occurrences showing different mineralogical compositions, such as the pyroxene
granite (unit 25) and a fine to medium grained leucogranite (unit 22). Limited geological work
was done in this area, especially on the granitic occurrences, by Arjomandi and Krook (1983)
who mapped the area to establish contact relationships.

TTG Kabel Tonalite


The TTG Kabel tonalites are ellipsoidal batholiths, often showing a foliated aspect of tonalite,
trondhjemite and granodiorites (Kroonenberg et al, 2016), from which Veenstra (1983) studied
the westernmost body in detail, known as the Saramacca Batholith. Tonalites occupy the
contact zones of batholiths, while trondhjemites and granodiorites the central parts (Veenstra,
1983; Delor et al., 2003a), all showing a calc-alkaline differentiation trend and are typically of
“I-type” (Delor et al., 2003a). In French Guiana the TTG ages at 2.18 – 2.16 Ga in the north
and the south of the country, with younger ages around 2.15 – 2.13 Ga in central French

8
Guiana (Kroonenberg et al., 2016). From the continuation of the southernmost Suriname
tonalite batholith into French Guiana a zircon Pb evaporation age of 2141 ± 8 Ma has been
obtained (Delor et al., 2003a).

9
3. Methodology
In order to answer the main research question and understand the characteristics of the
granitic occurrences, various work methods were used to come to a satisfying conclusion. This
consisted of a literature study with the compilation of previous work, new investigations and
fieldwork for the collection of additional information and samples, chemical and petrographic
analysis for compositional characteristics, U-Pb zircon age dating for determining time of
formation, and an assessment of the obtained data using various research references and
discrimination schemes.

3.1 Literature study and previous work


During the first phase of this research project, time was spent on compiling and reviewing data
from previous work, which mainly consisted of gathering information from historic reports,
digitizing maps where possible and analyzing existing core and thin sections.
In this study, fairly recent work from various authors, on other granite occurrences within the
Marowijne Greenstone Belt have also been used. Their results have been incorporated into
the classification schemes and discrimination diagrams for correlation and comparison
purposes (Chapter 4).

3.2 Field work and sampling


During the period of May through July 2017, field work was conducted in both the Akinto Soela
and Phedra areas. The purpose for the excursions was to gather first-hand field information
of the rocks itself and understand the relationship of the granitic units with their surrounding
rocks. Samples were collected from the areas Akinto Soela, Phedra and Tibiti for geochemical
and petrographic analysis.

3.3 Petrographic analysis


A total of 12 samples from the Akinto Soela, Phedra and Tibiti areas were sent to the Utrecht
University laboratory for thin sections production. These thin sections were analyzed using the
Leica 750P optical microscope at the Anton de Kom University mineralogical laboratory.
Petrographic description were made on mineralogical composition, texture and alteration,
using the 4x, 10x, 50x and 63x magnification lenses. Opaque minerals were analyzed using
reflected light. To document the observed features, photographs were taken with an equipped
camera attached to the microscope. The Leica software LAS EZ was used to process these
microphotographs.

10
3.4 Geochemical analysis
A total of 6 samples from the Akinto Soela, Tibiti and Phedra area were sent for whole rock
geochemical analysis on major- and trace elements. The method used to determine the major
element concentrations was the XRF (X-Ray Florescence) and the samples were sent to the
Geolab of the Utrecht University for analysis, conducted by a Bachelor’s student. For the trace
element concentrations, Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-
ICP-MS) was used.

3.4.1 X-Ray Fluorescence


XRF is an analytical technique to determine major and trace element concentrations of rocks.
It uses high energy X-rays to activate the surface of a sample. The sample reacts by emitting
secondary X-rays, which have specific wavelength characteristics for the elements present.
The intensities of the X-rays are used to quantify the concentrations of the elements
(Rollinson, 1993). Sample material was used as beads made by fusion of sample powder with
lithium tetraborate, heated at 1200⁰ C. At the Utrecht University, the ARL Perform’X XRF-
spectrometer was used to analyze for the major elements.

3.4.2 LA-ICP-MS
LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry) is an analytical
technique for the detection of metals and non-metals using a plasma torch to activate
elements, a laser beam and a mass spectrometer. This technique can be used directly on
solid samples with minimal preparation. The laser beam forces the release of atoms from the
surface of an object into the plasma torch and subsequently into the mass spectrometer. This
technique is able to detect low concentrations, from part per trillion (ppt) to the part per million
(ppm) and is therefore suitable to use for trace element determination (Rollinson, 1993).
Fragments of the glass beads used for the XRF analysis were used for the LA-ICP-MS
analysis of the granitic samples and the calculations of the trace element concentrations was
done using the GLITTER software.

3.5 Zircon U-Pb Age Dating


For the determination of the relative ages of the various granitoids, the Utrecht University used
the U-Pb age dating technique. Zircons from the various samples were selected to have LA-
ICP-MS done to determine the U, Th and Pb isotopes concentrations. Zircons incorporate
uranium (U) and thorium (Th) ions into their crystal structure during crystallization and have a
238
strong tendency to reject lead (Pb). Uranium has two isotopes relevant for dating, U
206 235 207 206
decaying to Pb, and U decaying to Pb. The Pb/238U and 207
Pb/235U ratios in the

11
zircons can be used to determine the age, as the assumption can be made that the entire lead
content in the mineral is radiogenic.
The samples were crushed to retrieve grains between 60 and 250 μm, using a jaw-crusher.
Followed by a two-step heavy liquid separation (2.9 g/cm3 and 3.3 g/cm3), the heavy fraction
of the sample was removed. Zircons were separated from other minerals according to their
magnetic properties using a Frantz magnetic seperator and subsequently hand-picked using
a microscope. The zircon samples were moulded with an epoxy-like substance to prevent the
zircons from either moving or polluting. The moulds were then abraded using silicon carbide
to such extent that the zircons were dissected (more or less in half), granting a plane to analyze
under the electron microprobe for Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. Additional scanning
electron images (SE) and electronic backscatter images (BSE) were taken for the most
promising (e.g. most euhedral/ undamaged) zircon crystals, to obtain measuring locations of
238 235 207 206
the LA-ICP-MS. The isotopes measured by mass spectrometry are U, U, Pb, Pb,
208 204
Pb and Pb. The Glitter software was used to analyze the LA-ICP-MS data. The ages
calculated by Glitter were based on the ratios 207Pb/206Pb.

3.6 Assessment and Interpretation


Throughout the decades, several classification schemes have been developed using different
criteria for igneous plutonic rocks. However, there is no single classification scheme that can
best describe a plutonic rock on its own. A combination of several of these methods need to
be used in order to obtain a valid explanation of the petrogenesis of a rock. The chemical
composition of a granitoid or granitic rock reflects the tectonic environment of its emplacement.
Earlier studies have shown that there are correlations between certain trace elements in
plutonic rocks and the tectonic setting in which these rocks were formed. The parental material
of such a plutonic rock is also traceable using ratios of various element associations. A
frequently used classification scheme is one by Pearce et al. (1984), which uses trace element
ratios to discriminate between different tectonic regimes. Several other discrimination and
variation diagrams are used to classify the different granitic rocks studied in this report, as well
as to decipher their geochemical nature and tectonic setting.

12
4. Results
In this chapter, the results are presented using location maps, photographs and various
discrimination diagrams to illustrate the findings for this report. A combination of both
historically obtained data and results from this study are evaluated.

4.1 Compilation of previous work


Various authors, historic and recent, have studied the granite occurrences in the Marowijne
Greenstone Belt and conducted petrographic and chemical analyses on the granitoid rocks of
the Brincks, Phedra and the Patamacca areas. The historic data are incorporated in the
chemical discrimination schemes to differentiate and compare with recent work done on the
Akinto Soela, Tibiti and Phedra granites.

4.2 Field observations

Figure 5: Location map of the collected samples from the different granitoids of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt with
the geological map (Bosma et al, 1977) as background. The author herself collected samples of the Tibiti, Phedra
and Akinto Soela areas, while the other locations were taken from authors that worked in each of the specific areas.
For the Akinto Soela Granite, samples were taken at three (3) different locations of the intrusive body.

Field work was conducted in the Akinto Soela and the Phedra areas for sample collection and
mapping purposes to understand the contact relationships of the intrusions with their host
rocks. However, establishing the contact boundaries was limited due to extensive weathering
conditions and identifying the contact relationships was unsuccessful.

13
In total 12 samples were collected for petrographic study, 6 samples for geochemical analysis
and 3 samples for U-Pb age dating on zircons. A summary of the collected samples is given
in Table 1 and the locations of the collected samples are illustrated in Figure 5.

The Akinto Soela area


Since the discovery of the Akinto Soela granite in one of the rapids of the Mapane Creek by
O’ Herne (1958), no other significant outcrop had been found in the area that well represents
this specific granite. Recently, several medium-scale exploration and mining companies have
been conducting work in the vicinity and exposed fresh rock of this particular granite (Figure
6). Unweathered drill core samples were collected from the Akinto Soela granite, but the actual
depths of the obtained core are uncertain. The company exploring for aggregates lacked
proper sorting and storing of the core samples, but from drill reports, the fresh rock boundaries
with the upper saprolite profile were encountered at depths varying from 5 to 13 meters. From
another company, which is mining the actual Akinto Soela granite, fresh rock samples were
collected from their quarry.

Figure 6: Images of the exposed Akinto Soela Granite. a.) Exploration pit exposing large boulders of the granite on
the subsurface; b.) Boulder of the granite with geologist for scale; c.) Drill core samples of the Akinto Soela, clearly
showing the well-defined K-megacrysts in a coarse-grained texture; d.) Kuldipsingh Quarry exposing the underlying
fresh rock of the Akinto Soela; e.) Inclusion of xenolith in contact with the granitic intrusion.

From the unweathered rock it is clear that the Akinto Soela granite is medium- to coarse
grained, porphyritic in texture and is comprised of quartz, feldspars and biotite as the
groundmass with euhedral rectangular K-feldspar megacrysts (Figure 6c). The mineralogical

14
composition of this granite appears to be similar in various locations with minor differences in
the percentage of the mafic component. In total 8 samples were collected of the Akinto Soela
granite for petrographic and chemical analyses, including one (1) sample collected in a creek
bed exposing a finer grained variety of this specific granitoid rock.

The Phedra area


The samples from the Phedra granite were collected from boulders along the abandoned
quarry from N.V. Luna. Samples from within the actual pit could not be collected as the pit is
overflown with water, almost up to the edges. This granitic unit is coarse grained and
composed of quartz, feldspars, muscovite and biotite as the mafic constituent (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Sample of the Phedra granite collected along the abandoned quarry of N.V. Luna.

The Tibiti area


The samples from the Tibiti granite were collected by Hazlo Geo-Solutions, an exploration
company that conducted exploration activities in the area. The author was unable to visit the
area herself and used geographical location information provided by the exploration company
to allocate the sample area. This granite is a pinkish colored medium- to coarse grained rock,
with weak banding (Figure 8), comprised predominantly of feldspars, quartz and biotite as
mafic constituent.

15
Figure 8: Photographs of the pink Tibiti granite. The left photograph shows a weak banded texture in the rock and
the right photograph, the medium to coarse grained texture is presented.

16
Table 1: Sample descriptions and geographical location coordinates taken from the Akinto Soela, Phedra and Tibiti area. Several
samples were selected for two (2) or more analysis methods.

U/Pb
Sample Thin XRF/LA- Age
ID Location Section ICP-MS Dating Easting Northing Rock description
ASG-02 Akinto Soela - X X Drill core - White-gray porphyritic rock with euhedral rectangular K-feldspar
Ponsor megacrysts (up to 2-3 cm in length and 1-1.5cm in width), making up
ASG-03 X approximately 25% of the total mineralogical composition. The anhedral
Mining 735639 580679 groundmass is coarse grained (0.5 – 0.7 cm) and consists of quartz
Exploration (±30%), feldspars (±30%) and biotite (±10%) as the mafic constituent.
ASG-11 concession X X Traces of pyrite observed in fracture planes.
Porphyritic rock with euhedral K-feldspar megacrysts (up to ±20%) and an
anhedral coarse grained groundmass consisting of quartz (±30%),
feldspars (±35%) and biotite (±10%). Observable amounts of light green
ASG-05 X X 733908 577934
epidote present in the sample, as part of the groundmass. Locally pink
alteration within the sample (possible potassic alteration (?)). Traces of
sulphides observed as well.
Akinto Soela -
Sample of the contact between the Akinto Soela granite and a mafic
ASG-08 Kuldipsingh X 733928 577912 xenolith with a dark gray to dark brown color, an abundance of biotite and
Quarry a wavy schistose texture.
Sample of the Xenolith; dark gray to dark brown with schistose texture,
ASG-09 X consisting predominantly of biotite.
Light gray coarse grained rock with an observable larger amount of mafic
ASG-10 X X 733943 577922 constituents. Mineralogy consists of quartz (30-35%), feldspar (40-45%)
and biotite (15-20%, in clusters) and possible minor amounts of amphibole.
Gray medium-coarse rock with weakly layered biotite. The rock
Akinto Soela - composition consists of quartz (40%), feldspars (35%) and mafic
constituents, mainly biotite (15%). The absence of k-feldspar phenocrysts
ASG-06 Creek bed X X 731757 581974 is noticeable. The edges of the sample are slightly weathered. Finer
outcrop grained material is observed at the boundary of the sample, appearing
more aplitic.
Pinkish colored, medium to coarse grained rock, with weak banding.
ASG-12 Tibiti X X X 626703 568605 Mineralogy consist predominantly of feldspars, quartz and biotite as mafic
constituent.
ASG-13 Phedra - N.V. X X 716113 589005
White to light gray coarse grained granite with quartz (25-30%) and
Luna
ASG-14 X 716113 589005 feldspars (50%), both k-feldspar and plagioclase, as dominant minerals.
abandoned Muscovite (5%) and biotite (5-10%).
ASG-15 Quarry X X 716113 589005

17
4.3 Petrographic Observations
Petrographic analysis using thin sections provided insights on the textures, mineral composition
and relations between minerals, and in one (1) sample the contact of the Akinto Soela with a
xenolith. The thin sections confirm or exclude the presence of minerals, which are unidentifiable
to the naked eye. An estimation was made for the modal compositions and notes were taken of
any observable significance. Few noticeable differences were observed between the samples
from the granitic bodies studied for this report. In Table 1 the samples are summarized according
to their location and with the designated sample numbers and descriptions.

4.3.1 Akinto Soela thin sections


Ponsor Mining drill core samples
The drill core samples from the Akinto Soela area have a holocrystalline porphyritic texture with
euhedral K-feldspar megacrysts (microcline), as observed in the hand sample. The groundmass
is considered to be fine to medium grained (0.5 – 5 mm) equigranular hypidiomorphic. These
samples have an estimated modal composition of quartz (30%), plagioclase (25%), K-feldspars
(25%), including the megacrysts, and brown and green biotite (10%). Minor amounts of muscovite
(1-2%) are present, which was unexpected, since these were not observed in the hand samples.
Traces (<1%) of zircon, apatite, titanite, sericite/epidote, chlorite and opaques (magnetite and
pyrite) were also observed.
Textures within some minerals include the perthitic texture (host grain of K-feldspar containing
exsolved lamellae of plagioclase) and pleochroic halos caused by radioactive decay of zircon in
biotite grains. Weak undulose extinction of few quartz minerals present as well, which could be
the result of small or local incipient deformation that cause dislocation processes without recovery
and builds strain within the crystal lattice causing it to warp (Passchier & Trouw, 2005). Myrmekite
and granophyric textures of quartz intergrown with feldspar are common observations as well.
Alteration observed is the sericitization of plagioclase grains (less into epidote). Microphotographs
with the significant observations are given in Figure 9

18
Figure 9: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Akinto Soela Granite (Ponsor Mining). a.) Myrmekitic intergrowth
of plagioclase and quartz in a K-feldspar megacryst. b.) Opaque minerals, pyrite and magnetite in fractures. c.)
Muscovite and biotite minerals. d.) Biotite and muscovite with pleochroïc halos caused by radioactive decay of zircons.
e.) Fine grained equivalent of the Akinto Soela granite, primarily consisting of quartz and feldspars.

19
Kuldipsingh Quarry
Samples from the quarry showed variation in mineralogical composition, mainly in the mafic
components. Sample ASG-05 is described as a holocrystalline porphyritic rock with sub- to
euhedral microcline megacrysts and a medium coarse groundmass (1-5mm). This particular
sample has a modal composition of plagioclase (35%), quartz (25%), K-feldspar (20%), green
biotite (15%) and traces (<1%) of epidote, titanite, zircon, allanite, tourmaline and opaques
(magnetite and pyrite). Observed textures include perthite, pleochroïc halos from zircons in biotite
grains and graphic texture. Sericite is observed as a weak alteration product.
The xenolith in contact with the ASG-05 is described to be an amphibole-biotite schist with a
modal composition of green biotite (55%), amphibole (25%), K-feldspar (10%), quartz (<5%),
titanite (1%) and traces (<1%) of carbonate, zircon, allanite and sericite/epidote. The rock is
foliated, marked predominantly by orientated grains of mica and amphibole (lepido-nematoblastic
texture). Coarse grains of individual subrounded quartz and microcline with the micas oriented
and elongated along the sides of the minerals. No distinctive plagioclase observed. Distinguishing
between and identifying the finer tabular minerals was difficult, as the gray colored minerals in
XPL displayed no uniaxial positive interference, indicating that these crystals are either K-feldspar
or plagioclase. However, the twinning is also unclear in XPL. Sericite is present as possible
alteration product.
Near the contact of the granite and the xenolith the amphibole grains are not as oriented and do
not have the linear fabric texture; they form a decussate or diablastic texture (equigranular,
interlocking, randomly orientated platy, and tabular, prismatic or elongate minerals). Also
observable is the increasing amount of titanite grains towards the contact.

In the quarry mine, a more mafic variation of the Akinto Soela was sampled (ASG-10). From the
thin section the sample is described to be a holocrystalline fine to medium grained rock with
subheral mineral grains, with a modal composition of plagioclase (30%), quartz (25%), K-feldspar
(20%), biotite – green (10%), amphibole (5%), epidote (2%) and traces (< 1%) of chlorite (?),
epidote/sericite, zircon, and titanite. The biotites are clustered giving the rock a more mafic
appearance.
One significant observation of these two (2) samples (ASG-05 and ASG-10) from the Kuldipsingh
Quarry is the absence of muscovite in the thin sections, which confirms the observation made by
O’ Herne (1958) for this specific granitic unit. Microphotographs of the observations from the
quarry thin sections are given in Figure 10.

20
Figure 10: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Akinto Soela Granite (Kuldipsingh Quarry). a.) Hornblende
mineral in ASG-10. b.) Subhedral titanite grains. c.) K-feldspar megacryst showing carlsbad twinning and a perthitic
texture. d.) Epidote mineral as part of the groundmass of the granite and biotite grains with pleochroic halos. e.)
Tourmaline grains. f.) Xenolith with diablastic texture of and tabular/platy minerals interlocking K-feldspar grain.

21
Outcrop from Creekbed
The sample from the creek (ASG-06), the one with a more aplitic texture (Figure 9e) is described
to have a modal composition of k-feldspar (35%), quartz (30%), plagioclase (25%), biotite (3%),
muscovite (2%), and traces (<1%) of allanite (?), epidote, titanite, zircon and opaques.
The rock is holocrystalline equigranular with medium coarse grains (1-5mm) transitioning into a
finer grained (0.5-1mm) unit (possible aplite) via a sharp contact, which appears to be very slightly
weathered (?). Biotite inclusions in microcline is observed in the coarser parts. Observed textures
include perthite, pleochroic halos from zircons in biotite grains and a weak undulose extinction of
quartz. Sericitization is observed as an alteration product.

4.3.2 Phedra thin sections


The phedra granite (ASG-13, ASG-14 and ASG-15) is described as a holocrystalline very coarse-
grained rock with an- to subheral mineral grains. Modal composition of plagioclase (30%), K-
feldspar (30%), quartz (30%), brown and green biotite (4.5%), muscovite (4%) and traces (<1%)
of zircon, chlorite, apatite and sericite. No epidote or titanite observed, suggesting low calcium
content. Muscovite appears to be present in relatively larger amounts than the other granitic rocks
studied for this report. Observable are the larger grains in this sample, compared to the other
granites (Figure 11).

Figure 11: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Phedra granite. a.) Coarse grains of K-felspar with biotite and
muscovite plates. b.) Large grains of the rock forming minerals quartz, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite.

22
4.3.3 Tibiti thin sections
The Tibiti granite (ASG-12) is described as a holocrystalline coarse grained rock with an- to
subhedral grains. The sample has a modal composition of quartz (45%), plagioclase (25%), K-
feldspar (25%), biotite – brown to reddish-brown (5%) and traces (<1%) of zircon, opaques,
sericite and chlorite (<1%). The biotite grains are slightly transitioning into chlorite. No traces of
epidote or titanite observed, indicating a low Ca-content, similar to the Phedra granite.
Microphotographs of the observations sections are given in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Microphotographs of thin sections from the Tibiti granite. a.) Reddish-brown biotite grain showing weak
pleochroïc halos. b.) Rock forming minerals of the Tibiti Granite, including quartz and k-feldspars.

4.3.4 Mineralogical classification


The QAPF Streckeisen diagram uses the modal mineral content of plutonic rocks for its
classification scheme, expressed in volume percentages (Streckeisen, 1976), to characterize the
type of rock. Since this report mainly deals only with felsic plutonic rocks, all samples are plotted
on the QAP section of the Streckeisen diagram. For the mineralogical classification, all the
samples from Akinto Soela, Phedra and Tibiti plot in the granite field (Figure 13). Noticeable are
the samples from the Kuldipsingh quarry (ASG-05 and ASG-10), without any observable
muscovite, plotting more towards the granodiorite field.

23
Figure 13: General classification and nomenclature of felsic plutonic rocks according to mineral content (in volume %)
by Streckeisen (1976). All samples of the various study areas plot in the granite field. The Patamacca granite plotted
as well (Yang, 2014). Only the samples analyzed for this report are labeled.

4.4 Geochemistry
The XRF and LA-ICP-MS analytical methods were used to determine the chemical composition
of the various granites studied for this report. The results are presented in Table 2. Analytical data
of other granitic units of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt from previous authors are also
incorporated into the classification schemes for comparison purposes.

4.4.1 Major element classification


QAQC
The major element concentrations were determined by two labs; once at the TU Delft and once
at the Utrecht University. The result for these two analyses is presented in Table 3 and the
correlation between these two sets are illustrated in Figure 14. It appears that the K2O-
concentration of the Utrecht results is higher, while the Na2O and P2O5 are slightly lower in
concentration. This could be the result of the K-feldspar megacrysts in the rocks, dominating in
and increasing the K2O-concentrations in the Utrecht batch.

24
Table 2: Analytical results of major- and trace element concentrations.

Sample No ASG-02 ASG-05 ASG-06 ASG-10 ASG-12 ASG-14

Rock Type Granite Granite Granite Granite 'mafic' Granite Granite

Area Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Tibiti Phedra

Al2O3 % 15.77 15.04 14.90 14.95 12.38 15.24


CaO % 1.94 1.86 1.14 2.82 0.96 1.07
Fe2O3 % 2.60 2.28 1.85 3.63 1.65 1.05
K2O % 4.73 4.39 5.10 5.24 4.24 4.52
MgO % 1.22 1.02 0.75 2.01 0.16 0.44
MnO % 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.02
Na2O % 4.06 4.58 4.23 3.79 3.46 4.42
P2O5 % 0.22 0.23 0.17 0.41 0.01 0.11
SiO2 % 66.38 68.58 69.33 64.48 75.95 71.87
TiO2 % 0.36 0.40 0.31 0.80 0.13 0.17
LOI % 0.33 0.59 0.37 0.43 0.21 0.28

Total % 97.66 99.01 98.18 98.63 99.19 99.19


Ba ppm 1657 1184 1438 1465 1244 541
Cr ppm 44 28 20 59 4 17
Ni ppm 17 20 13 30 9 10
Sr ppm 785 918 677 1002 152 214
Zr ppm 214 258 229 331 197 108

Sc ppm 10.45 9.14 7.74 11.58 8.14 6.09


Ti ppm 3125.24 3192.44 2594.15 6244.65 1042.31 1435.88
V ppm 52.91 39.82 33.22 61.80 18.07 29.02
Cr ppm 85.58 56.33 56.69 119.72 11.95 21.43
Mn ppm 375.50 339.31 251.53 513.95 348.97 165.49
Cu ppm <LD <LD <LD 32.52 27999.72 5660.29
Zn ppm 29.49 465.37 52.16 97.57 60694.75 395.10
Ga ppm 63.61 58.73 57.14 63.86 70.30 41.69
As ppm 6.58 4.45 6.98 6.27 <LD 2.63
Rb ppm 184.29 184.50 196.36 190.97 121.14 317.37
Sr ppm 820.30 1031.17 721.02 1083.86 175.29 240.09
Y ppm 10.95 14.33 13.47 18.97 33.33 4.97
Zr ppm 174.14 246.18 210.50 349.96 187.95 92.63
Nb ppm 9.92 16.78 15.56 20.14 10.89 6.73
Cs ppm 7.72 9.60 8.20 3.89 0.72 8.77
Ba ppm 1381.59 1276.41 1171.21 1350.83 1239.99 562.12
La ppm 51.06 75.51 83.30 98.97 47.07 22.30
Ce ppm 106.68 162.43 146.97 202.91 93.30 51.40
Pr ppm 11.30 15.78 15.38 23.49 10.08 5.63
Nd ppm 39.87 55.64 54.03 87.90 35.54 19.32
Sm ppm 6.32 9.89 8.13 14.37 9.31 3.45
Eu ppm 1.65 3.36 1.59 3.67 0.64 0.97
Gd ppm 4.03 6.79 5.01 8.58 5.32 3.59
Tb ppm 0.49 0.68 0.59 0.83 1.19 0.12
Dy ppm 2.20 2.48 2.19 3.97 7.92 1.84
Ho ppm 0.27 0.41 0.41 0.57 0.92 0.21
Er ppm 1.07 0.88 1.01 1.33 4.26 0.72
Yb ppm 0.83 0.54 1.27 1.63 3.45 1.11
Lu ppm 0.07 0.16 0.12 0.17 0.32 0.37
Hf ppm 5.25 5.53 5.05 8.49 6.73 4.10
Ta ppm 4.48 5.03 5.02 4.38 3.86 3.48
Pb ppm 30.99 33.58 41.84 36.31 31.92 45.59
Th ppm 12.19 15.88 21.68 14.58 16.11 7.87
U ppm 3.88 7.97 12.23 3.66 1.56 5.73

25
Table 3: Results of the major element concentrations by the TU Delft and the Utrecht University.

Sample ID ASG-02 ASG-05 ASG-06 ASG-10 ASG-12 ASG-14


Rock type Granite Granite Granite Granite Granite Granite
Area Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Akinto Soela Tibiti Phedra

Oxide/Element Lab Concentration (%)


Utrecht University 15.77 15.04 14.9 14.95 12.38 15.24
Al2O3
TU Delft 16.304 15.844 16.13 16.028 13.978 15.948
Utrecht University 1.94 1.86 1.14 2.82 0.96 1.07
CaO
TU Delft 2.302 1.861 1.23 2.611 0.76 1.158
Utrecht University 2.6 2.28 1.85 3.63 1.65 1.05
Fe2O3
TU Delft 3.055 2.293 2.326 3.425 1.537 1.508
Utrecht University 4.73 4.39 5.1 5.24 4.24 4.52
K2O
TU Delft 2.363 3.152 3.542 4.068 3.131 3.245
Utrecht University 1.22 1.02 0.75 2.01 0.16 0.44
MgO
TU Delft 1.394 1.164 1.022 2.158 0.278 0.522
Utrecht University 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.02
MnO
TU Delft 0.048 0.033 0.026 0.058 0.031 0.018
Utrecht University 4.06 4.58 4.23 3.79 3.46 4.42
Na2O
TU Delft 4.957 5.366 4.981 4.346 4.243 4.969
Utrecht University 0.22 0.23 0.17 0.41 0.01 0.11
P2O5
TU Delft 0.477 0.386 0.314 0.675 0.033 0.121
Utrecht University 66.38 68.58 69.33 64.48 75.95 71.87
SiO2
TU Delft 68.013 68.718 69.161 64.81 75.553 72.004
Utrecht University 0.36 0.4 0.31 0.8 0.13 0.17
TiO2
TU Delft 0.442 0.415 0.494 0.664 0.147 0.209

Figure 14: Diagram showing the XRF results of TU Delft lab versus the results of the Utrecht University. The results
from Utrecht show a higher K2O concentration and a slightly lower Na2O- and P2O5 concentration.

For this report, the author continued to use the results from the Utrecht University for the
classification schemes and discrimination diagrams, as this institute continued with the LA-ICP-
MS analysis of the trace element concentrations, using the same beads prepared for the XRF
analysis.

Total Alkalies-Silica (TAS)


The TAS-diagram is a graphical representation that uses the Na2O + K2O and SiO2 ratio,
normalized to 100% on a volatile-free basis, for the differentiation of magma types for volcanic

26
rocks. The regions of the TAS diagram are named after familiar (and unfamiliar) magma types,
defined by Le Maitre et al. (1989). The different fields were redefined for plutonic rocks by
Middlemost (1994) and in Figure 15 this diagram is illustrated. The Tibiti and Phedra samples plot
as granites, similar to the Brincks granite, while the Akinto Soela samples are classified as Quartz
Monzonites.

Figure 15: Classification of the granitoid rocks on the TAS diagram after Middlemost et al. (1994). The Tibiti and Phedra
granites plot in the Granite-field, while the Akinto Soela granite plots in the Quartz-Monzonite field.

Alumina Saturation Index (ASI)


The use of the alumina saturation index (ASI), which is expressed in the micas and minor minerals
of the rock, is related to the magma sources and the conditions of melting (Shand, 1947). Figure
16 illustrates the ASI-classification of the granitoid rocks, where peraluminous is characterized by
Al2O3 > K2O + Na2O + CaO, metaluminous by K2O + Na2O + CaO > Al2O3 > Na2O + K2O and
peralkaline by K2O + Na2O > Al2O3 (Maniar and Picolli, 1989). It appears that the Akinto Soela
granite plots in both the peraluminous and the metaluminous fields. The former corresponds with
the Phedra, Patamacca and Brinck’s granites and the latter corresponds with the Brinck’s
Trondhjemite and Royal Hill Tonalite. The Akinto Soela samples that plot in the metaluminous
field are from the Kuldipsingh Mine, with a slightly higher mafic mineral composition, hornblende
as additional mafic mineral and no muscovite in its mineral composition, suggesting no excess
aluminum in the composition.

27
Figure 16: ASI-classification of the granitoid rocks after Shand (1947), with discrimination fields for different
geochemical types of granitoids, after Maniar and Picolli (1989). The Akinto Soela granite plots in both the peraluminous
and metaluminous fields. The latter corresponds with the more mafic granitic samples of the area (ASG-05 and ASG-
10), with no muscovite in the mineral composition. The Tibiti and Phedra granites both plot in the peraluminous fields.
Only the samples analyzed for this report are labeled.

Figure 17: ASI-diagram (Al/Ca+Na+K vs SiO2) for the classification of the granitoids into I- and S-types, after Chappell
and White (1974). The granitic samples studied in this report all plot as I-type with ASI values < 1.1. Symbols are the
same as Figure 16.

In Figure 17, the ASI diagram after Chappell and White (1974), the samples studied for this report,
all plot as I-type granites with ASI values < 1.1. This is not uncommon as many I-type granites
can be peraluminous (Chappell and White, 1974; Chappel et al., 1998). I-types are considered

28
rocks formed from magmas derived from igneous sources (Chappell and White, 1974) and are
supposed to be Al undersaturated, but crystal fractionation can convert the restite melt to become
felsic with ASI values slightly converging towards greater than one, so that they are slightly
oversaturated in Al (Chappell et al., 1998). However, this criteria alone is insufficient to classify
these occurrences as strong I-type granites and more evidence is required to validate such
statements.

Modified Alkali Lime Index (MALI)


The MALI classification scheme by Frost et al. (2001) expresses the composition and abundance
of the feldspars first crystallizing from the magma. A significant distribution is observed with the
granitic rocks studies for this report and the historically obtained results from the Brinck pluton
(Figure 18). The Tibiti granite plots as calc-alkalic similar to the rocks from the Brinck pluton, while
the Akinto Soela and Phedra granitic rocks have a more alkalic to alkali-calcic affinity, similar to
the Patamacca granite, suggesting that the former crystallized from mafic to intermediate magmas
and the latter rather from magmas produced by melting of sedimentary rocks (Frost et al., 2001).

Figure 18: MALI index after Frost et al. (2001) illustrating the Akinto Soela and Phedra granites having an alkalic to
alkali-calcic character and the Tibiti granite to have a calc-alkalic character similar to the Brink pluton.

Harker Diagrams
The samples of the Akinto Soela granite show some differentiation in composition, but from the
linear trends of some of the major elements (Figure 19), these samples can be considered as part
of the same pluton with ASG-10 as the most mafic component, containing hornblende, and ASG-

29
06 as the most felsic. In the Harker diagrams SiO2 shows negative correlations with CaO, MgO
and Fe2O3 suggesting fractionation of mafic minerals, such as hornblende. A positive correlation
with Na2O3 indicates plagioclase fractionation of the melt.
The Harker diagrams in Figure 20 show a strong negative correlation of SiO2 with MgO and CaO,
and weak correlations with Fe2O3 and K2O for the Akinto Soela, Phedra and the Patamacca
granites. This suggests possible influence of the same magmatic episode for these rocks and will
be further investigated using the trace elements discrimination schemes.

Figure 19: Harker diagrams of the Akinto Soela granite samples. Negative correlations of SiO2 with MgO, CaO and
Fe2O3 observed and a positive correlation with Na2O, indicating plagioclase fractionation.

Figure 20: Harker diagrams of the Akinto Soela (red), Phedra (green) and Patamacca (black) samples. Strong negative
correlations of SiO2 with MgO and CaO. Symbols are the same as Figure 16.

4.4.2 Trace element classification


Tectonic Classification
Classification schemes using trace element concentrations have been widely used. The most
common is the geochemical classification by Pearce et al. (1984) that identifies the tectonic
environment of granitic rocks and distinguishes four major environments, volcanic-arc granites
(VAG), syn-collision granites (syn-COLG), within-plate granites (WPG) and ocean ridge granites
(ORG). In the diagrams of Figure 21, the plots for the granites studied in this report are given in
the Nb-Y, Ta-Yb, Rb-(Yb+Ta) and Rb-(Nb+Y) space.

30
Figure 21: Tectonic discriminant diagrams after Pearce et al. (1984). a.) Nb-Y diagram in which all samples plot in the
VAG and syn-COLG field. b.) Ta-Yb diagram showing the Akinto Soela and Phedra samples plotting as syn-COLG,
and the Tibiti sample plotting as WPG. c.) Rb-(Yb+Ta) diagram illustrating the Tibiti sample plotting as a WPG, the
Phedra sample as syn-COLG and the Akinto Soela samples occupying the triple corner of the WPG, the VAG and the
syn-COLG fields. d.) Rb-(Nb+Y) diagram showing the Akinto Soela and Tibiti samples plotting as VAG and the Phedra
sample plotting as syn-COLG.

In the Y vs Nb diagram (Figure 21a), all samples are plotted within the VAG and syn-COLG field,
but this diagram does not distinguish between VAG and syn-COLG (Pearce et al., 1984). The
Akinto Soela and the Phedra granites plot as syn-COLG in the Yb vs Ta discrimination diagram,
while the Tibiti granite plots as WPG (Figure 21b). In the Rb vs (Yb+Ta) diagram, the Akinto Soela
samples plot on the border of VAG and syn-COLG, the Tibiti granite plots as WPG and the Phedra
granite as syn-COLG (Figure 21c). In the Rb vs (Nb+Y) diagram, all samples plot as VAG, except
for the Phedra granite, which plots as syn-COLG (Figure 21d). However, the two latter diagrams
are unreliable as Rb is slightly mobile in volatile phase during hydrothermal conditions (Pearce et
al., 1984; Harris et al., 1986). Out of the four diagrams, the Yb vs Ta diagram is the most reliable
for characterizing the samples, as this diagram well distinguishes between the different tectonic
settings. Thus, based on this classification scheme, the Akinto Soela and the Phedra granites are
classified as syn-collisional, similar to the Patamacca granite, indicating emplacement during

31
collision, while the Tibiti granite is classified as a within-plate granite, suggesting emplacement
after deformation.

It appears that the classification scheme by Pearce et al. (1984) exhibits uncertainties regarding
the tectonic environments of the granitic rocks studied in this report. The scattering between VAG,
syn-COLG and WPG zones in the variation diagrams of Figure 21 (especially for the Akinto Soela
granite), suggest possible variable mixtures of mantle- and crust derived magmas. Such
compositions point out to late- to post-collision granites. The Ta-Hf-Rb classification scheme by
Harris et al. (1986) is used to elaborate on this. This triangular plot distinguishes between four
groups of intrusions, pre-collision calc-alkaline (volcanic-arc) intrusions, syn-collision
peraluminous intrusions, late- to post collision calc-alkaline intrusions and post-collision alkaline
intrusions. The diagram in Figure 22 illustrates the fields in which the granite samples plot.
The Tibiti granite plots as a within-plate intrusion and the Phedra granite plots on the border of
late- to post- and syn-collision instrusion, most likely leaning more towards the syn-collision field,
considering the plots from Figure 21. The Akinto Soela granite plots as a late-to post collisional
intrusion. This particular group cannot be explained in terms of a single, well-defined mantle or
crust source, as these granites can result from both melting of the lower crust and/or upper mantle,
which may be of within-plate or arc composition (Pearce et al., 1984).

Figure 22: Rb-Hf-Ta triangular plot for acid-intermediate intrusive magmatism by Harris et al. (1986). The Akinto Soela
granite (red) plotting as late and post collisional, the Tibiti granite as within plate and the Phedra granite on the border
of the two collisional fields, but considered as syn-collisional, considering the tectonic discriminant diagrams from Figure
21.

32
The affinity of the resulting granites may depend on the geometry of the collision event, which in
turns controls the nature of the crust and mantle that undergo melting (Pearce et al., 1984). Such
granites show strong variation in the Rb vs (Y + Nb) space, plotting near the top of VAG or at the
lower end of syn-COLG and sometimes at the triple point of the VAG, syn-COLG and WPG
(Pearce et al., 1984), as is the case with the Akinto Soela granite.

4.4.3 REE and Spider diagrams


REE
Using the average CI chondrite normalization factor by Evensen et al. (1978), the REE of the
granitic samples are plotted in Figure 23. Note that the elements Pr and Tm were not analyzed
and no mark is placed for these two minerals in the REE patterns. However, the average value of
the two adjacent elements was used for Pm and Tm each, to obtain a smooth pattern line for easy
visualization. All the REE observations described hereafter are relative to the rest- or to the
adjacent elements. Patterns show a strong enrichment in LREE above 10x and up to 400x
average CI chondrite. The Akinto Soela patterns are broadly similar in shape, only slightly differing
in relative abundances of the elements, showing enrichment of LREE and a flat pattern for the
HREE at slightly less than 10x average CI chondrite. A weak Lu enrichment is observed in ASG-
05 and a negative Ho anomaly in ASG-02. The Tibiti granite also shows strong enrichment in
LREE and a relative flat pattern for the HREE greater than 10x average Cl chondrite, with selective
depletion of Eu, Ho and Lu. The negative Eu anomaly suggests either plagioclase removal from
a felsic melt by crystal fractionation or partial melting of a rock from which feldspars are retained
(Rollinson, 1993). An enrichment of LREE in the Phedra granite pattern is also observed, with a
negative anomaly of Tb. The pattern of this particular granite also has the only positive slope for
the HREE out of all the granitic samples studied for this report, suggesting possible garnet or
excess zircons in its mineral composition.

On the normalization diagrams of Sun and McDonough et al. (1989) (Figure 24) of a CI Chondrite
and primordial mantle, the REE patterns of the granites are similar in shape compared to Figure
23, with values at a slightly lower magnitude in the primordial mantle normalization. Considering
the ASI- and MALI classifications from Figure 16, Figure 17 and Figure 18, the sedimentary
character of having excessive detrital zircons in the sedimentary precursor rock, can explain the
erratic behavior of some of the elements of the REE diagram.

33
Figure 23: REE patterns of the Akinto Soela (red), Phedra (green) and Tibiti (magenta) granites, normalized to an
average CI chondrite, after Evensen et al. (1978).

Figure 24: REE normalization patterns for the Akinto Soela (red), Phedra (green) and Tibiti (magenta) granites, after
Sun and McDonough et al. (1989). On the left, normalized to CI Chondrite and on the right, normalized to a primordial
mantle. In these diagrams, the patterns are similar to the REE normalization shapes of Evensen et al. (1978).

Spider diagrams
Using the primordial mantle normalization by Sun and McDonough et al. (1989), the samples are
compared with the composition of the upper continental crust, the lower continental crust and the
average continental crust. Note that for P no value is given as the norm value for this element is
omitted in the normalization scheme, and thus no mark is shown in the patterns for the element
P. The element concentrations of K and Ti are calculated using the weight percentages of K2O
and TiO2, determined through XRF. According to the patterns illustrated in Figure 25, the granitic
rocks mostly reflect uppercrust influences with few element concentrations coinciding more to

34
average continental crust values. Pb enrichment for the Phedra granite (ASG-14) observed and
Sr values below average for the Tibiti granite (ASG-12).

Figure 25: Spider diagram after Sun and McDonough (1992) normalized to a primordial mantle. The granitic samples
mostly reflect influences from the uppercrust with minor element concentrations similar to the average continental crust.

Using spider diagrams of the geochemical patterns from representative granites by Pearce et al.
(1984), normalized to a hypothetical ocean ridge granite (ORG), the tectonic environments of the
granitic samples of this report are further sought out. The Akinto Soela granite shows the most
similarities to syn-COLG of both continent-continent as well as continent-arc collision zones, with
a relatively strong enrichment of Ba and Ta (Figure 26). However, similarities to the WPG granites
of intra continental ring complexes and graben are observed, as well as similarities to VAG
granites of active continental margins (Figure 26). The Phedra granite shows a similar pattern
shape to syn-COLG and VAG granites, with a stronger correlation to continent-arc collision
granites (Figure 27). The pattern of the Tibiti granite strongly reflects both the syn-COLG and
VAG patterns, with stronger similarities to active continental margin granites (Figure 28). It
appears that these diagrams do not clearly discriminate against the different tectonic settings of
the samples and the classification scheme by Harris et al. (1986) in combination with the Yb vs
Ta diagram by Pearce et al. (1984) seem the most reliable to classify the tectonic environments
of the granitic rocks.

35
Figure 26: Geochemical patterns of the Akinto Soela samples (ASG-02, ASG-06, ASG-06 and ASG-10), normalized to
a hypothetical ocean ridge granite (ORG), with data for representative granites used from Pearce et al. (1986). Akinto
Soela granite all show similar shapes with resemblance to syn-COLG of both continent-continent and continent-arc
collision zones, WPG of intra continental ring complexes and grabens and to VAG of active continental margins.

Figure 27: Geochemical patterns of the Phedra sample (ASG-14), normalized to a hypothetical ocean ridge granite
(ORG), with data for representative granites used from Pearce et al. (1986). The Phedra granite pattern shows
resemblance to syn-COLG of both continent-continent and continent-arc collision zones and to VAG of active
continental margins. Stronger correlation appears to be with continent-arc collision zones.

Figure 28: Geochemical patterns of the Tibiti sample (ASG-12), normalized to a hypothetical ocean ridge granite (ORG),
with data for representative granites used from Pearce et al. (1986). The Tibiti granite pattern shows resemblance to
syn-COLG of both continent-continent and continent-arc collision zones, but a stronger correlation to VAG of active
continental margins.

36
4.5 U-Pb zircon age dating
Age dating of the granitoids was done to understand the chronology of magmatism within the
Marowijne Greenstone Belt and assess their occurrences in a regional context, mainly French
Guiana. Samples from the Tibiti, Akinto Soela and Phedra granites were sent to the Utrecht
University for analysis.
27 measurements on selected zircons of the Tibiti granite yielded a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2119 ± 33
Ma (n=20, MSWD=2.9), which dates the intrusion of this granite, and average inherited ages of
2235 ± 19 Ma (n=6, MSWD=0.78) and 2361 ± 23 Ma (n=1) (Postema, report in progress). CL-
images show oscillatory zoning (Figure 29) and locally weak recrystallization patches (Figure
29b). The external morphology of the zircons represent those of typical granites and pegmatites
(Corfu, 2003; Pupin, 1980).

Figure 29: CL images of the Tibiti granite (ASG-12) with zircons showing oscillatory zoning. Zircon on figure b exhibits
a recrystallization patch.

11 measurements on selected zircons were conducted for the Phedra granite with the youngest
zircon population having a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2093 ± 40 Ma (n=8, MSWD=2.5), dating the intrusion
of this granite (Kriegsman, report in progress). There is indication of two subpopulation (both n=4)
within this group, one ~35 Ma older and the other ~35 Ma younger, but more data are required to
confirm this. All zircons appear igneous from CL images, showing almost perfect tetragonal
shaped zircons with faint oscillatory zoning with possible xenocryst cores (Figure 30). Three (3)
older grains were measured in the range of 2.4 – 2.8 Ga, indicating late Archean to early
Proterozoic inheritance. A concordia diagram is provided in Figure 31.

37
Figure 30: CL images of zircons from the Phedra granite (ASG-13) showing faint oscillatory zoning with possible
xenocryst cores. Measuring locations indicated by red circles.

Figure 31: Concordia diagram of the Phedra zircon measurements. Data processed by Dr. Kriegsman (report in
progress).

A total of 23 measurements were conducted on selected zircons of the Akinto Soela granite with
locations including both core and rims. The results show evidence for multiple populations with
207
the youngest group having a Pb/206Pb age of 2074 ± 29 Ma (n=11, MSWD=1.7) (Kriegsman,
report in progress), which may date the intrusion of this particular granite. An older, probably
207
inherited population has a Pb/206Pb age of 2202 ± 28 Ma (n=7, MSWD=1.7). Even older ages

38
of ~2.3 Ga (n=3) and ~2.5 Ga (n=3) were obtained, most likely from inherited zircons or potential
xenocrysts. CL images from the Akinto Soela sample show zircons containing faint visible
oscillatory zoning patterns (Figure 32), indicating weak compositional variation during
crystallization (Corfu, 2003). Their external morphology reflect those of granites and pegmatites
(Corfu, 2003; Pupin, 1980). A concordia diagram is provided in Figure 33.

Figure 32: CL images of selected zircons of the Akinto Soela granite with measuring locations in red circles. Zircons
show faint visible oscillatory zoning patterns.

Figure 33: Concordia diagram of the Akinto Soela zircon measurements. Data processed by Dr. Kriegsman (report in
progress).

39
Given the uncertainties, the Akinto Soela and Phedra granites are considered coeval, with a
combined intrusion age of 2.08 ± 0.03 Ga (Kriegsman, report in progress). In French Guiana,
similar ages were obtained for the Organabo biotite-granite and Petit Saut monzogranite.
Considering the ages of the various granitic occurrences studied for this report, these rocks show
no significant age difference, aside from the Tibiti granite (slightly older), and can be considered
of the same magmatic episode. However, they do have undergone compositional differentiation
or have had different source rocks anatexis. Interestingly, the 2.08 Ga old granites have the same
age as the Sara’s Lust gneiss (2081 ± 21 Ma) (Postema – report in progress) and is therefore
possible that partial melting of the Sara’s Lust gneiss led to the genesis of the granitic magma
that has formed the granites. This age also coincides with the ages of the metamorphic Bakhuis
and Coeroeni Belts (Kroonenberg et al., 2016), indicating an important young episode of the
Trans-Amazonian Orogeny in Suriname.

40
5. Discussion
The granitoids of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt were formed between 2.19 – 2.07 Ga, during
convergence and collision of the Amazonian and African cratons, continuing during the closure of
the island-arc basins leading to the emplacement of syn-tectonic granites as result of crustal
stretching (Delor et al., 2003a). TTG plutonism started with multiphased magmatism of the Kabel
tonalites (2180 – 2130 Ma) (Delor et al., 2003a; Kroonenberg et al., 2016) and the Brinck pluton
(2.19 – 2.16 Ga and 2.12 – 2.11 Ga) (Ramlal, 2018). The emplacement of the Tibiti biotite-granite
(2119 Ma) most likely occurred simultaneously with the second phase of the TTG magmatism.
The Phedra two-mica and Akinto Soela granites, with a combined intrusion age of 2.08 Ga, are
considered to be the youngest magmatic occurrences discovered to date in the Marowijne
Greenstone Belt. The Patamacca two-mica granite would fall within this last group as an age of
2.06 Ga is retrieved for this unit in French Guiana (Delor et al., 2003a; Kroonenberg et al., 2016).
Considering the ages, the Akinto Soela, Phedra and Patamacca granites are considered of the
same magmatic pulse (Figure 20), but due to differentiation, these granites exhibit varying
compositions.

The Tibiti Granite


The weakly peraluminous Tibiti biotite-granite has a calc-alkalic nature, indicating crystallization
from a more mafic to intermediate magma source (Frost et al., 2001). This occurrence shows
tectonic resemblances of within-plate granites emplaced at around 2119 ± 33 Ma, by possible
fractional crystallization, hence the negative Eu anomaly and the peraluminous nature. I-type
granites can become weakly peraluminous as their melt becomes felsic through fractional
crystallization with converging ASI values slightly greater than one (1), making them slightly
oversaturated in Al (Chappell et al., 1998). The Tibiti granite yielded an age similar to the pink
granite described by Ramlal (2014) of the second phase of the Brinck pluton, but classifying this
granite as part of the TTG-suite is open to discussion.

The Phedra Granite


The Phedra two-mica granite has a peraluminous and alkali-calcic affinity, suggesting derivation
by anatexis of semi-pelitic intermediate derived sedimentary source rocks (Holtz & Johannes,
1991; Frost et al., 2001). This granite was emplaced during syn-collisional events and has an age
of 2093 ± 40 Ma. The inherited ages measured from the zircons of this granite, suggests late
Archean to early Proterozoic protoliths. The Phedra granite has the most mineralogical and
tectonic similarities with the Patamacca two-mica granite, but does show variation in chemical

41
composition such as the alumina saturation (Figure 16 and Figure 17). However, their ages
suggest them to be from the same magmatic pulse.

The Akinto Soela Granite


The alkali- to alkali-calcic character of the Akinto Soela granite suggests derivation of its magma
from partial melting of intermediate derived sedimentary rocks (Frost et al., 2001) and having both
a weak peraluminous and metaluminous nature indicates assimilation of mafic rock material by
its magma (Ellis & Thompson, 1986; Patino Douce, 1999). Its age of 2074 ± 29 Ma makes it the
youngest magmatic occurrence in the northeastern Greenstone Belt of Suriname emplaced
during late- to post collision events.

Magmatic evolution of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt


The evolution of magmatism within the Marowijne Greenstone Belt has yet to be fully understood,
but with the data obtained so far and information of the neighboring French Guiana, a schematic
overview can be predicted, which corresponds to the crustal growth concept proposed by Delor
et al. (2003a). The first phase of magmatism is associated to oceanic lithosphere subduction,
which led to oceanic crust melting (Delor et al., 2003), resulting in the production of TTG melts
during multiple phases, including the Saramacca batholith and the Brinck pluton between 2.19 –
2.11 Ga (Figure 34a and b). Their calc-alkaline nature and VAG tectonic classification, argue for
a possible basaltic source rock with possible minor influences of the upper mantle. Crustal
magmatism occurred simultaneously with the second TTG phase emplacing the Tibiti biotite-
granite (Figure 34b), with its calc-alkalic and within-plate geochemical characteristics. Within-
plate granites could develop at any stage of the collision event if lithospheric structures allow the
release of appropriate mantle volatiles or magma into the crust (Harris et al., 1986). They can
develop in any region of the mantle that is tapped and has not been hydrated by subduction
processes (Harris et al., 1986; Pearce et al., 1984). The age of the Tibiti granite suggests
emplacement during the second phase of the TTG magmatism (2119 Ma), but is not considered
as part of the TTG suite. Syn-collision muscovite-bearing granites, such as the Phedra (2093 Ma)
and Patamacca (2.06 Ga, age from French Guiana) two-mica granites, were then emplaced
during periods of crustal thickening, as the result of anatexis of overlying thrust sheets, most likely
with a strong sedimentary component (Figure 34c). Late- to post collision magmatism took place
after, forming alkali-calcic suites, such as the Akinto Soela granite (2074 Ma). The crustal melt
that formed this rock unit, may have been the result of thermal relaxation in the upper crust or

42
Figure 34: Schematic diagram illustrating the possible source regions of magmatism of the northeastern Marowijne
Greenstone Belt, modified after Harris et al. (1986). a.) Pre- to early collision magmatism of the TTG suites such as the
Brinck pluton. b.) Second phase of the TTG magmatism and emplacement of within plate granites (Tibiti granite) that
have not been hydrated by subduction processes. c.) Syn-collision magmatism resulting from crustal thickening and
the emplacement of the peraluminous two-mica granites. d.) Late- to post collision magmatism resulting from possible
subsidiary subduction (Akinto Soela granite).

43
post-collision subsidiary subduction (Figure 34d) (Harris et al., 1986). The peraluminous and
metaluminous nature of the Akinto Soela granite, suggests possible contamination with melts
from a mafic rock source (Ellis & Thompson, 1986; Patino Douce, 1999).
Syn- and late- to post collision granites do not necessarily occur sequentially and their timing
depends on the relative rates of crustal thickening and of subsidiary subduction (Harris et al.,
1986). Therefore, similar occurrences can still be discovered with varying ages, dating younger
than the collision event.

Evidence for a granite batholith under the Marowijne Greenstone Belt


Van Boeckel (1968) identified a gravity field dominated by a belt of intense negative anomalies in
northern Suriname, closely corresponding to the structural trend of the Suriname orogeny. He
concluded this negative belt to be the expression of a mass deficit caused by a voluminous granite
batholith, with its floor extending up to 15 km in depth, having a dome-like shape with large lateral
extends and its core between the Tibiti and Saramacca rivers (Figure 35). This granite batholith
is interpreted as a late- to post tectonic body formed at great depth, over a former mountain range
that has been worn down by erosion and denudation processes (Howel, 1959; Van Boeckel,
1966).
The question that arises is which granites in Suriname might be representative of the granite
batholith. The Gran Rio Massif of IJzerman (1931), nowadays referred to as the Older Granites
(Kroonenberg et al., 2016), is ruled out as this massif is situated almost completely outside of the
negative belt. The trend of the anomalies over the northern part of the Gran Rio complex points
to less negative deviations in the gravity fields, giving the impression that the structure causing
the negative belt is a separate unit (Van Boeckel, 1968). Van Boeckel (1968) identified the Granite
3 (G3) of O’ Herne (1966) as the best to represent this granite batholith in terms of mineralogy,
density and outcrop locations. The G3 is found outcropping in several locations within the negative
belt including at the center of the anomaly (Figure 36). The Akinto Soela and Phedra granites are
also classified by O’Herne (1958) as Granite 3, however, it is still inconclusive if these granitic
occurrences reflect the large granite batholith underneath the Marowijne Greenstone Belt.
Gamma ray spectrometric data of the Rosebel Gold Mines concession also shows a large
potassium anomaly under the central mineralized area (Kroonenberg, personal communication),
which is one extra argument to support such a batholith occurring at depth.

44
Figure 35: Map illustrating the modeled topography of the granite batholith, after Van Boeckel (1968). The depth of the
contours of the upper surface of the model batholith are indicated by isohypses at every two (2) kilometers. The overall
depth of the bottom of the batholith is estimated at 15 km. The greater part of the negative belt can be explained by the
occurrence of a batholith of this shape. The locations of the granites studied for this report are marked for reference
purposes.

The metamorphic belt in Suriname has undergone major tectonic and erosional processes that
have removed an extensive amount of the crustal material (Hsu, 1965). Whether these processes
have already exposed parts of the so-called granite batholith or the rocks now exposed on surface
are still part of the roof of the batholith, is still arguable. However, Schols (1956) stated in his
research that small dykes of granite, diorite, aplites and pegmatites are frequent within the
Marowijne Greenstone Belt and that these rocks form part of, or are related to an enormous
massif, from which the dimensions are equal to those of the largest batholiths. Thus, meaning
that evidence for the granite batholith might possibly be exposed on surface as individual or
isolated units. Still, this does not verify whether or not the isolated granitic bodies studied for this
report, could be part of this batholith and therefore additional research is required on more of such
rock units within the Marowijne Greenstone Belt.

45
Figure 36: Geological map of the area of the Stofbroekoe Mountains as given by Beckering Vinckers (1956) and Brabers
(1961), after O’ Herne (1958). The location of the Granite 3 in the northwest corner of this map sheet just coincides
with the center of the negative belt.

46
6. Conclusion
The magmatic evolution of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt compares to the model built by Delor
et al. (2003a). Granitoid magmatism occurred in several phases during the Trans-Amazonian
Orogeny. The first episode initiated the emplacement of the TTG-suites in multiple phases
between 2.19 – 2.16 Ga and 2.15 – 2.11 Ga, during convergence and collision of the Amazonian
and African cratons. TTG plutons that arose include the Brinck pluton, the Kabel Tonalite and the
Saramacca batholith. Convergence during the second phase of the TTG magmatism, led to
crustal processes resulting in the formation of the Tibiti biotite-granite from melts of crustal source
rocks within a continental setting. Between 2.10 – 2.07 Ga another magmatic event presented
itself, marking continuing convergence and the emplacement of syn-tectonic peraluminous
granites such as the Phedra and the Patamacca, and at a later stage of the formation of the Akinto
Soela granite. Variation between the granitoids from the latter stage that were studied for this
report, are summarized as follows:

- The Tibiti biotite-granite with an average age of 2119 ± 33 Ma, shows a calc-alkalic
peraluminous nature, derived from possible mafic to intermediate magma source rock.
This unit has a strong resemblance to the pink granite, formed during the second phase
of magmatism of the Brinck pluton, as described by Ramlal (2018). However, the
compositional variation and its tectonic environment make it questionable as to whether
the Tibiti granite should also be considered part of the TTG-suite.
- The peraluminous Phedra two-mica granite has yielded an average age of 2093 ± 40 Ma,
emplaced during syn-collisional events. Its alkali- to alkali-calcic affinity leans more
towards an intermediate derived sedimentary magma source. Inherited zircons with ages
between 2.4 – 2.8 Ga suggest early Proterozoic and late-Archean sources, demonstrating
that much older crustal components of the Guiana Shield possibly exist in the underlying
blocks. Mineralogically, the Phedra granite is similar to the Patamacca two-mica granite,
but shows chemical variation in alumina saturation.
- The Akinto Soela biotite-granite has an average age of 2074 ± 29 Ma, suggesting
emplacement during the late stages of the collision events and making this yet the
youngest granitic occurrence within the Marowijne Greenstone Belt. Its alkalic to alkali-
calcic character and both weak peraluminous and metaluminous nature indicate possible
magma derivation from sedimentary sources with assimilation of mafic rock material.
There appears to be a certain differentiation trend in this pluton from the slightly more

47
mafic Kuldipsingh granite with occasional hornblende and no muscovite, to the slight more
felsic creekbed and Ponsor granites with small amounts of muscovite and no hornblende.

The smaller granitic intrusives of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt do not show significant age
differences and can therefore, be considered as part of the same magmatic episode, only intruded
during multiple phases. However, grouping them as one single unit on the geological map of
Suriname would be inconvenient, mostly because of their significant differentiation in composition.
The different tectonic settings in which these granites were emplaced should also be taken into
account in keeping them as separate individual units on the map. Challenges lie with identifying
the precursor rocks of these granites, but data retrieved about the inherited zircon ages suggest
the exclusion of the Armina sediments as the source rock, mainly because of the absence of
detrital zircons with ages of around 2.16 Ga (Kriegsman & Kroonenberg, personal
communication). This is not the case for the Sara’s Lust gneisses (report in progress by
Goumans). This exclusion thus suspects other sources for the magma melts of the granites.

An age of ~2.12 Ga for the Tibiti biotite-granite, suggests that the greenstone belt with its
associated granitoid rocks, stretches further west than originally mapped by Bosma et al. (1977)
and that possibilities exist of misclassification of units in between the Tibiti sampling area and the
western border of the northeastern greenstone belt.

A granite batholith under the northeastern metamorphic belt of Suriname was interpreted by Van
Boeckel (1968) based on extreme negative gravity anomalies. Such large batholith are presumed
to emerge from post-peak metamorphic events underneath large mountain ranges at
considerable depths (Van Boeckel, 1968; Howel, 1959). As post-collision metamorphic events of
the Guiana Shield and in particular the Marowijne Greenstone Belt is assumed to start at around
2.06 Ga (Delor et al., 2003a), the thought emerges whether or not this large batholith could have
had anything to do with the deposition of gold mineralization. Gold mineralization within the
Guiana Shield is limited to two phases between ~2.08 – 2.02 Ga and ~2.0 – 1.95 Ga and are
coeval to post-peak metamorphism at both shallow and crustal levels (Ramlal, 2018), the latter
reflecting high-grade metamorphic gneiss and granulite terrains (Voicu et al., 2001). Ruling out
the small granite plutons of the northeastern Marowijne Greenstone Belt for influencing gold
mineralization, mainly based on their slightly older age, a younger magmatic source would have
been required to activate hydrothermal activity. The so-called granite batholith, which is presumed
to be younger, could have provided sufficient heat sources and magmatic fluids to evoke chemical

48
interaction to mobilize gold and transporting it along pre-existing structures. This is quite far-
fetched as the existence of the batholith still needs to be proved. However, the core of the negative
gravity belt, which is supposed to correspond with the center of this batholith between the
Saramacca and Tibiti rivers (Figure 36), shows various gold prospects wrapping around this so-
called center, including the Saramacca deposit of the Rosebel Gold Mines N.V. This permits the
idea of this batholith possibly having a direct relation to gold mineralization, not impossible. If
indeed, such large volumes of magmatic sources exist, with proven gold prospects near its center,
which also happens to be highest elevation for its roof with possible exposures on surface, the
possibility of hydrothermal fluids circulating within close vicinity of the borders of this batholith
could provide the required pressures and temperatures for wallrock interaction and gold
deposition processes. This of course is speculative, but does not exclude the theory from being
true.

49
Recommendation

This study proves that the geodynamic model of French Guiana by Delor et al. (2003a) is reflecting
in the Marowijne Greenstone Belt of Suriname, especially with regards to the granitoid
magmatism. The results, however, do leave some question marks in terms of properly classifying
the units chemically. Additional sampling is required of each of the individual granitic bodies,
especially the Tibiti and Phedra granites, to come to a more reliable conclusion, as only one
sample of each area is used for the interpretations of this study.
The age dating calculations showed an excess amount of ‘common Pb’ ( 204Pb) in the zircons,
which causes disturbance of the isotropic patterns. This has been observed in several of the
younger granites of the Marowijne Greenstone Belt, including the Patamacca granite (Kriegsman,
personal communication). Further work is required, including additional zircon dating, to eliminate
uncertainties, as well as reprocessing of recent work with the correction of the ‘common Pb’, which
is a different calculation process altogether.
Other isolated bodies of granitoids should also be evaluated as these could identify possible
evidence for the interpreted granite batholith underneath the metamorphic belt. Isotopic studies,
of both radiogenic and oxygen, on the gold occurrences near these granitoids, as well as the
granitoids, would help identify the fluids responsible for gold deposition and maybe even provide
more evidence of this large magmatic body to exist underneath. Because if such a voluminous
magmatic body exists, chances of it feeding dykes hosting mineral deposits of Sn, Be and Li are
more likely to occur. Few of such deposits have already been discovered and mined. Amblygonite
for example, was mined for Li along the Marowijne River and beryl from the Rama pegmatites for
Be. These occurrences have not been properly dated yet, except by Priem et al. (1977), but his
work consisted of Rb-Sr and K-Ar measurements on micas and the ages retrieved can no longer
be considered accurate. U-Pb dating and geochemical work is recommended for the pegmatites
to establish their relations to the various granitic occurrences.

50
References

Arjomandi, J., Krook, L., Bosma, W. & de Roever, E.W.F. (1973). Geological
reconnaissance of the Tibiti-Coppename area, northern Suriname. Mededelingen 22,
Geologische en Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname: pp. 43 – 57.

Beckering Vinkers, H. (1956). Verslag magnetrometrische en mijnbouwkundig


onderzoek in de omgeving van de Bemaukreek. Geologische Mijnbouwkundige Dienst,
Suriname.

Best, M. G. (2003). Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Second Edition.

Bosma, W., Kroonenberg, S. B., Van Lissa, R. V., Maas, K., & De Roever, E. W. F.
(1977). Geological Map of Suriname. Geological and Mining Service of Suriname.

Bosma, W., Kroonenberg, S.B., Maas, K. & De Roever, E.W.F. (1983). Igneous and
metamorphic complexes of the Guiana shield in Suriname. Geologie en Mijnbouw 62: pp. 241 –
254.

Bosma, W., Kroonenberg, S. B., Van Lissa, R. V., Maas, K., & De Roever, E. W. F.
(1984). An Explanation to the Geology of Suriname. In D. De Vletter (Ed.), Contributions to the
Geology of Suriname 8 (pp. 31 – 82). Paramaribo: Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy -
Suriname Government Geological and Mining Service.

Brabers, A. J. M., (1961). Geologische kaart. Kaartblad Kwakoegron C6. Jaarboek 1956
– 1958. Geologische Mijnbowkundige Dienst van Suriname.

Brinck J.W. (1955). Goudafzettingen van Suriname (Gold deposits of Suriname), Thesis
Leiden, Leidse Geologische Mededelingen 21, pp. 1 – 246.

Chappell, B. W., & White, A. J. R. (1974). Two contrasting granite types. Pacific Geology
8.

51
Chappell, B. W., & White, A. J. R. (1998). High- and Low-Temperature I-type Granites.
Resource geology, volume 48, no. 4: pp 225 – 235.

Corfu, F., Hanchar, J., Hoskin, P. & Kinny, P. (2003). Atlas of Zircon Textures. Reviews
on Mineralogy and Geochemistry 53: pp 469 – 500.

De Vletter, D. (1984). Synthesis of the Precambrium of Suriname and review of some


outstanding problems. In Contributions to the Geology of Suriname 8 (pp. 11 – 30). Paramaribo:
Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy - Suriname Government Geological and Mining
Service.

Delor, C., Egal, E., Lafon, J. M., Cocherie, A., Guerrot, C., Rossi, P., Truffert, C.,
Theveniaut, H., Phillips, D. & Avelar V. G. (2003). Transamazonian crustal growth and
reworking as revealed by the 1:500,000-scale geological map of French Guiana (2nd edition),
Géologie De La France No 2-3-4: pp. 5 – 57.

Ellis, D. J., & Thompson, A. B. (1986). Subsolidus and partial melting reactions in the
quartz-excess CaO+MgO+Al2O3+SiO2+H2O system under water-excess water-deficient
conditions to 10 kb: some implications for the origin of peraluminous melts from mafic rocks.
Journal of Petrology, 27: pp. 91 – 121.

Evensen, N.M., Hamilton, P. J. & O’ Nions, R. K. (1978). Rare-earth abundances in


chondritic meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42: pp. 1199 – 1211.

Frost, R., Barnes, C., Collins, W., Arculus, R., Ellis, D. & Frost, C. (2001). A
Geochemical Classification for Granitic Rocks. Journal of Petrology, Volume 42: pp 2033 – 2048.

Gibbs, A. K. & Barron, C. N. (1983). The Guiana Shield Reviewed Episodes, Volume
1983, No. 2, pp. 1 - 8.

Hakstege, A.L. (1986). Patamacca Natural Stone Exploration Preliminary Results Part 1.
North-East Suriname Mapsheet 23, Geologische Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname, Internal
Report.

52
Harris. N. B. W., Pearce. J. A. & Tindle, A. G. (1986). Geochemical characteristics of
collision-zone magmatism. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 19 (1): pp. 67 – 81.

Holtz, F. & Johannes, W. (1991). Genesis of peraluminous granites I. Experimental


investigation of melt compositions at 3 and 5 kb and various H2O activities. Journal of Petrology,
32: pp. 935 – 958.

Hoogendoorn S. B. (2017). U-Pb Age determination of zircon crystals by LA-ICP-MS


from rhyolites and granites in the Rosebel gold district, Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname.
Bachelor thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Utrecht, Netherlands.

Howel, B. F. (1959). Introduction to Geophysics, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Hsu, K. J. (1965). Isostacy, crystal thinning, mantle changes, and the disappearance of
ancient land masses. American Journal of Science, Vol. 263.

IJzerman, R. (1931). Outline of the geology and petrology of Surinam (Dutch Guiana).
Kemink & Zoon N.V. (Utrecht): pp. 519.

Kroonenberg, S. B., de Roever, E. W. F., Fraga, L. M., Reis, N. J., Faraco, T., Lafon,
J.-M. & Wong, T. E. (2016). Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Guiana Shield in Suriname: A
revised model. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences: pp. 1 – 32.

Le Maitre, R. W., Bateman, P., Dudek, A., Keller, J., Lameyre Le Bas, M. J., Sabine,
P. A., Schmid, R., Sorensen, H., Streckeisen, A., Wooley, A. R. & Zanettin, B. (1989). A
classification of igneous rocks and glossary of terms. Blackwell, Oxford.

Maniar, P. D. & Piccoli, P. M. (1989). Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geological


Society of America Bulletin, 101: pp. 635 – 643.

Middlemost, E. A. K. (1994). Naming materials in the magma/igneous rock system.


Earth-Science Reviews 37: pp. 215 – 224.

53
Montagne, D. G. (1964). An interesting pegmatite deposit in northeastern Surinam.
Geologie en Mijnbouw 43: pp. 360 – 374.

O’ Herne, L. (1958). Geologische kaart C7 Blad Berg en Dal: Geologische


Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname

Passchier, C. W. & Trouw, R. A. J. (2005). Microtectonics, 2nd edition, Springer: pp.


366.

Patino Douce, A. E. (1999). What do experiments tell us about the relative contributions
of crust and mantle to the origin of granitic magma? In A. Castro, C. Fernandez, & J. L.
Virgneresse (Eds.), Understanding granites: Intergrating New and Classical Techniques (pp. 55
– 75). Geological Society of London, Special. Publication 168.

Pearce, J.A., Harris N. B. W. & Tindle A. G. (1984). Trace element Discrimination


Diagrams for the Tectonic Interpretation of Granitic Rocks: Journal of Petrology, 25: pp. 956 –
983.

Priem, H. N. A., Boelrijk, N. A. I. M., Hebeda, E. H., Verdurmen, E. A. Th. & Verschure, R. H.
(1971). Isotopic ages of the Trans-Amazonian acidic magmatism and the Nickerie Metamorphic
Episode in the Precambrian basement of Suriname, South America. Mededelingen van het
laboratorium voor isotope-geologie Geologie en Mijnbouw: pp. 1667 - 1679.

Priem, H. N. A., Boelrijk, N. A. I. M., Verschure, R. H. & Hebeda, E. H. (1966). Isotopic


age determinations on Surinam rocks. Mededelingen van het laboratorium voor isotope-geologie
Geologie en Mijnbouw, 45: pp. 16 – 19.

Priem, H. N. A., Boelrijk, N. A. I. M., Hebeda, E. H., Kroonenberg, S. B. , Verdurmen,


E. A. Th. & Verschure, R. H. (1977). Isotopic ages of the high-grade metamorphic Coeroeni
Group, SW Suriname. Geologie en Mijnbouw 56: pp. 155 – 160.

Priem, H. N. A., Boelrijk, N. A. I. M., Hebeda, E. H., Verdurmen, E. A. Th. & Verschure,
R. H. (1977). A note on the isotopic age of beryl pegmatites near Rama, Suriname. Short
communication, Geologie en Mijnbouw, Volume 56: pp. 83 – 84.

54
Pupin, J. P. (1980). Zircon and granite Petrology. Contribution Mineral Petrology 73: pp.
201 – 220.

Ramlal, S. (2018). An investigation of the Brincks intrusion and its relationship to the
surrounding gold deposits, Brokopondo, Suriname, South America. MSc thesis, Anton de Kom
Universiteit van Suriname.

Rollinson, H. R. (1993). Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation and


Interpretation.

Schols, H., (1956). In W. F. Jenkins: Handbook of S. American Geology. Mem. Geol. Soc.
Am., no 65.

Shand, S.J. (1947). Eruptive Rocks. Eruptive rocks, their genesis, composition,
classification, and their relation to ore deposits, with a chapter on meteorites. (3rd ed): pp. 488.

Streckeisen, A. (1976). To each plutonic rock its proper name. Earth Sciences Rev., 12:
pp. 1 – 33.

Sun, S. S. & McDonough, W. F. (1989). Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic


basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. Geological Society, London, Special
Publications, 42: pp. 313 – 345.

Van Boeckel, J. (1968). Gravitational and geomagnetic investigations in Suriname and


their structural implications. Mededelingen 17, Geologische en Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van
Suriname.

Veenstra, E. (1983). Petrology and geochemistry of sheet Stonbroekoe, sheet 30,


Suriname. Thesis, University of Amsterdam. Also in: Mededelingen 26, Geologisch e en
Mijnbouwkundige Dienst Suriname: pp. 1 – 138.

55
Voicu, G., Bardeaux M., Stevenson, R. (2001). Lithostratigraphy, geochronology and
gold metallogeny in the northern Guiana Shield, South America: a review. Ore Geology Reviews
18: pp. 211 – 236.

Yang, N.F. (2014). The Patamacca Granite in relation to other granitoids in Suriname and
the Guiana Shield. MSc thesis, University of Utrecht.

56
Appendices

Appendix 1: Results of repeats of trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS


Sample No ASG-02 ASG-02 ASG-05 ASG-05 ASG-06 ASG-06 ASG-10 ASG-10 ASG-12 ASG-12 ASG-14 ASG-14

Lab ID ASG02-7 ASG02-8 ASG05-9 ASG05-10 ASG06-11 ASG06-12 ASG10-13 ASG10-14 ASG12-17 ASG12-18 ASG14-21 ASG14-22

Si29 309257.8 309257.8 318700.1 318700.1 322907 322907 300096 300096 354272.3 354272.3 335013.8 335013.8
Ca43 57150.74 58235.74 47236.19 44601.8 66499.99 51644.14 69615.51 73832.47 58963 54627.81 32158.88 43477.99
Sc45 10.57 10.32 10.71 7.57 7.38 8.1 11.35 11.8 10.68 5.6 6.41 5.76
Ti49 2968.9 3281.57 3341.41 3043.47 2534.58 2653.72 5880.28 6609.01 1181.49 903.13 1337.68 1534.08
V51 52.72 53.1 44.46 35.18 32.95 33.49 58.65 64.95 13.23 22.91 28.3 29.74
Cr52 83.32 87.83 55.27 57.39 59.26 54.12 86.37 153.07 19.91 3.99 11.65 31.2
Mn55 367.47 383.52 353.43 325.18 256.6 246.45 491.44 536.45 340.77 357.17 164.38 166.59
Cu63 <LD <LD <LD <LD <LD <LD 31.38 33.65 20318.59 35680.85 4890.14 6430.44
Zn66 16.77 42.2 509.46 421.28 <LD 52.16 114.55 80.58 52263.02 69126.48 362.9 427.3
Ga69 60.38 66.83 64.47 52.98 58.86 55.41 59.89 67.83 68.39 72.21 40.04 43.34
As75 3.55 9.6 6.77 2.13 9.99 3.96 3.01 9.53 <LD <LD 2.16 3.1
Rb85 173.7 194.87 203.91 165.09 200.38 192.33 186.54 195.4 123.31 118.96 297.61 337.13
Sr88 785.74 854.85 1085.48 976.85 733.12 708.92 1067.86 1099.85 166.35 184.23 228.45 251.73
Y89 10.82 11.07 14.99 13.66 14.29 12.65 18.31 19.62 34.39 32.26 6.14 3.8
Zr90 170.98 177.29 243.16 249.2 227.01 193.98 342.85 357.06 194.1 181.8 90.97 94.28
Nb93 10.03 9.8 17.61 15.94 15.86 15.26 19.64 20.64 9.17 12.6 6.75 6.7
Cs133 7.22 8.22 9.2 9.99 8.06 8.34 3.72 4.06 1.14 0.29 8.94 8.59
Ba137 1325.67 1437.5 1371.07 1181.74 1223.99 1118.43 1268.81 1432.84 1285.72 1194.26 539.93 584.31
La139 50.48 51.63 75.81 75.2 83.63 82.96 93.57 104.36 49.28 44.86 20.17 24.43
Ce140 103.02 110.34 182.65 142.21 150 143.94 192.41 213.4 94.9 91.69 48.91 53.88
Pr141 10.53 12.06 15.65 15.9 15.35 15.41 22.32 24.65 10.15 10.01 5.52 5.74
Nd146 40.53 39.21 54.79 56.49 58.92 49.14 84.62 91.18 37.01 34.06 19.16 19.48
Sm147 6.31 6.33 11.32 8.45 8.18 8.08 13.77 14.97 7.7 10.91 2.43 4.47
Eu151 1.69 1.5 5.09 2.12 2.13 1.34 3.44 3.95 0.49 1.08 0.12 0.65
Eu153 1.6 1.82 3.13 3.08 1.35 1.54 3.44 3.84 0.35 0.62 1.77 1.32
Gd157 4.45 3.61 7.29 6.28 5.67 4.35 9.29 7.86 4.11 6.52 4.03 3.14
Tb159 0.536 0.444 0.65 0.71 0.64 0.537 0.826 0.838 1.01 1.36 0.18 0.058
Dy163 2.3 2.1 2.46 2.5 2.37 2.01 3.95 3.99 4.65 11.19 1.44 2.23
Ho165 0.224 0.32 0.42 0.4 0.516 0.31 0.57 0.564 0.93 0.91 0.15 0.26
Er166 1.26 0.88 0.45 1.3 1.17 0.85 1.04 1.61 4.96 3.56 0.52 0.92
Yb172 0.77 0.88 0.24 0.83 1.26 1.28 1.44 1.82 4.16 2.74 1.32 0.89
Lu175 0.03 0.102 0.119 0.199 0.122 <LD 0.154 0.184 0.34 0.29 0.37 <LD
Hf178 5.99 4.51 5.4 5.65 5.56 4.53 8.37 8.61 9.02 4.44 3.52 4.67
Ta181 4.37 4.59 5.85 4.2 5.51 4.52 4.31 4.44 2.58 5.13 3.21 3.74
Pb208 31.85 30.12 32.03 35.13 42.17 41.51 34.09 38.53 26.14 37.7 48.38 42.79
Th232 11.96 12.41 15.69 16.07 22.87 20.49 14.24 14.91 14.87 17.34 7.67 8.06
U238 3.59 4.16 7.61 8.33 12.57 11.89 3.76 3.56 1.93 1.18 5.54 5.91

57