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Unsteady state Conduction

dT
 hAs (T  T )  Vc
dt
  T  T

Vc d Vc d t


 
hAs dt 
hAs  
   dt
0
i

 i  Ti  T Vc i
ln  t
hAs 
 T  T  hAs 
  exp t
 i Ti  T  Vc 

 1 
 t   ( Vc)  Rt Ct
 hAs 
The Biot number provides a
measure of the temperature
drop in the solid relative to
the temperature difference
between surface and the fluid

If Bi<< 1, the resistance to conduction within the solid is much


less than resistance to convection across the fluid boundary layer
Ts ,1  Ts , 2
( L / kA) Rcond hL
    Bi
Ts , 2  T (1 / hA) Rconv k

hAs t ht hLc k t hLc t


  
Vc cLc k c Lc
2
k Lc2

hAs t
 Bi.Fo
Vc
Hyperbolic heat conduction
(Non Fourier Heat Conduction)

 q
q    T  
t
a
C

T  T
2
cp (   2 )    (T )
t t
 2Θ Θ  2Θ
a  τ
x 2 t t 2

Condition :

1. ( x  0, t )  0 exp( it )

2. ( x  , t )  0

 
( x, t )   0 exp(  x ( ( ) 2  1   )) cos(t  x ( ( ) 2  1   ))
2a 2a
Amplitude ratio Phase shift
   1
B  exp( x ) Gx
0 2a 2a 

Thermal diffusivity Relaxation time

  1    2
2
 x   x 1
2
1
a      2
2  ln( B)  2 G  

ln( B)

G
The test cell
Das schematische Schaltbild des
Messaufbaues
6. Data Acquisition
System

7. PC
4. DC Power
Supply
5. Amplifier & Filter

Thermocouple
leads

1. Test Cell 3. Thermostatic Bath

2. Cooling Water
Properties of materials examined

Diameter Bulk
Material Porosity
particle density
kg/m3
copper coated lead 4.4 - 4.5 6300 0,442
spheres mm

synthetic sand (SiO2) 1670 0.372

Al2O3 (gamma) 6.5 mm 840 0,789

Al2O3 (gamma) 134 nm

NHCO3 1230 0,430

Processed meat -
- -
(Bologna)
Temperature distribution in media
Comparison of measured values of thermal diffusivity (a) and relaxation time ()

Material Thermal Relaxation Time Source


Diffusivity [s]
[10-6 m2/s]

Sand 0.226 2.26 Present experiment


0.408 20 Kaminski 1990
0.218 0 Graßmann et al. 1999
0.169 0 Herwig et al. 2000

NaHCO3 0.185 0.66 Present experiment


0.31 28.7 Kaminski 1990

Processed 0.132 1.77 Present experiment


Meat 0.14 15.5 Mitra et al. 1995
0.1304 0 Herwig et al. 2000
Thermal diffusivity and Relaxation time of
Pb-Cu with He, N2 and Ar as filling gases

24
3

22
Temperaturleitfähigkeit [10 -6 m 2/s]

20

Relaxation Zeit [s]


Pb-Cu mit N2

Pb-Cu mit N2 Pb-Cu mit He


2 18
Pb-Cu mit He Pb-Cu mit Ar
Pb-Cu mit Ar 16

14
1
12

10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0 Druck [bar]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Druck [bar]
Temperature effect
Pb-Cu (mit Gas Helium) Pb-Cu (mitGas Helium)

3 25
Temperaturleitfähigkeit [10 -6 m2/s]

2.5
20

Relaxationzeit [s]
2
15

1.5

10
1
Temp (27.5°C) Temp (27.5°C)
0.5 Temp (32.5°C) 5 Temp (32.5°C)
Temp (40°C) Temp (40°C)
0
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Druck [bar]
Druck [bar]
Effekt der Partikelgröße
0.3
50

45 Al2O3 (in nm)


0.25
Al2O3 (in mm)
Teperaturlitfähigkeit [10 -6 m 2/s]

40

0.2 35

Relaxationzeit [s]
30

0.15 25

20
0.1
15

Al2O3 (in nm) 10


0.05 Al2O3 (in mm)
5

0
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Druck [bar]
Druck [bar]
The second wave velocity
0,25 0.18

0.16
Second Sound Wave Velocity [mm/s]

Zweite Schallgeschwindigkeit [mm/s]


0,2
0.14

0.12
0,15
0.1

0.08
0,1 Temp 15 °C
Temp 20 °C 0.06
Temp 25 °C
0,05 0.04
Al2O3 (in nm)
0.02
Al2O3 (in mm)
0
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Pressure [bar]
Druck [bar]