Charles Darwin

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Born: 12 February, 1809 Place of Birth: Mount House, Shrewsbury, Shropshire,
England Died: 19 April 1882 (aged 73) Place of Death: Down House, Downe, Kent, England Residence: England Citizenship: British Nationality: British Fields: Naturalist Institutions: Geological Society of London, University of Cambridge Academic advisors: John Stevens Henslow, Adam Sedgwick Known for: The Voyage of the Beagle, On The Origin of Species, Natural selection Influences: Alexander von Humboldt, John Herschel, Charles Lyle Influenced: Joseph Dalton Hooker, Thomas Henry Huxley, George John Romanes, Ernest Haeckel, Ernest Mayr, Julian Huxley

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Notable awards:
Royal Medal (1853) Wollaston Medal (1859) Copley Medal (1864)

writing in his notebook ‘If there is the slightest foundation for these remarks the zoology of Archipelagoes will be well worth examining. Darwin starts a natural history of babies. Emma Wedgwood. where . for such facts (would) undermine the stability of Species’. Cambridge University to study theology in preparation for life as a country parson.Charles Darwin • • • • • • • • • • • 1809: Charles Robert Darwin is born on 12 February at The Mount in Shrewsbury. He is introduced to beetle collecting and becomes known as ‘the man who walks with Henslow through spending a lot of time with the professor of botany. making detailed observations recording the development of expressions of emotion from birth. Kent. 1839: Darwin marries his cousin. saying ‘You care for nothing but shooting. Shropshire. 1825–1827: Darwin’s father removes him from Shrewsbury Grammar School due to his poor progress and sends him to Edinburgh University. 1827–1831: Darwin enrolls at Christ’s College. They move to London and have two children. 1842: Darwin wrote his first essay outlining his evolutionary theory. 1817: Darwin’s mother Susannah (née Wedgwood) dies when he is eight years old. Eventually they have 10 children. He publishes The Journal of a Naturalist. dogs and rat-catching and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family’. 1840: Publishes Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle. Darwin moves to Down House in Bromley. 1835–1836: Darwin first considers the evolution of species while thinking about the variations among Galapagos mockingbirds. 1831–1836: Darwin makes major natural history collections as he travels around South America as the ship’s naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle. 1837: Darwin draws a simple evolutionary tree in one of his notebooks below the words ‘I think’. although only seven survive to adulthood. He later chastised his son. 1838–1839: Darwin starts to develop his theory of natural selection.

observation and experimentation in his garden and the countryside around Down House. Thomas Huxley and Joseph Hooker. 1856: Starts work on the first long version of On the Origin of Species. 1860: Based on his belief in special creation. Annie Elizabeth. dies at the age of ten. 1855: Carries out the first focused survey of biodiversity in a field at Down House and establishes the principle of divergence. Darwin was unable to present his paper – the funeral for his youngest son took place on the same day as the meeting. 1854–59: Continues to develop the theory of evolution through reading. Two of England’s most influential scientists. and if it be accepted even by one competent judge. it will be a considerable step in science’. consulting other naturalists. 1858: Both Darwin’s and Wallace’s theories are presented to the Linnaean Society on 1 July. Darwin writes to botanist Joseph Hooker telling him of his evolutionary ideas. probably from tuberculosis. They are officially published by the society in August. putting forward his theory of evolution by natural selection. saying it is ‘like confessing a murder’.• • • • • • • • • he lives for the rest of his life. as I believe […] my theory is true. in her writing box. a young naturalist who has independently arrived at a theory of natural selection that is nearly identical to Darwin’s. 1859: Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species on 24 November. 1844: Darwin secretly writes a landmark essay on evolution by natural selection and instructs his wife have it published in the event of his death. He recorded the last days of her illness and wrote a memorial to her. 1851: Darwin’s first daughter. . writing in a note to her ‘I have just finished my sketch of my species theory. Both sides claim victory. held at Oxford University Museum. Bishop Samuel Wilberforce leads an attack on Darwin’s theory at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (today known as the BA). 1858: Darwin receives a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace in Indonesia. fiercely support Darwin’s work. which was kept with other mementos of her life. If. He publishes The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reef.

his introduction of the mechanism of the "survival of the fittest. Though Darwin was not the first naturalist to propose a model of biological evolution. often devoting more time to socializing with . and his father sent him to Cambridge to prepare for a career in the clergy. which provides detailed evidence for many of the statements made in On the Origin of Species. England and showed an early interest in the natural sciences. 1876: Publishes The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom based on his work around Down House. Darwin soon tired of the subject. At Cambridge. neighbour and scientist John Lubbock MP secures his burial in Westminster Abbey. scientists. Darwin’s funeral is attended by England’s leading politicians. a wealthy physician. His friend. His father. 1881: Publishes The Action of Worms.• • • • • • • 1862: Publishes Fertilisation of Orchids. 1882: Charles Darwin dies. explicitly applying his theories of evolution to humans." and discussion of the evolution of humans. based on his observations of wild orchids growing in the countryside around Down House. Charles Darwin’s Life Charles Robert Darwin is credited with popularizing the concept of organic evolution by means of natural selection. Robert Darwin. 1871: Darwin’s The Descent of Man is published. 1872: Publishes The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. encouraged Charles to pursue studies in medicine at the University of Edinburg. especially geology. 1868: Publishes Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. Darwin rekindled his passion for the natural sciences. marked a revolution in both science and natural philosophy. Darwin was born in Shrewsbury. noting their gradual but significant effects on soil movement. and clergy.

That same year. geology. Again. The expedition team was initially chartered for a three year voyage and survey of South America's Pacific coastline. entomologist William Darwin Fox (1805-1880). He paid close attention to changes in the land brought about by earthquakes and volcanoes. Principles of Geology. catastrophic events). Yet. and the presumed fixity of species. and zoology. he published his Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H.Cambridge scientists than to his clerical studies. he turned to notes of his observations and various specimens . In South America. Darwin agreed to an unpaid position as naturalist aboard the H. extinct animals. Darwin disagreed with Lyell's assertion that coral reefs grew atop oceanic volcanoes and rises. and it was he who encouraged Darwin to delay seeking an appointment in the Church of England in favor of joining an expedition team and venturing overseas. When Darwin returned to England in 1836. he and Lyell became good friends. Henslow profoundly influenced Darwin. Darwin was elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 1836. ox introduced Darwin to clergyman and biologist John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861).S. his research interests began to diverge from the discipline in the early 1840s. and became a member of the Royal Society in 1839. His observations led him to reject catastrophism (a theory that land forms are the result of single. Darwin used his years aboard the Beagle to further his study of the natural sciences. Lyell welcomed Darwin's new research on coral reefs. Beagle. and concluded that coral reefs built upon themselves. Beagle's crew for five years. as well as his mentor in his personal studies of botany.M. Henslow became Darwin's tutor in mathematics and theology. and encouraged him to publish other studies from his voyages.S. After graduation. some of his observations in South America did not fit with Lyell's theories. Though his achievements in geology largely prompted his welcoming into Britain's scientific community. Beagle. Darwin became fascinated with geology. but the ship pursued other ventures after their work was complete and Darwin remained part of H. With guidance from his cousin. Discussions with other naturalists prompted Darwin's increasing interest in population diversity of fauna.S. and instead espoused the geological theories of gradual development proposed by English geologist Charles Lyell (1797-1875) in his 1830 work.M. Darwin became increasingly involved in the growing circle of natural scientists at Cambridge.M.

He called this phenomenon "survival of the fittest. or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. it remained undeveloped prior to Charles Darwin. The focus of his new studies was the Galápagos Islands off the Pacific coast of Ecuador. but as a practical scientific model for explaining the diversity of species and populations. In fact. The idea of organic evolution was not novel. Darwin concluded that species must have some means of transmutation. Thus. Years later. Just as he had done with Lyell's geological theory. Darwin was struck by the uniqueness of the island's tortoises and birds. eventually resulting in new species. Darwin proposed an evolutionary model of animal populations. Darwin decided to release his research. Darwin thus proposed that as species modified. or ability of a species to alter over time. While there. while others had seemingly different variety of species. Georges Buffon (1707-1788) had theorized that species were prone to development and change. but lacked confidence in his abilities to convince others of the merits of his discoveries. Some neighboring islands had animal populations. also published research regarding the evolution of species. Erasmus Darwin. In this way. Darwin's own grandfather. was published November 1859. and became an instant bestseller. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.he gathered while on his prior expedition. His major contribution to the field was the introduction of a mechanism by which evolution was accomplished. Darwin believed that evolution was the product of an ongoing struggle of species to better adapt to their environment. a . Although the theoretical concept of evolution was not new. Darwin set about the further the understanding of evolution not merely as a philosophical concept. Darwin finished an extensive draft of his theories in 1844. with those that were best adapted surviving to reproduce and replace less-suited individuals. Darwin believed that traits of maximum adaptiveness were transferred to future generations of the animal population. and as old species disappeared. After analyzing finch specimen from the Galápagos." or natural selection. French naturalist. prompted by rumors that a colleague was about to publish a theory similar to his own. A common misconception is that On the Origin of Species was the introduction of the concept of human evolution. which were largely similar to that of the continent. new varieties could be introduced.

scientific methodology. In the last years of his career. the scientific community had largely accepted the arguments favoring his theories of evolution. By observing facial features and voice sounds. Darwin did not directly address the relationship between animal and human evolution until he published The Descent of Man. In the last decade of his life. and Selection in Relation to Sex in 1871. Regardless of his opposition. Though willing to discuss his theories with colleagues in the sciences. By most accounts. and social theory. he remained publicly taciturn about the impact his scientific theories on theology. . By the time of his death. Although the later discoveries in genetics and molecular biology radically reinterpreted Darwin's evolutionary mechanisms. Darwin introduced not only a model for the biological evolution of man. Parliament immediately ordered a state burial for the famous naturalist at Westminster Abby. evolutionary theory is the key and unifying theory in all biological science. On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man were both published at a time of heightened religious evangelicalism in England. but also attempted to chart the process of man's psychological evolution. Darwin's works on evolution met with both debate from the scientific societies. to be a grievous misinterpretation of his works. Darwin retired to his estate in Down. Though his wishes were to receive an informal burial. He further tried to break down the barriers between man and animals in 1872 with his work The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.discussion of human antiquity is relatively absent from the book. he considered the emerging concept of the social and cultural evolution of men and civilizations. He died at Down House in 1882. Closely guarding his privacy. Darwin refrained from participating in public debates concerning his research. Darwin took the concept of organic evolution to its logical end by applying natural selection and specialization to the plant kingdom. Darwin asserted that man and non-human animals exhibited signs of emotion in similar ways. which later became known as Social Darwinism. and criticism from some members of the clergy. Darwin was disturbed about the application of his evolutionary models to social theory.

He examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man. . prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.CONTRIBUTIONS Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist. and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory. Darwin’s scientific discovery remains the foundation of biology. who proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. His five-year voyage on the Beagle established him as a geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell’s uniformitarian ideas. eminent as a collector and geologist. In modified form. Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838. The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and the general public in his lifetime. His 1859 book On the Origin of Species established evolution by common descent as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea. Darwin developed his interest in natural history while studying first medicine at Edinburgh University. as it provides a unifying logical explanation for the diversity of life. he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage. then theology at Cambridge. and Selection in Relation to Sex. and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists.

but change into different things. That is. 5. changed into trees. or spirit. and was buried in Westminster Abbey. life force. . animals and men. the belief that things live because of some vital essence. present processes operating over long periods of time accounted for the world and everything in it. 7. 4. That is. 2. with no ultimate purpose. 1. Darwin ‘ended Aristotelian essentialism’ (that is. That is. 3. Darwin ‘refuted catastrophism’. Darwin ‘changed the world from being seen as static to evolving’ (changing). it has no purpose. he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. The existence of the universe is just a giant accident. microbes. Darwin ‘ended absolute anthropocentrism’. he was one of only five 19th century UK non-royal personages to be honoured by a state funeral. Living things do not reproduce true to their type after all. Darwin ‘refuted cosmic teleology’ (that is.2 6. Darwin ‘established the implausibility of creationism’. God is an unnecessary hypothesis. over billions of years. In recognition of Darwin’s pre-eminence. close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton. man is nothing special. they arose through natural processes. His research on plants was published in a series of books.followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. rather than because of mechanisms understandable to scientists). and in his final book. Darwin ‘established materialistic/naturalistic philosophy’. He is just another accident of cosmic evolution. the evolutionist believes. Shermer claims that Darwin established that man is just an animal. that the universe has a purpose). God did not create things. For Darwin.

B .Biology Project Name: Nishant Rai Class: X .

Roll No: 30 Subject: Charles Darwin .

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