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Nationalism

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##Nationalism is a belief that people sharing the same customs, language, religion

and history should have the right to self-government.##

The Schlieffen Plan

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##It was a war plan designed by Schlieffen, the Chief of the German General Staff to

enable Germany to meet a two-front war against France in the west and Russia in the

east.##

the armaments race

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##This was a race among the major European countries in building a large navy and a

large army that took place during 1871-1914.##

the alliance system

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##It was set up by Bismarck to isolate France after the Franco-Prussian and it was

one of the causes of the First World War.##

the Triple Alliance

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##It was formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882.##

the Triple Entente

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##It was formed by Russia, Britain and France in 1907.##

the Central Powers

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## It was one of the two blocs of countries that took part in the First World War. Its

members included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.##

the Allies

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##It was one of the two blocs of countries that took part in the First World War. Its
members included Russia, Britain, France and Serbia etc.##
the Sarajevo Incident

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##This was the event that took place in Sarajevo on June 28,1914 when a Bosnian
murdered Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Emperor of Austria-Hungary.##

the Paris Peace Conference

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##This was a peace conference held in Paris after the First World War by the
victorious states to solve the problems brought by the war.##

the Treaty of Versailles

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##It was the treaty signed by Germany at the Paris Peace Conference.##
the War-Guilt Clause

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##It was one of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which stated that Germany
should be held the sole responsibility for causing the First World War ##

the League of Nations

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##It was an international peace-keeping body set up in 1920, and its headquarters
were located in Geneva.##

Militarism

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##Militarism is a kind of political system adopted by Japan in the early 20th

century.##

Nazism

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##Nazism is a kind of political system adopted by Germany in the period 1933-45. It


adopted an expansionist policy and tried to killed all the Jews in the world.##

Fascism

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##Fascism is a kind of political system adopted by Italy in the 20th century. It believed
in one-party rule. It controlled everything. It praised wars and followed an
expansionist policy.##

The Great Depression

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##The Great Depression occurred during 1929-33. The immediate cause was the
crash in the Wall Street Stock Market. Since the United States was the world biggest
producer and creditor, the Great Depression spread to other countries.##

Appeasement

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##It was a policy adopted by France and Britain towards Hitler’s aggression in the
1930s because the economy of France and Britain were hit by the Great
Depression.##

The Pearl Harbour Incident

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##It took place on December 7, 1941 when Japan made a sudden attack on the
American naval base in Hawaii in order to destroy the American fleet.##
The Allied Powers

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##It was one of the two blocs of countries that took part in World War II, and its
members included the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and France, etc.##

The Axis Powers

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##It was one of the two blocs of countries that took part in World War II, and its
members included Japan, Italy and Germany.##

The United Nations

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##It is an international peace-making body set up in 1945 to replace the League of


Nations.##

the Iron Curtain

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##A phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the tense relations between
the Soviet Union and the Western European States.##

the Korean War

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##It was the war between North Korea and South Korea during 1950-53. The Korean
War started when North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950. The United Nations and
China helped South Korea and North Korea respectively.##

the Cuban Missile Crisis

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##It was the confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1962.
The United States ordered the blockade of Cuban in order to force the Soviet Union
to remove its missiles from Cuba.##
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