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# LAB SESSION 3

## Determination of a coefficient of velocity from the trajectory of a jet:

Objective:
 To study the application of Bernoulli’s equation.
 To study the relation between the velocity and height of the orifice.
 To study about the velocity of the outflow through the orifice.

Apparatus:

 Hydraulic bench.
 Stop watch.

Theory:
In this experiment as we described earlier that we will study about the application of bernoulli’s
equation which is only applicable for the steady, incompressible and frictionless flow.

‘’It is the relation between pressure velocity and elevation in the moving fluid in which the fluid
is considered to be non-viscous and non-compressible and the flow is steady’’

## The quantitative definition of Bernoulli’s equation is related as follows

‘’The sum of kinetic potential and flow energies of a fluid particle is constant along a streamline
during steady flow when the compressible and frictional effects are negligible’

We can use a number of methods in deriving a Bernoulli equation here we will use the newton
second law referred to the conservation of linear momentum in the s direction of a particle of a
fluid moving along a streamline.

Here we will derive the equation using newton second law as a base and then apply the
principles of engineering dynamics. Applying newton second law which is referred as the
conservation of linear momentum.
In the x-direction of a particle moving along a streamline is

Equating the forces acting in the x direction from the above figure is given as

Here 𝜃 is the angle, P is the pressure dP is the change in pressure with the movement, m is the
mass of the moving body which is equal to

m=Vx𝜌

## Cancelling the dA term from the above the equation is simplified as

Closing the derivative in the above in the above equation we will get
Integrating the above equation and assuming that the flow is steady we will reach to the final
form of the equation and is written as.

Since the last 2 terms are the exact differencial and assuming that the density remains constant
we will write the above equation as following.

## Second term is the kinetic energy.

Third term is the potential energy. It means that the sum of flow energy kinetic energy and the
potential energy is equal to a constant.

If we consider two points then the above equation can be written as.

Conclusion:
From the above derivation we can sum up our discussion in a few words as

‘’the sum of the kinetic, potential and flow energies of a fluid particle is constant along a stream
line during the steady flow when the compressibility and frictional effects are negligible.’’

Co-efficient of velocity:
The ideal orifice out flow velocity at a jet vena contracta is

v=√2𝑔ℎ

where h is the the height and it reference is taken above the orifice.

V=CV√2𝑔ℎ
Here, CV is the co-efficient of velocity, which reduces the value of the velocity due to various
effects like friction and viscosity and it value is always less than 1.

We will also find the value of CV using experimental work from the trajectory of jet using the
following argument.

Here we will use the basic principles of kinematics. By using some sort of ideal condition the
effect of air friction can be ignored, the horizontal component of the jet velocity can be
assumed to remain constant so that in time t the horizontal distance covered is

X=vt

Also due to the gravitational effects in the air(gravity) the horizontal moving fluid is also
directed to the downward velocity due to gravity. Hence by using the second equation of
motion and taking the initial velocity as zero the equation is reduced to

Y=0.5gt2

2𝑦
t= 𝑔

## substitution for t from above equation we will get

CV=x/2√𝒚𝒉

Hence, for the steady flow conditions CV can be determined from the x and y co-ordinates of
the jet. A graph of x plotted against √𝑌ℎ will have a slope of 2CV.

Procedure:
Following are the steps followed in the procedure.

 Position the overflow tube to give a high head note the value of head and determine the
flow rate by times collection using the measuring cylinder and stop watch.
 Carry out the timed collection three times and then take the average value to determine
the volume flow rate.
 The jet trajectory is obtained by using the needles mounted on the vertical back board
to follow the profile of the jet.
 Release the securing screw for each needle in turn and move the needle such that it
point is just immediately above the jet and retighten the screw.
 Attach the sheet of a paper to the back board between the needle and the board and
secure it in a place with the clamp provided so that it upper edge is horizontal.
 Mark the position of the top of each needle on the paper. Note the horizontal distance
from the plane of the orifice taken as x=0.
 The first co ordinate point should be close enough to the orifice to treat it as having the
value y=0 thus y displacments are measured relative to its position.

## Repeat this above procedure for the second orifice.

Table:
No of obs. Orifice Head Horizontal Vertical (𝑦ℎ)0.5
diameter H displacement distance
d (cm) X Y
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)0.5
1 0.006 0.33 0.0135 0.007 0.048
2 0.006 0.33 0.0635 0.013 0.065
3 0.006 0.33 0.1135 0.026 0.0926
4 0.006 0.33 0.1635 0.043 0.119
5 0.006 0.33 0.2135 0.065 0.146

Graph:
This is the graph which is formed between the horizontal distance verses (yh) 0.5.

The above mentioned 5 points will give us 5 slopes and then we determine the average value of
the slope and divide this by 2 will give us the value of CV. this will be the experimental value of
CV.

Points slope
Point 1 and 2 0.34
Point 2 and 3 0.552
Point 3 and 4 0.528
Point 4 and 5 0.54
Now to take the average value

=0.49

## We know that slope =CV/2=0.245

Reference:

https://www.thoughtco.com
https://www.thephysicsfactbooks.com
https://www.slideshare.com