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- Van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: The Application of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs
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Objective:

To study the application of Bernoulli’s equation.

To study the relation between the velocity and height of the orifice.

To study about the velocity of the outflow through the orifice.

Apparatus:

Hydraulic bench.

Stop watch.

Theory:

In this experiment as we described earlier that we will study about the application of bernoulli’s

equation which is only applicable for the steady, incompressible and frictionless flow.

‘’It is the relation between pressure velocity and elevation in the moving fluid in which the fluid

is considered to be non-viscous and non-compressible and the flow is steady’’

‘’The sum of kinetic potential and flow energies of a fluid particle is constant along a streamline

during steady flow when the compressible and frictional effects are negligible’

We can use a number of methods in deriving a Bernoulli equation here we will use the newton

second law referred to the conservation of linear momentum in the s direction of a particle of a

fluid moving along a streamline.

Here we will derive the equation using newton second law as a base and then apply the

principles of engineering dynamics. Applying newton second law which is referred as the

conservation of linear momentum.

In the x-direction of a particle moving along a streamline is

Equating the forces acting in the x direction from the above figure is given as

Here 𝜃 is the angle, P is the pressure dP is the change in pressure with the movement, m is the

mass of the moving body which is equal to

m=Vx𝜌

Closing the derivative in the above in the above equation we will get

Integrating the above equation and assuming that the flow is steady we will reach to the final

form of the equation and is written as.

Since the last 2 terms are the exact differencial and assuming that the density remains constant

we will write the above equation as following.

Third term is the potential energy. It means that the sum of flow energy kinetic energy and the

potential energy is equal to a constant.

If we consider two points then the above equation can be written as.

Conclusion:

From the above derivation we can sum up our discussion in a few words as

‘’the sum of the kinetic, potential and flow energies of a fluid particle is constant along a stream

line during the steady flow when the compressibility and frictional effects are negligible.’’

Co-efficient of velocity:

The ideal orifice out flow velocity at a jet vena contracta is

v=√2𝑔ℎ

where h is the the height and it reference is taken above the orifice.

V=CV√2𝑔ℎ

Here, CV is the co-efficient of velocity, which reduces the value of the velocity due to various

effects like friction and viscosity and it value is always less than 1.

We will also find the value of CV using experimental work from the trajectory of jet using the

following argument.

Here we will use the basic principles of kinematics. By using some sort of ideal condition the

effect of air friction can be ignored, the horizontal component of the jet velocity can be

assumed to remain constant so that in time t the horizontal distance covered is

X=vt

Also due to the gravitational effects in the air(gravity) the horizontal moving fluid is also

directed to the downward velocity due to gravity. Hence by using the second equation of

motion and taking the initial velocity as zero the equation is reduced to

Y=0.5gt2

2𝑦

t= 𝑔

CV=x/2√𝒚𝒉

Hence, for the steady flow conditions CV can be determined from the x and y co-ordinates of

the jet. A graph of x plotted against √𝑌ℎ will have a slope of 2CV.

Procedure:

Following are the steps followed in the procedure.

Position the overflow tube to give a high head note the value of head and determine the

flow rate by times collection using the measuring cylinder and stop watch.

Carry out the timed collection three times and then take the average value to determine

the volume flow rate.

The jet trajectory is obtained by using the needles mounted on the vertical back board

to follow the profile of the jet.

Release the securing screw for each needle in turn and move the needle such that it

point is just immediately above the jet and retighten the screw.

Attach the sheet of a paper to the back board between the needle and the board and

secure it in a place with the clamp provided so that it upper edge is horizontal.

Mark the position of the top of each needle on the paper. Note the horizontal distance

from the plane of the orifice taken as x=0.

The first co ordinate point should be close enough to the orifice to treat it as having the

value y=0 thus y displacments are measured relative to its position.

Table:

No of obs. Orifice Head Horizontal Vertical (𝑦ℎ)0.5

diameter H displacement distance

d (cm) X Y

(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)0.5

1 0.006 0.33 0.0135 0.007 0.048

2 0.006 0.33 0.0635 0.013 0.065

3 0.006 0.33 0.1135 0.026 0.0926

4 0.006 0.33 0.1635 0.043 0.119

5 0.006 0.33 0.2135 0.065 0.146

Graph:

This is the graph which is formed between the horizontal distance verses (yh) 0.5.

The above mentioned 5 points will give us 5 slopes and then we determine the average value of

the slope and divide this by 2 will give us the value of CV. this will be the experimental value of

CV.

Points slope

Point 1 and 2 0.34

Point 2 and 3 0.552

Point 3 and 4 0.528

Point 4 and 5 0.54

Now to take the average value

=0.49

Reference:

https://www.thoughtco.com

https://www.thephysicsfactbooks.com

https://www.slideshare.com

https://www.physlink.com

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