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Finite Element Analysis for Various Structures Made of

Classic and Composite Material by Using ANSYS


Software
Nguyen Viet Hung, Thai The Hung, Luu Quang Thin, Bui Tran Trung,
Luu Chi Hieu
Hanoi University of Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam
Abstract
In recent years, the numerical simulation technology has been applying more and more efficiently over the
world including Vietnam where the ANSYS software has perhaps become the most popular CAE software
in mechanical engineering, in civil construction and in science of materials namely with composite material
and hybrid-materials structures. In this paper, we would like to show some results obtained in our research
in numerical simulation with ANSYS software: a deep forming process of a double sink, a stadium roof
under the wind effect, and a ferro-concrete beam reinforced by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)
strips. The simulations were carried out with help of various modules of ANSYS software. Those are
ANSYS multiphysics, ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS-LS Dyna.

Introduction
In this paper, the three above-mentioned simulations will be presented separately in order to make the
presentation easy to follow because each of them treats one specific science-technological problem. So the
presentation will begin with the case of a deep forming process of a double sink, then with the case of a
stadium roof under the wind effect. Finally the case of a ferro-concrete beam reinforced by the CFRP strips
will be treated.

Deep forming process of a double sink

Introduction
The manufacturing process of a double sink is composed of some technological steps, among them the
Deep Forming Step. The latest is, in the technological aspect, probably the most difficult step. Therefore
this step was chosen to be simulated with help of ANSYS software. The objective of this simulation is to
evaluate the influence of different technological factors and of blank’s material properties on the quality of
formed product. The obtained results should recommend the right choice of different manufacturing factors
to the designer/engineer, so permitting to achieve the required deepness of the sink without any damage in
the product.
Figure 1. Double sink and the working principle of deep forming process

Geometric modeling and Meshing


Due to the symmetrical shape of the product, only one haft of the model is simulated. The working
principle of this deep forming process was described in details in [1]. The geometric modeling of the
forming process is composed of four main pieces: blank, tool, blank-holder and mould (figure 2). The
element SHELL 163 from the ANSYS Element Library was chosen for all 4 above pieces.

mould blank-holder

blank

tool

Figure 2. Geometric modeling and the mesh

The mapped meshing was created for the blank while the free meshing was implemented for the three other
pieces.
Three contact pairs are considered: tool/blank, blank-holder/blank and mould/blank. The Surface to Surface
contact is selected. Only the blank is considered as deformable while the three other pieces are considered
as rigid (non-deformable).
Initial configuration: The material of blank is the isotropic steel 1018 with bilinear kinematic hardening
behavior, and the failure strain εf = 0.75. The constant velocity load was applied until the product reaches
the required deepness (145mm) that means also that the forming process is single-stroke (continuous), and
the friction coefficient at contact surfaces was assumed to be 0.1.
With the above-defined configuration, the simulation was carried out with 4 different velocity of the tool:
1.45 m/s , 0.725 m/s , 0.322 m/s and 0.2 m/s. (corresponding to the active deep forming time: 0.1 s , 0.2 s ,
0.45 s and 0.725 s).
Then the simulation of a double-stroke deep forming process with a constant velocity: v = 0.322 m/s was
implemented.
In the next simulation, the friction coefficient at contact surfaces was chosen as 0.03 for single-stroke deep
forming with tool velocity v = 1.45 m/s.
The last simulation was carried out for the transversely anisotropic hardening steel 1010, with the friction
coefficient of 0.1, and by single-stroke forming with tool velocity: v = 0.322 m/s.

Result and Discussion


In figures 3-5 some results of simulation are represented. Some remarks can be deduced as follows:
- In general, the distribution of stress and of strain consists with the theory.
- Lower the velocity of forming tool, smaller the maximal Von-Mises equivalent stress occurred in the
product and bigger the achievable depth of the product (without damage).
- The implemented double-stroke manufacturing process does not improve, with regard to the single-stroke
one, on the maximally achievable depth of the product.
- The numerical experimentation on the friction coefficient at contact surfaces shows big influence of this
factor. In fact with the same other conditions, with the reduction of the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 0.03,
the achievable deep increases from 79.4 mm to 100 mm.
- The mechanical behavior of the blank’s material, especially in the plastic flow, is very important factor.
The simulation shows that the steel 1018 is not fitting for the product, and the steel 1010 should be a good
candidate for this forming process.

a) v = 1.45 m/s ; dmax = 79.8 cm b) v = 0.2 m/s ; dmax = 119 mm

Figure 3. The effect of forming tool’s velocity on the achievable deepness


Steel 1018, single-stroke, friction coefficient = 0.1
The Von-Mises equivalent plastic strain at the maximally achievable drawing depth
a) Double-stroke: tool displacement / time b) dmax = 109 mm

Figure 4. The effect of a double-stroke forming process on the achievable depth


Steel 1018, friction coefficient = 0.1, v = 0.322 m/s
The Von-Mises equivalent plastic strain at the maximally achievable drawing depth

a) Steel 1018, dmax = 114 mm b) Steel 1010, dmax = 145 mm

Figure 5. The effect of material properties of the blank on the achievable depth
Single stroke, friction coefficient = 0.1, v = 0.322 m/s
The Von-Mises equivalent plastic strain at the maximally achievable drawing depth

Stadium roof under the wind effect

Introduction
Simulation of wind effect to structures plays an important role in different branches of the
industry: construction, automobile, aeronautics… The result of simulation should be used as load for
structure calculus/analysis or recommendation for aerodynamics purpose. In the here-considered case, we
have focused on the effect of the wind to a civil work’s structure. In ordinary practices, this wind effect
used to be provided from some National or Regional Design Standards for civil works. For more important
civil works, the physic model of the civil work (not 100 times smaller in dimension than its real structure in
order to achieve the required precision of simulation) must be created. This reduced model is then put in a
wind tunnel for experimentation; with the measured values provided by the wind tunnel’s measuring
equipment, the estimation of the wind effect on the real structure should be obtained. The later solution is
always time-consuming and very expensive; the cost of this physical modeling experimentation increases
quickly with the dimension and the complexity degree of the real structure and will become not-feasible at
all in some cases. With the rapid development of simulating CAE software recently, this problem should be
solved more and more efficiently nowadays. The example in this section will illustrate the powerfulness of
the ANSYS/CFX software in the simulating of the wind effect on a stadium roof.

Geometric modeling and Meshing


The wind flow around the stadium roof will be simulated. The velocity of the flow is assumed constant and
the direction of the wind flow is assumed to be parallel with the symmetrical axis of the structure with the
sense specified in figure 6. With those assumptions, both the geometric modeling and the wind flow are
symmetric with regard to the vertical plan of the structure. So only one haft of the structure needs to be
simulated. (The detailed description of this simulation is explained in [2]).

Figure 6. The wind flow around the stadium roof


Figure 7. The mesh

The geometric model is represented in figure 6 and the finite element model (meshing) is represented in
figure 7. The mesh is composed of 92.088 elements and of 16.435 nodes.
The air in the zone of simulation is considered as turbulent and isothermal. The thermal transfer process is
simulated with the isothermal model.
The speed of wind at the inlet is assumed: v = 50 m/s. The relative pressure at the outlet is assumed to be
vanished (= 0). The condition “no shear” (speed = 0) is imposed at the symmetrical vertical plan and at the
“walls”: the roofs, the stands and the ground between the two stands. The “free shear” condition is imposed
at the free surface.

Result and Discussion


The main primary outputs of such analysis are the velocity distribution and the pressure distribution which
serve to deduce other values useful for making-decision in shape and in material choice for the roof to be
constructed.
Figure 8 and figure 9 represent the velocity distribution: in the vector mode (figure 8), and in the contour
mode (figure 9).

Figure 8. Velocity vector at the Figure 9. Velocity distribution at the


symmetrical plan symmetrical plan

The pressure distribution at the symmetrical plan is plotted in figure 10, and the pressure distribution at the
stadium roof is represented in figure 11.
Figure 10. Pressure distribution at the Figure 11. Pressure distribution at the
symmetrical plan stadium roof

For better visualization of the wind flow applied on the structure, the streamline representation was used.
The velocity streamline is plotted in figure 12, and the pressure streamline is plotted in e pressure
distribution at the symmetrical plan is plotted in figure 13.

Figure 12. Velocity streamline Figure 13. Pressure streamline

In order to estimate quantitatively the effect of the wind on the structure calculus of the roof, the pressure
due to the wind flow was transferred to surface pressure and applied directly on the roof. The displacement
contour is represented in the figure 14.
Figure 14. The displacement contour of the stadium roof under the pressure of wind

Ferro-concrete beam reinforced by a CRFP strip

Introduction
The CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) strip, composed of carbon fibers and epoxy resin matrix, is
one commercial product of the Sika AG (Switzerland). This advanced material aims, among other
objectives, to replace the heavy steel plate in strengthening of existing ferro-concrete works. The main
advantages of this new method are the following:
∗ High tensile strength, capacity to reduce the propagation of cracks, light weight, availability in
any length.
* Water-resistant, also highly resistant to pollutant and other aggressive media in the environment of
the civil works, non-pollutant: conforming to the environmental regulations.
* Easy implementation, small amount of time and labor required, possibility to be used in the works
where the classical methods and materials are not applicable, for example in restoration/preservation of
ancient traditional constructions, or in the works having complex pipe systems...
In this section, one ferro-concrete beam reinforced by the CFRP strips (will be called later as “hybrid
structure”) will be simulated with ANSYS software in order to evaluate the contribution of those CFRP
strips to the resistance of the structure.

Geometric modeling and Meshing


One ferro-concrete beam reinforced by this CFRP strip under load should be damaged before or after
peeling of CFRP strips from the ferro-concrete beam. The fact that one mode or another mode of damage
occurs depends mainly on the shear resistance of the glue (sticking the CFRP strip to the ferro-concrete
beam) with regard to the resistance of the hybrid structure to a specific load.
At the first stage, we take the assumption that the bonding between CFRP strips and the ferro-concrete
beam is perfect (no peeling). So the hybrid structure can be treated as a simple beam.
Figure 15. Geometric modeling Figure 16. The mesh
The SOLID65 element is chosen for the concrete, the LINK10 element is chosen for the steel bars in the
ferro-concrete, and the SHELL99 element is chosen for the CFRP strip.
The material properties of components are assumed as:
Steel: isotropic bilinear kinematic hardening with ρ = 7800 kg/m3; E = 200 GPa ; ν = 0.3
Concrete: ρ = 2,500 kg/m3 ; E = 25.787 GPa ; ν = 0.2 ; strength : σTS :1.572 MPa ; σcomp : 20 MPa
CFRP: Transversal isotropic with homogenized values [3] : Ex = 60 GPa ; Ey = Ez = 4.826 GPa ; νxy = νxz
= 0.216 ; νyz = 0.3 ; Gxy = Gxz = 3.266 GPa ; Gyz = 1.862 GPa ; ρ = 1,800 kg/m3 .
The beam is posed in two simple supports (100 mm from its ends). Two concentrated loads of 1,6 KN each
are applied on the beam at the distance of 1,900 mm from its ends.

Figure 17. Load and support

Result and Discussion


Figure 18. Displacement contour

The displacement contour is plotted in figure 18. Due to the assumption of perfect bonding between the
ferro-concrete beam and the CFRP strip, the hybrid-beam is not peeled at this interface.

a) In the whole structure b) In the CFRP strip

Figure 19. Von-Mises equivalent stress contour


The tress contour is plotted in figure 19: in the whole structure (part a) and in the CFRP (part b).
We can see that with increased load up to certain value, the ferro-concrete will be damaged before the
CFRP. This should then result in the peeling of CFRP from the ferro-concrete beam. So in the next
simulation, we need to simulate the hybrid-structure with considering this peeling effect by including the
shear resistance of the sticking glue. This next step is under investigation.

Conclusion
In this paper, the three simulations for three different cases were represented. The usefulness and
powerfulness of CAE software, namely the ANSYS software is proven.
Acknowledgement
This research is accomplished under the sponsorship of the VLIR-HUT Institutional University
Cooperation Program.

References
[1] Nguyen Viet Hung, Hoang Vinh Sinh, Thai The Hung, Luu Chi Hieu, “Numerical simulation of deep
drawing process for a double sink by using Ansys/LS-Dyna software”, Proceedings of the AUN/SEED-
Net 6th Field-wise Seminar on Manufacturing Engineering, Thailand, 10/2005.
[2] Bui Tran Trung, Nguyen Viet Hung, Bui Hai Le, “Simulation of wind effect to the structures”, Journal
of Science & Technology, vol. 55, in printing, Hanoi, 2006.
[3] Kachlakev, D.I. “Finite Element Analysis of a Historic Bridge Strengthened with FRP Laminates”,
paper 003, Third International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure, San Francisco, California,
June 10-12, 2002.