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INTRODUCTION

Most of the materials that we use or see in everyday life are mixtures. They are

produced when substances are combined without a chemical reaction taking place.

Common mixtures include everything from fertilizers and soap to salad dressing. An

example of a mixture is a solution (Alberta, 2007).

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures made up of one or more solutes dissolved

in a solvent. The solvent is the component present in the greatest amount. Solutions are

unsaturated when more solute will dissolve. Saturated solutions contain as much

dissolved solute as is possible at that temperature. Supersaturated solutions have more

solute dissolved than should be possible and are quite unstable. These conferred about

the solubility of the solute in a solvent (Agrawal, 2010).

Furthermore, solubility was defined by French chemist Henry Louis Le Chatelier

as the upper limit of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at

equilibrium. In other words, it is the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve

in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature. According to Le Chatelier’s

principle there are several factors that affect solubility (Tran, 2016).

Due to these, the researcher decided to conduct a study analyzing the solubility

of different substances. The study aims to know the factors that affect solubility.

Specifically, the researcher utilized two types of solvent and three types of solute to

examine the study’s purpose. The study aims to answer the following problems: (1)

Does the size of the solute affects the rate solubility of it (2) Does the interference in the

form of stirring affects the rate of solubility of the substance (3) and does the type of

solvent affects the rate of solubility of the solutes. The researcher hypothesized that: (1)

the greater the surface area of the solute, the faster the solubility rate of it; (2) the higher
the number of stirs done, the faster the solubility rate of the substance and; (3) the

solvent who has the higher pressure can dissolves solute faster affecting its rate of

solubility. This study was conducted at Calamba City Senior High School on December

2017.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

In order to test the solubility rate of the solute with different surface area, three

plastic cups were prepared and filled with same amount of water which acted as the

solvent. The cups were deposited with different kinds of solute: iodized salt, rock salt,

and chocolate candy (e.g. M&M’s). On the other hand, three paper cups were set up and

filled with equal amount of canned soft drinks which acted as another solvent. Same

types of solute were rendered into the paper cups. Subsequently, another two set-ups

were arranged and interfered with agitation in the form of stirring. The researcher

observed and recorded the time when the solutes were already dissolved in the solvent.

The solubility rate of the solute was measured using the formula of a cylinder, V = πr2h,

while the rate of respiration was obtained using the formula:

final volume
final rate =
time

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.1 The Rate of Respiration of Yeast in Varying Concentration of Copper Sulfate

Height (cm) and Volume (cm³) of Evolved Carbon Dioxide


Duration Set-up 1 Set-up 2 Set-up 3 Set-up 4 Set-up 5
(minute)
h v h v h v h v h v
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 0.2 0.039 0.2 0.039 0.3 0.058 0.6 0.117 1.1 0.215
15 0.3 0.058 0.3 0.058 0.4 0.078 0.8 0.157 1.2 0.235
20 0.4 0.078 0.5 0.098 0.5 0.098 1.4 0.274 1.8 0.353
25 0.5 0.098 0.7 0.137 1.2 0.235 1.5 0.294 2.1 0.412
30 1 0.196 1.3 0.255 1.5 0.294 2 0.392 2.5 0.491
Rate
0.0065416 0.0085041 0.0098125 0.0130833 0.0163541
(cm3/min)

After tabulating and computing the results, it showed that set-up 5 containing

0.8 M CuSO4 yielded the most amount of CO2 measuring of 0.491 cm3. This was

followed by 0.392, 0.294, 0.255, and 0.196 cm3 for the four remaining set-ups,

respectively. Furthermore, computing the final rate of respiration in each tube showed

that the set-up with fastest rate of respiration is also set-up 5 with a rate of 0.0163541

cm3/min, followed by test tubes four, three, two, and one with a rate of 0.0130833,

0.0098125, 0.0085041, and 0.0065416 (cm3/min), respectively. These indicated that the

higher the concentration of the cofactor, CuSO4, the greater the amount of CO2 is

released and the faster the rate of yeast’s respiration.

In this study, the role of glucose was determined as a main reactant in the

yeast’s respiration. Respiration releases energy from breaking down sugars and stores it

in the form of adenosine triphosphate (Estioko, et al., 2012). Moreover, in one molecule

of glucose, two molecules of pyruvate, a three carbon atom, was break down. In aerobic

respiration, pyruvate loses carbon dioxide that left only two carbon atoms. These will be

formed in a link with a cofactor to obtain acetyl-CoA that will enter the citric acid cycle.

From there on, the yeast will respire releasing carbon dioxide as a waste product.

On the other hand, glucose molecules were able to consume by yeast from its

side to side contained enzymes such as invertase. This is through the help of cofactor.

In this study, copper sulfate was utilized as the cofactor. Cofactors are enzyme partners

that increase the rate of reaction for the enzyme to function. These include metal ions

such as iron, zinc and magnesium.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The study was conducted to determine the rate of respiration of yeast

(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The researcher hypothesized that there is a relation of

varying the concentration of copper sulfate in the rate of yeast’s respiration and the role

of adding glucose to the solution is to be the main reactant of the respiration.

The study used a five set-up experiment, wherein the first test tube was filled with

with four mL distilled water, four mL 10% glucose, and four mL yeast solution as the

controlled set-up. On the other hand the remaining four set-ups were filled with CuSO4

with different concentrations: 0.2 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, and 0.8 M, consecutively. During the

30-minutes observation time, the evolved carbon dioxide inside the Durham tubes were

measured for every five minutes followed by the computation of the rate of respiration.

The 5th set-up containing 0.8 M CuSO4 evolved the most amount of CO2

acquiring 0.491 cm3 followed by the 4th ,3rd , and 2nd while the controlled set-up only

amounted a 0.196 cm3 of CO2. Likewise, the 5th set-up showed the fastest rate of

respiration (0.0163541 cm3/min) tailed by set-up 4, 3, 2, and 1. The researcher

concluded that glucose acts as the main reactant of the respiration. It is also concluded

that the relation of adding copper sulfate in the solution is to boost the enzymes’

catalysis of the reaction. Increasing the concentration of CuSO4 will increase the enzyme

activity and evolution of CO2, thus increasing the rate of the yeast’ respiration.

LITERATURE CITED

Campbell, N.A. and Reece, J.B. (2008). Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical
Energy. Biology, 8th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Carrol, W.R. (1989). The Nature of The Stimulation of Yeast Respiration by Chloroform
Preserved Cytochrome-C Extracts. New Jersey, US: J. Biol Chemistry.
Estioko, O. (2012). Effect of the Nature of Substrate on the Rate of Respiration on
Yeast. Laguna, PHL: General Biology, UPLB.

Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., and Cain, M.L. (2011). Campbell Biology. 9th ed. San Francisco,
CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Zetic, V.G. (2004). Zinc, Copper and Manganese Enrichment in Yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae). Zagreb, HRV: Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology,
University of Zagreb.