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Data collection, GIS & remote sensing
An initiative funded by the
Technologies for Conservation and Development, www.t4cd.org, email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Use of this Module
The purpose of this module is to offer a basic insight into the meaning, aspects and functions of GIS. The module is broken down into chapters that will be presented as separate sessions.
When you have completed this unit, you should be able to:
Understanding the functions of GIS Defining and understanding the debates around GIS Understanding the concepts of Scale in maps, Projection and co-ordinates. Understanding Data Models in GIS Understanding Data Inputting and analysis in GIS Knowing examples of GIS applications in the Southern Africa region and abroad. Understand Remote Sensing and its value Understanding characteristics of images in GIS Understanding Satellite orbits and Swaths. Understanding weather satellites and The reception and transmission of data.
A t4cd Training Manual
Technologies for Conservation and Development, www.t4cd.org, email:email@example.com
Table of Contents
Data collection, GIS & remote sensing............................................................................................i ..........................................................................................................................................................i Use of this Module...........................................................................................................................ii Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................1 Table of Figures...............................................................................................................................2 Definition of Study Area.................................................................................................................3 Session 1: Understanding Functions of GIS....................................................................................5 Session 2: Defining and Understanding the Debates Around GIS..................................................7 Session 3: Understanding Concepts of Scale, Projection and Co- Ordinates in GIS......................9 Session 4: Understanding Data Models in GIS..............................................................................14 Session 5: Understanding Data Inputting in GIS...........................................................................20 Session 6: Knowing Examples of Applications of GIS in Conservation.......................................26 Session 7: Understanding Remote Sensing in GIS........................................................................27 Session 8: Understanding Characteristics of Images.....................................................................38 Session 9: Understanding Satellite Characteristics-Orbits and Swaths.........................................41 Session 10: Understanding Weather Satellites..............................................................................54 Session 11: Understanding Reception, Transmission and Processing of Data..............................57 14.0 Practical Exercises.................................................................................................................59 15.0 Exercises 1 (Adding and Viewing data)................................................................................60 16.0 Exercises 2 (Viewing and Editing data tables)......................................................................61 References......................................................................................................................................62
A t4cd Training Manual
.........39 Figure 23: Satellite orbits (CCRS/CRT..................................................................................................... 2007)......................16 Figure 6: Map section showing pixels of raster........................................12 Figure 3: Representation of a projection...........38 Figure 22: Platforms (CCRS/CRT.52 Figure 32: Hemispheric images (CCRS/CRT.................................... 2007)............ 2007)...... 1986)......... 2007).....................................t4cd................................41 Figure 24: Spatial Resolution.............................................................31 Figure 11: Rayleigh scattering (CCRS/CRT.......................................................... (Burrough............................................... Transmission......... email:t4cd@resourceafrica............. 2007)................................................57 A t4cd Training Manual 2 ..........................................51 Figure 31: Geometric distortion (CCRS/CRT............ 1986)............................................................ 2007)..............32 Figure 14: Absorption (CCRS/CRT.46 Figure 28: Cameras and Aerial Photography (CCRS/CRT.........35 Figure 19: Passive Sensors (CCRS/CRT........ 2007).......50 Figure 30: Along-track scanners (CCRS/CRT. and Processing (CCRS/CRT...................................... and Scale (CCRS/CRT............................14 Figure 5: Example of a raster file (Burrough............................ 2007)........................... computer cartography............................8 Figure 2: Conformal Projection.......................................... 2007). 2007)........ 2007).........................................................................org Table of Figures Figure 1: The relationship between GIS................................... 2007)................................................................................ 2007).................................... 2007....36 Figure 21: Characteristics of images (CCRS/CRT...................................................................43 Figure 25: Spectral Resolution (CCRS/CRT............................35 Figure 18: Spectral Curve sowing Interactions with vegetation and water (CCRS/CRT......................................................................34 Figure 17: Interactions with vegetation (CCRS..............................45 Figure 26: Radiometric Resolution (CCRS/CRT..................... 2007)........ 2007)............................ 2007) ....................29 Figure 10: Scattering (CCRS/CRT.............................................................org..................27 Figure 8: Three wave (CCRS/CRT.12 Figure 4: Example of a vector file (Burrough...............32 Figure 15: Target Interactions (ccrs..........29 Figure 9: The Electromagnetic Spectrum (CCRS/CRT......................... www.............................. 2007)............................................................................................................. 2007)................................ Pixel Size..............34 Figure 16: Interactions with vegetation (CCRS..............................Technologies for Conservation and Development....... 2007)................................................................................................. computer-aid design..... 2007).................................................................................. 2007).........31 Figure 12: Mie scattering (CCRS/CRT............................. 2007).......................................46 Figure 27: Temporal Resolution (CCRS/CRT..36 Figure 20: Active Sensors (CCRS/CRT...............................................17 Figure 7: The remote sensing process (CCRS/CRT.............................. 1986)............................................. 2007).54 Figure 34: Reception....32 Figure 13: Nonselective scattering (CCRS/CRT....47 Figure 29: Across-track scanning...................................... 2007)....................... 2007)..................................... database management and remote sensing information systems.......... 2007)................. 2007)...........54 Figure 33: Landsat (CCRS/CRT....................................... (CCRS/CRT...
integrating. email:firstname.lastname@example.org What Is GIS Remote Sensing and how can they help you? A geographic information system (GIS) is a software tool for mapping and analyzing just about any object.from forestland to urban landscape. data storage. 2. still strong at local level (e. This constitutes two data elements that are Geographical data (locational) and Attribute data (statistical) (ccrs. analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the earth.org Definition of Study Area 2. 2. you can think of on earth . Commercial Phase: Started in 1982 and was characterized by Strong competition between vendors 4. GIS technology integrates powerful database capabilities with the unique visual perspective of a map.1975 in USA and UK and showed Strength of individuals.4 The Concept of Remote Sensing A t4cd Training Manual 3 . 2007). data analysis and data reporting subsystems. 2. A system for capturing. cost reduction. 2. Pioneer/Research Period: 1950’s . This includes data input. head of mapping agencies) 3.Technologies for Conservation and Development. Its analyses can be used in a wide range of public and private enterprises.t4cd. and better-informed decision-making (ESRI.g. checking. helping in planning. manipulating. storing.org. oilrigs to restaurants. GIS thus can be best defined as: 1. From the above discussion. www. hardware and as an information processor. with limited international links. User Dominance and Control: “End to the beginning of GIS” 2. normally paralleling computer technological development.1 History and Development of GIS GIS is relatively a science and has developed through a number of well-defined steps. Diversity in the field of GIS makes it difficult to define and most of the debate centres on GIS as software. This makes GIS unique among information systems. Land and Resource Information Systems (LRIS). 1. It is this geographical data that differentiates GIS from other information systems such as Land Information Systems (LIS). Environmental Information Systems (ERIS) and Cadastral Information Systems (CAIS). Formal Experimental Research: 1973 – Early 1980’s Role on individual diminished at international level. earthquake faults to tennis courts. Urban Information Systems (URIS). little data and Ambition was greater than technological capability. 2007).3 Definition of GIS GIS (Geographical Information Systems) are systems which deal with geographical information represented as a series of geographical features.
NGOs and private companies all make use of or could make use of Remote sensing. one hears disturbances in the atmosphere carried as sound waves. colours. familiar activity that we all do in our daily life but that gets complicated when we increase the scale. and is cognizant of certain material properties such as roughness through touch. which records the data and interprets this into information. In addition. either emitted or reflected. radio frequency receivers. in practice we do not usually think of our bodily senses as remote sensors in the way we us the term technically. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. object. radiometers and scanners. and other instruments. or material by a recording device not in physical. parastatals. seismographs. A formal and comprehensive definition of applied remote sensing. thermal devices. lasers. and relative positions of exterior objects and classes of materials by means of seeing visible light issuing from them. The radiated light passes over a distance. In the previous sentence. one recognizes shapes. or acoustic energy employing cameras. sonar. electromagnetic radiation. as it is customarily formulated to include determination of geophysical parameters. Each eye sends a signal to a processor (your brain). and thus is "remote" to some extent. until it encounters and is captured by a sensor (your eyes). gravimeters.t4cd. reacts to chemical signals from food through taste and smell. As you view the screen of your computer monitor. A t4cd Training Manual 4 . from objects that transmit this information in waves or pulses. Techniques involve amassing knowledge pertinent to environments by measuring force fields.org. scintillometers. Thus.org If you have heard the term "remote sensing" before you may have asked. all sensations that are not received through direct contact are remotely sensed. National. is: The acquisition and measurement of data/information on some property (ies) of a phenomenon. A physical quantity (light) emanates from that screen. which is a source of radiation. However. Provincial and local Government. you are actively engaged in remote sensing. "what does it mean?" It' is a rather simple. magnetometers.Technologies for Conservation and Development. intimate contact with the feature(s) under surveillance. www. radar systems. Several of the human senses gather their awareness of the external world almost entirely by perceiving a variety of signals. experiences sensations such as heat (either through direct contact or as radiant energy). actively or passively.
it turns out that the way you see your data has a profound effect on the connections you make and the conclusions you draw from it. multiple scenarios can be evaluated efficiently and effectively. By creating a shared database. A GIS can link data sets together by common location data. This is important because often we say. which helps departments and agencies share their data.1 Why Use GIS? 3. GIS can be used to help reach a decision about the location of a new housing development that has minimal environmental impact. is located in a low risk area. allowing decision makers to focus on the real issues rather than trying to understand the data.Technologies for Conservation and Development. one department can benefit from the work of another. and is close to a population center.2 Make Better Decisions The old adage "better information leads to better decisions" is true for GIS.1 Improve Organizational Integration One of the main benefits of GIS is improved management of an organization and resources." We most often associate maps with physical geography. Map products can then be created centered on any location. GIS can map any data you wish. even the human body. and showing selected information symbolized effectively to highlight specific characteristics. Existing paper maps can be digitized and translated into the GIS as well. There is a vast difference between seeing data in a table of rows and columns and seeing it presented in the form of a map. The GIS based cartographic database can be both continuous and scale free. and map data in support of the decision making process. Because GIS products can be produced quickly. www. Making maps with GIS is much more flexible than traditional manual or automated cartography approaches. but GIS is flexible enough to map any kind of terrain. A GIS is not just an automated decision making system but a tool to query. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. GIS gives you the layout and drawing tools that help present facts with clear.1.2 Make Maps For simplicity's sake. analyze. "I understand.1. For example. 3. we often call GIS "mapping software." Pattern recognition is something human beings excel at. 3. compelling documents.1.t4cd. it is conceptual. at any scale. data can be collected once and used many times (ESRI.org Session 1: Understanding Functions of GIS 3. The difference is not simply aesthetic. such as addresses. A t4cd Training Manual 5 . 2007). The information can be presented succinctly and clearly in the form of a map and accompanying report. as long as you have the data. A map can be created anytime to any scale for anyone. "I see" to mean. A GIS creates maps from data pulled from databases.org.
email:t4cd@resourceafrica. A t4cd Training Manual 6 . www. Through a function known as visualization. but drawings. An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs and continual improvements in the hardware and software components of GIS. animations.1. result in a much wider application of the technology throughout government. and industry.org. GIS and related technology will help greatly in the management and analysis of these large volumes of data. business. a GIS can be used to produce images . allowing for better understanding of terrestrial processes and better management of human activities to maintain world economic vitality and environmental quality. The images often are equally helpful in conveying the technical concepts of GIS study subjects to non-scientists. in turn.3 The Future of GIS Many disciplines can benefit from GIS techniques.not just maps.org 3. These images allow researchers to view their subjects in new and different ways than before. and other cartographic products.Technologies for Conservation and Development. These developments will.t4cd.
mathematics. It is also difficult to define a GIS. many of which are existing systems that are re-packaged and re-labeled thus leading to market exploitation. This has lead to GIS being seen by many as a special case of information systems. A t4cd Training Manual 7 . The value of this information depends on many factors such as time scale. cost of collection. there has been a rise in the number of GIS consultants. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. economics. others argue that information processing or applications are the key elements. leading to a period of intense activity in the last 10 years or so. which is a symbolic representation of features. hydrology. The interpretation of data leads to valuable information. computing. surveying. In conjunction to this. Although there has been some debate about the origin of the term and the date of initiation of work in the field. The GIS field is further characterized by a great diversity of application. Inevitably. it is difficult to distinguish between the competing claims of different organizations and individuals all of which wish to be represented in a vibrant and profitable sector. storage. context.Technologies for Conservation and Development. geology.t4cd. www. Some believe that the hardware and software are the central focus. GIS is an integrated system. many of whom offer conflicting advice.org Session 2: Defining and Understanding the Debates Around GIS 4.1 Differing Definitions for Geographical Information Systems (GIS) There are a number of reasons that makes it difficult to define a GIS. botany. analysis or manipulation and availability. environmental sciences and geography. it is clear the GIS are relatively recent phenomena. which brings together ideas developed in many areas including fields of agriculture. The recent commercial orientation of much GIS activity has led to a great deal of rhetoric. The last 35 years has seen a rapid rate of development in the GIS field. The main reason for to this definitional difficulties come from academic debate about the central focus of current GIS activity. as there are many ways in defining and classifying objects and subjects. Not surprising there are many different methods that are applied to define a GIS. An increase of new computer systems intended for GIS.org.
org. • GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity. computer-aid design. database management and remote sensing information systems.t4cd.1.Technologies for Conservation and Development. 4. analysis and display of geographic knowledge. computer cartography. it offers a consistent framework for analyzing space. • GIS provides the mechanisms for undertaking the manipulation.org Computer Cartograph y Remote Sensing GIS Database Management Computer-aided Design Figure 1: The relationship between GIS. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. A t4cd Training Manual 8 . www.2 What distinguishes GIS from other information systems? • GIS integrates spatial and other kinds of information within one system.
It is used as a compromise to attain a standard for many different users due to time and cost? SCALE: Scale of a map represents the relationship between the size of the map and the size of the actual area that the map represents and can be represented in three ways:• A statement or word scale – 2cm to 1Km • A representative fraction – 1:50 000.t4cd. a town is represented as an individual symbol.1 Map Scale The scale of a map is the ratio between distances on the map and corresponding distances on the ground. one has to be careful of this scale. A small-scale map shows large areas. In general. The use of small scale and large scale is often confusing. terms.org Session 3: Understanding Concepts of Scale. particularly when that map data may be captured into a digital format for use in a GIS. They are thus an abstraction of reality and as such may contain some degree of generalization and distortion in their spatial properties (for example the representation of a road and rail line running parallel to each other). the overall shape of the Earth needs to be translated into a twodimensional flat surface in order for it to be represented as a map.org. for example 1:50 000 or 1: 1 000 000. A large-scale map shows small areas. www. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Projection and Co. In the age of digital information and copying. This links to generalization of features. In other words. Thematic and topographic maps generally represent features or some aspect of the real world.for example individual buildings. scale of the map controls not only how features are represented. If a map has a scale of 1:50 000. 5. Scale determines resolution of data.Ordinates in GIS. A modified spheroid known as a geoid (not a true spheroid as the Polar Regions are slightly flattened) is A t4cd Training Manual 9 . but also what features are displayed. thus it is important to have an understanding of how real world features are measured and initially recorded on a map. streets. then 1 cm on the map equals 50 000 cm or 0. • Line or linear scale – Straight line marking off units indicating the equivalent distance on the land and looks like a ruler on the map. for example simplification of reality. This uses the same unit for the map as for land. Key Scale Measurements in SA: 1:50 000 topographic sheets and 1:10 000 orthophoto maps 5. You can enlarge on the photocopier or scan something in and this scale is completely inadequate and inaccurate. Thus.5 km on the Earth's surface. for example 1 20 or 1:1 000 and it is possible to identify small features from the map .Technologies for Conservation and Development. At these scales.2 Map Referencing Systems Maps are frequently used as a method to determine location in space.
Map scaling and referencing in turn affect such things as the resolution and angle of projection.3. 0).makes surveyors paranoid! Map Projections 5. shape. www. 5. Based on measurement of displacement from a given location Two types: 5.t4cd. distance and direction .will A t4cd Training Manual 10 . Y co-ordinates all points are measured relative to origin (0. The graticules are more commonly referred to as latitude or parallels (east west) and longitude or meridians (north south). only in the horizontal Need to quote 'central meridian' used when applying LO system Rest of the World 2 degree distortion. SA stricter at 1 degree Problem with edge of maps. • Useful for plotting individual points on the ground and if mapping a small piece of the earth 5. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. then need to revert to the global systems Rounding off can lead to error .1 Plane: • Cartesian plane.3 Many map projections have been developed to represent the Earth in two-dimensions.org.2 • • • • • • • • Projection: Use of mathematical formula to take into account the Earth's shape Use of every odd meridian in the South African LO system as centerline of least distortion.3.3 • • • • • Properties of Resolution The smallest distinguishable difference between two measurable values The smallest distance over it is possible to record change Need to consider what is visible to the naked eye and the human operator and the smallest distance that particular hardware and software can accept Projection helps to identify location on earth. Transforming the surface of a globe into a two-dimensional sheet of paper or computer screen means that distortion of features . axes at 90 degrees to each other and uses Pythagoras to determine distance. There are some limitations of this approach :Uses a 2 degree block .Technologies for Conservation and Development. separating the north/south and east/west hemispheres. this is very easy to work with • Two axes X. Measurements using graticules (latitude/longitude) are read in degrees. if need an area greater than on the map.1 degree either side of the ‘central meridian’ No distortion in the vertical. Positions can be measured relative to the center of the geoid that is then divided into imaginary lines known as graticules. minutes and seconds (note: need to convert to decimal degrees for a GIS).org used to represent the Earth.size. Often these measurements are known as geographic coordinates.
These may be so-called national grid systems. Angles. namely: • Meridian. referred to as longitude. In South Africa we have the South African Co-ordinate System. These project from the center of the globe onto a cylinder. 5. Projections can be classified according to the distortions that they avoid. Equidistant projections – Preserve distances. Equal area projections .org occur. but cannot keep all correct within any one particular projection.Y direction always straight and always at 90 degrees to each other Conformal Projection uses maps that are based on one of a group of cylindrical projections (others are conical and planar). 5.6. • • • • When mapping Earth from 3D to 2D distortion occurs. In general. with co-ordinate values in units of 10 000 meters in blue representing distance from the equator and central meridian graticules.angles of the original features are preserved Over small areas the shapes are preserved. Conformal projections . The other co-ordinate systems are: 5.Technologies for Conservation and Development. These are useful in navigation. but distort at greater distances Lines are drawn in X. which surrounds and touches the globe around the equator. These are useful for applications which require measuring area and are used extensively in GIS applications. direction.connects North and South Pole and is vertical.org.Preserve the area of objects by assigning them an area on the map which is proportional to their area on the Earth. www. This makes it important for one to choose projection according to requirements ‘Geographic’ projection uses Lat/Long co-ordinates and is NOT c projection but a geo-referenced map. This makes it impossible to use ‘plan system’ for mapping large areas. shapes and distances all become distorted. Many countries adopt or use an arbitrary grid system. areas. 2.t4cd. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. referred to as latitude. • Parallel -line of constant latitude and is horizontal. A t4cd Training Manual 11 . 3.4 Global CO-ORDINATES There are two main types of co-ordinates.Preserve the shape of small objects and show direction (bearings) correctly.1 • • • Con-formal Projection 'Mercator System' . This is indicated in the margins of maps by short black ticks at 10 000 meter intervals. a projection can belong to only one of the following classes: 1.6 Co-Ordinate Systems Latitude and longitude is not the only map referencing systems in use.
t4cd.1.the earth is not a perfect sphere . a mathematician who turned the Mercator projection onto its side = Transverse Mercator projection.Technologies for Conservation and Development.it has slight flattening at the poles caused by its rotation and gravitation. for example Greenland looks bigger than South America • Gauss Central Meridian . To compensate for this.2 Equidistant Projection: • Deals with small areas only. all else h distorted A t4cd Training Manual 12 . distance are kept correct.6. usually at 1:500 000 scale • Area is retained. Thus. www. areas are grossly exaggerated.in South Africa to better reflect area and direction we use a system developed by Karl Gauss.org.org Cylinder The cylinder touches the globe around the equator Equator Figure 2: Conformal Projection • Conformal means showing any small area in its correct shape thus showing true direction and should therefore be used whenever the direction is important • The axis of Mercator's projection is the equator .but as you go towards the poles.1 Equal Area Projection: • 'Lambert Projection'. Figure 3: Representation of a projection • Clarke 1880 spheroid .6. a line of longitude becomes the central meridian as opposed to the equator as is the case with the standard Mercator projection.the area on either side of the equator will therefore reflect accurate direction and shape . email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Clarke. angles and shapes become distorted 5. an English geodesist computed the dimensions of the earth as a spheroid and our 1:50 000 series are based on these calculations.1. 5.
email:email@example.com. Central Meridian 31° (this can vary) East.Technologies for Conservation and Development. www. 000 topographic sheet in South Africa is printed the following: Gauss Conform Projection. Clarke 1880 Spheroid.6. A t4cd Training Manual 13 .org.3 The Gauss Conformal Projection (Transverse Mercator) At the bottom of each 1:50.org 5.
A Line: On a map lines generally consist of two or more points joined together by a straight line.1. c and d and filling the polygon with the colour blue. These are the basic geographical entities or objects and are frequently used in GIS terminology. In fig 4. 1986) A Point: This is the simplest representation of a spatial object but the choice of entities that will be represented as points depends on the scale of the map or study. colors and variable size may depict these entities. Figure 4: Example of a vector file (Burrough. these features may have attributes or descriptors linked to them. so a convoluted line would require many points to represent it accurately.org Session 4: Understanding Data Models in GIS 6. The closeness of the points dictates the quality of the linear representation. however. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. b. In a vector file.org. In terms of storage in a GIS. depending on the scale of the map under construction.1.1 Spatial Data Spatial data is a fundamental component of any GIS. Lines have no width. which make up all the features on a map. but never on the line itself. There are a number of different data models available that allow for the storage of spatial data within a GIS. often represented as a pair of numbers (such as latitude and longitude). 6. lines and polygons which is stored in terms of their co-ordinates. One of the key attributes of a point is its geodetic location.Technologies for Conservation and Development. every object has a location. This is very useful for GIS analyses because it is possible to get information such as how far apart two objects might be or whether two areas overlap. The type of entity used in the GIS varies. On a map symbols. a specific location must be on one side of the line or the other. A t4cd Training Manual 14 .1 Forms of Spatial Data There are four types of spatial object.2 Vector files Vectors refer to the storage of information about points. www. a vector file would describe a blue square by locating the corners a.t4cd. and thus. 6.
1. This model can precisely replicate map information. Data structures for the vector model include unlinked or spaghetti and topological structuring. entities or objects are represented as points. It may be made up of a single closed loop or a number of lines whose start and end points join. it is dependent upon the pixel: A t4cd Training Manual 15 . Simple polygons are undivided areas. The data models used in GIS are the building blocks for the representation and organization of spatial data within the information system.t4cd.org Nodes . www. There are two basic data models: vector and raster. In general. In terms of a raster grid. Examples include terrain relief. The raster data model divides the entire area into a regular grid of cells. Conceptually however. The data structure refers to the logical arrangement of the data within the computer system. The most important component of a layer is its resolution. The raster model represents geographical entities by dividing the area of interest into a number of equal grid cells.are special kinds of points. Area or Polygon: This type of spatial information is composed of connecting lines that form a closed area. Vector objects do not necessarily fill space and not all locations in space need to be reverenced in the model. and environmental parameters such as temperature. Each cell has a single value. Surface data may be held as point data where a third value represents the height. which could relate to a category of information within a theme. 6. in the case of spatial data. Surfaces: Surfaces are a more complex description of a geographical entity and are used to represent continuous data. Data structures for the raster model include chain coding. using both the raster and vector data models. The vector model. These are formed by connecting line segments. For each of these data models there are also a number of data structures that represent the precise way in which the data model is implemented within the GIS. usually indicating the junction between lines or the ends of line segments. polygons and surfaces. the raster model is the simpler data model. These models represent an abstraction of the real world and.3 Raster Data Geographical space is divided into equal sized cells. uses discrete segments or points to identify locations and discrete objects. The resolution of a map or image is the smallest feature that can be represented or is visible. or isolines (contours) which are lines of equal value. while complex polygons are divided into areas of different characteristics. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Surface data can be stored in a variety of different ways. lines. each cell contains a single value and every location in the study area corresponds to a cell in the raster. It is easy to confuse these two terms data model and data structure. rainfall and pollution concentrations. run-length encoding and quadtree coding. conversely. this makes the vector model a more efficient way of storing spatial data.Technologies for Conservation and Development. The vector model is based on points joined together to form lines and lines joined together to form polygons.org.
therefore. Raster images do not contain map objects. High resolution refers to rasters with a small cell dimension and means lots of detail and. lots of cells.t4cd. remember that you will only be able to select and work with map objects in a vector image. if you look carefully.org picture element size. a raster file would describe the blue square by listing which pixels were coloured blue (rows 2 to 4 and columns b to d).jpg file). Fig 6 shows a small section of a raster image. Rasters with low resolution contain large cell dimensions. the entire study area is divided up into a regular grid. you can see how it is composed of black. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Raster files are very useful in GIS for mapping how a continuous variable (such as altitude) varies over space. However.org. Each grid square or pixel is assigned a value the information is stored pixel by pixel. the image is stored in raster format. grey and white pixels. Features that are smaller than a grid cell may not be represented.2 Raster Data Structures 6. 1986) When you scan a paper map and create an image file (such as a *. A t4cd Training Manual 16 .2. MapInfo will use these control points to locate the image correctly. Figure 5: Example of a raster file (Burrough.1 Raster files In a raster file.. To do this you need to know the precise co-ordinates of at least four points on the image. just a grid of pixels each with its own attribute value(s). The converse is true for low resolution. 6. there are fewer cells and these cells cover a wider geographical area. In fig 5.gif or *. www. You can open vector and raster images at the same time. every location has a value. You can use the image in MapInfo by registering its exact spatial location.Technologies for Conservation and Development. In a raster file.
Once the raster has been divided into 4. Thus instead of repeating pixel values. neighboring pixels or cells are expected to have similar values. 1986) You can create a vector image from a raster image by tracing the outline of objects that you need using MapInfo's drawing tools. Run Length Coding: Geographical data tends to be spatially auto-correlated. By doing this. If all pixels do have the same value. You can draw on the cosmetic layer without affecting the image underneath. To achieve chain coding it is necessary to choose one object and a start point for the coding within the matrix. then this quarter is not sub-divided any further. length and value. Quadtree Encoding: The basis of the quadtree data structure is to recursively divides the raster into quarters. A t4cd Training Manual 17 . It is necessary to trace the shape of the object. for example: run. Where this is not the case.Technologies for Conservation and Development. recording the direction in which one is moving as well as the number of pixels traced until one changes direction. This recursive subdivision is complete once every 'quarter' is homogenous. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. This technique would not be of use for digital elevation model data or any type of data where neighboring pixels almost always have different values. then each of the non-homogenous quarters is divided into 4. MapInfo places a cosmetic layer over an open raster image. Due to this principle.t4cd. the amount of storage space required to hold the information is reduced. www. it is possible to code the raster as groups of values.org Figure 6: Map section showing pixels of raster. and thus recording the outer pixels. and that are not homogenous are subdivided again. meaning that objects that are close to each other tend to have similar attributes. (Burrough. Each of these quarters are examined. You can then save your drawing as a new vector image.org. each quarter is examined to determine whether all pixels have the same value. Chain Coding: This data structure involves the tracing of the shape of each object.
These can be established later (for example using the command "clean" in ARCINFO) and create topology. Connectivity . easy to analysis mathematically. Advantages: • No ambiguity. different data structures are used to determine the precise method by which information is stored in the G1S. The topological data structure relies on each line or arc that forms part of a boundary to an area or polygon having certain information . it is not possible to interrogate the data.Describes the linking of points or polygons to each other Adjacency . namely the digital elevation model (DEM-the term digital terrain model [DTM] is synonymous with DEM) and the triangulated irregular network model (TIN). e. topology is defined in terms of connectivity. discrete data. adjacency and contiguity or containment. A number of G1S software (for example ARCINFO) adopts unlinked data structures for their data capture processes. The latter of the two is recognized as one of the more complex data structures. It may be described as non-intelligent because no relationships or connections have been established.g. This information gives direction to the line and thus the area to the left and the area to the right can also be defined. Consequently. In terms of graphic presentation. Two such types are unlinked and topology within the vector data model. Each of these categories records a particular aspect of the data.the point or node at which it starts and the point or node at which it finishes.Technologies for Conservation and Development. 6.org.org 6. however.3 Data Models using the Third Dimension There are two data models in GIS using the third dimension. easy to write computer programmes to handle the data • Tremendous output of data available and covered. www. unlinked data is acceptable. Network analysis. Satellite imagery • Create good Digital Elevation Model (DEM)/ Digital Terrain Model (DTM).2 Vector Data Structures For each data model.t4cd. Both were designed to simulate real world A t4cd Training Manual 18 .Summarizes the sharing of a common boundary of two regions or Polygons Contiguity . This allows one to digitize data without defining any relationships. store grids with no data • Some types of analysis not suitable to raster data format e.Is a term that describes the touching of spatial entities (usually polygons). email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Unlinked: Vector data stored in an unlinked or spaghetti format can be described as a collection of lines and points with no real connection. the term unlinked or spaghetti data is also associated with raw digital data.2. The features are stored as strings of coordinates with no particular relationship to each other. Topology: In most G1S software.g. Disadvantages: • Location of feature within a single pixel is not accurate • Majority rules idea in an individual pixel • Large file size.
such as surface terrain. peaks. By contrast. Issue of 'map currency' and problems related to it. valleys. ‘Completeness’ = degree to which the data exhausts the universe of possibilities . These points are connected to edges to form a set of non-overlapping triangles that can be used to model the surface. time/cost implications. Distance between points = shape of the line. good detail. therefore determine resolution before data capture. y co-ordinate and a surface or z value. otherwise get poor results. Digital elevation data normally represents continuous surfaces. though discontinuous elevation data exists. 6. duplication. Digitizing/ tracing are a large source of error. slopes and stream channels.has everything been included? Affected by rules of selection (what is chosen) and generalization (simplification of classes). Every sample point has an x.Technologies for Conservation and Development. 2) Attribute Accuracy: Closeness of attribute data (stored characteristics) to their true value e. Physiological (twitching) and psychological (omission of lines. DEMS are typically used to represent terrain relief.t4cd. High resolution = small pixel size. 1:50 000 scale digitizing error of 5 meters = good. Course scale = large generalization 3) Lineage: What processing the data has undergone in the computer and the Need to keep track of the source (original) data = link to metadata 4) Digitizing: Lines defined by points/co-ordinates.org. A DEM is a digital representation of a continuous variable over a two dimensional surface.3. defined by a regular or array of z values. Elevation affected by level of precision. a TIN represents a surface derived from irregularly spaced sample points and so-called break line features (relate to smoothness and continuity).g. A t4cd Training Manual 19 .1 Data Quality and Inputs There are four ways to determine accuracy: 1) Positional Accuracy: How close does the location = true position in reality. positional accuracy due to fatigue/boredom). referenced to a common datum. Most surfaces can be represented in both models. Output resolution cannot be better than input resolution and 'Ecological fallacy'.org entities. for example. www. email:t4cd@resourceafrica.
this will effect the determination of land cover at a specific time. Lineage: Lineage records the "genealogical relationships" of data. In addition. information/data hoarding. relates to issue of copy-right. agricultural lands and production . digitizing (on-screen and/or digitizing tablet) and scanning • Live-ware issues include: training and education. vendors. commercial. 'information is power' complex by all and at all levels • Primary and secondary data sources • Data validation and ground “truthing” • Data standards 7. monthly or periodic basis.org Session 5: Understanding Data Inputting in GIS 7. Changes may be made on a daily. Internet • Data capture: keyboard entry. texts or surveys. financial. i. datasets may be collected at different times. what sources where employed.1 GIS Data Little is known about data that is not collected by the user. academic and research institutes. whilst information is data that has undergone some (evaluation and transformation to make it more valuable for a particular task. the relative quality of information elements and what type of quality control existed during the collection process are rarely noted. Maps are information because they are cartographic interpretations of survey data.1 Data Input • Two biggest headaches = data and live-ware • Bottleneck effect and time/cost implications relate to data access. application within an organization. the historical facts about the collected data as well as the processing steps that it has undergone until A t4cd Training Manual 20 . in addition. Furthermore. Currency: When data was collected can often be an important factor. Some data. Note: there is a distinction between data and information. how high up hierarchical structure is GIS.org. Very few data structures can accommodate any reference to information revision. unevaluated numbers. cleaning.e. for example. who owns the data and what can it be used for • Data sources include: government sources. email:t4cd@resourceafrica.Technologies for Conservation and Development. acceptability of 'new' discipline. one needs to consider data updates and/or revisions. can be particularly time sensitive. resistance to change. Data is raw.1.t4cd. As spatial data is so widely used some measure of data quality is required to safeguard / both the producer and the user of the geographic information. level of commitment to GIS and product. Information on how it was collected. www. formatting and inputting • Issue of custodianship of data.
whether the value is right or wrong. Furthermore. Accuracy: This relates to how "true" the data is to the real world. In the assessment of continuous attributes (such as surfaces). This also relates to textual data. for instance. point in time. There are a number of accuracy standards but conventionally. For example. Spatial data accuracy can be a direct result of both the collection and capture processes. A t4cd Training Manual 21 . Completeness: Completeness relates to the amount of information recorded within a dataset. For example. It measures the exactness with which a value is expressed. by reference to original or new survey data or more detailed cartographic sources. accuracy can be expressed as a measurement error. however.t4cd.Technologies for Conservation and Development. does not necessarily indicate that the measurement is accurate. which represent the cartographic elements. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. elevation accuracy may be recorded as "plus or minus 1 meter".org. This type of evaluation is undertaken statistically using cartometric testing techniques. need to avoid overlapping classes or systems open to misinterpretation. Precision is not. This is a term used in computing that often refers to the number of decimal places or significant digits in a measurement. the same as accuracy. These can be associated with verification and classification. the classification system may or may not be a good representation of the data in question.org that particular. Consideration should also be given to: “how well does a GIS represent the real world and how well do GIS analyses compute the accurate values?" Spatial data that is captured can only be as good as the source maps from which it is being captured. The classification system must remain consistent. if an area is 60% one category and 40% another category then a decision on how should it be classified must be made. Attribute accuracy must be analyzed in different ways depending on the nature of the data. This also includes the various data sources that were consulted to obtain. There are a number of standard tests that can be carried out to measure positional accuracy. mostly much higher than the accuracy of the data itself. for instance. The amount and distribution of features. The precision of the co-ordinates. maps are accurate to approximately 0. It can be measured.This is equivalent to 25 meters on a 1:50 00 scale map. It is important to realize that a GIS may work at high precision. The quality of a 1:50 000-scale map could be tested against a number of 1:10 000 scale maps. the present composition of the dataset. Attribute Accuracy: This measures the closeness of attribute values to their true value. The other is a categorical attribute. may vary within the dataset. Rules need to exist for so-called non-homogenous areas. Two classes can be considered. A large number of significant digits therefore. will depend on the scale at which they are captured. Another significant issue to consider is that of precision.5mm. For example. Positional Accuracy: This term refers to the closeness of Locational information (usually co-ordinates) to their real world position. such as those used for the classification of polygons. www.
2 Data Analysis 7. lines. Results may be in the form of a table. xor). textual or alphanumeric matching • Query language available The basic GIS functions are those that display all or a selection of the objects under investigation. and line and point search. view of attributes linked to a particular feature • Both spatial and attribute • Spatial = circle. -. not. it is best to consider such aspects of the data before they are entered into the GIS. a combination of the above can be used. does a one always digitize from the center of a road or along which riverbank does one measure? It is difficult to measure logical consistency and perhaps.2. surfaces) and there are five geometric functions to investigate . 7. It also relates to the maintenance of those relations. or displayed as spatial data. Criteria for attribute queries may be based on numeric or textual searches or alphanumeric matching. rectangle.2 Logical Operations: Use either algebra or logical operations Searches can be further developed to employ a set of algebra or logical operations.Technologies for Conservation and Development. In addition. plus perform Arithmetic (+. These can be developed into a host of more complicated queries.org.circle. They can be divided into two categories -spatial and attribute. The queries are generally broken down into a series of elements that initially identify the field of interest and then the search can be carried out using specific characteristics. This may include graphic elements and selected attributes. All GIS packages should be able to perform these operations. polygon.1 Query Functions: • Displaying of inputted data. 7. www. therefore. All spatial query functions are based around the GIS features (points. email:firstname.lastname@example.org Logical Consistency: This term is associated with the relationship between data elements within a dataset. An attribute query relies on the non-geometric datasets linked to spatial data. rectangle. or. A t4cd Training Manual 22 . the database software associated with the GIS may have a query language available. For example. polygon.2. polygons. Such analysis operations are known as query functions. This are > greater than < less than = equal to Alternatively. These are designed to enable the user to tailor queries in a particular manner. line & point search • Attribute = relies on non-geometric datasets linked to spatial data • Numeric. *) and Boolean operations (and.t4cd.
GIS software should also be able to carry out most of these functions. been aggregated to a higher spatial unit than that at which it was collected. in other words reclassify. at joins (nodes) also can have attributes A t4cd Training Manual 23 . • Line on polygon .5 Buffer Operations: • Generating a region of a specified radius around a feature of interest • Created search polygon is temporary . Both raster and vector systems can be used to undertake this type of analysis. There are many choices for this type of analysis and similarly there are often a number of options with system commands. There are about 3 groups.6 Network Operation: • Connected lines representing a set of features. In addition.3 Reclassification Functions: • Used to dissolve or merge information. 7.2.has a query function • Both raster and vector data models The buffer operation involves generating a region of a specified radius around a feature of interest. www.this type of operation allows line objects to be overlaid on area.this type of operation overlays point objects on areas and produces in effect and is contained within relationship. 7.rules embedded/available in the chosen software Within GIS data. Likewise reclassification functions may involve the removal of boundaries between merged regions. for example road or rail network • Better with vector .org 7. 7. when data has for instance. Classification operations may involve changing attribute values without altering the geometric properties of the spatial data. or polygon. varies according to the type of software being used.this allows one polygon theme/coverage/layer to be overlaid or combined with another polygon coverage. This also produces and is contained within relationship.have lines and nodes • Each segment has attributes. namely: • Point in polygon . This relates to adjacency.2. • Polygon on polygon . objects. one is often required to dissolve and merge information. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. however. it may be necessary for simple classification operations to be accomplished.Technologies for Conservation and Development.4 Overlay Operations: Refers to the ability to bring together 2 or more datasets. This type of function has been developed for query purposes. How the classification or reclassification is achieved.2.2.t4cd. or simple classify • Number of options included changing attribute values without altering the geometric properties of the spatial data or removal of boundaries between merged regions • Issue of what happens to attribute data .org. Any search polygon that is generated is temporary and only exists to allow a specific spatial query to be performed.
used for hazard assessment and prediction.the effect of a light source on the surface is simulated. or a pixel in a DEM. There are also third dimensional analyses available.org.7 Analysis of Surface: • Analytical Hill-shading . water pressure. Each segment or line can have attributes such as the dimension of a pipe. rainfall) and thus can be employed for flood hazard modeling and pollution prediction and control Soil erosion modeling . hydrology. The vector model is the most suitable for network analysis because of the explicit representation of lines (roads) and nodes (road junctions). ideal for modeling scenario and creating "what-if" type models. soil. A CIS package may or may not include network analysis capability.org • Can impose constraints on segments. Where lines connect. Once altitude.flow of water through a catchments / across a surface • Soil Erosion Modeling .often combined with hydrological modeling. slope and aspect has been calculated for every point across the terrain model. underlying geology. Soil erosion is partly a function of slope angle. Can also alter or move the light source thus being able to simulate time period changes (seasons. constraints can be placed on the segments. it is straightforward procedure to derive slope or aspect.line of sight of a particular object or feature All the analysis considered so far involves two-dimensional data. directionality and water pressure. It is possible to calculate the flow path of water that enters the system (e. vegetation etc. it is then possible to perform a range of further analyses.2.8 Temporal Functions: • All maps out-of-date as soon as produced A t4cd Training Manual 24 . Furthermore. and if it does. thus generating shadows were appropriate. the nodes may also have attributes such as valve details or type of junction recorded. diurnal) Hydrological modeling — represents the flow of water across a surface. for example speed limits. A network is generally made up of connected lines that link to represent a set of features.t4cd.effect of light source • Hydrological Modeling . vegetation and hydrology. name of road etc.2. can be used to define theoretical water catchments and stream paths. www.it is possible to calculate the visibility (line of sight) of a particular object or feature on the landscape. 7. for example speed limits. such as: Analytical hill shading . • Visibility Analysis .Technologies for Conservation and Development.function of slope. soil type. it maybe generic or designed for specific operations. Once a surface is represented in digital format. Common examples are a road or rail network. 7. geology. All these variables can be easily represented and modeled in a GIS Visibility analysis . email:t4cd@resourceafrica. such as proposed electrical lines or telecommunication towers.g. whether this is for a triangle in a TIN.
Time represents a fourth dimension to the usual data.for example seasonal change of vegetation patterns and land use changes through time.org • Many GIS variables very dynamic and changing constantly with time • Need to try and incorporate the 4-D of time • Most software packages not ale to.2. It is important to note.10 Dissolve and Merge: These are the processes of merging two or more adjacent areas or polygons and removing the boundary lines between them. z. A t4cd Training Manual 25 . 7.Technologies for Conservation and Development.2. street names and house numbers • Census and market segmentation data • Determines best routes Distances: Manhattan versus Euclidean & Pythagoras' theorem 7. www. aerial photography or satellite image is out of date the moment it is produced. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. so that we may have our data structure x. The associated attribute data is also merged or dissolved according to specific criteria. thus use a series of data items represented by on-screen animation as a series Any map. y. The simplest way to handle time is to represent using a series of data items. Most GIS software does not handle time very well. This is represented on-screen as a series of animations. It is therefore useful for some applications to be able to represent time.t4cd. Many of the variables that are considered in a CIS are dynamic and continually in a state of flux . Dissolving and merging operations are a useful facility for those who wish to aggregate their data based on particular criteria. attribute and time information. that it is not just the spatial features that are adjusted.org. however.9 Geo-Coding: • Addresses.
• Identification of regions of over-exploitation and grazing surrounding artificially created water-points. 8.2 Buffalo River Catchment Study. data input. This creates a classical spiral of degradation as then needed to burn/cut to remove undesirable species. • Vector-based.5 Biogeography Hogsberg Mountain. • Use of aerial photography for different time periods.1 Applications of GIS in Conservation 8. • Supplemented with 'other' photographic evidence.3 Bell River. Eastern Cape. modeling of alien plant species migration • Acacia longifolia. analysis/decisions. • Determine past river channel morphology and 'migration' of bank. • Inventory. • Catchment management use of GIS. • GIS implemented as a management tool. 8. Opuntia ficus-indica & Solanum sisymbrifolium A t4cd Training Manual 26 . • Three phases.recent introduction of alien species to stabilize banks. used as a good decision-support system • Use in disease control. www. • Geomorphological study requiring time series analysis.Technologies for Conservation and Development. prediction.4 Motao Forest Zimbabwe. • Use of catchment principles and processes. correction (editing and cleaning) of data.1. field work. • Incorporation of GPS.org. • Bank stability . inclusion of precision agriculture 8. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. • Included proposal for setting up a conservancy area -linked to genetic study. Created to promote tourism. effect on loss on natural riverine/riparain vegetation.1 Management Practices in Sabi Sands Complex • Raster-based system. differential GPS and correction requirements • Inventory and management tool.1.1.1. land and natural rates of erosion/deposition 8. • Physical and anthropological variables considered. regenerate and resultant bush-encroachment. Rhodes. agric.1.t4cd.mearnsii. A. major impact on ability of vegetation to be sustainable. • Identification of point and non-point pollution sources.org Session 6: Knowing Examples of Applications of GIS in Conservation 8.
which illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target of interest. we will use the following definition: "Remote sensing is the science (and to some extent. www. 1. however that remote sensing also involves the sensing of emitted energy and the use of non-imaging sensors. 2007) 9. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing. This is exemplified by the use of imaging systems where the following seven elements are involved. factors influencing distribution and spread ('invasive ability'). and applying that information. where to next and how to possibly prevent spread Map ecologically sensitive areas and compare to spread of alien species Use of biological control? Session 7: Understanding Remote Sensing in GIS Figure 7: The remote sensing process (CCRS/CRT.org.Technologies for Conservation and Development. the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest.1 What is Remote Sensing? So. A t4cd Training Manual 27 . email:t4cd@resourceafrica. art) of acquiring information about the Earth's surface without actually being in contact with it. analysing. Energy Source or Illumination (A) ." In much of remote sensing.t4cd. what exactly is remote sensing? For the purposes of this tutorial. Note.the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source.org • • • Distribution.
it will come in contact with and interact with the atmosphere it passes through.t4cd. we require a sensor (remote . or assist in solving a particular problem. 5. Interpretation and Analysis (F) . Reception.the processed image is interpreted. often in electronic form. 7.the final element of the remote sensing process is achieved when we apply the information we have been able to extract from the imagery about the target in order to better understand it. reveal some new information. Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) . 3. This interaction may take place a second time as the energy travels from the target to the sensor. These are the wavelength and frequency.after the energy has been scattered by. and Processing (E) .the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted. building upon the information learned as we go . Interaction with the Target (C) . These seven elements comprise the remote sensing process from beginning to end. the first requirement for remote sensing is to have an energy source to illuminate the target (unless the target is emitting the sensed energy). Both these fields travel at the speed of light (c). A t4cd Training Manual 28 . it interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) . We will be covering all of these in sequential order throughout the five sub-sections of this tutorial. 6. to a receiving and processing station where the data are processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital). to extract information about the target. All electromagnetic radiation has fundamental properties and behaves in predictable ways according to the basics of wave theory.2 Electromagnetic Radiation As was noted.org 2. 4. which was illuminated. www.once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere. 9. Two characteristics of electromagnetic radiation are particularly important for understanding remote sensing. visually and/or digitally or electronically.org. This energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Transmission. Electromagnetic radiation consists of an electrical field (E) which varies in magnitude in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the radiation is traveling. Application (G) .Technologies for Conservation and Development.not in contact with the target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation. or emitted from the target.as the energy travels from its source to the target. and a magnetic field (M) oriented at right angles to the electrical field.
t4cd. Wavelength is measured in meters (m) or some factor of meters such as nanometers (nm.Technologies for Conservation and Development. the higher the frequency and the longer the wavelength. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. The dynamics here are that. 10-2 metres). shorter the wavelength. 10-6 metres) (mm. 2007) The wavelength is the length of one wave cycle. Frequency refers to the number of cycles of a wave passing a fixed point per unit of time. micrometers (mm. Frequency is normally measured in hertz (Hz). which can be measured as the distance between successive wave crests. 10-9 meters). 10-6 metres) or centimeters (cm. www. Wavelength is usually represented by the Greek letter lambda (l). and various multiples of hertz.org Figure 8: Three wave (CCRS/CRT. Understanding the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in terms of their wavelength and frequency is crucial to understanding the information to A t4cd Training Manual 29 .org. equivalent to one cycle per second. the two are inversely related to each other. Wavelength and frequency are related by the following formula: Figure 9: The Electromagnetic Spectrum (CCRS/CRT. 2007) Therefore. the lower the frequency.
The next portion of the spectrum of interest is the infrared (IR) region which covers the wavelength range from approximately 0.org be extracted from remote sensing data.our remote sensors” . but can be detected by other remote sensing instruments and used to our advantage.org.0.7 . There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.more than 100 times as wide as the visible portion! The infrared region can be divided into two categories based on A t4cd Training Manual 30 . it is actually composed of various wavelengths of radiation in primarily the ultraviolet.592 µm • Orange: 0. They are defined as such because no single primary colour can be created from the other two. the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). and red are the primary colours or wavelengths of the visible spectrum.7 µm to 100 µm .can detect. visible and infrared portions of the spectrum. which our eyes .578 µm • Yellow: 0. which are useful for remote sensing. The visible portion of this radiation can be shown in its component colours when sunlight is passed through a prism.0.620 .4 .7 µm Blue.500 µm • Green: 0. but all other colours can be formed by combining blue. Common wavelengths of what we perceive as particular colours from the visible portion of the spectrum are listed below. and red in various proportions. Some Earth surface materials.0. It is important to recognize how small the visible portion is relative to the rest of the spectrum.0. The visible wavelengths cover a range from approximately 0.620 µm • Red: 0.500 .t4cd. There is a lot of radiation around us. The following subsection will be examining the way in which we categorize electromagnetic radiation for just that purpose. • Violet: 0.446 µm • Blue: 0. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Although we see sunlight as a uniform or homogeneous colour. which are practical for remote sensing.592 . This radiation is just beyond the violet portion of the visible wavelengths. For most purposes. which bends the light in differing amounts according to wavelength. is part of the visible spectrum. 9. fluoresce or emit visible light when illuminated by UV radiation. hence its name. primarily rocks and minerals. It is important to note that this is the only portion of the spectrum we can associate with the concept of colours. www.0.446 .Technologies for Conservation and Development.578 . green.4 to 0. green. The light. The longest m visible wavelength is red and the shortest is violet.0. which is "invisible" to our eyes.
As sunlight passes through the A t4cd Training Manual 31 . There are three (3) types of scattering which take place.t4cd. Rayleigh scattering causes shorter wavelengths of energy to be scattered much more than longer wavelengths. This covers the longest wavelengths used for remote sensing.4 Radiation and the Atmosphere Figure 10: Scattering (CCRS/CRT. and the distance the radiation travels through the atmosphere. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Radiation in the reflected IR region is used for remote sensing purposes in ways very similar to radiation in the visible portion.0 µm. 2007) Rayleigh Scattering: occurs when particles are very small compared to the wavelength of the radiation. The fact that the sky appears "blue" during the day is because of this phenomenon. The reflected IR covers wavelengths from approximately 0. These could be particles such as small specks of dust or nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Figure 11: Rayleigh scattering (CCRS/CRT. The shorter wavelengths have properties similar to the thermal infrared region while the longer wavelengths approach the wavelengths used for radio broadcasts. as this energy is essentially the radiation that is emitted from the Earth's surface in the form of heat. How much scattering takes place depends on several factors including the wavelength of the radiation. and the emitted or thermal IR. 2007) Scattering occurs when particles or large gas molecules present in the atmosphere interact with and cause the electromagnetic radiation to be redirected from its original path. 9.org their radiation properties .org. The portion of the spectrum of more recent interest to remote sensing is the microwave region from about 1 mm to 1 m.the reflected IR. www. The thermal IR covers wavelengths from approximately 3.0 µm to 100 µm. the abundance of particles or gases. Rayleigh scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism in the upper atmosphere. The thermal IR region is quite different from the visible and reflected IR portions.7 µm to 3.Technologies for Conservation and Development.
Nonselective scattering gets its name from the fact that all wavelengths are scattered about equally.org.e. which tends to affect longer wavelengths than those affected by Rayleigh scattering. the shorter wavelengths (i. green. Figure 12: Mie scattering (CCRS/CRT. At sunrise and sunset the light has to travel farther through the atmosphere than at midday and the scattering of the shorter wavelengths is more complete. www. 2007) A t4cd Training Manual 32 . 2007) The final scattering mechanism of importance is called nonselective scattering. smoke and water vapour are common causes of Mie scattering.t4cd. Water droplets and large dust particles can cause this type of scattering. Figure 14: Absorption (CCRS/CRT. 2007) Mie Scattering: occurs when the particles are just about the same size as the wavelength of the radiation. and dominates when cloud conditions are overcast. This type of scattering causes fog and clouds to appear white to our eyes because blue. This occurs when the particles are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation. Dust. Figure 13: Nonselective scattering (CCRS/CRT.white light). this leaves a greater proportion of the longer wavelengths to penetrate the atmosphere. Mie scattering occurs mostly in the lower portions of the atmosphere where larger particles are more abundant. blue) of the visible spectrum are scattered more than the other (longer) visible wavelengths.Technologies for Conservation and Development.org atmosphere. pollen. and red light are all scattered in approximately equal quantities (blue+green+red light . email:t4cd@resourceafrica.
they influence where (in the spectrum) we can "look" for remote sensing purposes. A t4cd Training Manual 33 . our skin would burn when exposed to sunlight. This is because it tends to absorb radiation strongly in the far infrared portion of the spectrum . The visible portion of the spectrum. These are absorption (A). Because these gases absorb electromagnetic energy in very specific regions of the spectrum. while the tropics would have high concentrations of water vapour (i. as you can see). For example.Technologies for Conservation and Development. are useful to remote sensors.t4cd. Note also that heat energy emitted by the Earth corresponds to a window around 10 µm in the thermal IR portion of the spectrum. The total incident energy will interact with the surface in one or more of these three ways. the air mass above a desert would have very little water vapour to absorb energy. Without this protective layer in the atmosphere. corresponds to both an atmospheric window and the peak energy level of the sun. this phenomenon causes molecules in the atmosphere to absorb energy at various wavelengths.org. transmission (T). The presence of water vapour in the lower atmosphere varies greatly from location to location and at different times of the year. www. or is incident (I) upon the surface. and reflection (R). The proportions of each will depend on the wavelength of the energy and the material and condition of the feature. Now that we understand how electromagnetic energy makes its journey from its source to the surface (and it is a difficult journey. while the large window at wavelengths beyond 1 mm is associated with the microwave region. carbon dioxide.5 Radiation . high humidity). Ozone serves to absorb the harmful (to most living things) ultraviolet radiation from the sun. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. 9. we will next examine what happens to that radiation when it does arrive at the Earth's surface. By comparing the characteristics of the two most common energy/radiation sources (the sun and the earth) with the atmospheric windows available to us.Target Interactions Radiation that is not absorbed or scattered in the atmosphere can reach and interact with the Earth's surface. which are not severely influenced by atmospheric absorption and thus. You may have heard carbon dioxide referred to as a greenhouse gas. In contrast to scattering. Those areas of the spectrum.e. Ozone. are called atmospheric windows. There are three (3) forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes. we can define those wavelengths that we can use most effectively for remote sensing. and water vapour are the three main atmospheric constituents.org Absorption: is the other main mechanism at work when electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere.that area associated with thermal heating . to which our eyes are most sensitive. Water vapour in the atmosphere absorbs much of the incoming long wave infrared and shortwave microwave radiation (between 22m and 1m).which serves to trap this heat inside the atmosphere. which absorb radiation.
Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is rough and the energy is reflected almost uniformly in all directions. depends on the surface roughness of the feature in comparison to the wavelength of the incoming radiation. Most earth surface features lie somewhere between perfectly specular or perfectly diffuse reflectors.org. The internal structure of healthy leaves act as excellent diffuse reflectors of near-infrared wavelengths. there is less chlorophyll in the leaves. Figure 16: Interactions with vegetation (CCRS. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Leaves: A chemical compound in leaves called chlorophyll strongly absorbs radiation in the red and blue wavelengths but reflects green wavelengths. which represent the two extreme ends of the way in which energy is reflected from a target: specular reflection and diffuse reflection. making the leaves appear red or yellow (yellow is a combination of red and green wavelengths). For example. Whether a particular target reflects specularly or diffusely. In remote sensing. If the wavelengths are much smaller than the surface variations or the particle sizes that make up the surface. Leaves appear "greenest" to us in the summer. fine-grained sand would appear fairly smooth to long wavelength microwaves but would appear quite rough to the visible wavelengths. when chlorophyll content is at its maximum. 2007) When a surface is smooth we get specular or mirror-like reflection where all (or almost all) of the energy is directed away from the surface in a single direction. www. We refer to two types of reflection.org Absorption (A) occurs when radiation (energy) is absorbed into the target while transmission (T) occurs when radiation passes through a target. we are most interested in measuring the radiation reflected from targets. or somewhere in between. Figure 15: Target Interactions (ccrs. 2007) Let's take a look at a couple of examples of targets at the Earth's surface and how energy at the visible and infrared wavelengths interacts with them.t4cd. If our eyes were sensitive to A t4cd Training Manual 34 . so there is less absorption and proportionately more reflection of the red wavelengths. diffuse reflection will dominate.Technologies for Conservation and Development. Reflection (R) occurs when radiation "bounces" off the target and is redirected. In autumn.
2007) Water: Longer wavelength visible and near infrared radiation is absorbed more by water than shorter visible wavelengths. Thus.org near infrared. floating materials. we can build up a spectral response for that object. The topography of the water surface (rough. and the wavelengths of radiation involved. The apparent colour of the water will show a slight shift to longer wavelengths. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. etc. since these two phenomena appear very similar. 2007 We can see from these examples that. making the water appear greener in colour when algae are present. trees would appear extremely bright to us at these wavelengths. Suspended sediment (S) can be easily confused with shallow (but clear) water. transmission. then this will allow better reflectivity and a brighter appearance of the water. Figure 17: Interactions with vegetation (CCRS. Chlorophyll in algae absorbs more of the blue wavelengths and reflects the green. A t4cd Training Manual 35 . measuring and monitoring the near-IR reflectance is one way that scientists can determine how healthy (or unhealthy) vegetation may be. and darker if viewed at red or near infrared wavelengths. we can observe very different responses to the mechanisms of absorption. Figure 18: Spectral Curve sowing Interactions with vegetation and water (CCRS/CRT.Technologies for Conservation and Development. depending on the complex make-up of the target that is being looked at. and reflection. In fact. water typically looks blue or blue-green due to stronger reflectance at these shorter wavelengths.t4cd. By measuring the energy that is reflected (or emitted) by targets on the Earth's surface over a variety of different wavelengths.) can also lead to complications for water-related interpretation due to potential problems of specular reflection and other influences on colour and brightness. smooth. If there is suspended sediment present in the upper layers of the water body.org. www.
as long as the amount of energy is large enough to be recorded. "green-ness" of leaves) and location.6 Passive vs. The sensor emits radiation. Active Sensing Figure 19: Passive Sensors (CCRS/CRT. even for the same target type. on the other hand. as it is for thermal infrared wavelengths.t4cd. as it is for visible wavelengths. which is directed toward the target to be investigated.org By comparing the response patterns of different features. Energy that is naturally emitted (such as thermal infrared) can be detected day or night. The radiation reflected from that target is detected and measured by the sensor. this can only take place during the time when the sun is illuminating the Earth. and can also vary with time (e. Advantages A t4cd Training Manual 36 . throughout this section. 2007) Active sensors. The sun's energy is either reflected. Remote sensing systems. we may be able to distinguish between them. Passive sensors can only be used to detect energy when the naturally occurring energy is available. or absorbed and then re-emitted. are critical to correctly interpreting the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the surface. For all reflected energy. if we only compared them at one wavelength. For example. which measure energy that is naturally available. are called passive sensors.org. we have made various references to the sun as a source of energy or radiation. where we might not be able to. Figure 20: Active Sensors (CCRS/CRT. 2007) So far. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. There is no reflected energy available from the sun at night. Knowing where to "look" spectrally and understanding the factors.Technologies for Conservation and Development.g. 9. which influence the spectral response of the features of interest. Spectral response can be quite variable. www. The sun provides a very convenient source of energy for remote sensing. provide their own energy source for illumination. water and vegetation may reflect somewhat similarly in the visible wavelengths but are almost always separable in the infrared.
regardless of the time of day or season. Active sensors can be used for examining wavelengths that are not sufficiently provided by the sun. www.org for active sensors include the ability to obtain measurements anytime. Some examples of active sensors are a laser fluorosensor and synthetic aperture radar (SAR).t4cd. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. active systems require the generation of a fairly large amount of energy to adequately illuminate targets. such as microwaves. However.Technologies for Conservation and Development.org. A t4cd Training Manual 37 . or to better control the way a target is illuminated.
Based on these definitions. Therefore. 2007) Before we go on to the next section. These two different ways of representing and displaying remote sensing data. using the definitions we have just discussed.9 mm .1 Characteristics of Images Figure 21: Characteristics of images (CCRS/CRT. this is actually a digital image of the original photograph! The photograph was scanned and subdivided into pixels with each pixel assigned a digital number representing its relative brightness. The photographic process uses chemical reactions on the surface of light-sensitive film to detect and record energy variations.t4cd. Sensors that record electromagnetic energy. Indeed. The black and white photo to the left in Figure 19 above. electronically record the energy as an array of numbers in digital format right from the start. regardless of what wavelengths or remote sensing device has been used to detect and record the electromagnetic energy. www. The computer displays each digital value as different brightness levels. Photos are normally recorded over the wavelength range from 0. Electromagnetic energy may be detected either photographically or electronically. A photograph refers specifically to images that have been detected as well as recorded on photographic film. but not all images are photographs. unless we are talking specifically about an image recorded photographically. called picture elements or pixels. email:t4cd@resourceafrica.Technologies for Conservation and Development. we need to define and understand a few fundamental terms and concepts associated with remote sensing images. we use the term image. are interchangeable as they A t4cd Training Manual 38 . An image refers to any pictorial representation. which is of part of the city of Ottawa. A photograph could also be represented and displayed in a digital format by subdividing the image into small equal-sized and shaped areas.org Session 8: Understanding Characteristics of Images 10. either pictorially or digitally. and representing the brightness of each area with a numeric value or digital number. It is important to distinguish between the terms images and photographs in remote sensing. that is exactly what has been done to the photo to the left.the visible and reflected infrared. we can say that all photographs are images. Canada.3 mm to 0. In fact. which looks in more detail at sensors and their characteristics.org. was taken in the visible part of the spectrum.
We touched briefly on the fourth component (recording of energy by the sensor). 2007) In an earlier section. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. www. The data from each channel is represented as one of the primary colours and.e. we are actually displaying that channel through all three primary colours.org. Can you imagine what the world would look like if we could only see very narrow ranges of wavelengths or colours? That is how many sensors work. on how that data is processed once the sensor has recorded it.t4cd.Technologies for Conservation and Development. we learned some of the fundamental concepts required to understand the process that encompasses remote sensing. In previous sections. In order for a sensor to collect and record energy reflected or emitted from a target or A t4cd Training Manual 39 . we described the visible portion of the spectrum and the concept of colours. When we use this method to display a single channel or range of wavelengths. We see colour because our eyes detect the entire visible range of wavelengths and our brains process the information into separate colours. showing various shades of gray from black to white. The information from a narrow wavelength range is gathered and stored in a channel. We can combine and display channels of information digitally using the three primary colours (blue. interaction of energy with the atmosphere. also sometimes referred to as a band. In this section. when we discussed passive vs. We will also touch briefly. Because the brightness level of each pixel is the same for each primary colour.2 On the Ground.org convey the same information (although some detail may be lost when converting back and forth). then the brightness levels may be different for each channel/primary colour combination and they will combine to form a colour image. and interaction of energy with the surface. depending on the relative brightness (i. the characteristics of remote sensing platforms and sensors and the data they collect. When we display more than one channel each as a different primary colour. the primary colours combine in different proportions to represent different colours. we will take a closer look at this component of the remote sensing process by examining in greater detail. they combine to form a black and white image. the digital value) of each pixel in each channel. In Space Figure 22: Platforms (CCRS/CRT. We covered in some detail the first three components of this process: the energy source. active sensors and characteristics of images. In the Air. 10. green. and red).
Cost is often a significant factor in choosing among the various platform options. the Earth. communication. crane. Aerial platforms are primarily stable wing aircraft. In space. www.t4cd.org surface. the moon is a natural satellite. A t4cd Training Manual 40 . satellites permit repetitive coverage of the Earth's surface on a continuing basis. more commonly. Platforms for remote sensors may be situated on the ground. scaffolding.Technologies for Conservation and Development. or on a spacecraft or satellite outside of the Earth's atmosphere. tall building. Aircraft are often used to collect very detailed images and facilitate the collection of data over virtually any portion of the Earth's surface at any time. Satellites are objects. etc.org. Ground-based sensors are often used to record detailed information about the surface. which revolve around another object in this case. whereas man-made satellites include those platforms launched for remote sensing. which is being imaged by these other sensors. For example. cherry picker. this can be used to better characterize the target. which is compared with information collected from aircraft or satellite sensors. although helicopters are occasionally used. making it possible to better understand the information in the imagery. from satellites. Because of their orbits. Sensors may be placed on a ladder. on an aircraft or balloon (or some other platform within the Earth's atmosphere). remote sensing is sometimes conducted from the space shuttle or. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. In some cases. and telemetry (location and navigation) purposes. it must reside on a stable platform removed from the target or surface being observed.
The path followed by a satellite is referred to as its orbit.000 kilometers. in conjunction with the Earth's rotation (west-east). These geostationary satellites. email:email@example.com Geostationary Orbits We learned in the previous section that remote sensing instruments can be placed on a variety of platforms to view and image targets. some geostationary weather satellites can monitor weather and cloud patterns covering an entire hemisphere of the Earth. at altitudes of approximately 36. Weather and communications satellites commonly have these types of orbits. Satellites have several unique characteristics. revolve at speeds.org. relative to the Earth's surface. 2007) 11. Orbit selection can vary in terms of altitude (their height above the Earth's surface) and their orientation and rotation relative to the Earth. satellites provide a great deal of the remote sensing imagery commonly used today. which match the rotation of the Earth so they seem stationary. Satellites at very high altitudes.Technologies for Conservation and Development. Due to their high altitude. the position of the sun in the sky as the satellite passes overhead will A t4cd Training Manual 41 . allows them to cover most of the Earth's surface over a certain period of time. Although ground-based and aircraft platforms may be used. Many of these satellite orbits are also sun-synchronous such that they cover each area of the world at a constant local time of day called local sun time. which make them particularly useful for remote sensing of the Earth's surface.t4cd. These are near-polar orbits. so named for the inclination of the orbit relative to a line running between the North and South poles. This allows the satellites to observe and collect information continuously over specific areas. which view the same portion of the Earth's surface at all times have geostationary orbits.org Session 9: Understanding Satellite Characteristics-Orbits and Swaths Figure 23: Satellite orbits (CCRS/CRT. At any given latitude. www. Satellite orbits are matched to the capability and objective of the sensor(s) they carry. Many remote sensing platforms are designed to follow an orbit (basically north-south) which.
Imaging swaths for space borne sensors generally vary between tens and hundreds of kilometers wide. the sensor "sees" a certain portion of the Earth's surface. its east-west position wouldn't change if the Earth didn't rotate. especially when frequent imaging is required (for example. Using steerable sensors. after it has completed one complete cycle of orbits. thus making the 'revisit' time less than the orbit cycle time. or over a particular area over a series of days. As a satellite revolves around the Earth. The satellite's orbit and the rotation of the Earth work together to allow complete coverage of the Earth's surface. as they do not have to be corrected for different illumination conditions. as seen from the Earth. respectively. However. or the extent of flooding). an orbit. The revisit period is an important consideration for a number of monitoring applications.org. Most of the remote sensing satellite platforms today are in near polar. This ensures consistent illumination conditions when acquiring images in a specific season over successive years. The area imaged on the surface. or passive sensors that record emitted (e. passing over the same point on the Earth's surface directly below the satellite (called the nadir point) for a second time. 11. www. The interval of time required for the satellite to complete its orbit cycle is not the same as the "revisit period".org be the same within the same season. when solar illumination is available. thermal) radiation can also image the surface on ascending passes. The exact length of time of the orbital cycle will vary with each satellite. it seems that the satellite is shifting westward because the Earth is rotating (from west to east) beneath it. In near-polar orbits. Active sensors. areas at high latitudes will be imaged more frequently than the equatorial zone due to the increasing overlap in adjacent swaths as the orbit paths come closer together near the poles. an orbit cycle will be completed when the satellite retraces its path. This apparent movement allows the satellite swath to cover a new area with each consecutive pass.g.t4cd. the distance between the target being imaged and the platform. If the orbit is also sun-synchronous. As the satellite orbits the Earth from pole to pole. is referred to as the swath. These are called ascending and descending passes. This is an important factor for monitoring changes between images or for mosaicking adjacent images together. which means that the satellite travels northwards on one side of the Earth and then toward the southern pole on the second half of its orbit. which provide their own illumination. to monitor the spread of an oil spill.2 Spatial Resolution. Sensors recording reflected solar energy only image the surface on a descending pass. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. and Scale For some remote sensing instruments. If we start with any randomly selected pass in a satellite's orbit.Technologies for Conservation and Development. the ascending pass is most likely on the shadowed side of the Earth while the descending pass is on the sunlit side. Pixel Size. plays a large role in determining the detail of information obtained and A t4cd Training Manual 42 . a satellite-borne instrument can view an area (offnadir) before and after the orbit passes over a target.
it is possible to display an image with a pixel size different from the resolution. Compare what an astronaut onboard the space shuttle sees of the Earth to what you can see from an airplane. which is "seen" from a given altitude at one particular moment in time (B). email:t4cd@resourceafrica. If a sensor has a spatial resolution of 20 metres and an image from that sensor is displayed at full resolution. most remote sensing images are composed of a matrix of picture elements. However. Figure 24: Spatial Resolution. In this case. but cannot provide great detail. smaller features may sometimes be detectable if their reflectance dominates within a particular resolution cell allowing sub-pixel or resolution cell detection. the pixel size and resolution are the same.they are not interchangeable. Sensors onboard platforms far away from their targets. There is a similar difference between satellite images and air photos. Pixel Size.org the total area imaged by the sensor. as the average brightness of all features in that resolution cell will be recorded. typically view a larger area. The astronaut might see your whole province or country in one glance. which are the smallest units of an image. However. 2007) The detail discernible in an image is dependent on the spatial resolution of the sensor and refers to the size of the smallest possible feature that can be detected. although the original spatial resolution of the sensor that collected the imagery remains the same.t4cd. For a homogeneous feature to be detected. but couldn't distinguish individual houses. A t4cd Training Manual 43 . it may not be detectable. The size of the area viewed is determined by multiplying the IFOV by the distance from the ground to the sensor (C). each pixel represents an area of 20m x 20m on the ground. Image pixels are normally square and represent a certain area on an image. As we mentioned in the previous sections. but you would be viewing a much smaller area than the astronaut would.org.Technologies for Conservation and Development. If the feature is smaller than this. Flying over a city or town. Spatial resolution of passive sensors (we will look at the special case of active microwave sensors later) depends primarily on their Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV). its size generally has to be equal to or larger than the resolution cell. The IFOV is the angular cone of visibility of the sensor (A) and determines the area on the Earth's surface. you would be able to see individual buildings and cars. It is important to distinguish between pixel size and spatial resolution . Many posters of satellite images of the Earth have their pixels averaged to represent larger areas. This area on the ground is called the resolution cell and determines a sensor's maximum spatial resolution. www. or pixels. and Scale (CCRS/CRT.
1:5.000). small objects can be detected.000. and therefore have very fine resolution. Commercial satellites provide imagery with resolutions varying from a few metres to several kilometers. 1:100.t4cd.org. and those with larger ratios (e. If you had a map with a scale of 1:100.g.000) are called large scale. www. Generally speaking. In fine or high-resolution images.g. Military sensors for example. Maps or images with small "map-to-ground ratios" are referred to as small scale (e. an object of 1cm length on the map would actually be an object 100. The ratio of distance on an image or map. are designed to view as much detail as possible. the less total ground area can be seen.000cm (1km) long on the ground. to actual ground distance is referred to as scale. A t4cd Training Manual 44 .Technologies for Conservation and Development. the finer the resolution.org Images where only large features are visible are said to have coarse or low resolution. email:t4cd@resourceafrica.
green. it can represent features of various colours based on their reflectance in each of these distinct wavelength ranges.org. Advanced multi-spectral sensors called hyperspectral sensors. can usually be separated using very broad wavelength ranges . but has higher spectral resolution. Spectral resolution describes the ability of a sensor to define fine wavelength intervals. may not be easily distinguishable using either of these broad wavelength ranges and would require comparison at much finer wavelength ranges to separate them. Other more specific classes. near infrared. such as water and vegetation. Thus.t4cd. Thus.Technologies for Conservation and Development.org 11. and mid-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. 2007) Spectral response and spectral emissivity curves characterize the reflectance and/or remittance of a feature or target over a variety of wavelengths. Different classes of features and details in an image can often be distinguished by comparing their responses over distinct wavelength ranges. Every A t4cd Training Manual 45 . such as different rock types. These are referred to as multi-spectral sensors and will be described in some detail in following sections. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. the radiometric characteristics describe the actual information content in an image.the visible and near infrared. the narrower the wavelength ranges for a particular channel or band. detect hundreds of very narrow spectral bands throughout the visible. and red wavelengths of the spectrum. Black and white film records wavelengths extending over much. The finer the spectral resolution. Broad classes. Their very high spectral resolution facilitates fine discrimination between different targets based on their spectral response in each of the narrow bands. www. Colour film is also sensitive to the reflected energy over the visible portion of the spectrum. Many remote sensing systems record energy over several separate wavelength ranges at various spectral resolutions. as the various wavelengths of the visible spectrum are not individually distinguished and the overall reflectance in the entire visible portion is recorded. we would require a sensor with higher spectral resolution. 11. or the entire visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.4 Radiometric Resolution While the arrangement of pixels describes the spatial structure of an image.3 Spectral Resolution Figure 25: Spectral Resolution (CCRS/CRT. Its spectral resolution is fairly coarse. as it is individually sensitive to the reflected energy at the blue.
because of some degree of overlap in the imaging swaths of adjacent orbits A t4cd Training Manual 46 .org. 255 in 8-bit data). there would be 28=256 digital values available.t4cd.Technologies for Conservation and Development. 11. the radiometric resolution would be much less. the absolute temporal resolution of a remote sensing system to image the exact same area at the same viewing angle a second time is equal to this period. the concept of temporal resolution is also important to consider in a remote sensing system. then only 2 4=16 values ranging from 0 to 15 would be available. This range corresponds to the number of bits used for coding numbers in binary format. Figure 26: Radiometric Resolution (CCRS/CRT. 1 bit=2 1 =2). However. Thus. The revisit period of a satellite sensor is usually several days. and radiometric resolution. if only 4 bits were used. which refers to the length of time it takes for a satellite to complete one entire orbit cycle. By comparing a 2-bit image with an 8-bit image. Therefore. with black representing a digital number of 0 and white representing the maximum value (for example. 2007) In addition to spatial. if a sensor used 8 bits to record the data. 2007) The radiometric resolution of an imaging system describes its ability to discriminate very slight differences in energy. However. its sensitivity to the magnitude of the electromagnetic energy determines the radiometric resolution. spectral. we can see that there is a large difference in the level of detail discernible depending on their radiometric resolutions. Thus. The maximum number of brightness levels available depends on the number of bits used in representing the energy recorded. The finer the radiometric resolution of a sensor the more sensitive it is to detecting small differences in reflected or emitted energy.5 Temporal Resolution Figure 27: Temporal Resolution (CCRS/CRT. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Each bit records an exponent of power 2 (e.g. We alluded to the concept of revisit period. ranging from 0 to 255. www.org time an image is acquired on film or by a sensor. Image data are generally displayed in a range of grey tones. Imagery data are represented by positive digital numbers which vary from 0 to (one less than) a selected power of 2.
In addition. Spectral characteristics of features may change over time and these changes can be detected by collecting and comparing multi-temporal imagery. oil slicks. 2007) Cameras and their use for aerial photography are the simplest and oldest of sensors used for remote sensing of the Earth's surface.org for most satellites and the increase in this overlap with increasing latitude. Cameras are framing systems.t4cd. The ability to collect imagery of the same area of the Earth's surface at different periods of time is one of the most important elements for applying remote sensing data. which acquire a near-instantaneous "snapshot" of an area (A).org.Technologies for Conservation and Development. By imaging on a continuing basis at different times we are able to monitor the changes that take place on the Earth's surface.g.) need to be imaged multi-temporal comparisons are required (e. including the satellite/sensor capabilities. www. some satellite systems are able to point their sensors to image the same area between different satellite passes separated by periods from one to five days. the spread of a forest disease from one year to the next) the changing appearance of a feature over time can be used to distinguish it from near-similar features (wheat / maize) Cameras and Aerial Photography 11. For example. most species of vegetation are in a continual state of change and our ability to monitor those subtle changes using remote sensing is dependent on when and how frequently we collect imagery. the actual temporal resolution of a sensor depends on a variety of factors. whether they are naturally occurring (such as changes in natural vegetation cover or flooding) or induced by humans (such as urban development or deforestation).6 Figure 28: Cameras and Aerial Photography (CCRS/CRT. Camera systems are passive optical sensors that use a lens (B) (or system of lenses collectively A t4cd Training Manual 47 . The time factor in imaging is important when: persistent clouds offer limited clear views of the Earth's surface (often in the tropics) short-lived phenomena (floods. Thus. and latitude. the swath overlap. of the surface. etc. during the growing season. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. some areas of the Earth tend to be re-imaged more frequently.
Technologies for Conservation and Development, www.t4cd.org, email:firstname.lastname@example.org
referred to as the optics) to form an image at the focal plane (C), the plane at which an image is sharply defined. Photographic films are sensitive to light from 0.3 mm to 0.9 mm in wavelength covering the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near-infrared (NIR). Panchromatic films are sensitive to the UV and the visible portions of the spectrum. Panchromatic film produces black and white images and is the most common type of film used for aerial photography. UV photography also uses panchromatic film, but a filter is used with the camera to absorb and block the visible energy from reaching the film. As a result, only the UV reflectance from targets is recorded. UV photography is not widely used, because of the atmospheric scattering and absorption that occurs in this region of the spectrum. Black and white infrared photography uses film sensitive to the entire 0.3 to 0.9 mm wavelength range and is useful for detecting differences in vegetation cover, due to its sensitivity to IR reflectance. Colour and false colour (or colour infrared, CIR) photography involves the use of a three layer film with each layer sensitive to different ranges of light. For a normal colour photograph, the layers are sensitive to blue, green, and red light - the same as our eyes. These photos appear to us the same way that our eyes see the environment, as the colours resemble those which would appear to us as "normal" (i.e. trees appear green, etc.). In colour infrared (CIR) photography, the three emulsion layers are sensitive to green, red, and the photographic portion of near-infrared radiation, which are processed to appear as blue, green, and red, respectively. In a false colour photograph, targets with high near-infrared reflectance appear red, those with a high red reflectance appear green, and those with a high green reflectance appear blue, thus giving us a "false" presentation of the targets relative to the colour we normally perceive them to be. Cameras can be used on a variety of platforms including ground-based stages, helicopters, aircraft, and spacecraft. Very detailed photographs taken from aircraft are useful for many applications where identification of detail or small targets is required. The ground coverage of a photo depends on several factors, including the focal length of the lens, the platform altitude, and the format and size of the film. The focal length effectively controls the angular field of view of the lens (similar to the concept of instantaneous field of view discussed in section 2.3) and determines the area "seen" by the camera. Typical focal lengths used are 90mm, 210mm, and most commonly, 152mm. The longer the focal length, the smaller the area covered on the ground, but with greater detail (i.e. larger scale). The area covered also depends on the altitude of the platform. At high altitudes, a camera will "see" a larger area on the ground than at lower altitudes, but with reduced detail (i.e. smaller scale). Aerial photos can provide fine detail down to spatial resolutions of less than 50 cm. A photo's exact spatial resolution varies as a complex function of many factors, which vary with each acquisition of data.
A t4cd Training Manual
Technologies for Conservation and Development, www.t4cd.org, email:email@example.com
Most aerial photographs are classified as either oblique or vertical, depending on the orientation of the camera relative to the ground during acquisition. Oblique aerial photographs are taken with the camera pointed to the side of the aircraft. High oblique photographs usually include the horizon while low oblique photographs do not. Oblique photographs can be useful for covering very large areas in a single image and for depicting terrain relief and scale. However, they are not widely used for mapping as distortions in scale from the foreground to the background preclude easy measurements of distance, area, and elevation. Vertical photographs taken with a single-lens frame camera is the most common use of aerial photography for remote sensing and mapping purposes. These cameras are specifically built for capturing a rapid sequence of photographs while limiting geometric distortion. They are often linked with navigation systems onboard the aircraft platform, to allow for accurate geographic coordinates to be instantly assigned to each photograph. Most camera systems also include mechanisms, which compensate for the effect of the aircraft motion relative to the ground, in order to limit distortion as much as possible. When obtaining vertical aerial photographs, the aircraft normally flies in a series of lines, each called a flight line. Photos are taken in rapid succession looking straight down at the ground, often with a 50-60 percent overlap (A) between successive photos. The overlap ensures total coverage along a flight line and also facilitates stereoscopic viewing. Successive photo pairs display the overlap region from different perspectives and can be viewed through a device called a stereoscope to see a three-dimensional view of the area, called a stereo model. Many applications of aerial photography use stereoscopic coverage and stereo viewing. Aerial photographs are most useful when fine spatial detail is more critical than spectral information, as their spectral resolution is generally coarse when compared to data captured with electronic sensing devices. The geometry of vertical photographs is well understood and it is possible to make very accurate measurements from them, for a variety of different applications (geology, forestry, mapping, etc.). The science of making measurements from photographs is called photogrammetry and has been performed extensively since the very beginnings of aerial photography. A human analyst (often viewed stereoscopically) most often interprets photos manually. They can also be scanned to create a digital image and then analyzed in a digital computer environment. In this section, we will discuss in greater detail, various methods (manually and by computer) for interpreting different types of remote sensing images. Multiband photography uses multi-lens systems with different film-filter combinations to acquire photos simultaneously in a number of different spectral ranges. The advantage of these types of cameras is their ability to record reflected energy separately in discrete wavelength ranges, thus providing potentially better separation and identification of various features. However, simultaneous analysis of these multiple photographs can be problematic. Digital cameras, which record electromagnetic A t4cd Training Manual 49
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radiation electronically, differ significantly from their counterparts, which use film. Instead of using film, digital cameras use a gridded array of silicon coated CCDs (charge-coupled devices) that individually respond to electromagnetic radiation. Energy reaching the surface of the CCDs causes the generation of an electronic charge, which is proportional in magnitude to the "brightness" of the ground area. A digital number for each spectral band is assigned to each pixel based on the magnitude of the electronic charge. The digital format of the output image is amenable to digital analysis and archiving in a computer environment, as well as output as a hardcopy product similar to regular photos. Digital cameras also provide quicker turn-around for acquisition and retrieval of data and allow greater control of the spectral resolution. Although parameters vary, digital imaging systems are capable of collecting data with a spatial resolution of 0.3m, and with a spectral resolution of 0.012 mm to 0.3 mm. The size of the pixel arrays varies between systems, but typically ranges between 512 x 512 to 2048 x 2048. 11.7 Multispectral Scanning
Figure 29: Across-track scanning, (CCRS/CRT, 2007)
Many electronic (as opposed to photographic) remote sensors acquire data using scanning systems, which employ a sensor with a narrow field of view (IFOV) that sweeps over the terrain to build up and produce a two-dimensional image of the surface. Scanning systems can be used on both aircraft and satellite platforms and have essentially the same operating principles. A scanning system used to collect data over a variety of different wavelength ranges is called a multispectral scanner (MSS), and is the most commonly used scanning system. There are two main modes or methods of scanning employed to acquire multispectral image data - across-track scanning, and along-track scanning. Across-track scanners scan the Earth in a series of lines. The lines are oriented perpendicular to the direction of motion of the sensor platform (i.e. across the swath). Each line is scanned from one side of the sensor to the other, using a rotating mirror (A). As the platform moves forward over the Earth, successive scans build up a twodimensional image of the Earth’s surface. The incoming reflected or emitted radiation is A t4cd Training Manual 50
For each scan line. detects and measures the energy for each spectral band and then. Figure 30: Along-track scanners (CCRS/CRT. The IFOV (C) of the sensor and the altitude of the platform determine the ground resolution cell viewed (D). near infrared and thermal radiation are dispersed into their constituent wavelengths. A bank of internal detectors (B). In addition. the length of time the IFOV "sees" a ground resolution cell as the rotating mirror scans (called the dwell time).org. The angular field of view (E) is the sweep of the mirror. each sensitive to a specific range of wavelengths. 2007) Along-track scanners also use the forward motion of the platform to record successive scan lines and build up a two-dimensional image.org separated into several spectral components that are detected independently. and thus the spatial resolution. Airborne scanners typically sweep large angles (between 90º and 120º). they are converted to digital data and recorded for subsequent computer processing. instead of a scanning mirror. A separate linear array is required to measure each spectral band or channel. The array of detectors combined with the push broom motion allows each detector to "see" and measure the energy from each ground resolution cell for a longer period of time (dwell time).Technologies for Conservation and Development. used to record a scan line. These systems are also referred to as push broom scanners. www. is generally quite short and influences the design of the spatial. and determines the width of the imaged swath (F). The UV. and radiometric resolution of the sensor. the ground resolution cells also become larger and introduce geometric distortions to the images. Each individual detector measures the energy for a single ground resolution cell (D) and thus the size and IFOV of the detectors determines the spatial resolution of the system.e. Along-track scanners with linear arrays have several advantages over across-track mirror scanners.t4cd. measured in degrees. while satellites. However. as an electrical signal. along track). perpendicular to the flight direction. This allows more energy to be detected and improves A t4cd Training Manual 51 . email:t4cd@resourceafrica. which are "pushed" along in the flight track direction (i. visible. Because the distance from the sensor to the target increases towards the edges of the swath. the energy detected by each detector of each linear array is sampled electronically and digitally recorded. as the motion of the detector array is analogous to the bristles of a broom being pushed along a floor. they use a linear array of detectors (A) located at the focal plane of the image (B) formed by lens systems (C). because of their higher altitude need only to sweep fairly small angles (10-20º) to cover a broad region. spectral.
finer spatial and spectral resolution can be achieved without impacting radiometric resolution. require less power. A t4cd Training Manual 52 . at the nadir) will have only their tops visible. such as cameras used for aerial photography. or any other platform/sensor combination. Objects directly below the center of the camera lens (i. and are more reliable and last longer because they have no moving parts.8 Geometric Distortion in Imagery Any remote sensing image. the distortion and positional error will be larger. including one or more of the following. 2007) Framing systems. This problem is inherent in remote sensing. provide an instantaneous "snapshot" view of the Earth from directly overhead. will have various geometric distortions. while all other objects will appear to lean away from the center of the photo such that their tops and sides are visible. The increased dwell time also facilitates smaller IFOVs and narrower bandwidths for each detector. a photographic system in an aircraft. the terrain relief. These errors may be due to a variety of factors. they are generally smaller. Because detectors are usually solid-state microelectronic devices. Thus. and velocity.t4cd. 11. depending on the manner in which the data are acquired. the motion and (in)stability of the platform. as we attempt to accurately represent the three-dimensional surface of the Earth as a two-dimensional image. the motion of the scanning system. www. regardless of whether it is acquired by a multispectral scanner on board a satellite.Technologies for Conservation and Development.org.e. the platform altitude.org the radiometric resolution. On the other hand. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. and The curvature and rotation of the Earth. lighter. to name only a few: the perspective of the sensor optics. cross-calibrating thousands of detectors to achieve uniform sensitivity across the array is necessary and complicated. The primary geometric distortion in vertical aerial photographs is due to relief displacement. If the objects are tall or are far away from the center of the photo. attitude. All remote sensing images are subject to some form of geometric distortions. Figure 31: Geometric distortion (CCRS/CRT.
we may be able to remove. the top and side of objects are imaged and appear to lean away from the nadir point in each scan line. Now that we have learned about some of the general characteristics of platforms and sensors. Another distortion (B) occurs due to the rotation of the scanning optics. As the sensor scans across the swath. Although the scanning mirror rotates at a constant speed. This effect results in the compression of image features at points away from the nadir and is called tangential scale distortion. during a satellite orbit causes the sweep of scanning systems to cover an area slightly to the west of each previous scan. Geometric variations between lines are caused by random variations in platform altitude and attitude along the direction of flight. All images are susceptible to geometric distortions caused by variations in platform stability including changes in their speed.org. the IFOV of the sensor moves faster (relative to the ground) and scans a larger area as it moves closer to the edges. However. The resultant imagery is thus skewed across the image. As the sensor scans across each line. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. In most instances.org The geometry of along-track scanner imagery is similar to that of an aerial photograph for each scan line as each detector essentially takes a "snapshot" of each ground resolution cell. but are inherent in remote sensing imagery.t4cd. the eastward rotation of the Earth. www. the displacement increases. similar to aerial photographs. and attitude (angular orientation with respect to the ground) during data acquisition. A t4cd Training Manual 53 . These effects are most pronounced when using aircraft platforms and are alleviated to a large degree with the use of satellite platforms.Technologies for Conservation and Development. altitude. as their orbits are relatively stable. particularly in relation to their distance from the Earth. There is no displacement directly below the sensor. in the next sections we will look at some specific sensors (primarily satellite systems) operating in the visible and infrared portions of the spectrum. moving towards the edges of the swath. at nadir. Images from across-track scanning systems exhibit two main types of geometric distortion. but in only one direction parallel to the direction of scan. Again. or at least reduce these errors but they must be taken into account in each instance before attempting to make measurements or extract further information. The sources of geometric distortion and positional error vary with each specific situation. They too exhibit relief displacement (A). This is known as skew distortion and is common in imagery obtained from satellite multispectral scanners. the distance from the sensor to the ground increases further away from the center of the swath.
several countries operate weather.org Session 10: Understanding Weather Satellites 12. which have fairly coarse spatial resolution (when compared to systems for observing land) and provide large areal coverage. in near-polar orbits. Several other weather satellites were launched over the next five years.1). dating back to the first true weather satellite.forecasting.1 Landsat: Figure 33: Landsat (CCRS/CRT. Generally speaking. Their temporal resolutions are generally quite high.S.Technologies for Conservation and Development. Here we review a few of the representative satellites/sensors used for meteorological applications. For the first time. www.2. NASA (the U.t4cd.1 Weather Satellites/Sensors Figure 32: Hemispheric images (CCRS/CRT. the development and movement of weather systems could be routinely monitored. launched in 1960 by the United States. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. National Aeronautics and Space Administration) launched the geostationary Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-1) which provided hemispheric images of the Earth's surface and cloud cover every half hour.org. 2007) A t4cd Training Manual 54 . TIROS-1 (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite . 12. In 1966. and hence . or meteorological satellites to monitor weather conditions around the globe. 2007) Weather monitoring and forecasting was one of the first civilian (as opposed to military) applications of satellite remote sensing. providing frequent observations of the Earth's surface. which allows for near-continuous monitoring of global weather conditions. and cloud cover.2 Land Observation Satellites/Sensors 12. these satellites use sensors. Today. atmospheric moisture. providing repetitive coverage of global weather patterns.
Driven by the exciting views from. www. (Earth Resources Technology Satellite).2. they are not optimized for detailed mapping of the land surface. They have equator crossing times around 10:30 AM local solar time. 12. and can be viewed immediately. 12. with support from Sweden and Belgium. environmental hazard control. responsibility for the Landsat program was transferred to NOAA in 1983. with successors following every three or four years. which results in orbit repetition every 26 days. SPOT was designed to be a commercial provider of Earth observation data. Originally managed by NASA. a medium resolution four-channel Linear Imaging Selfscanning Sensor (LISS-III). and a coarse resolution two-channel Wide Field Sensor (WiFS). Initially referred to as ERTS-1. (fires.t4cd. The image data are recorded onto cassette. All satellites are in sun-synchronous. A t4cd Training Manual 55 . as well as from images taken during manned spacecraft missions. flooding). Applications with these requirements include natural disaster management. or pushbroom scanning technology.3 IRS The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series. the first satellite designed specifically to monitor the Earth's surface. was launched by NASA in 1972. and was the first satellite to use along-track.2.4 Video Although coarser in spatial resolution than traditional photography or digital imaging. crop and disease assessment. and police surveillance. Landsat was designed as an experiment to test the feasibility of collecting multi-spectral Earth observation data from an unmanned satellite platform. Landsat-1. In 1985. launched in December. Since that time. this highly successful program has collected an abundance of data from around the world from several Landsat satellites. 12.org Although many of the weather satellite systems (such as those described in the previous section) are also used for monitoring the Earth's surface.Technologies for Conservation and Development. combines features from both the Landsat MSS/TM sensors and the SPOT HRV sensor. and great success of the early meteorological satellites in the 1960's. Cameras used for video recording measure radiation in the visible. IRS-1C. The third satellite in the series. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. near infrared. SPOT-1 was launched in 1986. near-polar orbits at altitudes around 830 km above the Earth. The accompanying table outlines the specific characteristics of each sensor.2. and sometimes mid-infrared portions of the EM spectrum. video cameras provide a useful means of acquiring timely and inexpensive data and vocally annotated imagery. 1995 has three sensors: a single-channel panchromatic (PAN) high resolution camera. providing data to civilian and applications users. the program became commercialized.org.2 SPOT (Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre) is a series of Earth observation imaging satellites designed and launched by CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales) of France.
whether airborne or spaceborne. and timed. which provide their own source of electromagnetic energy. By recording the range and magnitude of the energy reflected from all targets as the system passes by. www. measured.5 RADAR RADAR stands for Radio Detection and Ranging. In addition.org. A t4cd Training Manual 56 . This backscattered microwave radiation is detected. some of the energy is reflected back towards the sensor. making it an all-weather sensor. looking obliquely at the surface perpendicular to the direction of motion. emit microwave radiation in a series of pulses from an antenna. Active radar sensors.org 12. RADAR systems are active sensors. Because RADAR provides its own energy source. The time required for the energy to travel to the target and return back to the sensor determines the distance or range to the target. a two-dimensional image of the surface could be produced.Technologies for Conservation and Development. microwave energy is able to penetrate through clouds and most rain.t4cd. images can be acquired day or night. When the energy reaches the target.2. email:t4cd@resourceafrica.
Other ground stations have been set up around the world to capture data from a variety of satellites. disk or CD. For many sensors.1 Data Reception. If this is not the case.one at Cantley.org. and much of the continental United States as well. Data can also be relayed to the GRS through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) (C). The data are transmitted from one satellite to another until they reach the appropriate GRS. data acquired from satellite platforms need to be electronically transmitted to Earth. They may then.Technologies for Conservation and Development. which consists of a series of communications satellites in geosynchronous orbit. and Processing (CCRS/CRT. There are three main options for transmitting data acquired by satellites to the surface. The combined coverage circles for these Canadian ground stations enable the potential for reception of real-time or recorded data from satellites passing over almost any part of Canada's land mass. However. It can then be processed and delivered to the end user. The data can be directly transmitted to Earth if a Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is in the line of sight of the satellite (A). CCRS operates two ground-receiving stations . the data can be recorded on board the satellite (B) for transmission to a GRS at a later time. Québec (GSS). Such imagery can then be faxed or A t4cd Training Manual 57 . The data are typically archived at most receiving and processing stations. In Canada. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. and government agencies as well as commercial companies responsible for each sensor’s archives manage full libraries of data.t4cd. Transmission. www. just outside of Ottawa. Saskatchewan (PASS). and Processing Data obtained during airborne remote sensing missions can be retrieved once the aircraft lands. Figure 34: Reception. if required. geometric and atmospheric distortions to the imagery.org Session 11: Understanding Reception. Transmission and Processing of Data 13. The technologies designed to accomplish this can also be used by an aerial platform if the data are urgently needed on the surface. it is possible to provide customers with quick-turnaround imagery when they need data as quickly as possible after it is collected. 2007) The data are received at the GRS in a raw digital format. Transmission. Near real-time processing systems are used to produce low resolution imagery in hard copy or soft copy (digital) format within hours of data acquisition. The data are written to some form of storage medium such as tape. be processed to correct systematic. since the satellite continues to stay in orbit during its operational lifetime. and another one at Prince Albert. and be translated into a standardized format.
org. The spatial and radiometric quality of these types of data products is degraded. to pass thermal infrared imagery to forest fire fighters right at the scene.Technologies for Conservation and Development. for example.t4cd. Low-resolution quick-look imagery is used to preview archived imagery prior to purchase. One application of this type of fast data processing is to provide imagery to ships sailing in the Arctic. A t4cd Training Manual 58 . coverage and cloud cover of the data is appropriate. Real-time processing of imagery in airborne systems has been used. as it allows them to assess current ice conditions quickly in order to make navigation decisions about the easiest/safest routes through the ice. www. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. but they are useful for ensuring that the overall quality.org transmitted digitally to end users.
desktop GIS • Point and click operation with graphical user interface (GUI) • Tools for visualizing. links map features to tables of attributes. Tables.org 14.org. Changing display order 3.t4cd. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. An overview of the package • Product of ESRI. add new functions and create complete applications A t4cd Training Manual 59 . Charts • Display tabular data graphically • Provides ability to compare attribute information 5.0 Practical Exercises 14. GUI. Menu. Charts & Scripts • All stored or saved as a project (. querying editing and analysing information linked to geographical locations. Tables • A document for displaying tabular information • Formatted into records (row) and fields (Columns) • Contains descriptive information about theme features 4. Layouts. Making themes active/ inactive 3. Views and Themes • A theme is a collection of similar geographical features and their attributes • Themes are displayed in Views • Each theme has a title and a legend in the view’s table of contents • Common theme operations are 1. • Has a standard GIS approach to data representation. Turning themes on/off 2. Scripts • Document for writing Avenue programs • Allows one to automate tasks. Project window & Document window • Five document types : • View. button.apr) and open via the project window 2. www. exploring.Technologies for Conservation and Development.1 Introduction to ArcView 1. tool and status bars. Non-spatial + Spatial data = themes • ArcView Interface : Application window. Layout • Create presentation quality maps • Display multiple documents and graphics in a single layout • Sent to printer/plotter 6.
3 Zooming and Panning Moving around a view is important as this help you to view more spatial data in more detail. • Switch of all themes but leave the catchment theme active.0 Exercises 1 (Adding and Viewing data) 15.org. Lines and Polygons. namely Points. you will see feature data source files in the directory. • Click the add theme button to add a theme to the view • The add theme dialog box opens up and displays directories in the scrolling list and spatial data sources in the left scrolling list • Navigate to a folder that has spatial data by double clicking each of the directory folders in succession • When the data source type is set to feature data sources (default). • Switch on or off various themes and make note of differences. Roads. Rain gauges. www. most of the themes that you will be working with will be Vector themes.Catchment. Neutron Probe and bratio & ec shapefiles. • We then need to set this in the legend editor and change the legend type to unique value. • ArcView adds the theme and assigns it a random colour. so that it is more visable to us. Arcinfo coverages. These may be Arcview shapefiles. How will you bring in more than one shapefile at a time? 15. • Try and put the themes in order so that when you have the entire themes switch on you are able to see almost every theme.2 Using Legend Editor Add the following themes: .shp by highlighting it and clicking OK. • Add the following data tensioazone. 15. CAD drawings or any other feature data sources that ArcView is able to read.1 Adding Feature Themes In ArcView. Conclip.org 15.t4cd. • In addition to this. There are 3 quick ways that you can zoom in or out in the view:• Zoom to full extent • Zoom to active theme A t4cd Training Manual 60 . email:t4cd@resourceafrica.Technologies for Conservation and Development. we might want parts of a theme to be in different colours. • Now try and change the colour of the theme by clicking on the theme in the theme scroll window. Now try and do the same for the other themes and make notes of the differences you find when changing the visual display for the other themes. Azone. landuse.
A t4cd Training Manual 61 . email:t4cd@resourceafrica. we find that we need to move the image around when we have zoomed in.t4cd. Play around with these zoom methods and get a feel how they work. Panning is easy.Technologies for Conservation and Development. this is called panning. find the button in the tool bar that has a picture of a hand.org • Zoom to selected There are other ways that one can also zoom in or out of a view.1 Viewing tables Each of the spatial features are linked to a table. 16. In certain cases.org.0 Exercises 2 (Viewing and Editing data tables) 16. this is by using the zoom tool. To view a table you need to click on the Open theme table in the tool bar. Press this button and move to the view window. Display the tables for the Catchment and landuse themes. This will bring up the table of the active theme. which is found in the view tool bar. www. as we need to view other parts of the image. Now click and hold on the image and move your mouse so that the image moves to other place of interest.
1997. M. Environmental Modelling with GIS.R. New York: Pergamon Press. Burrough.F. L. 1998.A.F.A.T. CCRS/RST 2007: Campbell H. Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems Clarke. (Second Edition 2000). email:t4cd@resourceafrica. Geographic Information Systems for Geoscientists: Modelling with GIS..org. Applications (Volumes 1 & 2). Parks. 1986.t4cd. P.O. Geographical Information Systems: An Introduction DeMers. K. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. Getting to Know ArcView GIS Foresman. S.org References Aronoff.J. T. 1998. Getting started with geographic information systems. et al. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. PrenticeHall Delaney. 2000. www. 1993. The GIS Sourcebook. Geographical Information Systems: Principles. [Ed]. N. ESRI. [Eds] 1996. Keith C. P.. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. J. and Masser I. 1995. Principles of Geographic Information Systems Burrough. New York: John Wiley. Oxford: Oxford University Press A t4cd Training Manual 62 .A. Clarke. Fort Collins Goodchild. The History of Geographical Information Systems: Perspectives from the Pioneers. Fort Collins: GIS-World Books Goodchild. 1997. New York: Wiley. GIS and Environmental Modelling: Progress and Research Issues. 1997.Technologies for Conservation and Development. M. W. Management and GIS World (1989): Spatial data exchange formats. GIS and Organizations: How effective are GIS in Practice? London: Taylor and Francis Chrisman. 1995. Principles of Geographic Information Systems Oxford: Oxford University Press). 1989.F. Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective Bonham-Carter G. (1997). 1998. and Steyaert. [Eds]. Techniques.N. B. and McDonnell R. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs. M. New York: Wiley.
units. readable introduction to the concepts. M. GPS Made Easy: Using GPS in the Outdoors. Remote Sensing: Optics and Optical Systems. 402 pp. Letham. Management and Applications (Volumes 1 & 2). John Wiley & Sons. Slater. Maguire. 2000. K. Tate.J. L. Remote Sensing: The Image Chain Approach. John R.. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. and Rhind.org. 1980.J. John Wiley&Sons McCluney.M. [Eds] 1998.org Heit.. www. Integrating GIS and the Global Positioning System T. Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry. Notable for its explanations of geometry. 575 pp. DeMers M. VIAK IT The Global Positioning System and GIS: An Introduction A t4cd Training Manual 63 . M. 273 pp. Fort Collins: GIS World Inc. 1994. email:t4cd@resourceafrica. 2000. Steede-Terry. and Shortreid. Oxford Univ. Chichester. M. Schott.Technologies for Conservation and Development. Bernhardsen (1992). New York: Oxford University Press.J. Goodchild. optics.. AddisonWesley Publ. GIS Applications in Natural Resources. Reading. G. (1997). 394 pp. Geographic Information Systems. and N.A.t4cd. P. Smith. New York: John Wiley.. Chapt. P. Curran. Boston.W. Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis.. "Methods for Estimating Image Signal-to-Noise Ration (SNR)". A good. 1997. New York. Seattle: The Mountianeers Longley. Co. D. N. Geographical Information Systems: Principles. Artech House. basics of radiation measurement. A. and P. Ross. An advanced remote sensing textbook.F. 5 in Atkinson. A useful resource on the basics of radiometric measurement. D. N. 1998. 1991. P. Press. Techniques.
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