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gful/s ;dfh b]zeQm tyf ;Dk"0f{ 3fOt], ckfË ;xLb agfP/ hgtfsf] af6f] canDag ub}5 { g\ . Tof] af6f] qmflGtnfO{{ ;Lldt hgo'4sf] l;nl;nf
sfo{ ug{ tlNng /x]sf] b]lvG5 . kl5Nnf Ps xKtfdf k|hftflGqs zlQmsf] lsQfaGbL ePsf] zlQm :yflkt uof}+{ eg]/ laZjsf] pTs[i6 ljKnjsf] nflu k|r08 ag]/ ;Dea dfq} a'lemof] eg] Tof] k|r08sf] /fhgLlt
;fj{hlgs ePsf k|dv ' ;dfrf/nfO{ dfq ljZn]if0f ug]{ 5 . To;sf] ;xL ;Ddfg / ;b'kof]u ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 9\jfË lk6] . 5}g . ljKnj g} ag]/ ;Dea 5, PsLs[t d[To' dfu{df k'Ug] vt/f x'G5 . csf]l{ t/
k|of]u u/]/ dfq /fi6«nfO{{ lgsf; lbg ;f/df hgtfsf] ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ /fhdf hgqmflGt eg]s} g]kfnL df}lnstf / xfdLn] lautsf o'4sf] tLtf /
xf] eg] ;/sf/ s} sf/0f b]z c;kmn /fi6« aGg] vt/fdf ;lsG5 . d'7Le/ kf6L{;g ldl8of, s]lGb|t u/fP . To:t} @)%@ ;fn kmfNu'g /fli6« o cv08tfsf] ;' / Iff ubf{ P]ltxfl;s kf7x? l;s]sf 5f} . hgtfsf]
k'us] f] 5 . ;/sf/sf] b'O{ ltxfO{sf] bDen] g} o:tf] l:ylt gful/s ;dfh, af}l4s eGg]x¿n] zlQm
/fi6«sf] 8f]g/df k|rf/ ;fd|fHo h]
! ut]sf] ;'?jftL hgo'4n] 5f]6f] clAwdf
/fli6«otf, hgtGq / hghLljsfsf]
laZjAofkL kltt ;fd|fHojfb / /fli6«o
¿kdf b]lvPsf] bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf] ca}w
cfTdLo efjgf ljrf/df rf]6 k'Ug] s'g}
klg xs{t x'gx' G' g Tof]kl| t x/]s kf6L{sf]
lgDTofPsf] cfd ;r]t gful/ssf] a'emfO 5 . ;/sf/ g km}lnPsf] 5 . Tof] ;To xf]Og, g]kfnL d'2fnfO{{ :yflkt u¥of] . To;df (%% ;DaGwn] hGdfPsf] a}1flgs larf/ xf], ;b:o k|lzIft agf];\ . /fHosf] afu8f]/
;dfh s:n] s] eGof] Tof]kl5 nfUg] g]kfnL hgtfsf] cb\et" ;fy / ;xof]u xfdL hfGb5f} . xhf/f}+ xhf/ ;xLb 3fOt] ;Dxfn] s f zf;sn] u/] s f] x/] s
k|ltkIfLsf] s'/f ;'G5, g b]z / hgtfsf] cfd"n ca:yfdf 5}g tYo s] < Tof] a'‰g] Ifdtf /x]sf] lyof] . To:nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o zlQm ckfË, a]kQfsf] cfF;' /ut, kl;gfsf] cft+ssf/L ultljlwsf] ;fdgf hgtfsf]
kl/jt{gsf] nflu ;+3if{/t kf6L{sf] cfhfj g} ;'G5 . ;/sf/ /fV5 . of] ca:yfdf sd/]8 laKnjn] /fi6«sf] a}zfvL ag]/ hgo'4sf] d"n Woo ;lDd>0f larf/ klg xf] . ljKnjsf] of] :t/af6 k|lt/f]w ug]{ Ifdtf k|bfg u/f];\
cu'jfO{ u/]sf] g]skfn] kl/jt{gsf/L gf}nf]hgjfbnfO{{ k|r08sf] PSsfO;f}+ a}1flgs larf/nfO{ at{dfg ;/sf/n] larf/ /fhgLlt g]tT[ jn] lbg] xf] . laho
x/]s ;sf/fTds s'/fnfO{ ;d]t b'O{ ltxfO{sf] andf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{;uF sf] efOrf/f ;DaGw ztfAbLsf] hgjfb eg]/ hgtfsf] kf6L{ a'‰g] Ifdtf /fVb}g . Wj+;fTds hgtfn] cfˆg} tfutaf6 ug]{ qmflGtsf
bafpg rfxG5 . h;sf sf/0f ;/sf/sf] 5jL w'ldn k|uf9 /fVg h?/L 5 . g]skf d;fn ;]gf / hg;QfnfO{ lagf;t{ lab]zL k|es ' f] kmf;Ljfbn] olta]nf ckgfpg] b'O6{ f l;4fGtnfO{{ elgG5 . hgtfsf] hgjfbL
qmflGtsf/L g]skf dfcf]jfbL Clif s§]nsf] kfpdf la;fP/ slyt ;+ljwfg ;efsf] ljsNk 5 . Pp6f rf}tkmL{ 3]/faGbL qmflGt clg o;af6 k|fKt /fHo
x'g k'u]sf] 5 . cfd hgtf ;/sf/sf] sfo{z}nLsf] g]skf g]dlskfnufotsf /fhgLlt zlQm gf6ssf] dGrg u/]/ /fhtGq lagfsf] u/]/ slyt aftf{sf] caf}l4s ckmafx Aoa:ynfO{ g} hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo
cfnf]rgf ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/ s} /j}ofsf] sf/0f hf] /fli6«otf hgtGq / hghLljsfsf] k' / fg} larf} l nof, cbf{ Ë bnfn km}nfpg] / kb / k};fsf] k|nf]egdf Aoa:yf Tof] Aoa:yfg} a}1flgs
d'2fnfO{{ ;xof]u k'Ug] b]lvG5 . csf]l{ t/ o'/f]sDo'gsf] em'G8 dGrg ul//x]sf 5g\ . ljKnjsf] kf6L{nfO{{ lsGg] / ;:tf] efpdf ;dfh˜jfbdf hfgsf] nflu k|z:t af6f]
;/sf/lj?4 k|dv ' k|ltkIfL bnnufot b]zsf ;a} k|hftfGqsf] kIfdf plePsf] gful/s slyt sDo'lg:6sf] gfd dGrg u/]/ o'/f]kdf laqmLljt/0f ug]{ af6f] bf];f| ] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . jt{dfg slyt sDo'lg:6
;dfh / af}l4s zlQmsf] ;Nnfx, tTsfnLg Pdfn] / dfs]n] u/]sf] r'gfjL ljsNk /fHosf] ;Dk"0f{ zlQm / cfˆgf] ;/sf/ / ltgsf] l;4fGt ;dfhjfb
/fhgLlts bn Psh'6 x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . o:tf] ;'emfjnfO{{ cfTdaf]w ug{k' 5{ . csf]l{ t/ tfnd]n / kf6L{ Pstf klZrdf cGweQm k];j] / u'G8f slyt a'l4hLlj pGd'vsf] xhf/f}+ 9\jfË lk6] klg jf:tljs
kl/l:yltn] b]z k'gM åGådf hfg] lglZrt b]lvG5 . t;y{ cToGt} ;+ o ldt ag] / hgtfsf] d'ns ' x¿sf] kmf]xf]/sf saf8L sr/f eGg] / kf6L{;g ldl8of;d]t k|of]u ug]{ >dhLlj ;a{xf/fau{n] cg'df]lbt gu/]sf]
dfgjclwsf/sf] pRr ;ts{ t f laqmLljt/0f ug]{ Pp6f ef6e6]gL 5g\ . of] cfFwLx"/LnfO{ ljKnjn] hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg / To;;Fu} ag]sf] s7d'Nnf
;/sf/n] k|dv ' k|ltkIfL nufot b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf ckgfpg h?/L 5 . ;/sf/n] ug]{ x/]s k;ndf sDo'lg:6 ;fOgaf]8{ em'lG8P/ aLrdf a;]/ ;lhnf];uF ;fdgf ug]{ ;/sf/ k|ltudgsf] k'ghf{u/0f ug{lt/
;lt;fn eP/ v8f ePsf] ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn hgla/f]wL xs{tsf] ;lhn} ;fdgf ug{ k|ltlqmofjfbL tyf bnfn k'h F Ljfb / ;fdYo{ /fVg'k5{ . at{dfg d'ns ' df pBt 5 . h;sf] kl/0ffd jf:tljs
PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] dfu{ ;kmn x'g5] . /fli6«o lav08gsf] Aofkf/ / To;sf] c;nL sDo'lg:6 Aoa:yf Pl;of dhb'/, ls;fg, ul/a, lgd'vf hgtfb]lv
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{;uF ;xdlt / ;xsfo{ u/]/ cufl8 a9\g' Tot h;n] ljdfg agfpF5, p;n] Aofh lab]zL k|en ' fO{ a'emfPsf] st} klg Tof]leqsf] klg blIf0f Pl;of To;sf] cnu–cnu /x]sf] sf/0f xf] .
p8fpFbf p;nfO{{ g} cfTdljZjf; x'bg} n'ss ] f] 5}g . To;}nfO{{ dWogh/ u/]/ klg g]kfn / g]kfndf klg ljKnjsf] clGtd ;'emfjdf xfd|f] OR5f dfq}
ljsNk 5}g . cGoyf ;/sf/sf] x7 s} sf/0f ;tfl;g ls lkn]g ;xL ljdfg:ynaf6 p8]/ ;fgf] s'/f n]Vg rfxG5' . cu'jfOdf dfq} ;Dea 5 of] xfdL s] xf] eg] g]kfnLsf] /fhgLlt j[Qlrqdf
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ / p;sf] ;/sf/ hgtfsf] gh/df lglZrt laGb'df ;'/lIft cjt/0f x'G5 . g] k fnL hgtfsf] cfzf s] xf] g]kfnLsf] cfzf xf] . lalk k5fl8 g]kfn ;xL cy{df cfGtl/s
of t ;]6nfO6 6«flkms ;d:ofn] laKnj < ljKnjk|lt xfd|f] lrGtf s] xf] < k|hftflGqs d"No, dfGotfnfO{{ Aoa:yfkg
lug]{ 5 . hgtfsf] gh/af6 lu/]sf] kf6L{, ;/sf/ / g]tfsf] cfsfzdf 3'dfpg' k5{ . To;sf] nflu xfdLnfO{{ /fd|f;
] uF yfxf 5 afa'/fd x/] s c;n a:t' / To;sf] ug]{ / cfGtl/s /fli6«otfnfO{{ dha't
xfnt s] x'G5 cfk"mnfO{ nf]stGqsf] 7]sb] f/ ;Demg] / ladfgdf kof{Kt ˆo'n, Uof; / OGwgsf] / k|r08n] slyt P]ltxfl;s r'gafË dflnsk|lt ;dfhdf lrGtfsf] s'/f agfpg] s'/fd ;a}sf] larf/ c;kmn
r]shfFr ;fy} cjt/0f Pl/ofsf] /fd|f] a}7s eGb} ubf{ To:sf] alv{nfkdf Psn} a]nfavt p7g' s'g} cgf}7f] laifo xf]Og . ePsf] 5 . Tof]cg';f/ /fli6«otf /
g]tfx¿nfO{ ;DemfO{ /xg' gknf{ r]tgf eof . cg'ejn] dfq} ;xL laGb'sf] kQf] qmflGtsf/L d'7L s;]/ le8\g] g]qlaqmd k|r08 / afa'/fdnfO{{ klZrdf zlQm k|hftflGqs d"No, dfGotfsf] ;xL
nufpF5 . xftn] /fhgLlt Aoa:yfsf] rGb ljKnj xf] hlt;'s} k|lts[ofjfbL /fi6«x?n] cfˆgf] clwgfosjfb nfb]/ Joj:yfkg lasf; ;d[l4sf] gofF
kqsf/ dxh{gnfO{ tTsfn l/xf gu/] cfGbf]ng
sf7df8f}F . hgkqsf/ ;+u7g ug]{ u/]sf] 5, ;/sf/ / /fHosf
nflu dfq @))& ;fnb]lv clxn];Dd
y'k}| k6s xltof/ p7fpg] / ;xdlt
hfn / r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ubf{ ljKnjsf]
;fxl;s sbdn] qmflGtsf/L larf/ /
h;/L hgo'4 / hgo'4sf] ;Dk"0f{
pknlAwnfO{{ ;:tf] d"Nodf lsg]/ k|r08–
df}lnstf Aoa:yfkg ug]{ ;f]r Ifdtf
ljKnjaf6 cfzf 5 . o;sf] lhDd]jf/L
g]kfnn] ;f] ;+u7g sf7df8f}s
F f lhNnf c+ux¿nfO{ kqsf/dfly ul/Psf] ;Demf}tfdf 6'ªo\ fpg] u/]sf 5f}F . cflv/ ;+u7gsf] hLljt /x]sf] oyfy{nfO{{ xfdLn] afa'/fdsf] /fdlnnf hGt/ x/fPsf] k"0f{ tl/sfn] /fi6« / hgtfsf] Ho'–wgsf]
;+of]hs lht]Gb| dxh{gnfO{ tTsfn o:tf]vfn] bdg / x:tIf]k tTsfn g]kfnL hgtfn] pxLF cfF;,' /ut kl;gfsf] e'Ng' Tolt /fd|f] x'Gg olb ljKnj gePsf] tfufwf/L h:t} ePsf 5g\ . Tof] pRr ;ts{tf ckgfpFb} PsLs[t
l/xf ug{ clkn /f]Sg r]tfjgL hf]xf] ug{ kltt /Ho;Qfsf] kfp k/]sf] eP klZrdf ;fd|fHojfbsf lelhnfGt] rfnafhL PsLs[ t hgqmflGtsf] hgqmflGtnfO{ lahodf k'¥ofpg ;kmn
u/] s f] 5 . lbg rxfG5f}+ . tLtf] ;To 5 . k|hftflGqs d"No, / blIf0fL x}sdjfbsf el/ofx? d:t;Fu ultljlwdf ulxl/P/ cWoog ul//x]sf x'g] cfzfdf 5f}F . ;/sf/n] hlt;'s}
kqsf/nfO{ /fHon] rf} y f] dfGotfnfO{{ :yflkt ug{ g]kfnL sfFu; ]| n] ;' t ] / >dhLlj, >lds ;a{ x f/f 5g\, PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO{ s;/L cft+ssf/L ultljlw hgtfdf y'kf5{,
a}rfl/s cf:yfs} c+usf] ¿kdf tLg–tLg k6s xltof/ p7fof] . cGTodf ju{;3+ if{sf] ;:tf] Aofkf/ u/]/ Aofhdf hgtfsf] gh/df k'Ug glbP/ hgtf / Tolts} hg:t/af6 k|lt/f]w ug]{ Ifdtfsf]
sf/0f lu/ˆtf/ kl/eflift /f0ff / /fhf;Fusf] ;Demf}tfdf /fdk|;fb /dfpg] kl/sNkgf ;lhnf];uF k"/f ug]{ ljKnjsf] ;DaGw cnu–cnu agfpg] lasf; g} PsLs[t hgqmflGt xf] .
ul/Psf] eGb} u/]sf] ldl8of
pgnfO{ tTsfn l/xf / udL{ df};ddf x'g;Sg] cfunfuLsf 36gfx¿ / ;f]af6 x'g;Sg] hgwgsf] Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ lgDgfg';f/ ug]{ u/f}+ .
gu/] ;+ u 7gn] ldl8ofsdL{x¿sf]
r/0fa4 cfGbf]ng e"ldsf cjZo • ;nfO{, nfO6/h:tf cfuf] afNg] ;fdu|Lx? afnaflnsf tyf dfgl;s ;Gt'ng 7Ls gePsf JolQmx¿n] ge]6g\ ] 7fpFdf
ug]{ r]tfjgL ;d]t klg /fHonfO{ /fvf}F .
lbPsf] 5 . ;'emfj;lxtsf] • vfgf ksfO;s]kl5 cfuf] /fd|f; ] uF lgefcf},F vfgf ksfpg] UofF; k|ofustf{n] r'nf], /]un
' 6] / tyf nfO6/ cflb ;do ;dodf
;+u7gsf s]lGb|o /rgfTds lg/LIf0f u/f}F .
cWoIf k|sfz 8'd]| cfnf]rgf
/ dxf;lrj lxd lji64f/f x:tfIf/Lt u5{g\, xfd|f] ;+u7gdf cf:yfjfg • r'/f]6 laF8Lh:tf j:t'x¿ k|of]ukZrft\ hyfefjL gkmfnf}F / cfuf] /fd|f] ;Fu lgefcf}F .
lj1KtLdf kqsf/n] n]Vg] snd;Fu ;fyLx¿sf] e"ldsf klg Tof]eGbf s'g} • k]6f« n
] , l8h]n, UofF; :6];gsf] jl/kl/ ;nfO{, nfO6/h:tf ;fdu|Lsf] a]rlavg tyf k|of]u gu/f}F .
;/sf/ cft+ l st ePsf] eGb} k"jf{ux| 5}g cem o;eGbf Ps sbd • cfunfuLsf 36gf ePdf bdsn, ;'/IffsdL{ / ;~rf/dfWoddf va/ u/f}F .
kqsf/x¿nfO{ dfgl;s tgfa lbg] cuf8L a9] / /fHo;F u ljdtL • ;Dej eP;Dd 3/ tyf sfof{nodf cUgL lgoGqs pks/0f /fvf}F .
/ cgfjZos b'v lbg] sfd tTsfn ePsfx¿, ljb| f ] x sf] cfjfh
aGb ug{ elgPsf] 5 . lj1lKtdf p7fO/x]sfx¿, /fHosf] kx'rF eGbf 6f9f • cfunfuLsf 36gf 36]df dlxnf, afnaflnsf, j[4j[4f tyf czQmx¿sf] ;'/Iffdf ljz]if Wofg lbcf}F .
…kqsf/x¿n] n]Vg] snd;Fu /fHo /x] s f hgtfx¿nfO{ hgkIfLo • cfunfuLsf] 36gf s'g} klg a]nf 36\g] ePsf] x'bF f kfgLsf ;|ft] x? rfn" cj:yfdf /fvf}F .
olt w]/} cft+lst ag]sf] 5 ls kqsfl/tfsf] dfWodaf6 /fHo;Fusf]
kqsf/sf] cf:yf / ljrf/s} sf/0f ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/] / zflGtk" 0 f{
cgfjZos ¿kdf w/ks8 ug]{ tyf dfWodaf6 /fHo:t/sf ;d:ofx¿nfO{ g] k fn ;/sf/
lu/ˆtf/L ug{] ul//fv]sf] 5 . /fHon]
kl5Nnf] ;do xfd|f] ;+u7gsf s]xL
xn ug{ /rgfTds e"ldsf v]n]sf]
5 .Ú eGb} tTsfn l/xf gu/] cfufdL
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
;fyLx¿nfO{ ldl8ofsf] sfof{noaf6}
b]vL sfo{If]qdf vl6/xFbf lu/ˆtf/
;+u7gn] r/0fa4 cfGbf]ng ug]{
r]tfjgL lbO{Psf] 5 .
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
@)&^ ;fn j}zfv ! ut] cfOtaf/ 3

gful/s clwsf/ / kmf}hL ;dfwfgsf] s'–af6f]


k|wfgdGqL / k|wfgGofofwLz u/fpg] sf]lzz ul/Psf] 5 . cfh p7fPsf] 5 t/ b'O{ ltxfO{n] dQ dxËf] / afWofTds pkrf/sf nflu ;+jfb rflv/x]sf 5g\ . t/ () lx/f;t nluG5 . sd{rf/L cfˆgf]
lgjf;leq}sf] hUuf …e"dflkmofÚ / s]xL a'l4hLjL / clwsf/sdL{x¿ ;/sf/ sf]xL s;}sf k|Zg ;'Gg] jfnf lglh c:ktfn ;~rfnsx¿ k|ltzteGbf w]/} gful/s ;/sf/ / k]zfut dfu lnP/ ;8sdf cfp5g
e"ld;'wf/ sfof{nosf] ldn]dtf]df l;xb/af/ cf;kf; a;]/ gful/ssf 5} g . Jofkf/ 3f6f a9] s f] 5, of]hgfa4 9+un] nflu/x]sf 5g\ . /fHo ;~rfnsx¿ ;Fu ;Gt'i6 5}g\ . ;/sf/;Fu ;dfwfgsf] ljsNk s]xL
JolQmsf gfdf btf{ u/]sf] ;dfrf/ clwsf/ / cfGbf]ng af/] unt gful/ssf uf;, afF;, skf;, lzIff b]zsf vf]nfgfnfx¿ Pskl5 xf] () k|ltzt gful/sx¿ ;/sf/sf] 5}g pN6f] k|x/L nufP/ lx/f;t
;fj{hlgs eP;+u} /fHosf] uDeL/tf sf]0faf6 l6Kk0fL ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . / :jf:y olt dxËf x'bF } uPsf 5g\ csf]{ ljb]zLnfO{ ljleGg :jfy{ / lj/f]w u/]/ ;8sdf cfpg g;s]sf sf]lrG5 . sf]xL s;}n] klg cfGbf]ng
dfly k|Zg lrGx v8f ePsf] 5 . lxhf] k~rfotL Joj:yfdf ;d]t ;fdfGo hgtfn] Hj/f] cfpbf xl:k6n ;t{ d f a] l rPsf] 5 . l;dfgf xf]nfg\ . ;8sdf 6fo/ / d;fn afNg /x/ / dgf]/~hgsf nflu ub}{gg\,
lgjf;leq}sf] hUuf #$ /f]kgL !# tTsfnLg /fHo olt w]/} qm'4 b]lvPsf] uP/ pkrf/ ug{ g;Sg] u/L :jf:y ldlr/flvPsf] 5, ;Ldf If] q sf gcfpnfg t/ /fHo;~rfns;Fu pgsf cfˆg} lk8f x'G5g\ ;d:of x'G5g\
cfgf @ k};f hUufdf km}lnPsf] lyPg . b; aif]{ hgo'4df ;d]t If]qdf dxËL a9]sf] 5 . g]kfnLx¿ ljleGg tl/sfn] c;'/lIft ;Gt'i6 ag] sbflk 5}gg\ . pgsf / t ;8sdf cfp5g . ;/sf/n]
eO{/fv]sf 5g\ . t/ ;/sf/;Fu :ki6 cfˆg} afWotf 5g\ lbge/ h]gt]g pgLx¿sf dfu Pjd\ ;d:ofnfO{
k|sfz 8'd]| gLlt 5}g, ef/t;Fu l;wf l;wf l;df
tyf cGo ljifodf k|Zg ug]{ g}lts
>d u/] / cfˆgf] kl/jf/sf] k] 6
e/fpg] afWotf pgLx¿sf] sfFwdf
;dfwfg ug] { xf] eg] sf] x L
cfGbf]ngsf/L csf]{ k6s ;8sdf
sd{rf/L c;Gt'i6 5g\ cfGbf]lnt 5g\, cfwf/ ePsf /fHo ;~rfnsx¿ 5 . pgLx¿ clxn] s f hfb}g\ . t/ oxfFsf /fHo ;~rfns
b]lvb}gg\ . /fHo;~rfnsx¿sf] ljsNk jf ;/sf/;F u gful/s tyf
sltko txsf ;'/Iff lgsfodf c;Gt'li6 oL / o:t} kl/j]zdf Psy/L rfxfG5g t/ ;8sdf cfpg hgtfsf dfu pk/ s'g} ;dfwfg 5}gg\
5 . a9'jf, kbf]Gglt, ;?jf a9'jf nufPtdf /fHo ;~rfnsx¿ oL / o:t} rfxfb}gg\ . l8u|Lsf] k|df0fkq Rofk]/ s' g } ljsNk 5} g g\ , oxfF s f
;'/Iff lgsfodf 7'nf] c;Gt'li6 5 h'g k| l qmofaf6 b] z sf] ljsf; x' G 5, vf8L jf o'/f]k efl;g afWo o'jf /fHo;~rfns;Fu gful/ssf clwsf/
kmf}hL ;+/rgfdf b]vfpg kfO{bg } t/ b] z df ;d[ l 4 cfpF 5 , ;a} n fO{ s'g} klg dfg]df /fHo ;~rfns;Fu lbg] ljsNk eg]sf] k|x/L nufP/
/f] h uf/Lsf] ;' l glZrttf ul/G5, ;Gt'i6 5}g . Eofgdf sf]Rg' dfq} xf] .
k|x/Laf6 ljleGg axfgfdf /flhgfdf lbg]sf] /fli6«otf / :jfledfgLsf] n8fOFdf gful/ssf ljleGg cfodx¿df t;y{ of] kl/j] z df /fHo
;+Vof lbgk|ltlbg a9\bf] b]lvG5 . xfd|f] lht x'G5 eGg] h:t} ts{ c;Gt'li6 r'lnPsf] 5 . sd{rf/L ;~rfnsx¿ ;Fu hgtfsf] cfqmf];
O{lGhlgo/ ;Gt'i6 5}gg\ cfGbf]ngdf 5g\, ul//x] s f 5g\ . t/ /fHo c;Gt'i6 5g\ cfGbf]lnt 5g\, sltko Pjd\ c;Gt'li6 r'lnPsf] 5 . hgtf
kqsf/ cfGbf]ngdf 5g\ pBf]uL Joj;foL ;~rfnsx¿sf] clxn] ; Ddsf] txsf ;'/Iff lgsfodf c;Gt'li6 5 . Pskl5 csf]{ 9+un] 5g\ cfqmf]l;t
sfo{ z } n L, cWog, a' e mfO{ / a9' j f, kbf] G glt, ;?jf a9' j f x' g ] lglZrt g} 5 . hgtfsf]
cfGbf]ngdf 5g\, ljwfyL{ cfGbf]ngdf 5g\ b[li6sf]0fsf] lx;fan] of] g]t[Tj / nufPtdf ;'/Iff lgsfodf 7'nf] dfunfO{ /fHon] ;dfwfg lbg ;s],
s[ifs cfGbf]ngdf 5g\ . o;sf] dtna clxn]sf /fHo ;~rfnsx¿ af6 c;Gt'li6 5 h'g kmf}hL ;+/rgfdf gful/ssf] c;Gt'li6nfO{ xn ug{
gful/ssf ;a} kIfdf cfqmf]; 5, c;Gtf]if o:t} tl/sfn] b]zdf ljsf; x'g], b]vfpg kfO{bg} t/ k|x/Laf6 ljleGg ;s] dfq} ljb|f]x cGTo x'g] ljifo
5 t/ /fHo;Fu s'g} ljsNk 5}g . lzIfs ;d[l4 cfpg], ;a}nfO{ /f]huf/Lsf axfgfdf /flhgfdf lbg]sf] ;+Vof xf] . t/ kmf}h nufP/ ul/g] ;dfwfg
;'lglZrttf x'g] cf;f / e/f];f lbgk|ltlbg a9\bf] b]lvG5 . O{lGhlgo/ slxNo} klg :yfoL ;dfwfg ePsf
;/sf/;Fu cfˆgf] k]zfut dfu /fv]/ ;8sdf cfp5 t/ ltgnfO{ /fHon] w]/n } fO{ nfUb}g . sltkosf cf–cfˆg} ;Gt'i6 5}gg\ cfGbf]ngdf 5g\, kqsf/ 5}gg\ . hgtfn] /fHo;Fu :jefljs
;dfwfg xf]Og, ljsNk xf]Og k|x/L nufP/ lx/f;t nluG5 . sd{rf/L cfˆgf] afWotfn] clxn] s f /fHo cfGbf]ngdf 5g\ pBf]uL Joj;foL cfzf, ck]Iff / dfux¿ /fV5g\,
k]zfut dfu lnP/ ;8sdf cfp5g ;/sf/;Fu ;dfwfgsf] ljsNk s]xL 5}g ;~rfnsx¿ ;Fu cfzf / ck]Iff cfGbf]ngdf 5g\, ljwfyL{ cfGbf]ngdf /fHo hgtfsf dfu /
/fv] h:tf] ug{ ' k /] s f] xf] n f, 5g\ s[ifs cfGbf]ngdf 5g\ . o;sf] cfjZostfx¿ k|lt slt lhDd]jf/
pN6f] k|x/L nufP/ lx/f;t sf]lrG5 . sf]xL s;}n] klg cfGbf]ng /x/ / sltkonfO{ oxL /fHo ;~rfnsx¿ dtna gful/ssf ;a} kIfdf cfqmf]; eof] jf ePg\ Tof] d'n ljifo xf] .
dgf]/~hgsf nflu ub}g { g\, pgsf cfˆg} lk8f x'G5g\ ;d:of x'G5g\ / t ;Fu ljsf;, ;d[l4, /f]huf/L nufPt 5, c;Gtf]if 5 t/ /fHo;Fu s'g} t/ hgtfsf] dfu tyf ck]Iffx¿nfO{
;8sdf cfp5g . ;/sf/n] pgLx¿sf dfu Pjd\ ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug]{ xf] ;a} l:yltsf] k' 0 f{ t Mcg' e ' t L / ljsNk 5}g . lzIfs ;/sf/;Fu s' g } jf:t} gu/L kmf} h nufP/
eg] sf]xL cfGbf]ngsf/L csf]{ k6s ;8sdf hfb}g\ . t/ oxfFsf /fHo Uof/]G6L klg ePsf] xf]nf, Tof] l:ylt cfˆgf] k]zfut dfu /fv]/ ;8sdf ;dfwfg u/] / lbuf] xn x' F b}g .
;du|df $/% k|ltztn] cg'e'tL cfp5 t/ ltgnfO{ /fHon] ;dfwfg n]vs–hgkqsf/ ;+u7g g]kfnsf
;~rfns jf ;/sf/;Fu gful/s tyf hgtfsf dfu pk/ s'g} ;dfwfg 5}gg\ u/]sf xf]nfg h;n] l;x+b/af/sf] xf]Og, ljsNk xf]Og k|x/L nufP/ s]Gb|Lo cWoIf x'g .
s'g} ljsNk 5}gg\, oxfFsf /fHo;~rfns;Fu gful/ssf clwsf/ lbg] ljsNk
eg]sf] k|x/L nufP/ Eofgdf sf]Rg' dfq} xf] . ;/sf/lj?4===== kmfl;jfbL x'g .Ú pgn] l;s] /fpt /
;/sf/aLr ePsf] ;Demf}tfdfly klg
/fhgLlts bnn];femf wf/0f agfpFg'
kg]{ atfP . pgn] ;/sf/ ;~rfng
b]pjf, g]skf dfcf]jfbL qmflGtsf/Lsf
dxf;lrj df]xg a}B, /fli6«o hgtf k| Z g p7fP . …l;s] /fpt;F u ul//x]sf] kf6L{sf g]tfx¿df ljrf/
k|wfgdGqL lgjf;leqsf] # /f]kgL !) hgo'4, /fhgLlts Joj:yf, tTsfnLg lzIff If]q p:t} 5 ;j{;fwf/0f uf]Ko¿kdf ;Demf}tf ug{e ' of] . cfˆg} / l;4fGt g/x]sf] cf/f]k nufP .
cfgf hUuf JolQmsf] gfddf / ;/sf/ af/] dfgjclwsf/sld{ , hgtfsf] 5f]/f5f]/Ln] /fd|f] :s'ndf kf6L{sf cWoIfd08nsf ;b:o /fh]Gb|
dxtf], g]skf dfn]sf dxf;lrj ;LkL kf6L{nfO{ klg yfxf lbOPg . Tof] pgn] eg], …of] ;/sf/ peolnËL h:tf]
!$ /f]kgL !) cfgf If]qkmndf a'l4hLjL, k|Wofks, kqsf/ nufPtn] k9\g] ;kgf b]Vg 5fl8;s]sf 5g\ . /x:odo 5 .Ú o:t} dxf;lrj a}Bn] 5 . of] ;/sf/sf] gfddf ge'nf}F . of]
/x]sf] k|wfgGofofwLz lgjf;leqsf] @ sf7df8f} a;]/ 9'Ss;Fu cfˆgf] ljrf/ ;/sf/L :s'nx¿ sdhf]/ / z}lIfs d}gfnL, gofFzlQm kf6L{sf k|jQmf 8Da/
vltj8f, dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf cWoIf g]qljqmd rGb g]tT[ jsf] g]skfnfO{ l5s]{lds]{ /fli6«jfbL kf6L{ xf] . of] g
/f]kgL !$ cfgf hUuf JolQmsf] gfddf cleJolQm ug{ kfpy] t/ cfh ;/sf/ u'0f:t/sf lx;fan] s'¿k aGb} uPsf uf]kfn ls/fFtL, k"j{ jfO;LPn g]tf k|ltaGw nufpg] lg0f{o k'glj{rf/ ug{ sDo'lgi6 xf] g nf]stflGqs xf] .Ú pgn]
btf{ /x] s f] e] l 6Psf] ;dfrf/n] af/] cfnf]rgf u/]/ ts{ a'l4hLjLx¿ 5g eg] lghL af]l8{ªx¿n] z}lIfs rGb|axfb'/ yfkf / g]skfsf g]tf Clif klg ;/sf/nfO{ bjfj lbP . dxf;lrj ;/sf/ ;Qf hf]ufpg gful/stf
Psk6s k'gM /fHo ;~rfnssf] k|ltalGwt xF'b}5g\, ;/sf/L /a}ofsf ahf/ ttfPsf 5g\ . /fHo ;~rfng s§]nnufot ;xefuL ePsf lyP . a} B n] rGb g] t [ T jsf] g] s kfnfO{ ljt/0fsf] v] n df nfu] s f] ;d] t
u}/lhDd]jf/ /a}of dfly uDeL/ k|Zg lj/f]w ug]{ clwsf/sdL{x¿ k|x/L txdf ePsf clwsf+ ; n] lghL pQm larf/ uf]i7Ldf cfˆgf] wf/0ff /fhgLlts Jojxf/ ug{ klg ;/sf/sf] atfP .
lrGx v8f u/]sf] 5 . k|wfgdGqL / Eofgdf sf]lrg' k/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] af]l8{ªsf] gfddf lzIffsf] Jofkf/ /fVb} k|dv' k|ltkIfL g]kfnL sfFu; ]| sf ulDe/ Wofgfsif{0f u/fP . o;}u/L, g]skf dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf
k|wfgGofofwLz lgjf;;Ddsf hUuf lj/f] w u/] / , ljrf/ / cf:yfsf ul//x]sf 5g\ . pgnfO{ ;/sf/L ;efklt z] / axfb' / b] p jfn] ™”:o;}u/L, /fhkf g]kfnsf g]tf cWoIf uf]kfn ls/fFtLn] jt{dfg
e'dflkmofn] lgw{Ss;Fu JolQmsf] gfddf lx;fan] ljb|f]xLnfO{ sfg'gL ;xof]u lawfnosf] eGbf lghL af]l8{ªnfO{ ;/sf/lj?4 cfGbf]ng ug{ o'jf / /fh]Gb| dxtf]n] k|wfgdGqLsf] pvfg ;/sf/sflj?4 cfGbf]ngsf] ljsNk
ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ cfXjfg u/] . ;efklt 6'Ssfn] ;d[l4 gcfpg] atfP . dxtf]n] g/x]sf] atfP . pgn] eg], …;Qf aflx/
u/fpg] a]nf;Dd ;/f]sf/fjfnf lgsfo ug]{ sfg'gL Joj;foLx¿ ;/sf/L Jojl:yt / yk dxËf] / hah{:t b'O{ ltxfOsf] ;/sf/n] hgtfsf sfd /x]sf ;a} /fhgLlt bnx¿ ldn]/
d:t lgb|fdf 5g\ . clVtof/ !% ;o lgu/fgLdf a:g' k/]sf] 5, ;/sf/sf] ;a}nfO{ k9fpg} kg]{ afWofTds l:ylt b]pjfn] s]kL cf]nL g]tT[ jsf] jt{dfg
;/sf/n] htftt} x:tIf]k ul//x]sf] ug{ g;s]sf] eGb} ;/sf/n] …l7s7fsÚ v8\uk|;fb cf]nL ;/sf/lj?4 nfUg'kg]{
3'; lng] v/bf/ ksfp u/L kqsf/ /rgfTds cfnf]rgf ug]{ kqsf/x¿ lt/ n} h fg] u/L P] g lgodx¿ eGb}df lbg ljtfPsf] cf/f]k nufP . a]nf nfPsf] 5 . k|dv ' k|ltkIf bnsf
;Dd]ng u5{ . b]zsf ljleGg efudf lgu/fgLdf a:g'k/]sf] 5 . ljrf/;Fu agfO{ b } 5 g . hals ;/sf/L pNn]v ub}{ To;sf] lj/f]wdf cfGbf]ng
ug{ cfˆgf] kf6L{ tof/ /x]sf] klg pgn] ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ cfGbf]ng ubf{ g]tf z]/axfb'/ b]pjf / dxf]g j}B
;/sf/L hUuf ;/sf/L ;oGq / glhs ePs} sf/0f lzIfs lu/ˆtf/ lawfnonfO{ Pp6f cj:yf;Dddf k'Ubf u8a8 x'g;S5 eGb} /]zd rf}w/Ln] ls/0f Ho"n] o;sf] cu'jfO{ ug{ k5{ .
:ki6 kf/] . pgn] ;+jw} flgs kl/ifbsf]
e'dflkmofs} ldlndtf]df /ftf/ft ul/Psf] 5 . xf] ;/sf/n] k|ltalGwt aGb u/fpg] ;Ddsf of]hgfdf pgLx¿ a}7s af]nfP/ ;+j}wflgs lgsfosf] klxrfgsf nflu cfGbf] n g ubf{ of] ;/sf/ @ dlxgfd} 9N5 .Ú g]tf
JolQmsf] gfddf u/fO{G5 . jfO{8j8Lsf] nufPsf] kf6L{sf cfGbf]ng jf ;+3i{ fdf nflu/x] s f] b] l vG5 . otfsbf kbflwsf/L ;d]t Psnf}6L 9+un] lg0f{o ;/sf/n] h]ndf sf]r]sfn] xf]; u/]/ ls/fFtLn] ;a} ljBfyL{ ;+u7gnfO{
caf}{+ e|i6frf/ af/] n]vf ;ldltsf] d;fn / n¶L af] s ] / s' g } klg sl7gfOsf aLr cfˆgf] of]Uotf to lng] sfd u/]sf] eGb} k|wfgdGqL dfq} cfGbf]ng ug{ ;'emfj lbP . ljKnjsf] cfufdL a}zfv % ut] 3f]if0ff
k|ltj]bgnfO{ km]n agfO{G5 . ## lsnf] clwsf/sdL{ , a' l 4hLjL, kqsf/ u/]sf] z}lIfs hgzlQmnfO{ b]zd} vkt cf]nLsf] rsf]{ cfnf]rgf u/] . ;efklt jt{dfg ;/sf/n] s;}nfO{ k|ltjGw u/]sf] g]kfn aGbdf ;fy / ;dy{g
;'gsf08 af/] ;/sf/ clxn];Dd ;8sdf uPsf] b]lvb}g . t/ sndsf] ug]{ ;/sf/;Fu s'g} of]hgf / :ki6 b]pjfn] k|wfgdGqLn] ;]gf kl/rfng nufpg] / s;}nfO{ ;dft]/ y'Gg] lbg cfu|x u/] .
lrQa'‰bf] hjfkm lbg ;Sb}gg\ . dfWodaf6, ax; 5nkmnsf] sfo{qmd 5}g . p afWo eP/ o'/f]k ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] eGb} ul//x]sf] eGb} b]z ljv08gsf] dfu
ug] { l;s] /fpt;F u bf] : tL u/] /
g]skfdflysf]=====
Pg;]nn] ltg{' kg]{ caf}{+ s/ af/] dfWodaf6 ;/sf/ / /fhgLlts jf vf8L k:g laj; 5 . ;/sf/ eg] c;Gt'li6 ;d]t JoQm u/] . pgn] y'gf / h]ndf k/]sf ;a} g]tf /
;/sf/sf] clwgfosjfbL rl/qlj?4 dw];df k7fpg'df klg u8a8 /x]sf] sfo{ s tf{ x ¿nfO{ l/xf ul/of] ; \ .
;/sf/nfO{ s'g} rf;f] 5}g\ pN6f] df}g Joj:yf af/] v' n dv' N nf o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdsf] kqsf/ atfP . …l;s] /fptnfO{ ;/sf/n]
5 . lgd{nf kGtsf xTof/f / To;sf ax;cGt/lqmof ug{' s] tL a'l4hLjL, ;Dd]ng u/]/ g]kfnL 5fkf ttfpg ;Qf aflx/sf /fhgLlts bnn] jQmJodf cufl8 elgPsf] 5 g]kfndf
drf{aGbL u/]/ hfg' kg]{ atfP . dw];df b"t agfP/ k7fPsf] 5 . ca ;~rflnt hgo'4n] b]zL ljb]zL
;/+Ifsx¿ clxn] klg uj{sf ;fy clwsf/sdL{, kqsf/sf] s'g} ck/fw d:t 5 . dGqLx¿ ljleGg b]zx¿df xhf/f+} l;s] /fpt hGdG5g\Ú dxtf]sf]
5flt km'nfP/ lxFl8/x]sf 5g\ . l;df xf] < >d ;Demf} t f ug] { sfdnfO{ b]pjfn] eg], …cf]nLn] Psflt/ jftf{ k|ltlqmofjfbL, gsf/fTds ljb]zL
ug{'sf] ;f6f] w/ks8 ub}{5, b]z egfO lyof] . pgn] hgtfsf] ;d:of x:tIf]k, e|i6frf/af6 d'Qm ug]{ nIo
ldlRrPsf] ljifodf ;/sf/nfO{ s'g} cfh ;/sf/sf ljleGg ;+oGqdf k|fyldstf;fy cufl8 ;f/]/ g]kfnL ;dfwfg ug{ cfGbf]ngsf] ljsNk
6'qmfpg];Fu jftf{ u/]/ hgdt ;+u|x lnPsf] lyof] . ;fd|fHojfb, ;fdflhs
jf:t 5}g\ . t/ cfh e|i6frf/ af/] e|i6frf/ df}nfPsf] 5 . ;+3Lo ;/sf/ z}lIfs hgzlQmnfO{ o'/f]k / vf8L eG5 . sxfF 5 logsf] /fi6«jfb < sxfF gePsf] eGb} cfkm'x¿n] z'qmaf/af6 ;fd|fHojfb / If]qLo lj:tf/jfbsf
d'2f p7fpg]x¿, ;fdflhs Gofosf b]lv k|bz ] xFb' } :yfgLo lgsfo ;Ddsf] k7fpg] sfdnfO{ k|d'v d'2f agfP/ 5 b]zelQm <Ú cfGbf]ngsf] …6]n/Ú ;'? u/]sf] atfP . lj?4 n8]sf] kf6L{sf lj?4 sDo'lg:6
kIfdf ;8s ttfpg]x¿, hgo'4 / e|i6frf/ / clgoldttfsf] cfs8f cfˆgf] sfo{sfn ;kmn ePgePsf] o;}u/L, sfo{qmddf cfˆgf] wf/0ff o;}u/L, g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ kf6L{n] s;/L bdg rnfPsf] 5 <
hgcfGbf]Ngdf p7fO{Psf d'2fx¿ x]g]{ xf] eg] l:ylt eofjx b]lvG5 . dfkg ub}5 { g\ . /fVb} g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -qmflGtsf/L g]skfsf cWoIf ljKnjdfly k|ltaGw kqdf cufl8 elgPsf] 5 xfdL g]kfn
;/sf/n] k"/f ug{'k5{ eGg]x¿, !@ ;/sf/sf dGqL b] l v :yfgLo b}lgs ;of}+ o'jf Pc/kf]6{ dfkm{t dfcf]jfbL_ sf dxf;lrj df]xg j}Bn] nufP ;/sf/n] kmfl;jfbL rl/q ;/sf/nfO{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{;uF
a'Fb] j[xt\ zflGt ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v lgsfosf hgk|ltlglwx¿, sltko a}wflgs Pjd\ ca}wflgs ¿kdf afWo jt{dfg ;/sf/ kmfF;Ljfbtkm{ pGd'v k|:t't u/]sf cf/f]k nufP . pgn] cy{ k " 0 f{ jftf{ u/] / g] k fnsf]
ul/Psf laifodf ;/sf/n] x'ax' sd{ r f/Lx¿sf] e| i 6frf/ / eP/ vf8L hfg ljj; 5g\ . /x]sf] cf/f]k nufP . dxf;lrj a}Bn] oyflz3| ljKnjdflysf] k|ltaGw ;fj{ef}ldstf, :jtGqtf / g]kfnL
s] k L cf] n L g] t [ T jsf] jt{ d fg x6fpg dfu ;/sf/;Fu dfu u/] . hgtfsf] hgjfbL clwsf/nfO{ cem
sfof{Gjog ug{k' 5{ eGg]x¿, ljb]zL clgoldttfn] b] z lbgk| l tlbg :jf:y If]qsf] a]lylt / dxËL x]g{] pgn] eg] , …ljBfyL{ ;+ u 7gx¿
sDkgL Pg;]nn] /fHonfO{ s/ ltg{k' 5{ sdhf]/ aGb} uPsf] sltko l/kf]6n { ] xf] eg] hgtf pkrf/ ug]{ l:ylt ;/sf/nfO{ sDo'lgi6 g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/ ;'b[9 ug]{ ;fdflhs clenfiff k"/f
eGg} gldNg] ts{ klg u/] . pgn] ;/sf/sf] kmfF l ;jfbsf lj?4df xf];\ eGg] ck]Iff /fVb5f}+ .
eGg]x¿ cfh of] b]zdf k|ltalGwt atfpF5g\ . t/ ;/sf/ Tof] laifodf geP/ xl:k6nsf] 5t / ‰ofnaf6 nfUg'xf];\ . lxhf] klg d'ns
' sf] ljleGg
ePsf 5g\ . k|j]z g} ug{ rfxFb}g\ . ljsf;sf cfd kmfln/x]sf ;dfrf/ cfO{/x]sf eg], …jt{dfg ;/sf/ sDo'lgi6sf]
cfGbf]ngdf tkfO{x¿sf] dxTjk"0f{
pQm df]rf{sf g]tf sfo{stf{ dfq k|jrg lbPsf], ;d[l4sf efif0f 5f6]sf] 5g\ . ;/sf/L c:ktfnx¿ ljleGg ;/sf/ xf]Og\ . ;fy} s]kL cf]nL
sDo'lgi6 x'g} ;Sb}g . pxfFsf] pvfg of]ubfg u/]sf 5 . clxn] b]z cf]nL ;fj{ h lgs :yfgdf
xf]Og ljrf/ / cf:yfsf lx;fan] tL 5, /f]huf/Lsf syg r'6fO 5 . t/ axfgf / sf/0f b]vfP/ sdhf]/ / tGqsf] lgoGq0fdf 5 . ;/sf/
d'2fdf ;xof]u ug]{ sfg'gL Joj;foL, ljsf; / ;d[l4sf gfddf b]zdf lgik|efjL agfpb} nluPsf] 5 eg]
/ 6'Ssfsf lx;fjn] eGg] xf] eg] h'g
uf]?sf] l;+ª 5}g . p;sf] gfd ltv] . dflkmof, bnfnx¿;Fu lngfb]gf lnKt kmf] x f] / kmfn] d f
5 . tkfO{x¿ hfUg] a]nf cfPsf] 5 .Ú
kqsf/, lzIfs, a'l4hLjL, gful/s
;dfhsf cu'jfx¿ ;d]tnfO{ 3'dfp/f]
ePsf] e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf af/]
;/sf/nfO{ ;f]Rg km';{b 5}g . ;r]t
lghL c:ktfnx¿ v' N g] qmddf
lta|tf b]lvG5 . ;/sf/L c:ktfn
eg] h:t} xf] . ;/sf/ rnfO{ /x]sfx¿
sDo'lgi6 klg xf]Og . nf]stflGqs o;}u/L, g]skf dfn]sf dxf;lrj hl/jfgfdf
kf/fn] k]zfut 9+un] k|ltalGwt ju{n] ;/sf/sf] sfo{z}nL af/] k|Zg w/f;foL u/fP/ lghL c:ktfndf klg xf] O g . pgLx¿ bnfn / l;kL d}gfnLn] ;/sf/sf hglj/f]wL kl/G5 .
sbdlj?4 n8\g ;Qfaflx/sf ;a}
4 @)&^ ;fn j}zfv ! ut] cfOtaf/

;Qfwf/L g]skf 8:6ljgdf kmflnPsf] 8fOk/


;/sf/L hUufdf JolQmsf] /hfO{+
sf7df8f} F . kl5Nnf] ;do k|wfgGofofwLz, ;efd'v lgjf;, /fi6« ;ldltsf cWoIf gf/bdl0f n'OF6]nn] l;FrfO cfof]hgfsf] g]kfnuGhl:yt
an/fd ltdlN;gf
sDo'lgi6 lalu|Pkl5 s;/L uGxfpF5g eGg] uhjsf] pbfx/0f jt{dfg
/fhwfgLsf ;/sf/L, u' 7 L Pjd\ a}+s / cltly lgjf; 5g\ . oL x8lkPsf] hUuf lkmtf{ Nofpg kxn sf/sfFbf]df /x]sf] % s¶f !# w'/ hUuf ;Qfwf/L kf6L{ ePsf] 5 . lgd{nf k|s/0f, t]lQ; lsnf] ;'g k|s/0f, jfO8j8L
;fj{hlgs hUuf x8k]sf] ;dfrf/ sfof{no dftxtdf clxn] !@) eO/x]sf] atfP . tf/fufpF ljsf; e"dflkmof / dfnkf]t sd{rf/L ldn]/ k|s/0f x'Fb} P]n] dxf;lrjs} jfn'jf6f/
>[ Î nfj4 ¿kdf cfO/x] s 5g . /f]kgL ! cfgf # k};f dfq} 5 . c? ;ldlt a}7sn] tTsflng ;b:o ;lrj JolQmsf gfddf u/fPsf] tYo 38]/L k|s/0f;Dd cfOk'Ubf jt{dfg g]skf
dfnkf] t , gfkLnufot ;/sf/L ;a} hUuf cltqmd0f ePsf] 5 . lgd{nf kf]v/nfO{ hUuf;DaGwL lg0f{o ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . sd{rf/L;Fu -g]skf_ lxª afFw]sf] 6fnf] klg xf]Og j?
lgsfosf clwsf/LnfO{ k|efjdf kf/]/ @)!& ;fndf k~rfotL Joj:yf ug]{ clwsf/ lbOPsf] lyof] . tf/fufpF ldn]/ lst]{ sfuh agfO{ e"dflkmof 8:6 ljgdf kmflnPsf] 8fOk/ xf] eGg] s'/f
;/sf/L hUuf JolQmsf] gfddf Nofpg cfP;F u } /fhgLlts sf/0f ljsf; ;ldltsf gfddf /x]sf] # ;o v}?n x;g cG;f/Ln] gf} dlxgfcl3 l;wf l;wf k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . g]tfx¿
ePsf rnv]naf/] Pskl5 csf]{ tYo ;'j0f{zdz]/ ha/fsf] !% /f]kgL $ /f]kgLdWo] ! ;o %) /f]kgL hUufsf] cfˆgL cfdf x;/t'g lgzf cG;f/Lsf] l;wf l;wf ck/fwL k|dfl0ft x'G5g, kf6L{
;fj{ h lgs eO/x] s f 5g\ . e" l d hUuf tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] nfnk'hf{ clxn] tf/fufpF l/h]G;L xf]6N; gfddf u/fPsf] tYo v'n]sf] xf] . g]tT[ j d:t lgb|fdf ;'T5 . bnfndf kl/0ft
;DalGw P]g– @)@!, sf] bkmf @%, hkmtu/]sf] lyof] . kl5 @)$& lnld6]8 xfoft xf]6nsf] gfddf k'us ] f] g]kfnuGh pkdxfgu/kflnsf e};s]sf sfo{stf{ nfh krfP/ g]t[Tjsf]
pkbkmf % -u / 3_df …g] k fn ;fndf k|hftGq cfP;Fu} tTsfnLg xf] . sdnkf]v/L df;]/ 5fof" ;]G6/– j8f gDa/ # lgjf;L v}?nn] l;S6fsf] nfh 5f]Kg yfN5g . s]xL sfo{stf{ u'gf;f]
;/sf/sf] :jfldTj ePsf] hUuf k|hftflGqs ;/sf/n] ;f] hkmt hUuf sf7df8f}sF f] 7d]nl:yt P]ltxfl;s pQm hUuf gfd;f/LkZrft\ b[li6aGws t u5{g t/ kmf]xf]/sf] vf8Laf6 lg:sg]
sdfpg] AolQm jf cf} B f] l us lkmtf{ ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . t/, sdnkf] v /L /x] s f] hUuf x8k] / /fv]/ s]xL /sd;d]t lgsfn]sf] s'/fdf 6;d; ub}{gg . s]xL sfo{stf{x¿
Aoj;fosf] lgldQ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;f] lg0f{onfO{ 6]s/] pRr kx'rF jfnfn] Jofkfl/s sDKn]S;M 5fofF ;]G6/ ag]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . pQm hUufdf l;S6f cfnf]rgf t u5{g t/ tL klg e|i6 tyf
tf]lslbPsf] hUuf sdfpg] AolQmÚnfO{ afn'jf6f/s} ;of}+ /f]kgL ;/sf/L 5 . /fhu'7L cGtu{tsf] ;fj{hlgs l;F r fO cfof] h gf sfof{ n o tyf gfnfos kf6L{;uF gftf tf]8g\ ] sNkgf ;d]t
df]xLsf] xs gnfUg] :ki6 pNn]v 5 . hUuf cfˆgf] gfddf agfPsf lyP . kf]v/Lsf] hUufnfO{ cg]s hfn;femL sd{ r f/L lgjf; /x] s f] 5 . ub}{gg . o:tf] nfU5 -;/sf/L g]skfdf e|i6frf/ ug]{, ck/fw 5f]k5fk
;+zf]lwt u'7L ;+:yfg P]g #)## sf] @)@! ;fndf tTsfnLg ;/sf/n] u/L clxn] g]kfn OGe]i6d]06 a}Fssf cfof] h gfsf lgb] { z s s[ i 0fk| ; fb kfg]{, r'k nfu]/ a:g], u'gf;f] ug]{ / cfnf]rgf ug]{ ljleGg vfn] e"ldsfx¿
bkmf @% -$_ df …b]j:yn /x]sf jf hUuf k|flKt P]g @)!* adf]lhd cWoIf k[YjLaxfb'/ kf08] / pgsL g]kfnn] sfof{nosf] gfddf /x]sf] !) afFl8Psf 5g / ;a}n] cfˆgf]–cfˆgf] e"ldsf v]ln/x]sf 5g . o:tf] nfU5–
b]jL, b]jtf, b]j:yn, kj{, k"hf, Ifltk"lt{ lbP/ ;f] hUuf ;/sf/sf] >LdtLsf] gfddf NofOPsf] 5 . @)## lsQf hUufdWo] Pp6f lsQf laqmL pgLx¿ Pp6f clZnn gf6sdf cfcfˆgf e"ldsf lgjf{x ul//x]sf 5g\ .
hfqf;F u ;DalGwt wfld{ s Pj+ gfddf NofPsf] lyof] . t/, kl5 ;fnb]lv d'4fdfldnf x'Fb} ljjfbsf] ePsf] kfOPsf] atfP . …sl/a ^ pgLx¿ Pp6f p2]Zodf 5g . o:tf] nfU5– pgLx¿n] syfn] lgb]{zg u/]
;fj{hlgs ktL{ hUuf s'g} JolQmsf] kx'Frjfnfn] hkmt hUuf lkmtf{ ug]{ rf}3]/fdf k/]sf] pQm hUuf JolQmsf] dlxgfcl3 Pshgf JolQm gfkLsf cg';f/sf] e"ldsf dfq v]n]sf x'g .
gfddf btf{ ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] hUuf qmddf dfnkf] t sfof{ n osf gfddf Nofpg cg]s rnv]n ePsf] sd{rf/L;d]t lnO{ cfO{ oxfF d]/f] hUuf Pp6f eofgs tYo b]lvg yfn]sf] 5, Tof] xf]– kf6L{ / ;/sf/sf hg
btf{ ul/Psf] /x]5 eg] klg ;+:yfgn] sd{rf/LnfO{ k|efjdf kf/]/ cwLg / tYo km]nf k/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo g]jf/ k/]sf] 5, @)#) ;fndf lsg]sf] x'F, lj/f]wL, /fi6« lj/f]wL tyf e|i6 rl/qsf] af/]df t'ngfTds ¿kdf a? k"j{
To:tf] hUufsf] btf{ ab/ ug{ ;Sg]Ú clwu| x 0f zAbnfO{ klg hkmt ;d'bfosf] ;f+:s[lts w/f]x/sf] ¿kdf 5'6o\ fpg cfPsf] x'F eg]sf] lyof] . oxfF Pdfn] afnfx¿ rfF rfF r'F r'F u/]sf] ;'lgG5 t/ k"j{ dfcf]jfbLaf6 uPsfx¿
Joj:yf 5 . dfnkf]t P]g @)#$ n] zAb;Fu} cy{ nfUg] agfP/ ;f] hUuf /x]sf] of] hUuf JolQmsf] gfddf Nofpg ltd|f] hUuf x'g} ;Sb}g eg]/ xfdLn] r'k rfk b]lvG5g / sltko cj:yfdf t cem ck/fwsf] 9fs5f]k ug]{
o:tf hUuf btf{ ug{ gkfO{g] / olb cfˆgf] gfddf Nofpg ;kmn ePsf rnv]n ePb]lv g} 7d]nsf :yfgLo kmsf{O{lbPsf xf}+,Ú pgn] atfP . s'/fdf nfu]sf] ;d]t b]lvG5 . o;n] Ps k6s km]l/ s] k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5
s;}n] u/]sf] lgj]bg k/]df JolQmsf] lyP . @)#^ ;fnb]lv ljjflbt ag]sf] cfGbf]lnt ePsf lyP . t/ zlQm / JolQmn] hUuf ePsf] bfaL u/]kl5 eg]– k"j{ dfcf]jfbLx¿ ef]sf :ofnx¿ / k"j{ Pdfn]x¿ t'ngfTds ¿kdf
lgoGq0faf6 k'gM ;fj{hlgs u/fpg ;Sg] of] hUuf bfdf]b/k|;fb pkfWofo, kx'rF jfnf e"dflkmof;Fu :yfgLosf] s]xL nuQ} dfnkf]t sfof{nonfO{ kq n]v/] c3fPsf -sfË|];eGbf sd_ :ofnx¿ x'g . k"j{ dfcf]jfbLx¿ Pdfn]df uPsf
Joj:yf 5 . o;/L sfg'g :ki6 / s8f kljtf b]jL, s'df/ a:g]t, sgs rn]g . P]ltxfl;s ;Dkbf arfpg sfuhft vf]Hbf Pp6f lsQf laqmL Pdfn];lxtnfO{ ¿kfGt/0f u/]/ PsLs[t sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ agfpFg eg]/ xf]Og
eP klg sfg'g ckJoVof u/L ;/sf/L zdz]/ /f0ff, ;'gLtL /f0ff, z}nhf :yfgLon] ;jf]{Rrdf bfo/ u/]sf] l/6 ePsf] yfxf kfPsf] lgb]{zs g]kfnn] a? ca sDo'lgi6 ag]/ jfFRg ;lsGg eGg] ulx/f] lg:sif{;lxt 7"nf] kf6L{
hUuf bf]xg ug]{ lu/f]x ;lqmo 5 . o;/L /f0ff, ?Sdzdz]/ /f0ff, e/t;dz]/ ljrf/fwLg x'Fbfx'Fb} of] ejg 7l8of] . ;'gfP . …;/sf/L hUuf s;/L JolQmsf] agfP/ cfk"mleq df}nfPsf] jiff}{+ k'/fgf] ef]s, ltvf{ / k"FhLklt aGg] rsf]{
;/sf/L hUuf x8Kg]df wgf8\o, 7"nf /f0ff, x'Fb} kl5 Joj;foL dLgaxfb'/ tTsfnLg /f0ff zf;s s] z / gfddf laqmL ePsf] b]lvof], xfdL klg nfn;f k"/f ug{ dfq uPsf x'g .
Aoa;foL, g]tf, pRr kb:y clwsf/L, u'?ª, zf]efsfGt 9sfn, ;fljqL zd;] / af6 x8Kg ;' ? ePsf] of] ljifodf cgle1 5f},+ Ú pgn] eg] . jfn'jf6f/ 38]/L k|s/0fkl5 g]skfsf dxf;lrjsf] nHhfxLg jQmJo /
kx'Frjfnf / e"dflkmofnufotsf] ;'jb] L nufotn] pQm hUuf cltqmd0f sdnkf]v/Lsf] hUuf pgsf 5f]/f s]o/' cfof]hgf lgb]{zs g]kfnsf cg';f/ To;nfO{ z]o/ ug]{ hdftx¿ b]Vbf nfU5– ;+;f/el/sf sDo'lgi6x¿nfO{ abgfd
;+nUgtf b]lvPsf] 5 . u/L ha/h:t cfˆgf] gfddf NofPsf zd;]/ x'Fb}, @)$& ;fndf clDasf rf/ bzscl3 e"ld;'wf/ sfof{non] u/fpFg / dfS;{jfbdfly xdnf u/fpFg ;fd|fHojfbsf] u'? of]hgf cg';f/ g}
kl5Nnf] ;do rrf{df cfPsf s]xL lyP . nlntf lgjf;sf] hUuf /f0ff, z+s/k|;fb zfx;Ddn] ls:tf– pQm hUuf l;S6fnfO{ lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] logLx¿ ;a} sfd ul//x]sf 5g\ . cfh g]kfnsf z]if /x]sf ;fdGtL tTjx¿
;fj{hlgs hUuf cltqmd0f / To;sf clxn]sf] ;Qf36s bn g]skfsf ls:tfdf cltqmd0f u/] . To;kl5 lyof] . To;kl5 l;S6fsf] sfof{no clg bnfn tyf gf]s/zfx e|i6 tTjx¿nfO{ sDo'lgi6 ljrf/dfly v'Nnf xdnf
nflu ePsf rnv]nsf] km]xl/:t x]/f}+ M dxf;lrj lji0f' kf}8]nsf] kl/jf/sf cfkmGt–cfkmGtd} lsga]rsf] gf}6s + L a:b} cfPsf] 5 . ug]{ 5'6 s;}n] lbO/x]sf] 5 eg] Tof] ;/sf/L g]skfn] lbO/x]sf] 5 . ;j{xf/f
afn'jf6f/l:yt nlntf lgjf; gfddf ;d]t /x]sf] Go"h ;fj{hlgs ub}{ pQm hUuf g]kfn OGe]i6d]06 ptf, hgsk' / wfd >dhLlj ju{sf] dxfg em08fnfO{ 8fOk/ agfpFg] ;+zf]wgjfbL u2f/x¿nfO{
hUuf ljjfb k|s/0f– ePsf] 5 . h;sf] dxf;lrj kf}8n ] n] a}Fssf cWoIf k[YjLaxfb'/ kf08];Dd pkdxfgu/kflnsf–@# a;kfs{l:yt k/f:t gu/L g]kfndf ;xL sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngsf] p7fg ljsf; ;+ej g} 5}g .
afn' j f6f/l:yt k| w fgdGqL, v08g u/]sf 5g\ . cfOk'Uof] . cg]s hfnem]nkl5 ;/sf/L g]kfn ;/sf/dftxt /x]sf] caf}{ sf]xL klg OdfGbf/ sDo'lgi6n] em08f / gfdsf] cfwf/df logLx¿k|lt g/d
k|wfgGofofwLz tyf ;efd'v lgjf; Xoft xf]6nn] ! ;o %) /f]kgL hUuf lgsfonfO{ ;d] t k| e fjdf kf/] / ¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] hUuf e"dflkmofn] Jojxf/ ug{' eg]sf] d[To';uF g/d Jojxf/ ug{' h:t} xf] . em08f of gfdsf]
/x]sf] ;/sf/L hUuf klg JolQmsf] x8Kof]– ljjflbt hUufdf ha/h:t 5fofF cltqmd0f u/L lghL ;+/rgf lgdf{0f cfwf/df logLx¿ jGw', ;uf]qL of ;juL{ xf]Ogg\ . j? oL t ;j{xf/f ;d'bfosf]
gfddf NofOPsf] /x:o ;fj{hlgs sf7df8f},F af}4l:yt r'Rr]kf6Ldf sDKn]S; lgdf{0f eof] . u/]sf 5g\ . :yfgLo rngrNtLsf] sdhf]/ r]tgf:t/nfO{ k|of]u u/]/ ;fd|fHojfbsf] bnfnL ug]{ / ;a} lx;fan]
ePsf] 5 . @ ;o *$ /f]kgL If]qkmdf /x]sf] kfFr rf/] xfoft xf]6nn] ! b] z e/ ;/sf/L hUufdf efp cg';f/ sDtLdf Ps s/f]8 e|i6 s'tTjx¿sf] ;d'x xf] . x/]s lbg logLx¿nfO{ y'Sg', logLx¿sf ck/fwx¿
km}lnPsf] ;/sf/L hUufdf ef6e6]gL ;o %) /f] k gL ;/sf/L hUuf e'dflkmofsf] cfFvf u9]sf] 5 . e'ld ¿k}ofF k|lts¶fsf] b/n] laqmL x'g] !% vf]n/] gfË]emf/ kfg{' / cfd hg;d'bfodf logLx¿sf] sf/0fn] sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng
;'k/ dfs]{6;Fu} u}/cfjf;Lo g]kfnL cltqmd0f u/]sf] /x:o v'n]sf] 5 . ;DalGw Aoa:yfnfO{ tf]8df]8 u/]/ xf];\ la3f -tLg ;o s¶f_ hUuf k|lt k}bf ePsf] e|d / lg/fzfnfO{ lrg{' cfhsf] xfd|f] h?/L sfo{ef/ xf] .
;+3 -Pgcf/Pg_sf] ejg ag]sf] 5 .
e"–dflkmof / e"ld;'wf/ sfof{no,
l8NnLahf/sf sd{rf/Lsf] ldn]dtf]df
xfoft xf] 6 nn] ;/sf/L hUuf
cltqmd0f u/]sf] ljifo ;+;bsf]
cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw ;ldltdf s'/f
of ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfonfO{ k|efjdf
kf/]/ xf];,\ dflkmofx¿n] ;/sf/L hUuf
x8Kb} cfPsf] tYox¿n] b]vfpF5 .
e"dflkmofn] cltqmd0f u/]sf 5g\ .
…/fd–hfgsL b'nxf eujfg\ a]nf
lgsf; -dlGb/_Ú gfds s' 6 Lsf]
gof“ jif{sf] klxnf] lbgdfq km'Ng] cgf}7f] km"n
sf7df8f}+ . k|bz
] g+ @ cGtu{t k"jk{ lZrd /fhdfu{sf] nxfgahf/b]lv klZrd /
afn'jf6f/sf] ;/sf/L hUuf JolQmsf p7\of] . ;ldltn] ;f+;b clUgk|;fb Toltdfq xf]Og, s;}sf] xseu nfUg} ;+/If0fdf /x]sf] ;f] hUuf dlGb/sf dT:okfng s]Gb|bl] v blIf0fdf /x]sf] k|l;4 wfld{s Pjd\ P]ltxfl;s ;nx]z km"naf/Ldf
gfddf btf{ u/fOPsf] k|df0f ;d]t ;fksf]6fsf] ;+of]hsTjdf 5fgljgsf g;Sg] /fhu'7L cGtu{tsf] d7dlGb/, …:j3f] l iftÚ dxGt;F u ldn] / k|To]s jif{sf] klxnf] lbg Tof] b'ne{ km"n km'Ng] ub{5g\ . xf/d hftsf ljzfn ¿vdf
e]l6Psf] xf] . k"j{;lrj zf/bfk|;fb nflu pk;ldlt agfof] . pQm wf/f, kf]v/L, wd{zfnf, kf6L kf}jf, e"dflkmofx¿n] vl/b–laqmL ul//x] klg PSsfl; km"n km'Ng' / j}zfv ! ut] ;fFemkv :jtM df}nfP/ hfg] 36gf ;a}sf nflu
lqtfnsf] ;+ o f] h sTjdf ul7t ;ldltn] klg xfoft xf]6nn] ;/sf/L nufPt ;f+:s[lts klxrfg;+u k|ToIf lgodgsf/L lgsfo df}g a;]sf] kfOPsf] cljZj;gLo / sf}tx' nsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . ;nx]z sf] lyP < ;nx]zsf] hLjg
5fglag ;ldltn] afn'jf6f/l:yt hUuf cltqmd0f u/]sf] lgisif{ hf]l8Psf] hUufklg e'dflkmofn] cfˆgf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] ufyf;Fu km"nsf] s] ;DaGw /x]sf] 5 . of] hfGgnfO{ kf}/fl0fssfndf kmls{gk' g]{ cfjZostf
k| w fgdGqL / k| w fgGofofwLz lgsfn]sf] 5 . tf/fufpF ljsf; agfpg 5f8]sf 5}gg\ . e'ld;DalGw hUuf u'7L ;+:yfgn] clwsf/ljk/Lt /x]sf] 5 . nf]sufyfsf gfos jL/ ;nx]zsf] ljjfx ;LdfjtL{ ef/tsf] dw'jgL
lgjf;leqsf] hUuf ;d]t JolQmsf] ;ldltsf gfddf /x]sf] # ;o $ ljleGg sfg'g x'bF fx'bF } s;/L of] ;Dej kl/rfng ubf{ dflkmofsf] xftdf k'us ] f] lhNnfcGtu{t a?jf/ eGg] anf7k'/ lgjf;L anf7sL 5f]/L ;fd}/;Fu ePsf] lyof] .
gfddf btf{ eO;s]sf] km]nf kf/]sf] /f]kgLdWo] ! ;o %) /f]kgL hUufsf] eO/x]sf] 5 t < ;fj{hlgs tyf u'7L :yfgLo nIdLsfGt emfn] atfP .
xf] . #$ /f]kgL !# cfgf @ k};f nfnk'hf{ tf/fufpF l/h]G;L xf]6N; hUuf ;+ / If0f ;+ 3 if{ ;ldltsf !**( ;fndf tTsfnLg /fhf /fh]Gb|
If] q kmndf /x] s f] k| w fgdGqL lnld6]8 cyf{t\ xfoft xf]6nsf] dxf;lrj tyf clwjQmf o'j/fh zfxn] dlGb/df lgTo k"hfkf7 tyf
lgjf;leqsf] # /f]kgL !) cfgf hUuf gfddf k' u ] s f] 5 . ;+ ; bLo sf]O/fnf eG5g\, u'7L hUuf bf]xg ug{ eujfGsf] d"lt{nfO{ ef]u nufpg
JolQmsf] gfddf btf{ ePsf] 5fgljg ;ldltcGtu{ t ul7t 5fglag /fhgLlts pRr g]t[Tj b]lv u'7L cfjZos ;|ft] Joj:yfkgsf nflu eGb}
;ldltsf] lgisif{ 5 . To:t} !$ /f]kgL ;ldltn] pQm hUuf tf/fufpF ljsf; ;+:yfgsf sd{rf/L g} nflu k/]sf 5g\ . !% la3f rf/ s¶f hUuf latf{as;
!) cfgf If] q kmndf /x] s f] ;ldltnfO{ lkmtf{ u/fpg lgb]{zg ;/sf/L hUuf x8Kg]x¿df k|efjzfnL ul/lbPsf lyP . cjsfzk| f Kt
k|wfgGofofwLz lgjf;leqsf] @ /f]kgL ;d]t lbPsf] 5 . AolQmx¿ g} 5g\ . h;n] /fhgLlts e"ld;'wf/ clws[t nIdLsfGt emfsf
!$ cfgf hUuf klg JolQmsf gfddf @)$( ;fndf tTsflng ;+/If0fdf ljleGg ;/sf/L hUufdf cg';f/ tTsfnLg /fhf /fh]Gb|n]
/x] s f] e] l 6Psf] 5 . ;ldltsf] k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf /hfO{+ ul//x]sf 5g\ . e"dflkmofn] dlGb/sf] gfpFdf latf{as; ul/lbPsf]
k|ltj]bgcg';f/ afn'jf6f/ / j/k/sf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/n] tf/fufpF ljsf; ;/sf/L clwsf/L / /fhgLlts hUufsf] k|df0f cem} ;'/lIft 5 .
!!# /f]kgLeGbf a9L ;/sf/L hUuf ;ldltsf] hUufdf ;~rflnt xfoft g]tT[ jnfO{ k};fsf] cf8df k|efjdf kfg]{ hfgsL dlGb/sf dxGt /fdtk]Zj/ cfˆ\gf klt ;nx]znfO{ ksl8ofu9sf tTsfnLg /fhf s'nZ] j/sL 5f]/L rGb|jtLn]
cltqmd0fdf kl/;s]sf] 5 . xf]6ndf b'O{ ;d"xnfO{ ;]o/ lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf 5g\ . /, e"dflkmofcg'sn ' lgod bf;sf cg';f/ !(%@ ;fndf hfgsL cfkmgf] k|d] k|:tfj c:jLsf/ u/]kl5 ;nx]znfO{ y'gfdf /fv]sf] va/ k|fKt ePkl5
ut kmfu'g @* ut]sf] dlGqkl/ifb\ u¥of] . ;/sf/n] ;/sf/L :jfldTjdf agfpg] u/]sf] ;/sf/L, ;fj{hlgs tyf dlGb/sf] jt{dfg ef}lts ;+/rgf ;fd}/ ksl8ofu9 uO{ ToxfF cfˆgf ;xkf7L bLgf dflngLsf] ;xof]udf ;nx]znfO{
y'gfd'Qm u/fPsL lyOg\ . ;nx]znfO{ dgdg} Åbob]lv dg k/fPsL bLgf dflngL
a}7sn] @)$& ;fnb]lv JolQmn] /x]sf] tf/fufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] u'7L hUuf ;+/If0f ;+3if{ ;ldltsf lgdf{0f x'ge' Gbf ^) jif{cl3 /fd–hfgsL ;nx]z;Fu ljjfx ug{ gkfpFbf pgn] k|0f ub}{ k|To]s jif{ ltd|f] k|tLIffdf j}zfvsf]
x8k]sf] hUuf ;/sf/L :jfldTjdf hUufdf ;~rflnt xf]6ndf Joj;foL dxf;lrj sf]O/fnfsf] 7f]sj' f 5 . b'nxf dlGb/ hgsk'/ If]qsf] k|l;4 klxnf] lbg xf/dsf] ToxL ¿vdf b]vfkg]{ eg]kl5 ;f]lx lbgb]lv ;nx]zsf] k|tLIffdf
lkmtf{ Nofpg] lg0f{o u¥of] . #& ca{ /fw]Zofd ;/f{km / lbg]znfn >]i7 o;}u/L, /fli6«o uf}/jsf] l;S6f lyof] . k|To]s jif{sf] a}zfvsf] klxnf] lbg dfnf cfsf/df dflngL b]vfkg]{ u/]sf] ls+jbGtL
¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] pQm hUuf JolQmsf] ;d"xnfO{ ;+o'Qm nufgLsf] :jLs[lt /lxcfPsf] 5 . /fhf ;nx]zsf] ufyf;Fu hf]l8Psf] dlx;f]yf, gg dx/L kj{t, 5f]k/f
gfddf kfg]{ ;d"xdfly 5fglag ug{
;/sf/n] clVtof/ b' ¿ kof] u
lbPsf] xf] . h;df ;/sf/sf] tkm{af6
#( k| l tzt ;] o / lyof] . kl5 n]v, /rgf;DaGwL ;"rgf rf}/L, lj/f6k'/, lqj]0fLwfd, ksl8ofu9, dflgs bxdf k|To]s jif{ k/Dk/fut ¿kdf
d]nf nfUg] ub{5g\ . j}zfvsf] klxnf] lbg km"naf/Ldf /x]sf] xf/dsf] ¿vdf ;'gfv/L
cg';Gwfg cfof]unfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ Jojf;foL ;d"xn] xf]6ndf ;]o/ o; ;fKtflxsdf k|sfzgfy{ cfsf/sf] km"n km'Ng] ub{5g\ .
lg0f{ o ;d] t u/] s f] 5 . To:t} , a9fpFb} nu] . ;/sf/L ;]o/ 36\b} h'g km"n x]g{ b]z–ljb]zaf6 bz{gfyL{ cfpg] ub{5g\ . oxL km"n / ;nx]z
cg';Gwfgsf nflu g]kfn k|x/Lsf] uof] . ;/sf/n] ;]o/sf nflu dfq} /fli6«o÷cGt/f{li6«o dxTjsf n]v, /rgf / km"naf/Ln] xfn;Dd /fhf ;nx]zsf] ufyfnfO{ hLjGttf lbFb} cfPsf] 5 . elgG5
s]Gb|Lo cg';Gwfg Ao"/f] -l;cfOaL_nfO{ :jLs[lt lbPsf] hUufnfO{ tf/fufpF tl:j/x¿ pknAw u/fO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g ;nx]z Ps} lbgdf dflgs bxdf g'xfpg], km"naf/Ldf km"n l6Kg], l;nx6 cvf8fdf
lgb]{zg lbPsf] 5 . ljsf; ;ldltn] sfg'gljk/Lt ;]o/ s':tL v]Ng], s'nb]jLsf] k"hf ug]{ tyf hgtfsf] kL/dfsf{ ;'Gg] ub{y] . d};f]yf /fHosf]
nlntf lgjf; / To;n] k|of]u xf]N8/nfO{ /fhLgfdf kf; ul/lbof] . ;DalGwt ;a}df cg'/f]w ul/G5 . /fhf ;nx]z / pgsL k|o] ;L dflngL aLrsf] k|d] lj5f]8sf nflu k|l;4 /x]sf] ;nx]z
km"naf/Ldf k|d] ljjfx ubf{ bfDkTo hLjg ;kmn x'g] / ;Gtfg k|flKt x'g] ls+jbGtL
ul//x] s f] pQm hUuf sf+ u | ] ; sf /fhLgfdf ug{ ' s f] cy{ hUufsf]
;+:yfks g]tf ;'j0f{zdz]/ ha/fsf
gfddf lyof] . nlntf lgjf;s}
:jfldTj x:tfGt/0f ug{' xf] . To;kl5
pQm hUuf k"0f{tM xf]6nsf] gfddf
If]Kof:q ;fKtflxs /lxcfPsfn] o; km"naf/Lleq /x]sf] xf/dsf] ¿vnfO{ o'jfo'jtLn] …ne KjfOG6Úsf
¿kdf lnPsf] 5 . elgG5, o'jfo'jtL aLrsf] k|d] syfnfO{ hLjGttf k|bfg ug{
yfkfufp“, sf7df8f},+ kmf]gM (*$!$)#*%! km"naf/Ldf /x]sf] ;f] ¿vnfO{ ;fIfL dfgL ljjfx ubf{ bfDkTo hLjg ;kmn x'g]
clwu|x0f ul/Psf] hUufdf k|wfgdGqL, k'Uof] . o;af/] tf/fufpF ljsf; E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com hgljZjf;cg'¿k k|To]s jif{ ;f] km"naf/Ldf ljjfx ug]s { f] ;+Vof a9b} uPsf] 5 .
@)&^ ;fn j}zfv ! ut] cfOtaf/ 5

Gofofnodf g]tf, gftfsf], lgot / Gofosf] lg¿k/0f tLg jifL{of aflnsf clh+u/sf] ‘8fS6/’ Û
Gofo cfkm}+ cGofodf k/]kl5 dfu{ /f]Hg rfxG5g . /fhgLlts s:tf] Gofo ;Dkfbg tkfO+{sf] ck]Iff GofofwLz l;kmfl/; ubf{ pTkGg ePsf]
sf7df8f}F . clh+u/, uf]xL b]Vbf s;nfO{ 8/ nfUb}g / < cfˆgf] 5]pdf
k'Ug] hgfj/ jf dflg;nfO{ logn] If0fe/d} cfˆgf] cfxf/f agfpg ;S5g\ .
kLl8t hfg] sxfF < cGofosf] rk]6fdf bndf cf:yf /xg', em'sfj b]lvg', xf] < Goflos ;]jfdf v/f] pqg ljjfbaf6 kl/dfh{g vf]Hg'kg]d { f lsg s'g} klg cleefjsn] cfˆgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ clh+u/ / uf]xLsf] ;fd'Gg] s;/L
k/]/ Gofosf] vf]hdf hfg]x¿df g} lgi7f x'g' ;fdfGo s'/f xf] t/ bns} Aoa;flos lg:kIftf, lgle{stf, lg/Gt/tf < 5f8\g ;S5 < t/, OG8f]g]l;ofdf Ps kl/jf/ o:tf] 5, hf] cfˆgf] tLg
Gofo ljt/0f ug]{ 7fpFkl| t ;+zo / sfo{stf{ eP/ bnsf] k[i7kf]if0f s} sfg'gL lgi7f, cEof;df lg/Gt/tf ;+lawfg / P]gdf k|aGw ul/Psf] jifL{of 5f]/Ln] clh+u/ / uf]xL;Fu v]n]sf] b[io lgw{Ss;Fu krfpFb} cfPsf]
cfz+sf k}bf eof] eg] b]zsf] Gofo nflu ;F w } dl/d] 6 g] a f6 :jtGq clg :jtGq Goflos 5lj ePsf] GofofwLzsf] jfG5gLo of]Uotf eg]/ 5 . 6fË/Ë l;6L lgjf;L dxf/fgL gfd u/]sL tL aflnsf ;f9] rf/ ld6/
k|0ffnL :vlnt e}/x]sf] 5 eGbf Gofofnosf] ul/df wfGg] ;fdYo{ / sfg'gljb cfjZos 7flgG5 xf]Og / < pNn] v al/i7tf, cg' e j, nfdf] clh+u/;Fu d:t v]ln/x]sf] lel8of] efO/n ePsf] 5 . clh+u/sf
c;xh dfGg'kg]{ l:ylt 5}g . Gofofno s'/f r} c;Dej g} x'G5 . Gofokl/ifbsf] /] s 8{ d f ePsf] sfo{s'zntf, ljifo a:t'sf] 1fg, ;fd' pgL cfk"mnfO{ …8fS6/Úh:t} 7flG5g\ . d'vdf 3fp ePsf] clh+u/nfO{
g} kf6L{x¿sf] etL{s]Gb| / sfo{stf{ s'g} bnsf] ;b:o, s'g} cleofgsf] ;+a}wflgs k|fjwfg / k2lt clg OdfGbf/L, lg:kIftf, k]zfut g}lts sfvdf tfg]/ cf}ifwL nufOlblG5g\ . pgL cfˆg} 3/d} /x]sf] uf]xLsf] bfFt
Joj:yfkgsf] c•f aG5 eg] ToxfFaf6 cleoGtfaf6 lg:kIf Gofo ldN5 eg]/ k|0ffnLaf6 gfd l;kmfl/; x'g] xf] ls cfr/0f clxn] l;kmfl/; ul/Psf ;kmf ul/lblG5g\ . pgsf lktf 3fOt] hgfj/x¿sf] x]/rfx ub}{ cfPsf
JolQmsf] xsdf slt nfu" x'G5 < 5g\ . tL aflnsfn] cfˆg} lktfaf6 …hgfj/ k|]dÚ l;s]sf] hgfOPsf] 5 .
;+hLj sfsL{ a|f08 af]s]sf, ljleGg kf6L{sf] 5fk
nfu]sf, 6\ofu le/]sfx¿n] lbg] Gofo
vt/gfs ;l/;[k;Fu tL aflnsfsf] cfTdLotf a9]sf] Ps jif{ eO;s]sf]
kl/jf/sf] egfO 5 . …o:tf vt/gfs ;l/;[k;Fu 5f]/LnfO{ v]Ng lbg' slQsf]
s'g} Pp6f kf6L{sf] s]lGb|o ;b:odf k/flht / lgk:Iftfdf hgtfn] slt ljZjf; hf]lvdk"0f{ 5 <Ú eGg] k|Zgdf pgsf lktf eG5g\, …c?n] s] ;f]lr/x]sf
JolQm, s'g} Ps kf6L{sf] laBfyL{ u5{g xf]nf . Gofo dfUg hfFbf cfkm' xf]nfg\ eGg] d a'‰b5' .Ú slxn]sfxLF cfk"mnfO{ klg 8/ nfUg] u/]sf] pgn]
;+u7gaf6 :jljo' lgjf{rg lht]sf] JolQm ;dly{t GofofwLz / p;sf] a]Gr atfP . t/ hgfj/k|lt 5f]/Lsf] Jojxf/ / …sDo'lgs];gÚ b]v]/ cfk"mdf
tfs]/ hfg'kg]{ cj:yfdf ;fdfGo /x]sf] 8/ x/fpg] u/]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 .
Gofofnodf k'Ug' cem Gofofnosf] k|d'v dfG5]n] Gofo kfpg] l:ylt ;Fws } f] nflu
g] t [ T j k| w fgGofowLz;Dd agfpg] u/L ;'?df To:tf hgfj/ tyf ;l/;[ksf] lgs6 k'Ubf cfk"mn] 5f]/LnfO{ pgn]
cGTo x'G5 . /fHon] u/]sf] uNtLsf] s] ug{'k5{ / s] ug{' x'Fb}g eg]/ cfk"mn] lgb]{zg lbPsf] pgn] atfP . …t/
/fhgLltsf] sg] S ;g / ;] l 6+ u df kg{ ' ;hfo lgd'vf hgtfn] slxn];Dd ca pgn] w]/} s'/f a'lem;s]sL 5g\,Ú pgn] eg], …s:tf] Jojxf/ ug{'k5{ eGg]
lgZro g} b' e f{ U ok" 0 f{ l:ylt xf] . kfO/xg] < ;8sdf nfu]sf] gf/fsf] pgnfO{ yfxf eO;s]sf] 5 .Ú ca t 5f]/Ln] eg]sf s'/f, pgsf lgb]{zgnfO{
Gofofnosf] a] O HhtL xf] . Pp6f cfwf/df GofofwLzn] km};nf ug]{ xf] hgfj/n] kfng ug{ yfn]sf] pgL atfpF5g\ . clh+u/sf] d'v v]nfpg'
eg] Gofo ;Dkfbg ;f] cg'sn ' ub}{ ;fdfGo s'/f gePsf] pgsf] egfO 5 . …To;df klg d'vdf 3fp ePsf]
/fhgLlts sfo{stf GofofwLz x'Fbf p;n] hfg] xf] ;+aw} flgs aGbf]a:tLsf] cf}lrTo clh+u/n] cfˆgf] d'v 5'g lbFb}g,Ú pgn] eg], …d]/L cfdfn] clh+u/nfO{ 5'Fbf
;Dkfbg ug]{ Gofo s:tf] x'G5, /fhgLltsf] s] /Xof] / < ;+lawfg / ;+ljwfgjfbn] pxfFsf] xft g} a]:;/L sl;lbof], t/ dxf/fgL -5f]/L_ n] 5'Fbf clh+u/
ljrf/ l;2fGt / lgb] { z gn] Goflos kl/sNkgf u/]sf] cbfnt eGbf aflx/ cf/fdn] v]Ng yfN5 .Ú
uP/ Gofonodf kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{,
lg¿k0f x' g slt ;lhnf] 5 . Gofofnodf efuaG8fdf GofofwLz lgo' l Qmsf]
l;kmfl/; ug{'sf] /fhgLltsf] p2]Zo / lgot s] xf] 5n{+u 5 . h;sf] cGbfh
Goflw;sf cfkmGt, dGqL / ltgsf
efO elthf, ;fnf;fnL, efGhf efGhLsf]
dlb/f dl:tisf3ftsf] sf/s
;a} n fO{ 5 . cfˆgf] ;/sf/, cfˆgf] kf6L{ n fO{ Gofofnoaf6 ca/f] w gxf] ; l/qm'd6+] hgtfnfO{ :jLsfo{ g} x'gk' 5{ sf7df8f}F . ;Lldt dfqfdf k|To]s lbg dlb/f ;]jg ug{' :jf:Yosf nflu
eGgfsf] vflt/ /fhgLlt1x¿ cfkm' cg' s ' n GofofwLz lgo' Q m u/] / 3' d fp/f] / < cbfntsf] km};nf hgtfn] lrQ /fd|f] x'G5 eGg] dfGotfnfO{ Pp6f gofF cWoogn] r'gf}tL lbPsf] 5 . NofG;]6
ga'em]/ cj1f ub}{ hfg'kg]{ l:ylt aGbf hg{ndf k|sflzt Pp6f zf]wsf cg';f/ lbgdf yf]/} jf l7Ss dfqfdf dfbs
tl/sfn] cfˆgf] xf/ sfd s' / fsf] a} w flgs / ;' / lIft dfu{ /f] H g rfxG5g . kbfy{ ;]jg ubf{ klg /Qmrfk a9\g ;S5 / To;n] dl:tis3ft x'g]
/fHo k'gM csf]{ åGbdf km:b}g / <
/fhgLlts bndf cf:yf /xg', em'sfj b]lvg', lgi7f x'g' ;fdfGo s'/f xf] t/ /fHodf Gofo /x]g, Goflos lgsfo ;Defjgf a9fpF5 . ;f] cWoogsf nflu kfFr nfv lrlgofFx¿nfO{ !)
bns} sfo{ s tf{ eP/ bnsf] k[ i 7kf] i f0f s} nflu ;F w } dl/d] 6 g] a f6 :jtGq lg:kIf /x]g eg] hgtfn] ug]{ eg]sf] jif{;Dd lgoflnPsf] lyof] . cg';Gwfgstf{x¿sf cg';f/ pQm lgisif{ ljZjsf
Gofofnosf] ul/df wfGg] ;fdYo{ / s'/f r} c;Dej g} x'G5 . ljb|f]x xf] . k+rfotsfndf ;d]t ;a} vfn] dflg;x¿sf nflu pko'Qm 5 . dlb/fn] dflg;df s:tf] c;/
Gofofno cfh hlt abgfd lyPg . kf5{ eGg]af/] of] lgisif{ ;a}eGbf /fd|f] k|df0f ePsf] pgLx¿n] atfPsf
kfOg] Gofosf] :jR5tf, lg:kIftf / ;f]Rg' kmut sNkgf / ;kgf eGbf Gofokl/ifbsf ;b:ox¿sf] /fhfn] rfx]sf] ;a} s'/f k'/f x'Gy]g . 5g\ . cTolws dfqfdf dlb/f ;]jg ug{' :jf:Yosf nflu xflgsf/s ePsf]
lgle{stf k|lt s;/L ljZjf; ug]{ < k/ x' g ] 5} g . g] t fsf] sf] 6 sf] efuaG8fsf] gfd < ;+ l jwfgsf] cbfntn] lg:kIf km};nf ug{ ;SYof] / To;n] dl:tisf3ftsf] ;Defjgf a9fpg] s'/fdf ljjfb lyPg . t/ cGo
/fhgLltdf ljs[t dfgl;stf / vNtLaf6, sf] 6 fdf k/] / cfpg] d"njf0fL eg]sf] Gofonosf] :jtGqtf, h;sf] pbfx/0f lakL sf]O/fnf x'g . s]xL cWoogn] eg] sd dfqfdf lgoldt dlb/f ;]jg ug{' z/L/sf nfuL
dgl:ylt lelqPkl5 cfpg] kl/0ffd GofofwLzsf] k|lt akmfbf/ /xG5g < lgikIftf / t6:ytf xf] of] ;a cbfnt k"jf{ux| L / cu|fxL ePsf] eP /fd|f] x'g] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf lyP . T:t} cGo s]xL cWoogn] eg] slt ;]jg
/ glthf xf] GofoIf]q dflysf] xdnf / g]tfsf] gftf, GofofwLzx¿sf] gftf, u'dfPkl5 Gofonosf] cy{ s] /Xof] lakL sf]O/fnf dfl/Gy] . em'08ofOGy] . s]xL ug{' plrt x'G5 g;lsg] b]vfPsf lyP .
x:tIf]k . k|0ffnL sAhf u/]/ ul/g] dGqLsf] sg]S;g, kf6L{x¿sf] akmfbf/ / < Gofosf] ul/df / cl:dtfsf] /Iff ckjfbnfO{ 5f]8/] k+rfotsfndf klg cWoogsf] kl/0ffd
a}wflgstfsf] asf]{ cf]9/] , cf]9fP/ ul/g] l;kfxL g} ljleGg cbfnt / Gofo s;n] ug]{ < wd{ lg/k]If ;+lawfgsf] Gofo kfOGYof], cbfntk|lt ljZjf; lyof] . cS:km8{ ljZjljBfno, k]lsª ljZjljBfno / rfOlgh cSof8dL ckm
c/fhgLlts lrGtgsf] k/fsfi7 xf] ;Dkfbg ug]{ :yfgdf k'Ug] ljz]if ;ky vfP/ wd{ ;fk]If d'ns ' cyf{t\ cf:yf / e/f];f lyof] h'g ax'bn cfudg d]l8sn ;fOG;sf cg';Gwfgstf{n] s] kQf nufP eg] M
Gofofno dflysf] cltqmd0f g]tf, gftf of]Uotf xf] xfd|f] b]zsf] < oxL xf] lxGb'wd{nfO{ /fHon] cfˆgf] wd{ eg]/ kZrft v:sFb} uP/ u0ftGq axfnL ˜ k|To]s lbg -!$ u|fd z'4 PNsxn ;]jg x'g]u/L_ Pp6f dlb/f ;]jg
/ lgotsf] elt{ s] G b| . Pp6f Gofofnosf] lylt < xfd|f] ;+ljwfgsf] c+ l usf/ ug{ ' k g] { dfGotf af] S g] ePkl5 kf6L{sf] sfo{stf{ GofofwLz ag]sf] ubf{ dl:tisf3ftsf] ;Defjgf !) b]lv !% k|ltztn] a9\5
/fhgLlts g]tf, sfo{stf{ dGqL aGg k|:tfjgfdf pNn]v ul/Psf] :jtGq, lxGb'/fi6«sf cleoGtfn] s;/L ;ky b]Vg] la8Dagfk"0f{ cj:yfdf k'Uof] . s] ˜ lbgdf rf/j6f;Dd dlb/f ;]jg ug]{ dflg;df dl:tisf3ftsf]
;S5, agfpg ;lsG5 c? ljifo lj1 lg:kIf / ;Ifd Gofokflnsfsf] vfG5g < s'g g}ltstfn] l;kmfl/; o:tf] Gofofno ca b]zn] ;xG5 < ;Defjgf #% k|ltzt a9L x'G5
aGg ;S5 t/ GofofwLz aGg / cawf/0ff ;+lawfgdf n]Vg dfq} xf] ug{e ' of] <˜ lsg g}ltstfsf] htf;'s} u0ftGqsf] ck]Iff olx xf] < a]lylt, cGofo, cWoogsf nflu dlb/fnfO{ o;/L juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5
agfpg ldNb}g / x'Fb}g . ls sfo{Gjog u/fpg klg xf] < v8] / L kl//xG5 xfd| f ] b] z df < cTofrf/, a] l erf/, cg} l tstf, – ;fgf] lunf;df jfOg
s'g} Pp6f kf6L{sf] s]lGb|o ;b:odf k|wfgGofofwLz rf]n]Gb| >Ldfgsf] l;kmfl/; ug]s { f] g}ltstf klg ;+s6df csd{Gotf / cIfdtf g} cfhsf] u0ftGq – Ps af]tn lao/ jf Ps k]u l:kl/6
k/flht JolQm, s'g} Ps kf6L{sf] lg:kIf c8fg / g]tT[ j v} lsg k|s6 k/]g / < ;dLIff GofofwLz 5fGg] / nf]stGqsf] pkxf/ xf] < ;+aw} flgs la|6]gdf k|To]s Ps ;odf !^ k'?if / @) dlxnfnfO{ pgLx¿sf]
laBfyL{ ;+u7gaf6 :jljo' lgjf{rg x'g ;s]g < k4tL / k|0ffnLd} ug{k' g]{ xf] ls < :jR5tf / lg:kIf Gofosf] nflu gj hLjgsfndf Ps k6s dl:tisf3ft x'G5 . dlb/f ;]jg gug]{ Ps ;o
lht]sf] JolQm Gofofnodf k'Ug' cem gofF ;+lawfg @)&@ hf/Lkl5 vf]6 5 eg] vf]6 /lxt agfpg e"ldsf lgjf{lrt af/n] cfˆgf] Wofg s]lGb|t u/f]; . hgf dflg;n] lbgsf] Ps jf b'O{ lunf; ;]jg ug]{ xf] eg] yk b'O{ k6s
Gofofnosf] k| d ' v g] t [ T j klg uf]kfn k/fh'nL, z'lznf sfsL{, v]Ng] bfloTj k|wfgGofofwLzs} x}g / < ljh]tf r08]Zj/ >]i7nufot ;a} dl:tisf3ft x'g ;Sg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . xNsf jf dWod dfqfdf dlb/f
k|wfgGofowLz;Dd agfpg] u/L lbks/fh hf]zL h:t} laafbf:kb lgs6 clttdf s'g} kf6L{sf] ;+;b lgjf{lrt af/ k|ltlglwx¿nfO{ xflb{s awfO{ ;]jg ubf{ dl:tisf3ft x'gaf6 hf]ufpg ;Sg] s'g} klg tYo km]nf gk/]sf]
/fhgLltsf] sg]S;g / ;]l6+udf kg{' gaGg s] n] /f]Sof] 5]Sof], afwf c8\rg eO;s]sf] JolQm ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] / z'esfdgf Û of] cWoogn] b]vfpF5 .
dlb/fsf] k|efjaf/] cWoog ug{ k"jL{ PlzofnL d'n's pko'Qm dflgG5 .
lgZro g} b'ef{Uok"0f{ l:ylt xf] .
Gofofnosf] a]OHhtL xf] . Pp6f
k}bf eof] >Ldfg\ < ;+lawfgsf] JofVof
ljZn]if0f u/]/ Gofo lbg] clGtd ;+;f/d} gePsf ;'gfv/L k|hflt g]kfndf
sf7df8f}F . ;+;f/d} gePsf] j}1flgs / k|dfl0fs cfwf/dflysf]
lrlgofF d"nsf dflg;x¿df cfg'j+lzs sf/0fn] dlb/fn] a]kmfObf u5{ .
dlb/f ;]jg ubf{ z/L/df x'g] k|ltlqmofn] pgLx¿ c:j:y x'G5g\ . To;}n]
/fhgLlts sfo{stf GofofwLz x'Fbf Goflos lgsfo, ;jf]R{ r cbfnt lsg
p;n] ;Dkfbg ug]{ Gofo s:tf] x'G5, kf6L{sf] sfo{stf{ etL{sG] b| agfpg ;'gfv/Lsf] b'O{ hftsf gofF k|hflt b:tfa]hÚ xf] . /f;sf]6Ln] 8f]6Ldf rLgdf dlb/f ;]jgsf] cg'kftdf 7"nf] cGt/ 5 . k|To]s tLg k'?ifdf Ps
/fhgLltsf] ljrf/ l;2fGt / lgb]z { gn] dGh"/ x'ge' of] < ;jf]R{ r cbfntk|lt g]kfndf kfOPsf] 5 . ;'gfv/Lsf] kfOPsf] ;' g fv/LnfO{ …Sofn] G yL hgfn] dlb/f ;]jg ub}{gg\ eg] ;]jg ug]{ dlxnfsf] ;+Vof klg lgs} sd 5 .
Goflos lg¿k0f x'g slt ;lhnf] 5 . cgf:yf hufpg] sfo{ lsg /f]Sg' ePg k|lqmofut ljsf;qmdaf/] cWog– lxdfnOsfÚ / kfNkfdf e]l6Psf] ;'gfv/L dlb/f ;]jg ug]{ / gug]{x¿sf] :jf:Yo cj:yf / cfg'j+lzs ;+/rgfsf]
cg';Gwfg ub}{ cfPsf 8f= eQm k|hfltnfO{ …x]jgl/of kfNk]lG;;Ú t'ngf ubf{ dl:tisf3ft x'gdf dlb/fsf] e"ldsfsf] d"NofÍg ug{ ;lsg]
Gofofnodf efuaG8fdf GofofwLz >Ldfg\ < ;jf]{Rr cbfnt eg]sf] /f;sf]6Ln] oL gofF k|hflt 8f]6L lhNnfsf] gfds/0f u/]sf 5g\ . …jg:klt huTsf]
lgo'lQmsf] l;kmfl/; ug{s ' f] /fhgLltsf] /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] ;lhnf], g]tfsf] j}1flgs¿ atfpF5g\ .
@@ ;o ld6/ prfOdf /x]sf] jfufn]s ;f]w–cg';Gwfgsf b[li6df of] l;Ëf] b]zn] cg';Gwfgstf{x¿sf cg';f/ pQm cWoogsf] d'Vo ;Gb]z eg]sf] l7Ss
p2]Zo / lgot s] xf] 5n{+u 5 . ;lhnf] / k|wfgGofofwLzsf] ;lhnf]sf] / kfNkfsf] !% ;o ld6/df /x]sf] d'em'ª uj{ ug]{ pknlAw xf],Ú /f;sf]6Ln] eg] .
h;sf] cGbfh ;a}nfO{ 5 . cfˆgf] nflu dfq} xf] ls hgtfsf] ;lhnf]sf] kl/df0fdf dlb/f ;]jg ub}{df dl:tisf3ftsf] ;Defjgf 36\b}g eGg] xf] .
8fF8f]df xfn} kQf nufPsf x'g\ . g]kfndf clxn];Dd %)@ hftsf
;/sf/, cfˆgf] kf6L{nfO{ Gofofnoaf6 nflu klg xf] < /f;sf] 6 Lsf] ;f] w –cg' ; GwfgnfO{ ;'gfv/L kfOPsf 5g\ . ;+;f/e/df eg] cyf{t\ k|To]s lbg sd dfqfd} dlb/f ;]jg ubf{ klg dl:tisf3ft x'g]
ca/f] w gxf] ; eGgfsf] vflt/ gftfuf]tf, df]nflxhf, efuaG8f Go" l hNof08af6 k| s flzt x' g ] a9Ldf @% xhf/ hftsf ;'gfv/L 5g\ . ;Defjgf a9\5 . o;sf] k|ltljDa la|6]gn] k|sflzt u/]sf] dlb/f;DaGwL
/fhgLlt1x¿ cfkm' cg'sn ' GofofwLz / ldn]dtf]sf] cfwf/df l;kmfl/; jg:klthGo cGt/f{ l i6« o hg{ n /f;sf]6Ln] cfˆgf] cWoog qmddf lgb]{zgdf klg b]Vg ;lsG5 . To;df Ps xKtfdf !$ j6f eGbf a9L dlb/f
lgo'Qm u/]/ 3'dfp/f] tl/sfn] cfˆgf] ePsf k|fk] m];gn Sjfln6L gePsf, …kmfO6f]6o\ fS;fÚn] ;d]t k|sflzt u/]sf] g]kfnsf nflu gofF x'g ;Sg] !^ hftsf ;]jg gug{ ;Nnfx lbOPsf] 5 . :jf:Yo;DaGwL hf]lvd sd ug{ pQm
xf/ sfd s'/fsf] a}wflgs / ;'/lIft k|flS6; clt sd ePsf dfG5]x¿af6 5 . of] hg{n …jg:kltdf gofF hftsf] ;'gfv/Lsf] klxrfg ul/;s]sf 5g\ . lgb]{zgdf a]nfa]nfdf dlb/f ;]jg gug{ klg elgPsf] 5 .
6 @)&^ ;fn j}zfv ! ut] cfOtaf/

nf}sfsf cbe"t u'0fx¿


;+3Lotf sfof{Gjogdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] e"ldsf sf7df8f}F . nf}sfnfO{{ ef]hgdf ;fd]n u/fpgfn] z/L/df ePsf]
xfgLsf/s sf]n]:6f]n lj:tf/} sd x'Fb}hfG5 . h;n] d'6' ;DaGwL of
fsd{rf/LtGq s] xf] < /] 8 6] l kHd_ sf] a9f] Q /L eof] . eljiojf0fL ug{ ;d]t 5f]8]gg\ . w]/} sfd ug],{ lg0f{o k|lqmofdf sd{rf/L sf]n]:6f]nn] x'g] cGo ;d:of xF'b}g . o;sf nflu nf}sfsf] h'; cfb{; k]o
sd{r/LtGqsf] hGd /fHo;Fu} ;/sf/k| l t pQ/bfoL x' g ] x' F b f sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsNknfO{ ;+:yfut / ;/f]sf/jfnfnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg], kbfy{ dflgG5 . tkfO{+nfO{{ nf}sfsf] t/sf/L vfg slQsf] dg k5{ < slt
ePsf] xf] / o;sf] d'Vo sfd eg]sf] hgrf;f]x¿ cf]em]n k/] . t6:y /xFbf ljsNk / sfof{Tds ljsNk zLif{sdf ;fj{hlgs ;"rgfsf] lgoldt k|jfx ug],{ dflg; t/sf/Ldf nf}sf vfg dg k/fpFb}gg\ . of] vfg'kg]{ afWotfaf6
;/sf/nfO{ zf;g ug{ ;3fpg' xf] . sfo{qmdx¿sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ljZn]if0f ug{ ;lsG5 . ;|f]t;fwgsf] ljt/0fnfO{ Goflos ar]/ g} /xg] ub{5g\ . t/ s] tkfO{+nfO{{ yfxf 5 nf}sfn] tkfO{+sf] cfnZokg
;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnLsf] sfof{Gjogsf] x'g g;s]sf] xf] eGg] ljZjf; a9\of] . -s_ ;+ : yfut ljsNkM agfpg], ;fj{hlgs sfd sG6«oflS6ª x6fpg] b]lv lnP/ z/L/sf] tf}n klg sd ub{5 . nf}sf vfgfn] k]6df
cfhsf] ;Gb{ e df ;j{ q cj} o lQmttf rl/qsf] x' g ] x' F b f sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsNk vf]Hg] eg]sf] cfp6 ug]{ jf s/f/df sfd ug]{ ef/Lkg /xFb}g\ . k|ltlbg tfhf dx;'; ug]{sf] nflu d;nf of g'g ld;fP/
sd{rf/LtGqdfly cf}nf pl7/x]sf] 5 . ;/sf/sf sfd sf/jfxLx¿ u/fpg] tyf lk|lG;kn Ph]G6 l;4fGt nf}sfsf] h'; lkpg ;lsG5 . nf}sf z/L/sf] tf}nnfO{{ l56f] sd ug{df
sd{ r f/LtGqn] ;xof] u u/] g , k|efjsf/L 9+un] ;DkGg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] adf]lhd hgtfnfO{ k|wfg dfgL ;]jf ;xof]u 5 .
sd{ r f/LtGq c;Ifd eof] , :yfkgf ug{' xf] . pRr kbdf /x]sf] k| j fx ug{ lhDd] j f/ aGg] h:tf To;}n] o;nfO{{ h'; agfP/ jf g'gsf ;fydf vfg ;lsG5 . nf}sfn]
sd{rf/LtGq a9L /fhgLlt k|l] /t eof] clwsf/sf] k|Tofof]hg, dflyNnf sfo{k0ffnLdf ;'wf/ ug'n { fO{ sfof{Tds kfrg ;DaGwL ;d:ofsf] klg pQd ;dfwfg u5{ . ;fy} of] Pl;l86Ldf
eGg] h:tf cg] s f} + cf/f] k x¿ lgsfodf /x] s f] clwsf/sf] ljsNk eGg] ul/G5 . klg nfebfoL 5 . nf}sfnfO{{ ef]hgdf ;fd]n ugf{n] kfrg lqmof /fd|f] x'Fb}
Nfflu/x]sf 5g\ . k|bz
] / :yfgLotxsf ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, dflyNnf lgsfodf sd{ r f/LtGq /fHo / zf;g hfg] ub{5 . 8fOlal6hsf /f]uLsf nflu nf}sf ;]jg Ps k|efjsf/L pkfP
;/sf/x¿ sd{rf/LtGqdf b]lvPsf] /x]sf] clwsf/sf] lgIf]k0f, lghLs/0f, k|0ffnL;Fu} /fHosf] lglj{sNk ;+/+ rgfsf] xf] . 8fOljl6hdf vfnL k]6 nf}sf ;]jg ug{' /fd|f] x'G5 . d'q ;DalGw
jt{dfg cJoj:yfaf6 cflht eP/ kl/of]hgf Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff, ¿kdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsf; / ;d:ofsf] nflu klg nf}sf vfg' /fd|f] pkfo xf] . o;n] z/L/df ;f]l8odsf]
sd{rf/LtGqeGbf cnUu} ;+oGq lgdf{0f ljsf; ;ldlt, kl/ifbsf] Joj:yf, ;~rfng xFb' } cfPsf]5 . jf:tjdf, dfqfnfO{{ sd ug{ ;xof]u u5{ . nf}sfsf] lgoldt ;]jgn] 5fnfdf k|fs[lts
u/]/ sfd ug{ kfP w]/} sfd ug{ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfdfkm{t sfd ug]{ sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsNk 5}g / o;sf] rds cfp5 . h;n] ubf{ z/L/ cfsif{s b]lvG5 . sltko dlxnf jf
;lsg] lyof] sL eGg] b[li6sf]0f /fVg u/fpg] Joj:yf, ;/sf/n] ub}{ cfPsf k| l t:yfkg ug{ klg ;lsb} g . o'jtL o;sf] nflu nf}sfsf] k|of]u ub{5g\ .
k'u]sf] kfO{G5 . sfo{x¿ lghL If]qnfO{ 5f]8g] k|lqmof, sd{rf/LtGqsf] k|jl[ t ;'wf/ ug{ ;Sg] uef{zo;DaGwL ;d:ofdf nf}sfsf] /; lgs} nfebfos dflgG5 . k6s–
sd{ r f/LtGq cyf{ t sd{rf/LtGqsf] ;'wf/, ;'zf;g, gofF xf] eg] ljsNk vf]lh/xg' kb}g{ . o;sf/0f k6s ue{ktg x'g] dlxnfn] nf}sfsf] /; tyf t/sf/L vfFbf ue{kft x'g]
Ao"/f]qm]zLdf Ao"/f]sf] cy{ 8]:s ;fj{ h lgs Joj:yfkg, gofF sd{rf/LtGqsf] dfgdb{g jf cfnf]rgf ;d:ofaf6 5'6sf/f ldNg ;S5 . nf}sfsf] t/sf/L / h'; d'6' /f]uLsf
xf] / qm]zLsf] cy{ ;/sf/nfO{ nIdL ljnf; sf] O /fnf ;fj{hlgs ;]jf l;4fGtx¿ ;j} ug' { e Gbf sd{ r f/LtGqdf gjLg nflu lgs} kmfObfhgs dflgG5 . z/L/sf] s'g} efudf /ut alu/x]sf] 5
a'emfpg] ub{5 . sd{rf/LtGq Ps sd{rf/LtGqsf ljsNkdf cufl8 Joj:yfkgsf l;4fGtx¿sf] canDjg eg] nf}sfsf] af]qmfsf] n]k nufpFbf /ut aUg aGb x'G5 . nf}sf zlQma4{s
k|zf;sLo k|0ffnL xf] hf] a}wflgs / /fhgLlts txsf] ;'ema'em a'e\mg NofOPsf ;+:yfut ljsNkx¿ x'g\ . u/]/ a9L ultzLn, pQ/bfoL, kf/bzL{, / jLo{jw{s dflgG5 . dfgl;s tgfj, pRr /Qmrfk, lk;fa;DaGwL
ljj]sk"0f{ clwsf/ -lnun ¥of;gn g;Sg] cJojxfl/s tGqsf] ¿kdf sd{rf/LtGq leq} ;'wf/ ug]{ sd vlr{nf], ;Ifd / kl/0ffdd"vL agfpg' ;d:of, hl08;, kfON; / of}ghGo ;d:ofdf nf}sf cr's cf}iflw dflgG5 .
cyf]l/6L_ sf] k|of]u u/L ljlw / lrlgof] . hafkmb]lxtfsf] 3'dfp/f] k|lqmof ;+:yfut ljsNksf] ¿kdf >] o :s/ x' G 5 . sd{ r f/LtGqnfO{ dflg;x¿n] nf}sf eGg] lalts} t/sf/L dfq x'G5 eGg] ;lDemG5g\ t/
k|lqmof cg';f/ hgtfnfO{ ;fj{hlgs af6f] s f sf/0f sd{ r f/LtGqdf x]l/Psf] 5 . clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg, k|fk] m];gnfO{hz] g / l/k|fk] m];gnfOh]zg nf}sfsf] t/sf/L dfq geO{ h'; agfP/ klg vfg ;lsG5 . h;n] udL{
;]jf / ;'/Iff k|bfg ug]{ ub{5 . lhDd]jf/L kG5fpg] v]nf] a9]/ uof] . ljs] G b| L s/0f, lghLs/0fsf] ug],{ gful/sk|lt pQ/bfoL agfpg], gLlh df};ddf z/L/nfO{{ w]/} kmfO{bf k'¥ofp5 .
sfg'gåf/f ;~rflnt ljz]if Ifdtfn] sd{rf/Ldf ;]Nkm ;le{; Jojxf/sf] dfWodaf6 s] G b| d f s] l Gb| t If]q ;+nUg x'g ;Sg] If]qdf ;/sf/sf] != z/L/ leqsf] kmf]xf]/ ;kmf ug]{ M nf}sfsf] /;df (*=% kfgL / afFls
o'Qm kb;f]kfg z}nLdf cfwfl/t cxdkg a9g uof] , pgLx¿n] clwsf/nfO{ -l:k|Ín_ l5/Ng], cfof]u, ;+nUgtfnfO{ sd eGbf sd agfpg], PG6LclS;8]G6 x'G5 . To;}n] nf}sfsf] h'; lkpbf o;n] z/L/ leqsf]
lnlvt sfg'g;Ddt lglZrt cfr/0f hgtfsf] ;]js x'F eGg] d"No lal;{P . ljsf; ;ldlt, kl/ifb\, pkef]Qmf sd{rf/Ldf k]zfut lgi7f / g}ltstfsf] 6SzLgnfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg] sfd u5{ / z/L/sf] leqL efu ;kmf /fVg]
/ cg'zf;g ePsf sfg'gL clVtof/L sfo{;Dkfbgdf ckf/bzL{tfn] hf]vLd ;ldlt v8f u/]/ sfd ug]{, :yfgLo k| j 4{ g ug] { , sd{ r f/LtGqdf sfd u5{ .
k|of]u ug]{ ;+oGq sd{rf/LtGq jf glng] / cfb{z ;+:yf e|i6«frf/n] lgsfox¿4f/f ;fj{ h lgs sfo{ cfWoflTdstfsf] cEof; ug] { , @= slAhotnfO{ cf/fd M nf}sfsf] h';df kfpg] kmfOa/n] kfrg k|0ffnLnfO{
c8\8ftGq xf] . sd{rf/LtGq /fHo kf]ltg k'Uof] . sd{rf/LtGqdfly nfu]sf] ;Dkfbg ug] { , ;fj{ h lgs gLlh sd{rf/LtGqdf kfO{g] /]86]lkHd ;dfKt b'?:t agfpg] sfd ub{5 . o;sf] lgoldt ;]jgn] slAhotsf la/fdLnfO{{
;~rfngsf] d]¿b08 xf] . /fHok|bt rf}tkmL{ cf/f]ksf sf/0f sd{rf/LtGq ;fem]bf/Ldf ;fj{hlgs sfo{ ug]{ tyf ug],{ ;+3 x'bF } k|bz
] k'us ] f] clwsf/sf] cf/fd lbg] ub{5 .
sfg'gL clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/Ln] ubf{ /fhgLltsf] clk|o ;xofqL aGg k'Uof] . u} / ;/sf/L ;+ : yf jf gful/s ljs]Gb|Ls/0f u/L :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{ #= zlQmsf] nflu M olb tkfO{+ laxfg} p7]/ sfd ug{' x'G5 eg] nf}sfsf]
sd{rf/LtGq b]zsf] zf;g ;~rfng sd{rf/LtGqsf ljsNksf ljleGg ;dfh4f/f sfo{ ug]{ u/fpg] ;+:yfut ;Ifd agfpg], skf]/{ 6] ueg]G{ ;df hf]8 h'; vfg] ug{'xf];\ o;n] kmfObf k'¥ofpF5 . nf}sfdf sfaf]{xfO8«]6 a8L
ug] { :yfoL ;/sf/ xf] . cjwf/0f / ljsNksf /0fgLltx¿ ljsNksf If] q x¿ x' g \ . ;fy} , lbFb} sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ ;d'bfod"vL, dfqfdf kfOg] ub{5 h;n] df+;k];Lx¿sf] sfd ug]{ Ifdtf a8fpF5 .
/fhgLlts¿kdf ;/sf/ kl/jt{g k|of]u eP / eO/x]sf 5g\ . o;/L ;/sf/n] ;fj{hlgs xLtsf nflu glthfd"vL, pBdzLn agfpg], ;+u7gdf $= lk;fa OGkm]S;gsf nflu M olb tkfO{+nfO{{ lk;fa km]bf{ kf]Ng] jf b'Vg]
eO/xg] t/ sd{rf/LtGq :yfoL / k| b ] z / :yfgLo ;/sf/ em} ;/sf/sf] kIfaf6 u/] s f ;a} /x]sf] hgzlQmsf] ljljwtf Joj:yfkg x'g] ub{5 eg] nf}sfsf] h'; ;]jg ug{'xf];\ . lk;fadf Pl;8sf] dfqf a8L
lg/Gt/ cljl5Gg /lx/xG5 . sd{rf/LtGqsf] bf]ifx¿sf] cf8df sfo{x¿sf] cg'udg / lgodg ug],{ ug]]{ :, sd{rf/LtGqdf g}ltstf, ;bfrf/ ePsfn] lk;fa km]bf{ ;d:of cfpg] ub{5 . nf}sfsf] h';n] Pl;8sf] dfqf
;/sf/sf gLlt / sfo{qmdk|lt k|lta4 sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsNk vf]Hg] sfd a}b]lzs ;DaGw x]g]{ / ahf/sf / OdfGbfl/tfsf] l;~rg ug]{ jftfj/0f sd u5{ / lg/Gt/ nf}sfsf] h';sf] k|of]un] of] /f]u lgsf] x'G5 .
eO{ ;fj{ef}d hgtfnfO{ ;]jf lbg] / ljutb] l v g} x' F b } cfPsf] 5 . c;kmntfx¿ ;Rofpg] sfo{nfO{ klg l;h{ g f ug{ k| z f;gdf gjLg %= cf]hg 36fpg d2t M nf} s fsf] h' ; df Sofnf] / L / lrNnf] a/fa/
pgLx¿sf] ;+/If0f ug]{ lhDd]jf/L sd{rf/LtGqsf] cfjZoQmf, dxTj / ;+:yfut ljsNksf] ¿kdf x]g]{ / b[li6sf]0fd"ns ;'wf/ ug{' cfjZos 5 . x' F b } g h;df x' g ] kmfOa/n] ef] s nfO{ { sd u5{ h;n] ubf{ df] 6 fpg]
sd{rf/LtGqn] lgefpg] ub{5 . sfo{ ;+:sf/sf sf/0f sd{rf/LtGq k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf] kfO{G5 . /, d"nt ;/sf/ cfkm} sd{rf/LtGqsf] ;Defjgf sd x' G 5 .
sd{rf/LtGq l;4fGtsf hGdbftf ;/sf/sf] nflu geO{ gx'g] t/ -v_ sfof{ T ds ljsNkM g]tT[ j ug{ ;Ifd x'gk' b{5 .
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] ;lxtn] g]t[Tjsf] u2f/L, ljrnGtf / cf]nL ;/sf/nfO{ kf6L{ :ki6 ug{ / v/aktL ag]sf gjwfgf8\o ju{nfO{ 5 . 36gfqmdx¿ ;fk] I fdf x} g
t/, s] slt /sd jf s:tf] sdhf]/L !$ df3 @)&# df ;jf]R{ rdf bfo/ wf]sfw8Lsf sf/0f g]kfnL hgo'4 / rfxG5 . Wj:t agfpg] u/L cfpg' kg] { lg/k] I ftfdf a' l emG5 . cf] n L /
u/]sf] xf], To;sf] ljj/0f clxn] g} u/]sf] ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf] l/6sf] hgcfGbf]ngx¿ ck"0f{tfdf 6'lËP klg ctM hg qmflGt / g] k fnL cfjZostf ag]sf] 5 . sfd gu/L k|r08n] h] eGof] ToxL ;To . cfh,
eGg ldNg] cj:yf x'Gg,Ú clws[t zdf{ k|f/lDes ;'gj' fOdf ;jf]R{ rn] …sf/0f clxn] b]zdf h'g /fhg}lts kl/l:ylt hgtfdflysf] cf] n L ;/sf/sf] e|i6frf/ u/L, t:s/L, sfnf]ahf/Lof lxhf] / ef]lnsf aLr c;Gt'ng x'Fbf
atfpF5g\ . b]vfpmÚ cfb]z hf/L u/]sf] lyof] . ;[hgf ePsf] 5 / pknlAwx¿ xfl;n kmfF;LjfbL bdgsf] k|lt/f]w ug{ lgDg u/L, If0fe/df 5' dGt/L hfb'sf klg s;}n] k|Zg p7fpg ;Sb}g .
o;}u/L, l8; xf]dn] l8lh6n lgj]bgdf Pg;]nn] ltg{ afFsL /x]sf] ePsf 5g\ . Tof] !) jif{sf] g]kfnL ;+3if{sf sfo{qmdx¿ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] e/df c/aklt jg]sf dft[e"ldsf o:tf] nfU5 pgLx¿df d]df]/L jf
6]lnlehg ;]6ck aS; -k]–l6eL_ sl/a #( ca{ ¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] hgo'4sf] g]t[Tj / hgcfGbf]ngsf] 5 . o;sf] k|efjsf/L ;kmntfsf] h'sfx¿nfO{ txzgxz kfg]{ x'/L atf; :d[lt g} grflxg] ag]sf] 5 lsgsL
h8fgsf gfddf ( jif{bl] v s/f]8f}+ ¿k}ofF nfes/ ;]o/wgL, s'g} klg ljb]zL ;xof]usf] of]udf xfl;n ePsf 5g\ . lglDt l;Ëf] kf6L{ k+lQm / cfd g]kfnL rflxPsf] 5 . lxhf]sf] efif0f cfhsf] eGbf pN6f]
s/ 5nL ub}{ cfPsf] ;|ft] sf] bfla JolQm / sDkgLsf] gfddf x:tfGt/0f of] g]kfnL /fhg}lts cfGbf]ng / hgtfdf ;s[o ;xefuLtfsf] ljz]if #= hgtfnfO{ wf]sf lbg] g]tfx¿ lyof] / ef]lnsf] emg} pN6f] x'g]5 .
5 . l8; xf]dn] s/ tyf /f]oN6L /sd ug{ / lgsf;f ug{ /f]s nufpg dfu ljutsf] g] k fnsf] qmflGtsf/L cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ . cfh hgtfnfO{ qmflGtsf] ;kgf / klg tfnL ah]sf] aHo} 5, x'l6Ë
5nL ub}{ cfP klg lgofds lgsfo ul/Psf] lyof] . cfGbf]ngsf] csf6\o ;To xf] . )^@– sfo{qmd b]vfP/, clwsf/sf] s'/f u/]/ clg ePsf] eO{ 5 . cj oL bnx¿ olt
;"rgf tyf k|ljlw dGqfno / cy{ GofofwLz 8Da/axfb'/ zfxLsf] )^# kl5 zflGt k|lqmof / jftf{sf] !_ r}q @^–@( ;Dd– k|ltjGw ;dfgtfsf] ;kgf b]vfP/ hgtfs} lj£g lghL{ j ag] s f 5g\ ls
dGqfno gh/cGbfh ul//x]sf 5g\ . Psn Ohnf;n] …sf/0f b]vfpmÚ cfb]z gfddf g]kfnL hgo'4, dfcf]jfbL kf6L{, lj?4 krf{ ljt/0f / e08fkmf]/ pRr jlnbfgjf6 ;Qfdf k' u ] / pgLx¿nfO{ lj36g ug] { zQmL
l8; xf]dn] dgdf}hL ¿kdf tof/ kf/]sf] hf/L u/]sf] lyof] . o;cl3 klg hgcfGbf] n g, hgo' 4 sf] ljrf/, @_ j}zfv @ ut]– sf]0f ;ef hgtfk|lt 3ft ug]{, /fi6«k|lt 3ft rflxPsf] 5 .
ljj/0fnfO{ b'j} dGqfnox¿n] cg'df]bg Pg;]n s/ ljjfbsf d'2f ;'?df /fhg} l ts sfo{ q md / qmflGtsf] #_ j}zfv # ut] – cGt/lqmof ug]{ g]tfx¿af6 alnbfgLsf] d"No ^= afn' j f6f/ hUuf gfd;fl/
ub}{ s/ tyf /f]oN6L ;+sng u5{g\ GofofwLz zfxLs} Ohnf;df k/]sf k" 0 f{ t fsf lj?4 b] z L ljb] z L $_ j}zfv $ ut] – dzfn h'n; ' r'sfpg' kg]{ 68\sf/f] cfjZostf k| s /0f
5: . s/ ;+sng ug]{ tyf /f]oN6L lyP . sfg'gadf]lhd x'g] ljb]zL k|ltlqmofjfbL if8\oGq x'g yfn] kl5 %_ j}zfv % ut] – g]kfn aGb ag]sf] 5 . xhf/f}F zlxb, j]kQf, 3fO{t] kl5Nnf] ;do Pp6f
p7fpg] lhDd]jf/Ldf /x]sf oL b'j} nufgL :jLsf/ of]Uo ePsf] pNn]v j} b ] l zs ;fd| f Hojfb, ;+ ; bLo ^_ j}zfv ^ ut] af6 s]kL cf]nL ckfËx¿sf] a]xfn agfP/, xhf/f}F, pb]snfUbf] ;dfrf/ cfPsf] 5, Tof]
dGqfnosf clwsf/Lx¿n] …s' g ub}{ l/6 lgj]bgdf ljb]zL nufgLsf k|ltlqmofjfb / k|r08 d08nLsf] ;xefuL x'g] b]zsf ljleGg efusf nfvf}F of]4fx¿ ?jfP/, Psjf/sf] xf] k|wfgdGqL lgjf; afn'jf6f/sf]
cfwf/df s/ ;+sng ePsf] 5Ú eGg] gfddf s/ 5Ng] / d'ns ' sf] /fh:jdf cfTd;dk{0fjfb lj?4 hLjgd/0fsf] sfo{qmdx¿df aGbsf] cfof]hgf u/L dxTjk"0f{ hLjg vtd u/fO{lbP/ hUuf klg bnfnx¿sf] ldn]dtf]df
k|Zgsf] u}/lhDd]jf/ hjfkm lbFb} cfPsf gf]S;fgL x'g] sfd x'g nfu]df /f]Sg'kg]{ ;+3if{af6 hGd]sf] xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn ;fdflhs bnfnx¿nfO{ k|ltjGwLt ug]{ .Æ pgLx¿nfO{ vft], duGt] / hf]uL k|s[of ldnfP/ ;Qf?9 g]skfsf
5g\ . sDkgLn] tof/ kf/]sf] ljj/0f pNn]v lyof] . sDo'li6 kf6L{ xf] . of] kf6L{sf] sfFwdf /fhgLlts===== agfP/ cfk" m , cfˆgf] kl/jf/, dxf;lrj lji0f' kf}8]n nufotsf
…qm; r]sÚ ug]{ / lgodg ug]{ ;"rgf k|ltjGwlj?4===== !) jif{sf hgo'4 / !( lbgsf]
hgcfGbf] n gsf] /fhg} l ts
l6sfpgsf nfuL dft[ e " l ddfly gftfuf]tf / glhssf bnfnx¿nfO{
dfq c/aktL agfpg] clg cfˆg}
JoflQmx¿sf] gfddf gfd;f/L ul/Psf]
5 . of] bnfnLsf] k/fsfi7 / e2f
tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnosf sd{rf/Ln] g} / kl/jt{gsf d'2fsf lj?4 ;aeGbf v] n jf8 ug] { /fi6« 3 ftL
l:jsf/]sf 5g\ ls, …;]jf k|bfos a9L if8\oGq ug]{ cf]nL lu/f]x ljutsf pknlAwx¿sf] /Iff ug{', zflGt Pj+ ck/fwLx¿nfO{ ;hfP/ b]zsf] lxt ;d[ l 4nfO{ ;dfhjfb eGg] gd'gf xf] . of] e|i6frf/L / bnfnLsf]
sDkgLn] eg]sf] cfwf/df dfq} s/ tyf g]kfnL qmflGt / hgcfGbf]ngsf] jftf{sf jxfgfdf g]kfnL qmflGt / x'g ;Sb}g . uåf/x¿;F u hgtfn] Ifltk" l t{ klg clt xf] . of] 36gfaf6 ;/sf/
/f]oN6L ;+sng eO/x]sf] 5 .Ú …;]6ck lj?4df v8f x' g ] / bdg ug] { kl/jt{gsf lj?4 ePsf if8\oGqx¿sf] @= 6f]gf{8f] sxf“ sxf“ cfpg' kg]{ 5 lng'kg]{ 5 . cfhsf] lbgdf cfˆgf] / ;Qf?9 bnnfO{ nfhnfUg' kg]{ xf] .
aS;Ú h8fgsf] ljj/0f /fVg'kg]{ ;"rgf zf;sx¿nfO{ dft ub} { g] k fn k|ltjfb ug{' / b]zsf] d'lQm Pj+ g]kfnL g]kfnL /fhgLltdf 6f]gf{8f]eGbf s'rL{ arfpgsf nfuL b]z} j]Rg k|wfgdGqLnfO{ s:tf] nfu]sf] 5
tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno;Fu klg o;sf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / o;sf] g]tT[ jdf >dhLlj hgtfsf] /fHo;Qfsf] klg ljWj+;sf/L cfFwL / t'kmfg cfpg tof/ x'g] d'Vo g]tfx¿nfO{ ;fOhdf s'GgL < xfdL t Pp6f g]kfnL x'g'sf]
s'g} ljj/0f 5}g . ;+rflnt PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf lj?4 k|ltlglwTj ug]{ j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL kg]{ cfjZostf 5 . klxnf] gDa/df Nofpg' kg]{ 5 . hgtfsf] ul/aLnfO{ gftfn] g]kfnLn] g} u/]sf] o:tf] 3[l0ft
clxn] emG8} Ps bh{g sDkgLn] vlgPsf] / To;df lks] bfxfn klg Joj:yf :yfkgf ug]{ lhDd]jf/L / 6f]gf{8f] e|i6x¿sf] cv8fdf cfpg' sdhf]/L 7fg]/ pgLx¿dfly v]naf8 s'sd{af6 nlHht ag]sf 5f}+ .
k]–l6eL h8fgsf] sfd ub}{ cfPsf ;tL uPsf] 7f]s'jf ub}{ of] lu/f]xn] st{Jo /x]sf] 5 . pk/f]Qm p2]Zosf] k5{ e|i6x¿nfO{ P]of klg eGg gkfpg] ug] { slyt zflGt / ;d[ l 4sf &= alGb k|TolIfs/0f / ;jf]{Rr
5g\ . l8; xf]d afx]ssf cGo sDkgL bnfn k' F h Lklt ju{ s f] :jfy{ / lglDt cfˆgf] :yfkgfsfnb]lv xfd|f] u/L l;Wofpg' k5{ . pgLx¿nfO{ em'6x¿ k]z ug]{, slyt cfly{s cbfnt
eg] ahf/df ev/} k|j]z u/]sf x'g\ . ;fd|fHojfbL dflnssf] ;]jfsf lglDt kf6L{ PsLs[ t hgqmflGtsf] df};djLbx¿n] klg sNkgf gug]{ u/L ;d[l4sf gf/fx¿ lbP/ km]l/ klg ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]skfsf g]tf
( jif{b]lv k]–l6eL ;~rfng ub}{ ljutsf] hgo'4 / hgcfGbf]ngsf sfo{lbzfsf] lbzf lgb]{zdf g]kfnL p8fpg' kg]{ h?/L 5 . bf];f| ] gDa/df e]8fafv|f agfpg] ;kgf b]v]sf x]dGt k|sfz jnL …;'b{zgÚsf] alGb
cfPsf] sDkgL l8; ldl8ofdf pknlAwx¿nfO{ lgld6\ofGg kfg],{ /fi6« qmflGtsf] P]ltxfl;s k|lqmofdf 5 . 6f]gf{8f]sf] ljgfzsf/L ljWj+; /fi6«3ftL g]tfx¿nfO{ ca hgtfsf] cfqmf]z k| T olIfs/0fsf] l/6nfO{ ;jf{ ] R r
Joj;foL rGb| 9sfnsf efO x]d/fh 3ft, hg3ft, e|i6rf/, sldzg, of] cfˆgf] B]odf ltj|ultdf cufl8 g]tf / dGqLx¿ clg pgLx¿sf / ljb|f]xaf6 hjfkm lbg' kg]{ j]nf cbfntn] vf/]h u/] ;+u} ;jf]{Rrsf]
9sfn cWoIf 5g\ . l8; xf]dsf] s/ dfgj a] r ljvg, xTof, cft+ s , al9/fv]sf] 5 . u'nfd, bf; h:tf bnfnx¿nfO{ xfGg] cfPsf] 5 . lgikIftfdfly ulDe/ k|Zg p7]sf]
tyf /f]oN6L 5nLdf ;"rgf tyf jnfTsf/nfO{ nf]stflGqs u0ftGq / )@* ;fnsf] emfkf ljb|f]xsf u/L cfpg' k5{ . cfh /fi6«3ftL $= ljs[ t /fHosf ;+ o Gqx¿ 5 . alGb k| T olIfs/0f h:tf]
;~rf/ dGqfno / s/ sfof{nosf ;+ljwfg sfof{Gjogsf] hfdf klx/fpg] hgtfsf xltof/ sf] z L gbLdf gfu/Lstf ljw]os NofpFbf klg tfnL cfh /fHosf ;j} ;+oGqx¿ ljs[t, ;+j]bgzLn d'2fdf cbfntn] ;/sf/
sd{rf/Lsf] ;d]t ldn]dtf] /x]sf] Ps w[i6tf ul//fv]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . pgn] ˆofs] s f] , )$^ ;fnsf] ahfP/ ;dy{g ug]x{ ¿nfO{ 5fgL 5fgL Wj:t / ls+st{ Joljd'7 ag]sf 5g\ . lgb]{lzt e'ldsf lgefpg' zf]egLo
k]–l6eL sDkgLsf dflns atfpF5g\ . o;af6 k' / fsf k' / f ;t{ s /xg hgcfGbf] n gdf ;fdGtjfb;+ u 6f]gf{8f] k7fpg' k5{ . g]kfnsf] l;df sfo{ k flnsf, Joj:yflksf / 5}g\ . b'OltxfO{sf] andf cbfntnfO{
…;"rgf dGqfnon] cfkm} ;]6ck aS; b]zeQm Pj+ kl/jt{gsfdL /fhg}lts cfTd;k{ 0 fjfbL ;Demf} t f u/L ldlrFbf /dfpg] / pN6f] uf}/a ug]{ Gofokflnsf st}af6 r]s P08 Jofn]G; sfo{kflnsfsf] 5f+of agfpg] s'r]i6f
cfoftdf l:js[lt lbg] u5{Ú, pgn] zlQm / cfdg]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ljz]if hgtfnfO{ wf]sf lbPsf], )%@ ;fndf /fi6«3ftLx¿nfO{ a9fg'{ kb{5 . t];|f] 5}g . ;a} 5f8f / a]nufd ag]sf e|T;{gf of]Uo 5 . o;nfO{ l;s] /fpt
eg], …km]l/ s;n] slt NofPsf 5g\ clkn ;d]t u/]sf 5g\ . z'? ePsf] hgo'4sf !) jif{df gDj/df 6f]gf{8f]sf] tfG8j g[To bnfn 5g\ . ;/sf/sf s'g} lgsfo klg cfˆgf] k| s /0f;+ u bfh] / x] b f{ dflysf]
To;sf] ljj/0f 5}g eGb} klG5g'n] o; laifodf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 dfcf]jfbL / hgo'4nfO{ cft+ssf/L ;+ ; bLo Joj:yfsf] x] 8 Sjf6/df cg'zf;g, dof{bf / pQ/bfloTj leq cf/f]ksf] k'i6L x'G5 .
u8a8L dfq} xf]Og ldn]dtf] klg kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ljKnjn] hf/L u/]sf] xTof/f elg pl5Qf] sf6\g] / bdgdf dRrfpg' kg] { 5 . lg/+ s ' z , 5}gg\ . c? c+usf] jf lgsfox¿sf] t *= lgisif{
b]vfpF5 .Ú lgofds lgsfo cfkm} lj1lKtsf] k"0f{ laa/0f o; k|sf/ ;a} ;+;bLo k|ltlqmofjfbLnfO{ pl5Gg] clwgfosjfbL cgL kmf;LjfbL s'/} 5f]8f}F . clVtof/ cfo'Qmx¿ cfkmF} g]kfnnfO{ hf]ufpg] xf] eg] Pp6f
ljj/0f 5}g eg]/ klG5g' eg]sf] s/ /x]sf] 5– …g]kfnL hgqmflGt / /fli6«o / )^@–)^# kl5 hgo'4, dfcf]jfbL rl/qsf 5f]6] /fhfx¿ hf] cfk"mnfO{ 3'; vfFb} lxF85 \ g\ . sd{rf/L ;+oGq leif0f / 8/nfUbf] 6f]gf{8f] cfFwL
tyf /f]oN6L /sd ltbf{ …ltdLx¿nfO{ /fhgLltdf …Pp6f dhfsÚsf] k|ltlglw / kl/jt{gsf d'2fsf lj?4 ;aeGbf lx6n/ h:t} 7fG5g\, u0ftGqsf Wj:t / sfd gnfUg] ag]sf] 5 . k};f cfpg' kg] { 5 . Pp6f eofgs
h] dg nfU5 ToxL ug{'Ú eGg] xf] . s]kL cf]nL / lks] bfxfnn] g]t[Tj a9L ;8\oGq ug]{ cf]nL lu/f]x ljutsf 7]s]bf/ 7fG5g\ / tL hgtfsf] afFRg vfg kfP h] klg sfd x'g] / vfg Hjfnfd'vLsf] laikmf]6 x'g' kg]{ 5 jf
…o;n] l8; xf] d sf] s' l gotnfO{ u/]sf] slyt g]skf -g]skf_sf] cf]nL g]kfnL qmflGt / hg cfGbf]ngsf] kfpg] g};lu{s clwsf/dfly klg wfjf gkfP s]xL klg gx'g] j]xfn cj:yf cln 7'n} /]S6/ :s]nsf] /fhgLlts
d'vl/t u/]sf] 5,Ú dGqfnosf Ps ;/sf/n] g]kfnL :jfledfgL Pj+ lj?4df v8f x' g ] / bdg ug] { jf]N5g\, ltgLx¿nfO{ cfpg' k5{ 5 . s] oL k'/fg} ;+oGqnfO{ hf]ufP/ e'sDk Nofpg' kg]{ 5 . oyfl:yltsf
sd{rf/L eG5g\, …o;df ;~rf/ / >dhLlj hgtfsf] k|ltlglw xfd|f] kf6L{ zf;sx¿nfO{ dft ub}{ xfd|f] kf6L{ / 6f]gf{8f] . zf;sx¿ hf] u0ftGqsf] /fHon] d'lQm kfpnf < s] logLx¿df zlQmx¿ lj36g ug' { kg] { 5 ,
cy{ dGqfnon] rf;f] b]vfpg] dfq g] k fn sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ / o;sf o;sf] g]t[Tjdf ;+rflnt PsLs[t gfddf, nf]stGqsf] gfddf xhf/f}F, ;'wf/sf] s'g} u'~hfo; xf]nf < olb lg/Gt/tfsf ;+/rgfx¿ eTsfpg'
xf]Og 5fglag g} k|f/De ug{'k5{ .Ú /fhg}lts Pj+ hg;]jfsf sfo{qmd hgqmflGtsf lj?4 vlgPsf] 5 . nfvf}F hgtfsf] df}lns xs / dfgj s'g} c+u klg clnslt ;jn ;Ifd / kg] { 5 . clxn] s f] /fhgLlts
dfly ut kmfNu'0f @* ut] /flt c+sz ' To;df lks] bfxfn klg ;lt uPsf clwsf/nfO{ x/0f ug]{ lbjf:jKg zfx;L x'bF f] xf] t, p;sf nfuL O{ltxf; dgf] l j1fgnfO{ pv] n ] / , cfuf] d f
Pg;] n ;“ u ===== nufpg] lg0f{o u¥of] . To; kl5 nut} 5g . of] lu/f]x bnfn k"h F Lklt ju{sf] b]vs] f 5g\, ltgLx¿nfO{ p8fpg' k5{ /Rg] cj;/ lyof] . s'ndfg l3l;Ën] eid agfP/ Pp6f ;'Gb/
8n/ cyf{t\ ! va{ $$ ca{ &* :jfy{ / ;fd|fHojfbL dfnLssf] ;]jfsf 6f]gf{8f] gfdsf]] a]ujfg e'd/Ln] . sld;g vfg lbPg eg]/ x6fpg] v]n dgf]lj1fgsf] lgdf{0f ug'{ kg]{ h?/L
s/f]8 @% nfv ^ xhf/ ¿k}ofFnfO{ cf]nL ;/sf/n] km/dfg hf/L u¥of]
ls #% lbgsf] xbDofb leq lglDt ljutsf] hgo' 4 / h;n] emfkf ljb|f]xsf] Jofkf/ u/], x'bF 5
} . :jtGq Gofokflnsf Psfb]zsf] ePsf] 5 . ;fgf] cfFwLn] k'Ub}g, k'Ug]
ljjflbt sf/f]af/df e'QmfgL ePsf] hgcfGbf] n gsf pknAwLx¿nfO{ h;n] bfz9'Ëf xTofsf08sf] Jofkf/ syf h:tf] aGg] cj:yfdf 5 . c3f]lift eP af/f, k;f{df cfPs} xf], e'sDk klg
dfgL s/ lgwf{/0f u/]sf] lyof] . pQm cfTd;dk{0f u/ gq && j6} lhNnfdf
$ j6} ;'/Iff lgsfosf] kl/rfngdf lgld6\ofGg kfg],{ /fi6« 3ft, hg 3ft, u/], h;n] bz jif]{ hgo'4sf] Jofkf/ k| w fgGofolwzsf] ¿kdf :jo+ cfPs} xf] . ha g]tfx¿df :d/0f ug]{
s/ lgwf{/0f sfg'g;Ddt gePsf] e|i6rf/, sldzg, dfgj a]rljvg, u/] , ltgLx¿df cfpg' k5{ k|wfgdGqL s]=kL cf]nL ag]sf] h:tf] Ifdtf jf d]df]/L g} 5}g, ta pgLx¿nfO{
cbfntsf] 7x/ 5 . …@( r}t @)&@ ck|z] g rnfP/ lgoGqo0f ul/g] 5 .
To;sf lglDt ;'/Iff lgsfonfO{ g]kfn xTof, cft+ s , anfTsf/nfO{ ljgfzsf/L x'/L atf; . t];f| ] gDa/df b]lvG5 . cbfnt pgsf] 5fof+ dfq s] bf]if lbg' < pgLx¿nfO{ t a9fg]{ t/
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