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Planning Project Report

Prepared by the Office of Planning
The Ohio Historical Society

ThomasH. Smith, Director, The Ohio Historical Society

William G. Keener, Chief, Office of Planning
Julius Simchick, Coordinator, Youngstown Office


I. Background
oftheproject.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1
II. The Ohio Historical Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3
( III. Youngstown
Theme............................ 6
IV. TheNeed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
V. TheDevelopment
of theIronandSteelIndustry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15
( 1. Furnace.
Blast 15
2. Cast Iron.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
'-- 3. Wrought Iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4. Stee1 . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5. Blister and Cementation Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6. Crucible Steel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
( 7. Bessemer Steel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8. Open Hearth. . . . . . ".. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Basic Oxygen, and QBOP
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
B.Labor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
The Early Period.
( 1.
2. The Modern Era.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33
C. Immigration , ~ . . . . . . . . . 35
D. Working Conditions.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
E. Unionism.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
F. Labor Today.
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
VI. TheMahoning
Valley:AShortHistory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
VII. Today.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 52
A. Automobile
Access.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
B. AirandBusAccess.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
C. Lodging,Restaurant
andShoppingFacilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . 54
D. OtherCultural/Recreational/Educational

VIII. Potential MuseumSites 63
IX. Collections 71
X. Exhibits. 74
A. Formal Exhibits 74
B. Large Artifact Exhibits 78
XI. ArchivesProgram. . . . 81
XII. The Museumas an Educator 87
,. XIII. Budget. . . . . 93
A. Museum Program 93
( B. Types of Funding 94
C. Continued Operating Requirements 99
D. Sources of Funding . 103
Summary . 106
Appendix I .109
Appendix II .114
Appendix III . .118
Appendix IV .124
Appendix V . . 143
Appendix VI . . .146
Appendix VII . 152
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The Youngstown MuseumProject is being undertaken by the Ohio Historical Society in

par~ia1 fulfillment of its legal obligations as detailed in Section 149.30 and sub-
sequent sections of the Ohio Revised Code. This legislation gives the Society
,- - responsibility for many of the state's historical activities and programs.

The prospect of establishing an Ohio Historical Society museumfacility in the

Youngstown area has been under discussion for at least fifteen years. A number of
persons in the Youngstown area have approached the Society at various times to suggest
the propriety of such a venture. The Society likewise has had an interest in such a
project. This was expressed implicitly in the Society's Ten Year Plan as submitted to
the Ohio General Assembly in June, 1974. In that document, the Society's Board of
Trustees made clear that the concentration of historic sites and museumsin predomi-
nantly rural areas could not serve the'needs and desires of all Ohioans. Based on
this principle, the Board gave the development of urban facilities the highest
priority in future capital improvement plans.

Throughout the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the Society was so engaged in a myriad
of other projects that the active planniTIg of a Youngstown facility had to remain a
hope for the future. - Interest remained high, however, both on the part of the Society
and also on the part of a number of persons in Youngstown.


In 1977 the Ohio General Assembly passed AmendedSubstitute House Bill Number618.
Line item appropriation 360-508 provided the Society with funding through June 30,
( 1979 for the purpose of planning a Youngstown museumfacility. The General Assembly
stipulated that the Society should work toward lithe development of a program dealing
with the historical growth of the MahoningValley. . ~ ."

In addition to the Youngstown facility~ the Society is planning museumcomplexes in

Cleveland and. Wooster. To coordinate these efforts and to insure their efficient
planning, an Office of Planning was established at the Ohio Historical Center in
Columbus. Early in 1978, the Youngstown Planning Office was opened in the heart of
downtownYoungstown. A local project coordinator was hired to head that office. A
small research and secretarial staff has been added to the Youngstownoffice while
other researchers and designers have continued to work on the project in Columbus.

The project coordinator has contacted many people in the Youngstown area to determine
the extent of local support and to discover what types of programs are desirable and
feasible. At the same time, research nas been undertaken to explo}'e possible museum
themes, locations, costs, and benefits. A variety of possible museumprograms have
been and are continuing to be explored.

This report will examine some of the pertinent issues associated with the establishment
and the operation of a Youngstownhistorical facility.

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Foundedin 1885, the Ohio Historical Society is a private, nonprofit educational

institution. The Society, one of the largest state historical organizations in the
nation, manages and operates more.than sixty sites across the state for the benefit
of Ohio's citizens. Under Section 149.30 and subsequent sections of the Ohio Revised
Code, the Society is chartered in general to IIpromote a knowledge of history and
archaeology, especially of Ohio. . .11and is responsible for a number of other duties
which are more specifically detailed in the Revised Code.

The Society receives state funds to help fulfill its duties as specified in the above-
mentioned legislation. In addition to its museumand state memorial 'programs, the
Society is responsible for archives administration for the State of Ohio a~d its
political subdivisions.

An eighteen-member board of trustees governs the Ohio Historical Society. Half of its
members are elected by the membership while the remaining nine are appointed by the
Governor. A director, selected by the Board of Trustees, administers Society operations.'

( Over four hundred employees are required to implement the Society's many diverse
programs. The Archives Division, which is the official repository for state documents.
also maintains more than five hundred manuscript collections and an extensive audio-
visual archives. The Library Division oversees an excellent non-circulating research

library containing more than 125,000 volumes. This division's newspaper collection is
one of the finest in the nation.

The Society operates a series of diverse museumprograms throughout Ohio. Natural

history museums, wildlife preserves, and interpretive programs educate Ohio citizens
abo~t their environment--both present day and past. The Society's expertise in pre-
historic archaeology, which has b~en recognized worldwide since 1885, is demonstrated
through both .scholarly and popular publications. Several archaeology site museums, as
well as exhibits at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus, inform the public about the
prehistoric peoples who once inhabited this area.

Sometwenty-three history museumsor restored buildings comprise the bulk of the

Society's history interpretation programs. Subjects range from an examination of the
settlement of the Northwest Territory at the restored section of the CampusMartius
( stockade in Marietta to man's first exploration beyond this planet at the Neil Armstrong
Museumin Wapakoneta. Ohio's presidents of the United States are well represented by
the Rutherford B. Hayes home, museumand library; by the Ulysses S. Grant birthplace and
schoolhouse; by the William Henry Harrison tomb; and most recently by the acquisition
of the Warren G. H~rding home and memorial. Presidents, however, do not dominate the
Society's efforts. Black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar's Dayton home is maintained as a
museum, as are the homes of composer Benjamin Hanby and abolitionist John Rankin.
Fort Meigs, the largest restored stockade in the nation, tells the story of the War of
1812, while Fort Laurens commemorateswith a museumthe only permanent Revolutionary
War installation in Ohio. Here also is a tomb containing the remains of the unknown
soldiers who died at. Fort Laurens while fighting for American independence.
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In 1965 the Society embarkedon a major expansion and renovation program. In the
ensuing thirteen years, the Society has opened fifteen new museumswhile also making
major improvements at eight existing museums. To date, this program has provided the
people of Ohio with approximately 350,000 square feet of new exhibits as well as three
major living history sites. This represents one of the largest capital improvement,
exh~bit, and interpretation programs ever undertaken by a state historical society.

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Whenthe YoungstownMuseumPlanning Project was initiated, the planners maintained no

pre~onceived notion of what the major thematic thrust of the museumwas to be. The
establishment of the museum's theme is most important, for it is the prerequisite for
all future planning. Only when the theme is determined, can questions relating to
museumlocation, size and cost be examined realistically.

To begin, a number of alternatives were sought out and considered. Data was assembled
to determine the subject areas most appropriate to the Youngstown-MahoningValley locale.
Manypersons were interviewed in an attempt to determine the prevailing opinion of local
residents concerning desirable or appropriate themes. While the museumis not being
undertaken solely for the benefit of these residents, community support is imperative
to the success of any such undertaking.

A motorist driving through the Mahoning Valley is soon aware that this is no placid
landscape. The valley is alive with sights and sounds. Smokestacks reach into the
clouds, stretching upwardsfrom sprawling complexes of black iron and brick. Even at
some distance, an assortment of sounds echo out across the valley clatteri~g and
( screaming. Everywhere, railroad tracks announce that, here, movement is the watchword.
At night the sky is aglow with lights--not from the heavens, but from flaming openings
in the dark buildings which lie along both sides of the Mahoning River. Everywhere,
the valley speaks of the presence of man on a huge scale.


This tour along the Mahoning River is, in a sense, an excursion to the very foundation
of American industry. The Mahoning Valley is one of the nation's most important steel
producing areas. From 1802, when the Heaton brothers erected the first iron furnace
west of the Allegheny Mountains, to the present, the Valley has produced much of the.
iron and steel used in building America's railroads, bridges and buildings.

Iron and steeJ are the building blocks from which nearly all of American industry is
built. The automobiles we drive are made from Mahoning Valley steel, as are the pipes
that bring oil to the surface of the earth and transport it from well to refinery, and
<' the trucks which bring it to the corner gas station. Victor Clark, a noted economic
historian, once remarked that "no single thing better measures the industrial standing
of a nation than its use of metal" and steel is the most important metal of the modern
era. Certainly, no area of the United States better illustrates the development of .

( this nation's iron and steel industry than the Mahoning Valley.

Any person who walks through downtownYoungstownor its hinterland inquiring of people
on the street about the history or present state of the Mahoning Valley will be struck
( by the similarity of their responses. Everyone talks about iron and steel. A visitor
is not only surrounded by the physical facilities which today, and for many years past,
have produced this basic building block of industry, but also finds that nearly every
resident has some connection with the industry. or have worked .in the plants
of Republic, Youngstown Sheet and Tube, Sharon, or U. S. Steel; others can recount the
generations of their families who worked in the mills. Above all else, one is struck
by the pride these people have in their town and in its primary industry. Over and
over again, one hears, liThebest steel in the world is Youngstownsteel." Along with
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this sense of pride, one is aware that these people also have a tremendous appreciation
of the heritage of the Mahoning Valley iron and steel industry. Throughout the plants,
when people hear that the visitor is from the Ohio Historical Society, they point out
that the plant tour is itself a lesson in history. uYouwant a good museum?", many
ask. "Why, this plant is a museum--just look at these open hearths; they're 1917 and
they don't make them like that anymore."

\- As the planning for the Youngstown historical facility progressed, one fact became very
evident. The historical development of the Mahoning Valley not only parallels the
historical development of the American iron and steel industry, it is one of its most
vital segments. As an important corollary to this basic fact, the people of the
Mahoning Valley view the iron and steel industry as the theme for the proposed museum.
Therefore, surveys of both the history of the region, and also of community response
( indicate the most appropriate theme for the Youngstownmuseumfacility is the history
of the American iron and steel industry.



The importance of the iron and steel industry to the historical development and present
status of the United States is difficult to estimate. The industry's role in the
emergence of modern America has been considerable. An examination of the amount of
iron and steel produced makes evident that this industry's growth and success parallels
the.development of American technology and the economic status of the country as a

(. whole. The following diagrams give a notion of this phenomenal growth. Note that
from 1700 to 1879 the output listed is for iron while from 1886 to 1975 th~ figures
represent the output of steel. This reflects the change in ferrous metals production
which occurred with the advent of processes for manufacturing inexpensive steel during

( the 1880s.

As these statistics show, the production of iron and steel has increased by quantum
leaps in the past 280 years, not only in terms of gross tonnage, but also in terms of
( per capita production. By comparing the output of iron and steel with the general
economic, status of the United States, it is evident that the output has been closely
tied to the overall economic well being of the nation. The relationship between

production of iron and steel and the general prosperity of the country is,so intricate
( that a change in one generally accompanies a change in the other.

Another relationship can be found in these figures. During periods of our history when
rapid technological development and industrial growth took place. the output of iron and

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steel rose. This is not at all surprising, for first iron and then later steel were the
essential materials for industrial building. For example, the railroad boomwhich
( occurred during the latter half of the nineteenth century consumed vast quantities of
steel. Between 1865 and 1900, the American rail network grew from 40,000 miles of track
to 250,000 miles. During this boomperiod of railway building steel rails accounted for
much of the nation's total steel production; in 1887 alone 2,139,640 tons of steel went
( into rail production. Rolling stock also consumed a great deal of steel during this
period. In 1834 an average locomotive weighed seven and a half tons. By the 1880s,
sixty-ton and larger locomotives were not uncommon.

The steel industry's growth has made it one of the most important segments of the
American economy. In 1976 the 454,128 persons who worked in the steel industry earned
$8,331,464,000. In addition, millions of workers in other industries and services are
dependent to at least some degree on steel. Witness the economic disruption which
results when the demand for steel slumps or when the industry is slowed by labor

Despite the historical and the contemporary importance of the iron and steel industry,
few Americans knowmuch about it. While the news media makes us aware of troubles that
spring up in the industry from time to time, few of us are knowledgeable about the
size, operations or historical origins of this vital part of our nation.
Iron and steel, both the products and also the industry itself. are such important
elements of American history that museumtreatment is to say the least highly desirable;
To understand the development of the United States--its economy, its society, its
( culture--one must examine this vital industry.

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Museumsare one of the most pervasive disseminators of historical information in

contemporary America. Recent statistics indicate that museumvisits in this country
total more than 308,000,000 per year. What makes this data especially impressive is
that the number of museumvisits exceeds the total population of the United States by
about one-third. In other words, many Americans visit more than one museumeach year.

Whydo people attend museumsand what do they get out of their visits? These are
difficult questions, for museumsare so varied in theme, content, and approach that
they would defy classification by even a modern-day Linnaeus. All museums,however, do
share some things in common. All exhibit and interpret objects in an attempt to increase
and diffuse knowledge about our environment, past and present. This fundamental purpose
makes museumseducational institutions in the truest sense. However; they differ funda-
mentally from other educational institutions, such as schools, in their reliance upon
objects rather than the written or printed word to convey information. Museumsalso
differ from schools in that museumsseldom rely on coercion to stimulate the learning
process. Museumsgive no tests; they ~ward no grades.

( These two factors, the employment of objects and the absence of coercion, are the basis
of the museum's success as an educator as well as the foundation of its popular appeal.
Objects provide a sense of tangibility which is lacking in printed works. They allow
the past or the foreign to becomefirsthand, thereby forming the foundation on which
even abstract concepts can be built. As one curator remarked, "Girls are much more
interesti:ng than descriptions of girls."
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The use of objects as educational tools is combined with an absence of coercion. No one
is forced to enter a museum. No one is tested on what they received once inside. This
increases the enjoyment of museumsand, as educators acknowledge, it is easier to learn
in a pleasant environment. Museumcurators and exhibit designers are well aware that
no one is forced to enter museums. They therefore strive to make the museum's environ-
ment attractive, for one measure of a museum's success is its visitation. At the same
time, museumofficials recognize that education is their institutions' primary goal.
Thus, museumsattempt to educ~te in an environment of entertainment and pleasure. One
need only look at some of the most successful museumprograms offered in this country
( to see that this is so. People are visiting museumsineve~increasing numbers and
they are finding that learning about the past can be an enjoyable and rewarding

It is evident that the iron and steel industry for many years has been a vitally
important segment of the American society and economy. It is also clear that museums
are one of the best transmitters of historical information. An iron and steel museum
would fill a great need. Still, no museumin the United States today is devoted to
( iron and steel.

The Ohio Historical Society has restored an 1850s charcoal iron furnace near Wel1ston,
Ohio. Somemuseums, like the Smithsonian, do look at portions of the iron. and steel
industry, but have not attempted a comprehensive portrayal. The same is true of period
reconstructions, such as Saugus Iron Works and Hopewell Village, whose interpretations
are limited to a single locale and period of time. While these and similar efforts
demonstrate that museumsare aware that iron and steel deserve coverage, as yet none

have developed a full-scale portrayal. This seems especially odd in light of the fact
that museumsdo exist for the glass, oil and textile industries, and they are very
( successful.

A museumwhich focuses on a portrayal of iron and steel will help makepeople aware of
the historical development of the industry. By providing an understanding of the
origins and the evolution of iron and steel in America, this museumwiil help in the
understanding of the present. As the remaining chapters of this report will show, now
is the ideal time for such an undertaking and Youngstown is the ideal 10catfon.

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To discuss the merits of Youngstown as a location for the museum--to understand why the
Mah~ning Valley is at this time so ideal a choice--one must have some understanding of
the evolution of the iron and steel industry. Because the two are so intertwined, a
~-_. history of the industry is in many respects also a history of the valley.

In 1619 a group of British investors attempted to erect an ironworks in Virginia. When

a group of Indians protested the intrusion into their territory by killing the iron-
workers and demolishing the facilities, iron production in the NewWorld ceased.

Somefifty years later, iron production had been reintroduced. The center of the new
activity had moved to NewEngland where ore obtained from bogs or ponds was utilized
to make iron. From Massachusetts, ironworking spread to Connecticut, Rhode Island, and
then to NewJersey and NewYork. The most important iron center in pre-Revolutionary
America, however, was established in Pennsylvania. Here were found the raw materials
needed to make iron, the streams to provide water power, and the entrepreneurs, like
William Henry Stiegel, who were willing to exploit the situation.

( Using local materials and selling primarily to local markets, these early iron
manufacturing concerns were small-scale entetprises. Nevertheless, they supplied
much needed iron, first to the Colonies and later to the new United States.


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All of these establishments used the same type of raw materials and all relied upon a
commontechnology to produce their iron. This processs in facts has changed little from
( ancient times to the present. Refinementss to be sures have increased production, cut
costs, and permitted the utilization of less scarce materials. Yet, the basic method of
making iron is the same for today's giant corporations as it was for the Southhampton
adventurers who sought to make iron in seventeenth century Virginia.


A. . The Blast Furnace - Metallic iron is rarely found in nature. Iron tends to react
readily with oxygen, forming an iron oxide. One of the most common,and troublesome,
( of these oxides is called "rust." Deposits of natural iron oxide, or .iron ore, vary
in chemical content. While some contain as much as seventy-five to eighty percent iron
others possess as little as twenty percent. The job of the iron maker is to remove the
oxygen and other impurities from the ore, thereby leaving only the iron. This process,
whose chemical name is reduction, might be expressed by this formula: Fe304+heat~Fe to..
It is important to note that this is a chemical reaction and not merely the "me1ting"
of the iron free from its surrounding i~purities, as is often the case with other metals
such as gold.

Other elements often are present in the ore and they too must be eliminated from the
final product. For instances two particularly troublesome impurities are sulfur and
phosphorous. A flux added to the reaction traps these and other impurities, facilitating
removal. Limestones the most commonlyused flux, melts and traps these impurities in
a liquid suspension which is removed as it floats to the top of the heavier molten iron.

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The reduction of iron ore to metallic iron takes place at very high temperatures--
several thousand degrees farenheit. The achievement of these enormous temperatures,
) one of the greatest difficulties encountered in iron production, takes place in a large
reaction vessel called a blast furnace (see diagram). The basic design and the princi-
ples of the blast furnace operations have remained constant for centuries. Ore, fuel,
and flux are dumped into the furnace from the top. The furnace is operated continuously,
) for when allowed to cool the furnace's refractory lining must be replaced. The burning
fuel provides.the heat for the reaction, which becomes progressively more intense as
the'mixture descends further down into the furnace. The enormous heat required pre-
cludes allowing the fuel to burn under strictly atmospheric conditions. Air is pumped
) into the blast furnace through openings in its base. This blast of air, much akin to
the blacksmith's bellows, forces a more rapid and intense combustion, thereby raising
the temperature to the needed degree.

In the past century two major innovations have taken place in the design and operation
of blast furnaces. The first involved preheating the blast air prior to blowing it
into the furnace. Heating the air increased the yield of iron, thus cutting production
cost. As the nineteenth century closed, American blast furnaces had raised both the
pressure and the temperature of their blast air. By adopting this so-called "hard
driving" technique, American iron producers were able to make enormous profits on an
ever-increasing output of iron.

The second major innovation in blast furnace practice involved a change in the fuel.
For centuries, iron was made in charcoal-fueled "furnaces. While charcoal was a nearly
ideal fuel in terms of energy output and lack of impurities. it was expensive. limited

) 17

supplies of wood as well as the cost of the labor required to convert the wood to
charcoal continually increased the cost of this fuel. Nonetheless, charcoal was the
preferred fuel well into the nineteenth century. Beginning in the 1840s, however, iron-
masters gradually switched to other fue1s--first to anthracite coal and then to coke made
from bituminous coal. Several advantages thus were gained: (1) the cost of iron
production dropped with declining fuel costs and (2) larger furnaces could be built
!) because coke could be stacked higher than charcoal without crushing. These larger
furnaces provided an economy of scale and also allowed American furnaces to supply the
huge demands for iron products.

At the same time these major changes were winning acceptance throughout the industry,
a number of refinements were introduced into blast furnace practice. Improvements in
materials handling, energy conservation and by-product utilization all helped to
increase yields and profits. By the first decades of the twentieth century, however,
the main principles of blast furnace design and operation were established. and they
continue to- operate today.

) Iron, as it emerges from the blast furnace, is of limited use in the fabrication of final
products. This is largely due to the impurities which remain in the iron. Blast
furnace iron contains approximately 3.5 to 4.5 percent carbon, .5 to 5 perce~t silicon, .

.5 to 2 percent manganese, .035 to 19 percent phosphorous, and less than .05 percent
) sulfur. The carbon content, influenced by the other elements present, either combines
with the iron or disperses within the iron in the form of graphite flake~. Carbon
gives the iron many of its most important characteristics. Cast iron, which contains
more than 3 percent carbon, is brittle and cannot easily be welded or forged. Iron
... ' ,,--.

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with a carbon content of .25 to 1.7 percent is called steel. This special form of iron
has such excellent strength and workability characteristics that it is the primary metal
of modern society. Until 1856, however, steel was so difficult to produce that little
of it was made. Finally, iron containing only traces of carbon--essentially pure iron--
is called wrought iron. This metal, while it lacks the strength and wearing qualities
of steel, historically has been easier to produce than its stronger brother. In addition,
wrought iron is easily worked and welded. For centuries it was the primary ferrous metal.

Whil~ these definitions provide a ready identification for ferrous metals and indicate
at least the desired final product, if not the method of production, their simplicity
is misleading. For centuries the chemistry of iron and steel was uncertain. Steel,
for example, was often believed to be a purer iron than wrought iron, rather than the
iron-carbon mixture we now know it to be Moreover, the extreme temperatures necessary

for iron and steel production often precluded precise experiment~tion or even observa- °

tion. Variety in the ore, fuel, flux, and furnace linings further compoundedthese
difficulties. Until the twentieth century, iron production and metallurgy was an art,
not a science.

Blast furnace iron is seldom considered a finished product. The iron must first undergo
conversion to wrought iron or to steel, or it must be cast into usable articles.
Usually b1ast furnace iron is either cast as pigs or is taken in its molten state for
conversion or casting elsewhere. Following the iron as it comes from the blast furnace
and tracing the methods which have been employed in turning it into finished products
is in many ways analogous to reading a history of much of the iron and steel industry.
The remainder of this section examines the production of the three major ferrous metal

'- .L

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products: cast irons wrought irons and steel. While what follows is a simplified
overview of the developments which have occurred over the past two centuriess it does
provide a foundation on which a discussion of the importance of the Mahoning Valley
industry can be built.

B. Cast Iron - Although cast iron lacks many of the workability and durability
characteristics of wrought iron and steels it nevertheless always has had important
uses. As the" name suggestss this form of iron is most suitable for casting rather
than for rolling or forging. Cast iron is so brittle that it cannot be worked with
hammerand anvils nor can it be welded in the blacksmith's forge. It iss howevers
the cheapest iron product since it requires little in the way of purification before
actual fabrication takes place.

For centuries ironmasters cast implements directly in front of the mouth of the blast
furnace. Molds of pots or kettles or cannon were formed in the sand in front of the
furnace's hearth. Whenthe furnace was tappeds the molten iron ran out and filled the
molds. While the quality of items produced by this technique often left much to be
desireds the method was cheap and suitable for the utilitarian ware most commonlycast.

Castings not made directly from the furnace are produced in a foundry. Here furnace
iron is remelted and casts most often in molds made of a special sand. In modern
foundriess the iron often is brought from the blast furnace in a molten state by
special railroad cars. . This eliminates the cost of remelting. (See diagram.)

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C. Wrought Iron -
Until the mid-nineteenth century, wrought iron was the primary
ferrous metal. Several factors contributed to the predominance of this type of iron.
Due to its very low carbon content, wrought iron is malleable, easily welded, and
easier to produce. Traditionally iron makers found it easier to remove all rather than.
just some of the carbon. Wrought iron's major drawback prior to the introduction of
modern furnace designs was its high melting temperature--higher than either steel or
cast iron, whose carbon content lower their melting points.

For ~enturies, wrought iron often was made by a direct reduction process. Here the
ore was reduced to wrought iron in one step in a furnace called a bloomery. As the
ore was reduced to iron, it was exposed to the air which slowly oxidized out the
carbon. Then it was hammeredor rolled repeatedly to remove impurities. Although
the amount of iron produced by a single furnace was not great, bloomeries were rela-
tively inexpensive to build. This accounts at least in part for the process's enduring
well into the nineteenth century.

In 1784 an Englishman named Henry Cort introduced the "puddling" process for producing
wrought iron. Pig, or blast furnace, iron was melted in a reverberatory furnace, a
furnace which kept the burning fuel separated from the iron. Once the metal melted,
workers called "puddlers" stirred the iron with long iron "rabbling" bars. This
brought the molten iron into contact with the air where the oxYgen oxidized the carbon
in the iron, virtually burning it away. As the iron's carbon content decreased, the
melting point of the iron increased to such an extent that the successful removal of
the carbon was marked by a general loss of fluidity' of the pool of iron. Whensufficient
carbon was thus removed, the iron tended to form a pasty ball of semi-molten wrought

) 21

iron interspersed with liquid and solid impurities. At this point the ball was removed
and squeezed by hammer or roller to force out the impurities.

The puddling process remained the primary means of obtaining wrought iron until the
first quarter of the twentieth century. In fact, the Aston process, which now is used
to produce wrought iron, is little more than a Inechanizedand sophisticated puddling
operation. Developed by Dr. James Aston in conjunction with Edward B. Story, this
process incorporates all the stages of the puddling operation--metal refining, slag
melting, and processing--to form a slag impregnated sponge ball. The steps, however,
are done in separate stages. utilizing separate furnaces and pieces of equipment.

In the Aston process, pig iron first is melted in a cupola furnace. The molten metal
next is worked in a Bessemer converter where carbon is removed. Concurrently, slag is
melted in a separate furnace which has no refractory lining to alter the slag's
composition. Once melted the slag is poured into a large ladle. The molten iron, at
a temperature between 2,800 and 2,900 degrees, then is poured slowly into the slag.
The unequal temperatures of the two mixtures cause intense agitation, producing a
) violent evolution of gases and a thorough, but temporary, mixture of iron and slag. .

The surplus slag is poured from the ladle, leaving a white bot sponge ball of iron.
This sponge ball is pressed mechanically into a bloom and then rolled into either slabs
or billets, making it ready for further reduction.

Prior to the introduction of the Aston process in the early 1930s, a puddler and his
helper could produce about 3,000 pounds of wrought iron a day. With the new Aston
technology) ten thousand pounds of iron could be produced in twenty minutes and a
. ) single furnace complex was capable of replacing eighty hand-puddled furnaces.
, /







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) 22

D. Steel -Steel is the primary building block of modern society. Its availability,
cost, strength, and durability are so favorable when compared to other materials that
) steel is in a class by itself. Bridges, tools, buildings, ships, and automobiles are
built primarily of steel. Moreover, steel often is an important ingredient even when
other materials are employed. Concrete, for example, gains much of its strength from
the steel reinforcement bars buried within it. Without steel, modern urban society
,) would be impossible.
Despite its present importance, the widespread use of steel did not commenceuntil about
the period of the Civil War. To be sure, steel has been produced for centuries by
Western man and perhaps even longer in the Orient and Africa. Its use', however, was
confined to special applications requiring very limited quantities, such as in the
manufacture of clock springs or edged weapons. The prestige of Sheffield, Damascus,
Toledo, and Japanese samurai swords remain a testimony to the steelmaking technology
employed at these locations.

Several obstacles prevented the quantity production of steel. The fact is that steel--
iron with a carbon content of .25 to 1.7 percent--was difficult to produce. The
ignorance of steel's composition often prevented even an attempt to develop a process
capable of producing the desired product. The high temperatures involved and the
delicate balance of carbon to iron further complicated matters.
The first European steel was produced perhaps as early as 1200 B.C. by a process which
historians can only surmise. In all probability, a spongy ball of wrought iron was
allowed to remain in contact with the charcoal of the forge until some of the charcoal's


carbon was absorbed into the iron. This basic technique was employed both in the Middle
East and also in the Orient. The process yielded some very fine tool steel which often
found its way into the manufacture of swords and armor.

By the seventeenth century, Europeans had discovered procedures for quenching and then
reh~ating, or tempering, steel. This allowed smiths to forge steel blades which were
) .
hard and durable while at the sametime eliminating the extreme brittleness which
~- accompanied steel which had been only quenched.

E. Blister and Cementation Steel - By the time of the Middle Ages, ironworkers hqd
discovered case-carburization. They found that by placing an iron implement in a
charcoal~filled crucible and then heating the container to a red hot temperature and
maintaining this state for somehours, they were left with a tool which had a hard
skin capable of taking a keen edge. What these medieval technologists were doing was
forming a steel sheath on an iron core by forcing a minute amount of carbon absorption
in the outermost layers of the iron.

) Beginning early in the seventeenth century, this principle was used to produce blister
steel. Bars of wrought iron were packed in charcoal and then slowly heated. As the
bars underwent the conversion to steel on their outer layers, the oxide and slag present
reacted with the carbon to form carbon monoxide gas. This in turn caused blisters on
) the bar, hence the name blister steel. Blister steel, owing to the nature of the
technique, was not very uniform. The carbon content was higher at the surface of the
bar than at its center. To overcome this problem, several blister bars were forge-
welded together to form a more homogeneous product called cementation steel. These
cementation bars then were worked in the forge to produce durable steel utensils.







) ~:r

) 24

F. Crucible Steel - About 1740 Benjamin Huntsman, a watchmaker living in Sheffield,

England, discovered a better method for obtaining high quality steel. Huntsman found
that blister and cementation steel lacked the uniformity he required when making watch
springs. Even when forge-welded, cementation bars lacked a truly uniform dispersal of
carbon. To counteract this, Huntsman developed a coke-fired reverbatory furnace capable
of attaining and sustaining very high temperatures. He next procured crucibles able to
withstand great heat. Into these containers Huntsman placed bars of cementation steel.
\. - Whenmelted, "the carbon mixed uniformly and the steel could then be cast and subsequently
worked into finished products. The process yielded a high carbon homogeneous steel--
well suited for tools and watch parts. Although Huntsman tried to keep his process a
secret, details leaked out to other Sheffield stee1makers and by 1787 the area was
noted for its superb crucible steel.

For nearly a century, the crucible steel method was the best steelmaking technique
available. While the quality of crucible steel was high, and indeed the process con-
tinued to be employed for years in the manufacture'of tool steel, the output was
limited and the cost was high.

G. Bessemer Steel - Until the introduction of the Bessemerprocess of steel production

in 1856, steel was a specialty product consumed primarily in small quantities by tool
and cutlery maker~. Wrought iron was the primary ferrous metal. In 1850, for example,
English steelmakers produced only 60,000 tons of steel while that nation's wrought iron
industry turned out 2,500,000 tons of their product.


) 25

The requirements of growing nineteenth century technology, however, demanded more than
wrought iron could provide. The softness and poor wearing characteristics of wrought
) iron created problems for the nineteenth century engineer. Railroads, for instance,
needed strong durable rails--a requirement which wrought iron rails simply could not
fulfill. Nor could the crucible steel manufacturers meet the increasing demand; their
output was too limited and their product was too expensive. The Bessemer steel process
) rectified these shortcomings by giving the world an inexpensive method of making huge
~ quantities of "steel.

While Englishman Henry Bessemer is credited with this steelmaking process, many
.) individuals actually contributed to its success. In fact, Kentucky ironmaster William
Kelley later claimed to have discovered a nearly identical process some five years
earlier than Bessemer. Nevertheless, Bessemer exploited the contributions of others
and through the force of his personality received credit for the new process.

The basic concepts and principles underlying the Bessemerprocess were not radical.
The technique involved blowing air through molten cast iron. The oxygen in the air
blast removedsilicon and carbon through an oxidation reaction. Moreover, the heat
generated by this reaction was sufficient to raise the temperature of the metal beyond
the melting point of full decarburized iron (cast iron, with its high carbon content,
melts at approximately 12000 C while pure iron requires at least 15300 C). . In short,
the air blowing through the iron burned away carbon and silicon, while at the same time
raising the temperature high enough to keep the metal liquid.


) 26

After Bessemer demonstrated the process in 1856, it became an overnight sensation,

enabling its inventor to sell licenses for the use of his patent. Steel makers quickly
) discovered, however, that the Bessemer process worked well only with certain types of
iron. For example, cast iron which had been made from are high in sulfur or phosphorous
content was not suitable for use in a Bessemer converter.

) Shortly after Bessemer's announcement, Robert Mushet developed a process for the
~- introduction of manganese into air-blown steel. The manganBsecounteracted the harmful
effects of oxygen and sulfur. Whenhe learned of this, Bessemer added Spiegeleisen--
a manganese-rich cast iron--to his steel. The Spiegeleisen, added to the ladle after
the metal was "blown," not only eliminated the sulfur problem but also replaced some
of the oxidized carbon. This permitted a careful adjustment in the final carbon content
of the steel. Other refinements, such as improvements in the lining, construction, and
operation of the Bessemer converter, made the process a commercial success.

In its final form, the operation of the Bessemer converter was one of the marvels of :,
the age. (See illustration.) The open-topped converter, made of steel plates lined
with silica firebricks, was mounted on trunnions which permitted it to tilt. To start
the steelmaking operation, the converter was tilted and molten blast furnace iron;
usually some three to five tons, was poured in. The air blast, coming up through the
bottom of the converter, was started. Slowly the converter was returned to its upright
position. As the blast continued, flames shot from the mouth of the converter until
the carbon was removed." Then the converter again was tilted, this time to pour the
metal into a moveable ladle where the Spiegeleisen was added. Finally, the molten
steel was poured into ingot molds and allowed to cool.

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The process also changed both the size and the business organization of the iron and steel
industry. Bessemer production required iron practica1ly free from phosphorous. Thus,
only certain iron ores could be utilized in making the cast iron for a Bessemer converter.
Moreover, since the Bessemer used only already molten iron, it was most economical to
place blast furnaces and steel plants close together under single ownership. These
factors led to integrated steelmaking facilities and the adoption of modern business
management techniques. Perhaps best exemplified by the Carnegie organization, individual
giant companies owned ore and coal mines, blast furnaces, Bessemer plants, and rolling
mills. This arrangement was the foundation of the modern industrial steel corporation.

I )
H. Open Hearth - With the
successful introduction of the Bessemer process, the American
iron and steel industry experienced a fundamental transformation. Steel assumed a new
importance in American industrial development as it replaced wrought iron as the primary
ferrous metal.

The Bessemer process, however, had serious shortcomings. Only ore free from phosphorous
was suitable for the cast iron used in Bessemer production. This stringent requirement
precluded the use of much of America's iron ore reserves. Furthermore, because the
process relied on molten iron, Bessemer converters could not utilize scrap iron and
steel. Since most fabrication techniques generated such scrap, the Bessemer's inability
to employ this valuable waste was a serious shortcoming. The speed of the Bessemer
process created yet another problem. The conversion to steel took place so rapidly
that operators did not have the time necessary to make any adjustments in chemical
content. Once the process began, it could not be slowed, accelerated, or held. More-
over, because the blast consisted of plain air, which contains about seventy percent


nitrogen, Bessemer steel had a nitrogen content of .01 - .02 percent. This made the
steel more liable to strain-age hardening and embritt1ement, thus limiting its use in
) cold-rolled applications. The open hearth process overcame these problems and eventually
displaced the Bessemer as the primary method of making steel.

In 1856, the same year of Bessemer's discovery, Frederick Siemens, a naturalized

) Englishman of German origin, obtained a patent for his heat-regeneration furnace. (See
illustration.) First employed extensively in the glass industry, the heat-regeneration
furnace was basica11y.a reverbatory furnace which utilized waste heat from the furnace
itself to preheat its own combustion air. Siemens thus utilized two well-known
) principles in his invention. Like the puddling furnaces, Siemen's design incorporated
an open hearth with reverbatory heating--one in which the molten material lay on an
open bed and was subjected to heat passed over it. From then current blast furnace
design, Siemens realized the gain in thermodynamic. efficiency which was obtained by
) preheating the combustion air. Along with this, he noted that much of the heat poured
into puddling furnaces was lost up the chimney. Siemens passed this waste heat through
a maze of loose firebrick which absorbed much of the heat. By passing the combustion
air through the heated firebricks prior to mixing it with the fuel, the combustion air
was then preheated. While simple in principle, the open hearth regeneration system
did require some clever design. Two firebrick chambers were necessary; one was itself
heated while at the same time the combustion air was heated in the other. At set
intervals, valves were switched so that the chamber formerly used to heat the air was
nowitself being heated and vice versa. All in all, the regeneration method of Siemens
worked very well by utilizing heat that otherwise would have been wasted.



The fuel commonlyemployed was gas generated from converting coal to coke. In this way,
another economy was gained. As coal is made into coke, volatile gas is liberated--gas
" ) which was used to operate the open hearth furnaces. As in the case of the Bessemer,
operating a steel furnace in conjunction with an integrated steel facility cut costs.

About 1863 Frenchmen Emile and Pierre Martin developed procedures for making first-rate
) steel in an open hearth furnace. The Martin brothers utilized pig iron, iron ore, and
~ scrap metal. This ability to combine a variety of raw materials gave the process great
flexibility. The capacity of open hearth furnaces also was increased--often to some
one hundred tons. This was necessary to offset the time--about twelve to sixteen hours--
) required to produce a heat (one,furnace load) of finished steel. The lengthY time element
actually proved to be a benefit since it gave operators the opportunity to adjust the
chemical content of the steel by adding various alloys and other substances.

As important as these developments in open hearth technology were, a fundamental problem
remained. Iron containing phosphorous still could not be employed in steelmaking. Like
the Bessemer, the Siemens-Martin open hearth furnace could not produce quality steel
from iron containing phosphorous, and this greatly limited the entire steel industry.

In 1875 two English cousins, Sidney Thomas and Percy Gilchrist, made a crucial discovery.
They found that when lime was added to molten steel the phosphorous was removed. This
principle soon was applied to the refractory lining of the furnace itself. By using
widely available magnesite rock as the basis for the firebrick lining, phosphorous was
eliminated from the finished steel. Since magnesite was basic, as opposed to the acidic
firebrick formerly used, the Thomas-Gilchrist technique was labeled the basic open hearth
I )

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While basic refracto~ linings' could be installed in both open he~rth furnaces and in
Bessemer converters and would enable either to utilize iron containing phosphorous, it
most often fo~nd application in the open hearth. Indeed, the open hearth began to over-
take the Bessemer in terms of steel output. By 1907, worldwide open hearth production
surpassed that of the Bessemer. The new process's versatility, combined with the high
quality of its steel, gave the open hearth the competitive edge. By mid-twentieth
) century, no Bessemer steel was made in American steel plants.

I. Electric Furnace, Basic OxygenFurnace and ~ - With the advent of the scientific
metallurgy and automated control systems, the deliberate slowness of open hearth furnaces
) had become a detriment by the 1950s. As the demand for steel increased throughout this
century, steel manufacturers continually looked to new technology to meet the demand.

The electric furnace, first applied to steelmaking in 1899 by Paul Heroult of France,
) was one of the techniques which received considerable attention. (See illustration.)
Huge currents, sent through carbon electrodes suspended in molten iron, heated the
metal and oxidized the carbon. Because .no conventional fuel was used, the electric
furnace added no contaminants to the steel and allowed operators to adjust the final
chemical content of the steel with great precision. Although expensive to produce,
electric furnace steel's extremely high quality made it the choice for many critical

Amongthe latest developments within the steel industry was the introduction of the
I ! basic oxygen furnace. Developed in the late 19405 and early 1950s, it, in essence,
uses purified oxygen as an agent for the reduction of such impurities as carbon,
J --

) 31

phosphorous, and silicon. Although a number of designs for basic oxygen furnaces have
evolved, all basically blow oxygen through a water-cooled lance onto an iron and slag
) bath.

Unlike the open hearth, the scrap and molten iron charge can be fed into the furnace in
a m~tter of minutes. The oxygen furnace also has the advantage in terms of energy
) efficiency--the open hearth process requires the introduction of heat from an outside
, source and is 'wasteful because the heat has to pass through a layer of slag that lies
on top of the molten bath. In: the oxygen method, the heat is a result of the oxidation
processes that take place during the blowing of oxygen directly onto the molten metal;
basic oxygen furnaces do not require outside sources of heat. These two advances
resulted in a considerable reduction in the time required to prodce a "heat" of steel.
While the fastest open hearths require a minimumof six to seven hours-for each "heat,"
the basic oxygen process takes less than an hour to produce the same tonnage.

The Q-BOP, an oxygen process developed during the late 1960s, is a throwback to the
Bessemer process, although metallurgically the processes are not at all similar. The
Q-BOPvessel resembles the Bessemer converter because both blow the blast up through
the metal bath from tuyeres placed at the bottom of the vessel. The use of oxygen
instead of air produces a very different effect, however, from that attained in the
Bessemer process. Most important is the absence of nitrogen in the blast ~hat is
passed through the metal, thus reducing the impurities present in the steel. Oxygen
also has the advantage of producing much higher temperatures and developing,better
metallurgical practices during the process.


) 32

J. Rolling - Once steel

is produced, all companies use similar means to form the molten
steel into a finished product. At present, some steel is cast or forged into its final
) product. The methods employed are not significantly different, at least in outward
appearance, from the processes described earlier for cast or forged wrought iron.

The most prevalent method of reducing steel into a finished product, however, is by

From the steelmaking furnace, molten steel is poured into refractory lined ladles.
From these the steel is carried by an overhead crane to a pouring platform where it is
poured into cast iron molds. These molds are removed after the steel has solidified,
but before it has cooled completely, and are taken to the blooming mill.

At the blooming mill, the ingots are rolled into either blooms, billets, rounds, or
slabs, depending upon what purpose the steel is to serve. This is accomplished by
heating the ingot to a predetermined uniform temperature in a gas-fired furnace called
a "soaking pit." From there the ingots'are passed through a series of rolling stands
where the ingot is reduced in size and formed into the appropriate shape required by
the finishing mill to which it is then sent. The finishing mills are responsible for
reducing these blooms, billets, rounds or slabs into their finished forms of pipe, rod,
wire, sheet or the wide variety of other products necessary for industrial .and com-
mercial needs.

The rolling mill is a product of the development and ingenuity of American technology.
An example of this advanced technology can readily be seen in a continuous hot strip

mill, and this is only one example amongmany. Steel slabs two to seven inches thick
are fed into a train of roughing stands at one end of the mill and are reduced in
thickness while being held to a uniform width. From there the slabs are sent to the
finishing mill where their thickness is reduced again. At this stage the steel is only
a fraction of an inch thick. Its length, however, has increased greatly. In a
continuous mill, each steel piece may be undergoing reduction in three or more sets of
rollers at the same time. The timing of the steel moving through the various ro~ls is
critical. The steel sheet reaches speeds of 1800 feet per minute as it comes out of
the'final rollers and is either cut to the desired length or is wound into coils.

The early iron and steel mills operated to a great extent on human labor. A man with
a strong back was the most efficient iron and steelmaking machine a companycould
install. The folk hero of the steel mills was a mythical seven-foot tall man made of
solid steel. According to legend, when asked his name by Hungarians who wprked in
the mill, he answered Joe Magarac (Mah-zhe-rahk). Magarac is the Hungarian word for
jackass. Whenthe men laughed at his being named Joe Jackass, he retorted: "Sure!
Magarac, Joe, Oats me. All I do is eatit and workit same lak jackass donkey. Me.
I be only steel mans in whole world, ya damn right." All early iron and steel workers
had to be a little bit of a Magarac.

A. The Early Period - The MahoningValley's

first iron enterprise relied upon this
type of human labor. In 1802 the Heaton brothers, James and Dan, constructed one of
the first blast furnaces west of the Allegheny River. This furnace operated along the
lines that-charcoal iron furnaces had been operating for the previous five or six


centuries: trees were chopped down, the woodstacked, and then burned to makethe
charcoal; ore was gathered from the bottom of streams and outcroppings in nearby
cliffsides; and limestone was dug from the ground. The furnace's air blast first
operated by a IItrompell and later by a waterwheel and bellows. The raw materials were
carried to the top of the furnace by wheelbarrows pushed up a hillside ramp. Once there
they were dumped into the open top of the furnace-.
Everything that occurred at the furnace- fell under the direct supervision of the
ironmaster. The iron's quality depended primarily on the skill of this man--the more
astute the ironmaster. the better the iron. With no scientific method of testing his
product, the ironmaster depended solely on his experience to produce a good product.
His skill took years to develop. The ironmaster judged when the iron furnace was ready
to tap by the color, the smell, and, some say, the taste of the metal.

Iron and steelmaking remained a skilled trade for many years. In the wrought iron
industry puddlers stood by open furnaces stirring the bath with long bars until the iron
turned into a sponge-like mass. The mass was then formed into balls weighing two or
three hundred pounds apiece and were taken to a press where they were madeinto bars -
or blooms. Only the puddlers' skill enabled them to knowwhen the iron was ready for
the press. .

Rollers were also men who had spent years mastering their craft. With no entirely
accurate method by which to judge roll pressure and with human labor alone to help
pull the sheets through rolls, rollers had to depend upon their years of experience
to produce the necessary thickness and smoothness of the flat rolled sheets.


) 35

Al~ost every occupation in the mills required highly-skilled labor. This skilled labor
generally was supplied by men of Anglo-Saxon or Irish background. Many of these men had
) learned their trade in the English mills and factories, and in many cases the skill was
passed from father to son. These skilled laborers constituted a tightly knit group;
they were almost a closed society resistant to any type of change that would endanger
their jOb or status in the mills. As mechanization of the steel mills took place, how-
ever, this closed society began to break down.
B. ~he Modern Era - With the
discovery of better blast furnace methods, the introduction
of the Bessemer and open hearth processes, and the development of modern metallurgical
techniques, the making of iron and steel was removed from the realm of the I'black
arts. II The skill of the master was no longer needed to produce large amounts of uniform,
high-quality iron and steel. Now, because of the immense tonnage of iron and steel
produced, the steel companies needed large numbers of semi-skilled and unskilled men
rather than a few highly skilled men. Pre-industrial work habits disappeared as time
clocks and efficiency experts dictated work schedules. Skill became secondary to
durability. These changes fundamentally altered the character of the work force in the
steel plants.


The first settlers of the Mahoning Valley were descendants of the English,. Scotch-
English, and Scotch-Irish who first settled along the east coast 1n the l6~Os. Many
of these people of Anglo-Saxon background established the Valley's mills in the mid.
1800s. They supplied the bulk of the labor for the mills of this period most of which
were relatively small affairs producing a limited amount of iron products. With the

) 36

rapid expansion of the railroads during and after the Civil War, a huge demand for iron
and steel arose. The Bessemer and open hearth processes, along with improvements in
blast furnaces, made it possible to meet this demand. However, this rapid expansion
created a great labor shortage in all steelmaking areas of the country.

The demand for labor was filled by the tidal wave of immigrants which flooded the United
\ States. In all, fourteen million immigrants poured into the country between 1860 and
l- 1900, and some eighteen million more followed between 1900 and 1930. These immigrants
1ef~ their homes for a variety of reasons, ranging from a desire to escape poverty and
persecution to a desire to make their fortune' quickly and then return to their former
homes. In any event, upon arriving in the United States the immigrants needed jobs,
and most, by choice or need, ended up in the factory or in the mines. With the growth
of the steel industry, urban areas sprung up around the mills. Steel manufacture
dominated the cities near the factories: steel constituted five-sixths of the industry
in Young~town, one-half in Pittsburgh, and one-fifth in Cleveland by the early 1900s.
Into these and other such cities poured the immigrants seeking work in the mills.

Unlike earlier English and Irish immigrants, this new group did not speak English. Their
t customs and backgrounds differed completely from the Anglo-Saxon culture which confronted
them in the United States. These 'Iforeigners" overwhelmed' the cities and towns around
the mills. A Youngstown Vindicator article in 1924 commented that in Young~townit
) seemed that "seventy-five percent of the people here are foreigners." By 1925 in the
nearby town of East Youngstown (now Campbell)~ the foreign-born population so outnumbered
the few Anglo-Saxon farmers of Coitsville Township that they constituted over ninety
{ percent of the towns population. Partly by necessity and partly by choice, the new.


) 37

comers grouped together with others from their country of origin. Thus in Youngstown
and the Mahoning Valley Polish. Greek. Russian. Slovak. and Hungarian neighborhoods
) emerged.

The process of mechanization in the steel industry was not smooth; mechanization did not
take place instantly. In some jobs. such as puddling. the need for highly skilled labor
was eliminated altogether. The new immigrants filled these unskilled jobs. The older
~- skilled English and Irish workers were either bumped back to semi-skilled positions or
moved up in rank to foremen and supervisors. Some. of course. simply remained in
~ their skilled jobs. This created friction or tension within the labor force. The
English-speaking population of the mills resented these non-English speaking foreigners.
The immigrants for their part realized that their lack of skills made them easily

Yet. the immigrants provided a stable labor force for the expanding steel factories. for
they needed the money. Although nearly twenty percent of the newly-arrived immigrants
intended to work temporarily in the milTs and then to return to their native countries
!) rich. most were more interested in settling down in their new country and raising a
\. family. In order to do this. they needed jobs. To keep the jobs meant doing what they
were told. not causing trouble. and not angering the boss. The steel companies them-
selves ~elped control the labor force by providing company housing for the workers--such
) as the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyhouses in East Youngstown--and credit at the
company store. A laborer who lived ina company house and was in debt to t~e company
store was not likely to cause trouble.
l )



Working conditions in the mills around the turn of the century were almost intolerable.
) Working ten hours on the day shift and fourteen hours on the night shift, the worker had
only twenty-four hours off every two weeks. The pay scale for the majority of workers
ranged from fourteen to sixteen cents an hour. The work itself, carried on in a hot
mill, was physically exhausting and dangerous. Early blast furnaces were charged by
) hand as men called "fillers" dumped their charges of iron ore, coke, and limestone into
the open tops'of the furnaces. Manywere felled by the heat or overcome by furnace gas.
Open hearth workers shoveled scrap iron, dolomite, and lime into the raging furnace by
hand. On the rolling mills, men called "catchers" used tongs to grab the metal passing
) through the rolls and flip it over the rolling stand for another pass-~more than one
laborer returned home at night with burned or crushed fingers. Manyworkers lost their
eyesight in explosions of hot metal or were crippled when a limb was mangled in the
heavy machinery. The men continued to work, however, for they had wives and families
to support and the company store had to be paid. Also, men always knew that they could'
be replaced; if one "hunkie" did not want to work, there were twelve more waiting at
the mill gate who did.

The immigrant faced hatred and bigotry from almost every direction. A belief in Anglo-
Saxon superiority was used as a weapon against these East European irnmigrants. Joseph
Butler, an officer in the United States Steel Corporation, President of the American
Iron and Steel Institute, and one of the most important men in the Mahoning Valley,
described the immigrants as being "born and bred" to nothing but hard, mindless labor,
much like cattle bred for more milk or a higher yield of meat per pound. Butler
pictured them as IIherding together in droves, living on little or nothing, and hoarding


most of their earnings. II Adding insult to injury, Butler also wrote that the immigrants
were IImore than ordinarily susceptible to unsound social and political propaganda, which
reacts strongly upon their experiences with government in the Old World." If Butler's
opinions were shared by the top steel company officials. one can easily imagine the
attitude of the foreman. It was commonpractice for the boss to expect a kickback in
return for hiring the worker in the first place. If for some reason the worker did not
) respond or if he angered the foreman in some other way, it was certain that the next
morning that worker would be out of a job.

~ At times it must have appeared to the immigrant that even his own children were not in
) sympathy. As they grew up, the children learned English and eventually they forced
their parents into learning the new language. These children of immigrants knew that
they differed from children born in America, and they felt the resentment of native
born children. They wanted to fit into this society and they wanted their parents to
) be respected. While speaking your own language at homemight be acceptable, when in
public the children wanted their parents to speak English. Moreover, in marriage they
were not content to restrict their amours to fellow countrymen. Assimilation into
American culture was difficult, but nevertheless, ongoing.

In 1929, with the stock market crash and the onset of the Depression, politicians found
themselves suddenly vulnerable. The immigrants along with their sons and daughters saw
an opportunity and took it. Immigrants ran for a variety of public offices'--from Mayor
. )
and City Council to dogcatcher. Often, they won. Before 1929 immigrants were not a
political force in the Mahoning Valley. As they became a force to contend with, they
were transformed from Hunkies, Polacks and Dagos into Hungarians. Poles and Italians.



The Poles and Italians and others then moved into the status of Polish-Americans and
Italian-Americans, and during times of crisis, such as World War II, just plain Americans.
An ethnic heritage became a source of pride, not a stigma.


This report is not intended to recount the entire history of unionism in the steel
industry. However, a brief summary of the union's development in the Mahoning Valley
~ ~ seems necessa~y since it became such a powerful force in the Youngstownarea. Thus,
we shall call attention to some of the highlights of the steelworker's struggle for
union recognition and acceptance.
By the second decade of the twenti~th century, conditions in the mills could not continue
as they were. The problems caused by long hours, low pay, and hazardous working condi-
tions, eventually had to be corrected. Workers could be pushed only so far, no matter
) how much they needed a job. The first sign of real trouble in Youngstowncame in early
1916. The Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyhad received many World War I orders for
steel when the workers struck the planti Nearly 1,000 of 7,500 workers employed at
the Sheet and Tube were willing to risk their jobs by striking. The strikers gathered
at the Wilson Avenue bridge entrance to the mill in East Youngstown. James A. Campbell.
President of Sheet and Tube, announced a pay raise for commonlabor from nineteen and
one-half cents an hour to twenty-two cents, time and a half for overtime, and double
time for Sunday. Campbell felt that talking to the men and threatening loss of jobs
would bring the situation under control. Whenthe strikers refused the offer and
demanded twenty-five cents an hour, the residents of East Youngstownbecame uneasy.
After a workmanwas arrested, two hundred of his friends stormed the Municipal Building


) 41

and secured his release. Mill guards then sealed off the entrance to the plant.
According to newspaper accounts, a confrontation occurred on the Wilson Avenue bridge
when someonein the crowd fired a shot at the guards. In reaction, the nervous guards
fired a volley into the mass of workers, wounding several and causing them to flee in
panic. The strikers then broke into the Sheet and Tube offices at the bridge and
burned all the records they could find. Whenthey lost control of the blaze, it spread
swiftly. Angered by the shootings, the mob refused to let the fire department fight
\- the fire at the mill offices. Strikers broke into nearby saloons and drank whatever
they found, and having filled with drink, set out to burn everything in sight.

For several hours, in a drunken frolic the strikers set fire to enough buildings to
leave the business district in ruins. By the time a volunteer committee of citizens
was organized to halt the rampage, thirty-four buildings with a value of one and a
half million dollars were destroyed. Several families escaped the flames only by
chopping their way out of blazing buildings, and three men died of wounds as a result
of the conflagration. A great number. of the wounded had been shot by the strikers

Early on the morning of January 8 one thousand soldiers arrived in East Youngstown
armed with machine guns and ammunition. Whenthe three regiments of militia took
command,a stunned peace returned. Many people were homeless and just sat near the
) sites of their former homes.

After 1916 and throughout World War I, union demandstook a back seat to the demands
of the war. By 1919, however, unions were again in the forefront of steel news.


and tear gas. As the strike spread, ten marchers were killed in Chicago, three men were
killed in Massi11on, two in Youngstown, and one in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. The
) steel companies laid in a formidable store of guns and ammunition. The YoungstownSheet
and Tube Companyfurnished an inventory of its arsenal: 453 revolvers, 369 rifles,
190 shotguns, and 8 army machine guns. Republic Steel stockpiled 532 revolvers, 64
rifles with 1,325 rounds of ammunition and 245 shotguns with 2,707 gas grenades. The
) companies also furnished local law enforcement agencies with tear-gas guns and ammunition.-

Fina11y the army restored order. Under the pressure of World War II, the strike was
settled in 1942 when all four companies signed contracts with the union. The Youngstown
) Sheet and Tube had to reinstate discharged workers and pay $170,000 in back wages.
Republic Steel paid $350,000 to men who were beaten and shot during the strike and over
a half-million dollars in back wages to discharged workers. The United Steelworkers of
America was now, finally, the bargaining agent for the country's steelworkers.


Labor in the steel industry today is a far cry from the early 1900s. Safety rules and
conditions are enforced and the company and the unions for the most part are able to
work together to solve the problems of the industry without resorting to violence or
strikes. Labor and management relations continue to improve; today they are better
than ever. The steel companies have realized that better working conditions increases
the productivity of the workers. The unions have realized that cool, levelheaded
collective bargaining can achieve union aims without the need for a financially
crippling strike. The companies and the unions seemed to have achieved the wish of
U. S. Steel President Benjamin F. Fairless. In 1952 he told the Union's Wage and


Policy Committee, IIWemust find ways not only to work together) but to live together
and understand each other1s problems.1I




) 45



Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley historically have been associated with the steel
industry. In fact, the development throughout the valley would have been very different
) were it not for iron and steel. The growth of the Youngstown area was due, primarily,
.. - to the growth of the steel mills.

New Yorker John Young was the person most reponsible for the establishment of Youngstown,
) the first settlement in what is nowMahoningand Trumbull Counties. In the fall of 1796 '

Young purchased from the Connecticut Land Company15,560 acres of land in the Mahoning
Valley for $16,085.16. The following spring he journeyed up the Ohio, Beaver, and
Mahoning River Valleys with a group of surveyors to a spot known as Spring Commonand
there laid out YoungstownTownship. After Young had built a cabin at Spring Common,
he brought his wife and children to the Ohio territory. Mrs. Young, however, did not
like Youngstownand by 1804 she had convlnced her husband to return to NewYork. This
ended Young's involvement with the town.

Until the canal system was established and the iron and steel industry had developed,
farming was the primary occupation of the residents in the Youngstownarea., In 1810,
Youngstown had a population of 773 people. However, the nearby farming village of
Poland, Ohio, had a population of 836. Thus Poland was the big city while Youngstown
was merely a small farm village.


In 1802 two brothers, Jamesand DanHeaton [or Eaton], beganerecting the first iron
furnace west of the Allegheny River. The stone stack was located on Yellow Creek, near
, Struthers, Ohio. This furnace, which the brothers named"Hopewell," was put into blast
in 1805. The furnace--which was built of native stone and used the side of a bluff
as its back wall--never operated efficiently. The top of the furnace, some twenty feet
above the base, was parallel with the top of the bluff, thus facilitating loading the
, furnace with ore, charcoal and limestone. The ore was found in the creek bed or in
outcroppings in the sides of nearby hills; trees in the vicinity were cut for charcoal;
and the limestone was mined in nearby Lowellville. Blast air was produced by a
Iitrompe," which was a wooden tank with one opening at the top and another some ~istance
down and at one side. Water from Yellow Creek was piped into the top of this tank.
A considerable amount of air was carried with the water. This air was compressed by
the weight of the water and thus formed continuous blast. Since the "trompell never .
worked well, neither did the furnace. In addition, the men complained that it was
always cold and damp around the furnace. At best, "Hopewell" could produce two to
three tons of iron per week. Whenall the workers joined the army to fight in the
War of 1812, the furnace was abandoned. "Hopewell" never ran again.
In 1807, Robert Montgomeryand John Struthers built the area's second furnace on
Yellow Creek. While the furnace stack was similar to "Hopewell," it was equipped
with a superior blast mechanism which utilized an undershot water wheel and. bellows
(, in place of the troublesome trompe. Although this furnace was a definite improvement
over "Hopewell," financial difficulties forced Montgomeryand Struthers to shut it down
in 1812. It never operated again.


Jamesand DanHeaton returned to the iron business when they built the area's third
furnace in Niles, Ohio. This new furnace, named "Maria," was probably the best of the
\ early Mahoning Valley charcoal furnaces. The Heatons operated this furnace until 1842.
Eventually "Maria" passed into the hands of James Ward, who operated it successfully for
a number of,years. The only early Mahoning Valley charcoal stack to survive into the
raw coal era, the "Maria" furnace eventually became obsolete due to the rapid march of
, events and was torn down.

The fourth and final charcoal iron furnace built in the Mahoning Valley was constructed
in 1835 by Isaac Heaton, son of James, on Mill Creek. Knownas the "Trumbull" furnace,
, it was the first furnace built in Youngstown proper. The Heatons previously had owned
an unsuccessful woolen mill on the creek and it was on this property that Isaac erected
his furnace. The stone stack was nine feet across at its base and about thirty feet
high. Trumbull furnace was capable of producing as many as three to four tons of iron
per day. As was commonwith these early furnace operations, however, the are deposits
soon were depleted and the timber was cut so far back that making the necessary charcoal
soon became difficult. By 1850 the furnace had ceased operating altogether.
At this time it appeared that ironmaking in the Mahoning Valley was at an end. Howe~er,
two discoveries made in 1845 put the Mahoning Valley iron industry back on its feet.
First it was discovered that raw coal could be used as the furnace fuel instead of
(, charcoal and that Brier Hill block coal was the best coal for this purpose. The
second discovery made was that of a deposit of high grade iron are in Mineral Ridge,
Ohio. This combination of Brier Hill coal and Mineral Ridge black band are initiated
a building boom in the local iron industry.

Probably the honor of being the first person to use block coal as the main reducing
agent in the blast furnaces belongs to Governor David Tod. Governor Tod owned a farm
, in Brier Hill that was underlayed with coal. For years he had attempted to sell the
coal as a home heating fuel; and had even offered a free cast iron stove to anyone who
would try a ton of his coal. Soon after Tod began the full scale mining of his coal,
Wilkes, Wilkinson and Company, a concern in which Tod was a partner, built the IIMaryll
'- furnace at Lowe11vil1e, Ohio. This furnace, which was specifically designed to use
raw block coal as its fuel, was such a success that it started a coal mining boom in
Youngstown. Coal mining became a major industry in the valley.

The second major discovery--that of high grade ore in Mineral Ridge--was made by John
Lewis, a Welsh miner, early in 1845. Lewis noticed a rock which was presumed to be
slate while at work in the coal mines. After a closer examination, Lewis concluded
that it was actually iron ore similar to a variety known in Scotland as IIb1ack bandll
ore. A sample of the ore was taken to James Ward's Maria furnace and tested. The
results indicated that the IIslate rock" was a valuable high grade iron ore which
produced a fine-grained soft iron especially suitable for casting intricate patterns.
Later, black band ore was mixed with other local and Lake Superior ores to produce an
iron widely known as IIAmerican Scotch Pigll and "Warner's Scotch Pig.1I

After 1845 the local iron industry grew rapidly. In the ensuing thirty years, no
~ fewer than twenty-one blast furnaces were erected in the Mahoning Valley. To supply
the demand for raw materials and to transport the finished products, the Mahoning
Valley's entire transportation network was improved. Until 1856, the Pennsylvania and
Ohio Canal carried the bulk of freight into and out of the Mahoning Valley and thus

played a crucial role in the valley's industrial development. Although the life of the
canal consisted of time borrowed from the newly emerging railroads, it nevertheless
, moved an amazing amount of freight, and continued to do so even after the coming of the
steam locomotive. The last barge, which journeyed down the canal in 1872, carried a
load of limestone from Lowe11vi11e, Ohio to a Brier Hill furnace. Ironically, perhaps
the major beneficiaries of the Canal's trade in Youngstownwere the railroads, for they
learned from the Canal's financial success that a profit could be made in the region.
As the heirs to the canal trade, the railroads were instrumental in the development of
Youngstown's booming iron and steel industry.

In 1848 the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad was granted its first charter, and by 1856
the road was operating from Cleveland through Warren to Youngstown. Using the old
canal bed as their right of ways, the railroads aided the growth of the steel industry
to such an extent that the Youngstown area became the third largest steel-producing
center in the country. At one time more steel was produced within the Youngstown
corporate limits than in any other city in the world. In turn, the steel mills created
business for the railroads. In his 1976 bicentennial history, HowardA1ey noted
Youngstown'scontribution to the railroad industry: . "Because of the immensetonnage
of the local iron and steel industries, it was said that more trains of cars, per day,
passed beneath Center Street bridge in Youngstown than anywhere else in the nation."

( Because of the tremendous improvements in steelmaking and the steadfast willingness

of local citizens to invest in the local iron and steel industry, by the end of
World War I the Mahoning Valley had acquired the nickname, "Little Ruhr Valley. II The
flourishing steel industry brought thousands of workers into the area. No longer was

Youngstownthe small farming village unable to compete with Canfield for the county seat
because of its size. After mergers and consolidations, in 1919 the Youngstown area
could rely upon four major steel companies--Youngstown Sheet and Tube, United States
Steel, Republic Steel, and Brier Hill Iron and Steel--to provide the bulk of employment
in the valley. Furthermore, the Youngstown area was one of the most progressive stee1-
producing areas in the world. The Brier Hill Iron and Steel Comapny, for example, was
the first company in the United States to hire a chemist to improve the quality and to
increase the production of iron and steel. In 1919 the Youngstown Sheet and Tube
Companybuilt the most advanced metallurgical laboratory in the world to study the
steelmaking process.

Youngstownwas a one-industry town and that industry was booming. The growth of the
industry continued at a rapid pace until the 19305, when the Depression halted its
rapid expansion. Growth resumed at the start of World War II and continued, but at a
more moderate pace, until the mid-1960s. Production cutbacks, a strike, or any other
problem that would slow production or close the mills brought economic disaster to the
entire Youngstown area, so dependent was the economy on iron and steel. It was common
to see three generations of steel workers in the mills: grandfather, father, and son
all working together to make the Youngstown area one of the greatest steelmaking
centers in the world.

( Since the mid 1960s, steel has not played quite so prominent a role in the Mahoning
Valley's economy. However, the pervasive importance of steel in the Youngstown area
was graphically demonstrated on September 19, 1977, when the Lykes Corporation--new
owner of the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company--c10sed a large part of its Campbell

Works and laid off approximately 5,000 men. A sense of shock and disbelief raced through
the valley, for it was almost unthinkable that such a thing could happen. Almost
immediately a local group of clergy and laymen organized in an attempt to save the
Campbell Plant. This group, the Ecumenical Coalition, has generated community-wide
support in its effort to reopen the plant under worker-community. ownership. The
Coalition might not succeed, but its very existence indicates that steel is still vital
to the economic health of the Mahoning Valley and that, when faced with a disaster, the
community can unite for the commongood. Even with its major industry in a state of
decrine, Youngstown continues to regard itself as a steel town. The industry may not
playas major a role in the life of the community as it did in the earlier part of
this century, but it continues to be a major force in the Mahoning Valley.

( 52


While Youngstown1s suitability from an historical perspective as the site for a museum
devoted to the steel industry is reflected in the previous sections, some consideration
also must be given to Youngstown's present ability to support a large museum facility.
Museum pl~nners now recognize the necessity of making museums more readily available
to and more convenient for the traveler in terms of access and accommodations. Initially,
a museum may survive on support by the local population alone, but with the passage of
time it becomes imperative to attract visitors from outside the immediate area.

Youngstown has the potential to attract tourists and the ability to conveniently
accommodate them. (See Appendix VI for a statistical overview of Youngstown.)


Youngstown is situated at the crossroads of the Eastern half of the United States.
Located midway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, two major steel-producing centers, and

( midway between Chicago and New York, Youngstown is bracketed by two major East-West
arterial highway systems. The city rests between Interstate 80 and Interstate 76 (the
Ohio Turnpike) and lies only a few miles from this intersection--one of the busiest
in the country. The volume of traffic on Interstate 80 has been estimated by the
( Eastgate Development and Transportation Agency as approximately thirty thousand cars
and trucks per day. Half of that figure represents out-of-state traffic. Interstate
76, which passes to the south of Youngstown, carries between fifteen and twenty
thousand cars and trucks per day. Youngstown connects with both of these major highways
( via Interstate 680, which channels traffic through the heart of the city. (See Maps.)






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( 53

The city operates YoungstownMunicipal Airport, conveniently located north of the downtown
( area. The Mahoning Valley is also in close proximity to the airports of both Cleveland
and Pittsburgh. Greyhound and Continental Trailways also operate bus service terminals
within the city limits.

Youngstown possesses a potential drive-by tourist market from which visitors for a major
museummay be drawn. The city also has the facilities to conveniently accommodate
these people. Over 2,300 roomsare available in the various hotels and motels scattered
throughout the Youngstownmetropolitan area; mosta~ near the Interstate exits. Another
674 rooms are available in nearby Warren. Besides these motel accommodations, a large
number of campgrounds are available within a forty mile radius of Youngstown. These
provide camping ranging from primitive to full-facility sites for recreational vehicles.
Included are five state parks: Pymatuning State Park, Mosquito State Park, West Branch
State Park, Guilford Lake State Park, and. Beaver Creek State Park.

The Youngstownmetropolitan area also offers good restaurants and excellent opportunities
for shopping. The downtownarea contains two department stores and a number of smaller
specialty shops. Youngstown has been committed for a number of years to the visual
improvement of the downtownarea and, with the completion earlier this year of the mall
( area, has accomplished this goal within the retail district. The downtownarea is now
[ not only convenient, but it is also a pleasant place to shop. The shopping needs of
,l the metropolitan area are further accommodated by two major malls, the Eastwood Mall
t! in Niles and the Southern Park Mall in Boardman. Here can be found a complement of
( 54

department stores, specialty stores, restaurants, and movie theaters. The area also has
a number of other plazas and shopping centers conveniently located throughout the
Mahoning Valley.


Although the surroundings in the Mahoning Valley reflect the industrial activity with
which the area is largely associated, the development of cultural and recreational
L- activities has not been ignored. In the YoungstownPhilharmonic Orchestra, Youngstown
offers a good symphonic music program. The orchestra produces five concerts yearly,
, presenting a full range of classical offerings, generally in conjunction with a famous
guest artist. Performances are staged at Powers Auditorium, originally a lavishly
ornate movie theater built in 1931 by the native born Warner brothers. The city also
has the MondayMusical Series which are productions sponsored by a local civic-minded
\ organization and feature recognized artists in solo performances~

Along with the SymphonySociety, Youngstown

. offers an excellent community-sponsored
amateur playhouse program. The playhouse started during the mid-1920s, utilizing
( as its first theater a converted stable which had been constructed in the 1880s and
was used by Governor Tod1s son for keeping horses. The theater--known as the
Arlington Street Theater--was located on Youngstown1snear north side and contained a
165-seat auditorium. The first performance at that theater was presented in January,
(, 1928.

When the Community Theater ran into financial problems during the Depression, it was
forced to close the Arlington Street Theater. The group, however, had too much energy
( 55

and talent to allow this to interfere with the presentation of drama in Youngstown. They
moved their operations to Idora Park on the city's south side. They also presented
( several plays on local radio stations during the lean Depression years. While efforts
continued during this period to reopen the theater on Arlington Streett a fire totally
gutted the building and terminated these activities. Instead, the theater group located
potential new surroundings in a former movie house--The Ohio Theater. There, the play-
( house group, referred to as the Youngstown CommunityTheater, presented a number of
theatrical productions from 1942 until Octobert 1958.

By that time, the quality and stature of the productions, as well as the number of
people involved, had far outgrown the available facilities. A new building located
1\ near G1enwoodAvenue on the city's south sidet was planned and built. The first play
in the new structure was presented in January, 1959.

Today the Playhouse presents eight new plays yearly. Offerings span the entire
repertoire of drama and comedy from Shakespearian tragedies to light musical comedies.
The Playhouse, whose productions are well-attended by the Mahoning Valley community,
t also has a children's theater program designed to attract the interest and attention
\ of younger members of the community.
I \
Youngstown State University also plays a vital part in the cultural and intellectual
atmosphere of the Mahoning Valley. The 120 acre campus, located only a few blocks from
I lI downtownYoungstown, has a student enrollment of 15,000 and offers a wide range of
degree programs on both the undergraduate and the graduate level. The 'University
!. maintains a close relationship with the city's cultural, intellectual, business and
( 56

industrial interests. This interaction with the city can be seen in the cooperation
between the University library and the Youngstown Public Library. Housed within a
short city block of each others the two libraries have ,developed a system which minimizes
duplication and thereby procures greater efficiency from the dollars spent on acquisitions.

The,University produces a number of plays, operas and musical offerings each year which
are open to the public. ManyMahoning Valley residents take advantage of this by attending.
l- In conjunction with the Dana School of Music, an excellent college at the University ~

specializing in music education, Youngstown State presents a varied series of classical

music programs, including the weekly Dana Recital Series and other specially produced
presentations. The Speech and DramaDepartment also offers four plays a year produced
on the stage of Bliss Hall. Youngstown State University's lecture series presents a
wide range of speakers from all facets of American public life. These lectures are
delivered at Stambaugh Auditorium, located off campus on the city's north side, and at
Powers Auditorium.
The University also participates in a full range of varsity athletic competitions in
( affiliation with the NCAADivision II and the Mid-Continent Conference, a newhighly
competitive conference which has quickly made known its presence in Division II. The
basketball program under the guidance of head coach DomRosselli is housed in Beeghley
Center. The football program, as well as several other varsity teams, will soon be
situated in a new multi-million dollar all 'sports complex under construction at the
present time.

( 57

The Butler Institute of American Art, with over 6,000 pieces of American art in its
permanent collection, is one of the most respected galleries in the country. Butler
( Institu~e is one of only several art museumsin the nation devoted entirely to the
collection and display of American art in all of its many facets. Organized in 1919
by Joseph G. Butler, Jr., one of Youngstown's foremost iron and steel managers, the
art collection was first housed in Butler's home. The collection later was moved into
( a beautiful new facility designed in Early Italian Renaissance style by the noted
\.. 0' architectural firm of McKim,Meade and White. The Institute is located on Wick Avenue,
adjacent to the campus of Youngstown State University. The exhibits include an American
Indian collection that is among the most complete in existence and a display of clipper
ship models that is one of the finest inland collections in the nation.. A rare set of
miniatures of all the presidents from W~shington through Kennedy and a group of 118
Currier and Ives prints share space in the structure with a valuable treasure of
paintings and sculptures. The gallery attracts thousands of visitors each year to its
special shows and regular exhibits.

Located within several hundred feet of the Butler Institute is the Arms Museum,the home
of the Mahoning Valley Historical Society. The Society itself was an outgrowth of
casual meetings between several of the more prominent early settlers in the Mahoning
Valley. It was chartered on Septemer 10, 1875, as the Mahoning Valley Historical
Society. Organized for the collection and preservation of books, records, papers and
interesting relics relating to the history and settlement of the Mahoning Valley, the
Society moved to its present location in 1961. The Society's small museumis housed
in IIGreystones,1I formerly the dwelling of the Arms family, one of the most prominent
families of the Mahoning Valley and leaders in business and industrial activity within
\ the area.

By stipulation of the Arms bequest, the museum's first floor is kept exactly as it was
during the days of the Arms family. The Arms' period piece possessions include family
portraits, furniture, china, glassware, silver, linens, oriental rugs and art objects.
The china and glassware are frequently changed to display the large and valuable col-
lection acquired by the family. The second floor presents a history of the settlement
of the Mahoning Valley and includes pictures, documents, early maps, relics, articles of
clothing and furniture. The lower floor has a large exhibition room with pioneer farm
L- and household 'tools, implements and utensils, antique toys, and Indian relics. Also on
dis~lay is the sizeable Fellows Gun Collection.
One of the most popular educational and recreational facilities in Youngstown is Mill

\ Creek Park. Containing 1,467 acres, of which 917 acres are undeveloped, Mill Creek Park
surrounds the creek bed and gorge that contain Mill Creek. The park features scenic
( drives, paths, three lakes, and recreational facilities. The largest township park in
the country, it extends from the mouth of Mill Creek at the Mahoning River, a few
blocks from central downtownYoungstown, through a picturesque gorge to an area south
of the Boardman-Canfield Road in Boardman Township.

The park owes its existence to the efforts of Volney Rogers. Born in East Palestine,
Mr. Rogers movedto the Youngstownarea to practice law. Rogers, an outdoorsmanat
heart, fell in love with the natural beauty of the Mill Creek Gorge area. Motivated
.( by the news that a sawmill companyhad purchased a large parcel of land along the east
gorge, Rogers began to buy the area surrounding the banks of Mill Creek. Either through
outright purchase, or through the purchase of options, he was able to negotiate con-
tracts with 154 of the 196 people whoownedland along the gorge. While securing

( 59

options on much of the land in the area, Rogers also enlisted the support of other 'like-
minded individuals. Within a year of his first purchase, Rogers convinced the Ohio
( General Assembly to secure the land as a public park. Whenthe legislation passed on
February 12, 1891, it required the acceptance of the project by a majority of residents
in Youngstown. Volney Rogers' dream of a park was accepted by the people of Youngstown
on April 6, 1891 by a vote of better than three to one. This was a full three years
(, before the first Ohio State Park was established. Mill Creek Park differs from all
L state parks, hOwever, because it originally required a majority consent and functioned
only with the financial support of the local citizens, and it still does.
Muchof the early industry in the area was located within the present day park. Mill
Creek offered an abundant water supply and the fall of the land through the gorge area
produced the necessary power to drive machinery. One mill has been preserved. The
building is the third mill at that location--the first two were washed away by floods.
The present building erected between 1845 and 1846 houses a museum. Park officials
have undertaken a study to rebuild the milling machinery in the hope of returning the
building to its original function.

The park also offers a number of recreational activities other than those specifically
associated with the nature and history of the Mill Creek area. Three large recreational
playgrounds incorporate areas for football, basketball, tennis, and playgro~nd areas for
children with supervised activities in the summermonths. A thirty-six hole golf
course also is available. Fifty picnic areas and over two hundred picnic tables are
available for public use in the park as well as several cabins and pavilions designed
( for group use.

Amongthe manyvaried recreational activities available in the MahoningValley to both

the traveler and resident alike is Idora Park, an excellent ride-oriented amusement park
( enjoyed by thousands of people each year. Located on Youngstown's south side, adjacent
to Mill Creek Park, Idora first opened in 1895. At that time, the facilities were meager,
consisting of a merry-go-round, a dance hall, an outdoor theater, picnic areas, and a
few caged animals. Idora Park quickly grew, however, into an excellent amusement park by
( adding a large number of rides and other entertainment. The dance hall, which at one
L. time was considered one of the finest in the eastern United States, has hosted many of
the biggest names in the dance band business. Idora Park also operates two roller
\ coasters, the larger of which was built during the Depression. That roller coaster
offers the flavor of the shakey, up-and-down, twisting and turning of frame-built
, coasters. The Idora Park merry-go-round, built in 1890, is listed on the National
Register of Historic Places.
( One of the most interesting events in the Mahoning Valley area is the Canfield Fair
(Mahoning County Fair) which is held yearly on the fairgrounds in Canfield during the
labor Day weekend~ Attracting more than'ha1f a million people yearly, many from far
beyond the immediate surrounding area, the Canfield Fair ranks as one of the best
l organized and one of the largest county fairs in the country.

The fairgrounds houseseventy permanent buildings with a valuation of over $1.5

million, fourteen paved highways and a 6,400 seat grandstand. Attractions lnc1ude
all of the activities expected at a first ra~e fair: shows with headline stars,
midway rides, 475 concession stands, 1,400 feet of games, excellent food and a wide
range of educational and agricultural exhibitions. Amongthe most interesting
{ 61

exhibits are the steam-powered farm machinery display and the Pioneer Village. The
Village consists of a number of historic building~ that have been moved onto the fair-
( grounds and preserved there in their original forms. The buildings include Elisha
Whittlesey's Canfield law office (1840), a one-room library (1910) which served as a
branch library in a nearby community, a one-room schoolhouse (c. 1900), a blacksmith's
shop (mid-1800s) originally built in Canfield to house a sawmill, a doctor's office
( (1913), a country store (late 1800s), a log cabin (1829), a railroad station (1870),
'-- and a railroad watchtower (c. 1880).

, The Mahoning Valley also houses a number of sites listed on the National Register of
Historic Places. These landmarks are informative and interesting for both visitors
and residents of the area alike. The Old Rayen School, constructed in 1862-66 along
Greek Revival lines, today houses the YoungstownBoard of Education. Originally it
housed the city's first secondary school. Tours of the building can be arranged. .

ii'f11tJu't'I-,ri'm!rt'O;wrfTl1j~ luwnsrri'P ;~ ~e 'S;i:e OTI~Trti;am 'fto"'lmes'1"lc:T:Iufley"~
home. McGuffey, famous for his Eclectic Readers, lived in the area for eighteen years
I and although none of the original McGuffey-associated buildings remain,. the site has
I been purchased and preserved by a local group. In 1966 the site was designated a
National Historic Landmark and a plaque was unveiled.

The Austin Log Cabin, located in Austintown just west of Youngstown, is a reminder of
America's frontier past. Although the specific history of the cabin is uncertain, the
rectangular, two-story log house was probably built before 1820 by Judge Calvin Austin
of Warren, Ohio. Available evidence indicates that Austin never occupied the house, but
had it built as a speculative venture to 'ur~ s~tt1ers into the Austintown area.

Trumbull County, also intersected by the Mahoning River, lies to the north of Youngstown.
Several sites of historical interest are loca~ed here. Amongthese is the William
( McKinley Memorial. This large tribute to President McKinley, with its statue of the
President surrounded by a massive columned structure, is located in Niles, McKinley's
boyhood home. The nearby city of Warren maintains a number of houses and buildings of
his~orical value centrally located in its downtownarea and generally referred to as
"Millionaire's Row.1I Most of these structures, once the homes of Warren's first
families, were built during the second half of the nineteenth century. Others, like
the Trumbull County Court House and the public library, are governmental offices and
are open to the public.

Youngstown, because of its central location and the convenience of the network of
interstate highways in the area, has the potential to draw visitors not only from the
local community and the State of Ohio, but from a large portion of the northern part
of the United States. Not only can visitors be conveniently accommodatedby available
motel and restaurant facilities, the area offers a wide variety of cultural, recreational,
and historical actlvities that may round' out a vis'it to the Youngstown area. A major
museumdevoted to the steel industry would in no way interfere with or duplicate any of
the other activities in the Mahoning Valley. In a very substantial way, an iron and
steel museumwould serve not only to inject a measure of vitality into the local
economY, it also would serve to attract new interest for many of these other activities.


( 63


While examining the Youngstown area for the theme of the proposed museum, the Planning
Office found it natural to canvass the community for possible museumsites and to try
1 to determine what items possibly could become available for collections and exhibits.
L After several lmpractical ideas for the proposed museumwere rejected, the theme of the
dev~lopment of the steel industry was selected as a starting point for more intensive

,L- study. Then the examination of possible sites for the proposed museumbegan in earnest.
Through interviews with officials from various steel companies in the area, public
officials of the communities in the Mahoning Valley, and influential private citizens
with an interest in the project, the Ohio Historical Society was able to determine
~ that a wealth of material may become available to the Society to help produce the
proposed museum.
Personnel from the YoungstownPlanning Office and the Office of Planning in Columbus
~ toured the steel mills belonging to the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company(now Jones
t and Laughlin Steel), Sharon Steel Corporation, and United States Steel Ohio Works.
One of the first observations to be made on a tour through a steel mill is that nothing
is small. No matter what the age or condition of the particular mill, virtually
everything is built on an enormous scale. A simple ladle to move molten metal is
twenty feet high, a small blast furnace is one hundred feet tall and a normal tap at
an open hearth furnace contains one hundred and fifty tons of hot metal. It soon
became quite obvious that the design of a steel museumwould have to be enormous in
( 64

size if it were to convey the feeling of an actual steel production plant. With this in
mind, the Planning Office took steps to select a potential museumsite.

A good urban museumsite should be large enough to provide adequate building, parking, and
display space; it should be easily accessible from major highways and, if possible, it
should have some historical connection with the theme of the museum. Several areas in
Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley meet these criteria.

Due to excellent freeway access and central location, downtownYoungstownwas examined

L to determine if the proposed museumpossibly could be located there. On the east end
of the downtownarea a- number of urban renewal plots of land are available. Most of the
plots would be too small for the proposed museum, however, especia11y when visitor parking
space is considered. However, one plot of land along the north bank of the Mahoning
River, between the South Avenue and Market Street bridges, might be suitable. The land
now belongs to the Republic Steel Corporation; it was the site of the old Republic Steel
Bessemer Plant, now demolished. In the first quarter of 1979, the City of Youngstown
will apply for a grant from the Departmeht of Housing and Urban Development to purchase
the 35.95 acres and improve them for use as an industrial park. The City plans to
request allowance for adding an entrance to the land between the Cedar Street and South
Avenue viaducts. This will provide excellent access to the land from the east end of
the downtownarea. Conversations with the mayor of Youngstown and the head of the city's
\ Economic Development Agency led the Ohio Historical Society to believe that if the
Society does select this land as a site for the proposed museum, the property can be
obtained at little or no cost. The site's major drawback is its size. Since this land
j is nowscheduled to become the site of an industrial park, only a small portion of the

space could be allotted to a museum. (For further information on this and other urban
renewal sites, see Appendix II.)

Another potential site, presently owned by the Republic Steel Corporation, is near the
east end of Youngstown at Center Street. This site is now an active steel mill. However,
Rep~b1ic's plans call for the three blast furnaces and coke plant to be shut down as new
( facilities are constructed in Warren, Ohio. This site does not appear as desirable as
other potentia~ sites because it is not centrally located, although it does have
excellent access to the new freeway system. Furthermore, at the moment its availability
, is questionable due to its status as an active steel-producing facility.

Other possible sites, although not as potentially available for the Youngstownmuseum
project, include land in the now-closed portion of the YoungstownSheet and Tube
Campbell Works. However, land in this area is not as readily accessible by freeways and
major routes as the two previously mentioned sites. Furthermore, there is a possibility
that the Ecumenical Coalition will be able to reopen the facilities as an active
community-worker owned steel company.

Even so, it still may be possible to acquire a site which was once part of a steel plant.
Benefits would be gained by adapting an existing structure for a museumsite. Utilizing
such a structure(s) would add authentic historic value to the museumas well as reduce
costs. Several structures in Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley would be excellent
for this purpose. One of the best complexes, but probably the least available, is the
former Youngstown Sheet and Tube General Office and the Technical Center, located on
U.S. Route 7 (Market Street) in BoardmanTownship. The buildings, built in 1958, are
( 66

located on fifty-six acres of landscaped property and between them contain over 256,000
square feet of floor space. Because of the merger between YoungstownSheet and Tube and
( the LTVCorporation, the buildings are in the process of being closed and eventually
will be sold. Within the 178,000 square feet of the General Office Building are an
auditorium, a fully-equipped cafeteria, and at least 100,000 square feet of open space
which could constitute a potential display area. The Technical Center houses 78,000
square feet with good potential for display purposes, as well as sixteen offices, 'twelve
photographic and reproduction rooms, and a two-story open bay area which comprise 25,000
square feet of potential display space. (For further details on the buildings, see
Appendix III.)

The buildings, however, have three major drawbacks. First, despite excellent access
from the freeways, the buildings are removed from the center of the city and their
corresponding steel mills. Second, the purchase price of the buildings may be in
excess of what the Society can afford. Third, there 'is a possibility that the Mahoning
Valley Economic Development Committee will establish a 'national steel research center
in the buildings. Anyone or a combination of these three reasons may preclude the
Society from acquiring this site.

Two other sites with structures already on them are located in the Brier Hill section
of Youngstown. Brier Hill, once the home of Governor David Tod, was the location of
the Brier Hill Iron and Steel Company. Brier Hill Iron and Steel merged with the
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyin 1923. Two groups of structures are located just
off the Route 680 exit on U.S. Route 422 and are less than a mile from the Route 80
exit in Girard, Ohio. The first and least desirable structure is the old Brier Hill


Division Office building, built in 1929 by the YoungstownSheet and Tube Company. The
six-story building is now for sale under private ownership. Although the brick and
steel "I" beam constructed building contains 9,000 square ~et of space per floor, it is
in need of major renovation. The building possibly could be purchased rather cheaply,
but the cost of renovation and a relatively small property lot reduce the building1s
desirability as a museumsite.
~. The second and"most desirable area also is located at Brier Hill and contains the
Jeanette blast furnace. The facility currently is owned by. Jones and Laughlin Steel and
was part of the merger package between Jones and Laughlin and the YoungstownSheet and
Tube Company. The structures on this location include a blast furnace, eight heater
stoves, a boiler house, a large empty casting house, and a blast engine house, as well
as railroad trestles, stock houses and other small structures. (For complete informa-
tion and history on the site, See Appendix IV.) Utilization of the Jeanette site would
open an entirely new concept in museumconstruction and provide one of the most unique
museums in the country. Preliminary meetings with first the YoungstownSheet and Tube
Companyand then Jones and Laughlin Steel indicated that Jones and Laughlin would be
c willing to enter into negotiations with the Ohio Historical Society for exchanging
ownership of the sixteen-acre Jeanette site, either through purchase of the site by the
Ohio Historical Society or as a gift to the Society from Jones and Laughlin. Meetings
also were held with the Ecumenical Coalition and with the United States Ste~l Workers
( Local 1462 to determine if either of these organizations would object to the Society
acquiring the site. Neither organization objected, however, due to the enormous cost--
over twenty-eight million dollars--of refurbishing the furnace as an active iron
( producing facility.

( 68

Jeanette first was put into blast in 1918 and is now the smallest blast furnace existing
in the Mahoning Valley. Because the furnace site is east of the Division Street bridge
(Route 711 and 680), it is removed from the rest of the Brier Hill Plant. Standing alone
on the banks of the Mahoning River, Jeanette is a handsome edifice. With proper restora-
tion the site could be made into a unique and noteworthy museum.

~ Membersof the Office of Planning in Columbusand the YoungstownPlanning Office have

)~. ,

toured the Jeanette site several times to determine if the facility, properly renovated,
( could be the central focus and primary exhibit of the proposed museum. The qualities
L- of the Jeanette comp1ex--excel1ent accessibility, large amounts of needed space, and
historic significance to the Mahoning Va1ley--qualify the site as a potentially superb
museumdedicated to iron and steel. Another consideration worth noting is that although
most iron and steelmaking equipment can be moved to a museumsite, moving a blast
furnace would be prohibitively expensive.

Additionally, the furnace is located across the Mahoning River from the United States
Steel CompanyOhio Works. This plant, presently operating at a reduced rate, probably
( will be closed within the next several years. The Ohio Works contain the wor1d1s only
operating steam-driven blooming mill, which was built circa 1907. Someday it may be
possible to add this superb old mill, with its three-story high flywheels, to the
proposed Youngstownmuseumat very little cost. The Jeanette complex and the Ohio
~ Works are connected conveniently by private vehicular and railroad bridges across the
i Mahoning River.



, 69

Acquisition of the Jeanette site would mark another contribution to historic preservation
by the Ohio Historical Society. In the near future there will be no blast furnaces left
~ in the Youngstown area. The four blast furnaces in Campbell will shut down by the end of
1979. The three furnaces of Republic Steel will close down shortly thereafter. Jeanette
already is out of blast, and only one furnace at the Ohio Works is operating presently.
Because of their value as steel scrap, every non-operating facility will be disassembled
~, and fed into open hearth and BOFfurnaces to make new steel; in this way the old Bessemer
plants gradually vanished. Within the next few years, the skyline of the Youngstownarea,
once silhouetted with twenty-seven blast furnaces, will be flat.

Whatever site is selected for the proposed museum, new structures undoubtedly will have
to be built to house collections, displays, and archives; to function as an orientation
center, and to provide the necessary space for offices and storage. The Youngstown
museumwill need approximately 41,000 square feet of building space to ensure adequate
room in which to operate a successful museumprogram. This space would provide room
for orienting visitors about to tour the museum, as well as house exhibits (mill
models, photographs, artifacts, etc.) and a collection of steel company archives which
the Society plans to acquire. Historical collections require care, and museumitems
must be stored in a secure, controlled environment, safe from the ravages of moisture
and heat. Artifacts must receive restoration or conservation to ensure their longevity
and space must be provided for the laboratories and photographic rooms that would be
necessary for this restoration and preservation.

The new structure or structures can be constructed on a factory site, such as the
Jeanette site. It also might be possible to construct the new facility within an


existing industrial structure. While a factory building is muchtoo di.fficult to heat

and weatherproof, the "building-within-a-building" concept cou.ld answer the problems of
heating, insulation and weatherproofing.



( 71


A coherent and comprehensive collections policy is a fundamental part of any good museum
program. Museumsnot only have a responsibility to employ artifacts as a part of their
~ overall educational program, they also have a duty to preserve portions of our material
culture for future generations. While museumsare no longer merely open storehouses of
the relics of the past, by definition they are not museumsif they ignore three dimensional

t '
A collection of steel mill artifacts would be quite unlike any ordinary museumcollection.
Ladles, open hearth furnaces, crane hooks, hot-metal cars, rolling stands, ingots, molds,
and other items are weighed in at tons instead of pounds. Not only are some of the
artifacts heavy, they also are huge; fifteen to twenty feet high is not an 'uncommon
height for items used in steel manufacturing.
. Items such as these should provide an
excellent attraction for the proposed museum.

Furthermore, several area steel mills have mill models that would make excellent displays
for the proposed museums. Amongthese are three model mills built by the Youngstown
Sheet and Tube Companyduring the mid-1930s. There is a complete seventy-nine inch hot
strip model, a butt weld pipe mill model and a seamless pipe mill model. Built to exact
scale, all of these models are working models; they each produce a product.. As with
other steel artifacts, they are also heavy. The seventy-nine inch hot strip model alone
weights over three tons. (For further information on the models, see Appendix V.)
t - --
, .


Models such as these three and others produced by Republic Steel t and WeanUnitedt a
manufacturer of steel mil 1st may be available to the Ohio Historical Society for use in
the proposed museum.

Along with large itemst such as the modelst area mills also maintain collections of
photographs, printed material and records. YoungstownSheet and Tubet alonet had a
photographer on its staff since 1903 and saved every negative ever taken. Steel companies
L often regard these materials as worthless and they eventually end up in the land fill when
the company runs out of storage space. A museumdevoted to the iron and steel industry
\ can preserve these photographs, publications and records in an active archives program.

The museumcould become a repository for all steel companies and a major research
center for future scholars studying the industry.

! Both to insure an adequate supply of artifacts suitable for exhibition and to preserve
expendable itemst the YoungstownIron and Steel Museummust pursue a vigorous collections
program. Artifacts must be sought out ~ith diligence--it is not enough to depend on
unsolicited donations. Such an effort requires a great expenditure of staff timet
first to determine what is needed and then to seek it out. Curators must be sensitive
to the industrYt both past and presentt in order to realize what artifactst collections.
records and other steel related items are important to demonstrating the development
of the iron and steel industry. They must have contacts with various steel. companies
( in the United States to insure that valuable material is not discarded with the
thought that IInobodywould want this junk. II.



The broad outlines mentioned here will allow the YoungstownIron and Steel Museumto
establish it~elf as one of the most unique museumsin the United States. Not only will
the people of Youngstownand the Mahoning Valley be able to take pride in their heritage
but people from the entire country will be able to see the ways in which iron and steel
has played a .major part in the development of the United States.





Exhibits will be the principle product of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumproject.
It is through a vigorous exhibits program that the collections of artifacts are
( presented to the public. It is also through a well developed exhibits program that
the museumfulfills most of its educational goals.

Ideally, several fundamentally different types of exhibits will be employed at the

( Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. Together these exhibits will produce an exciting
and informative museumcapable of providing museumpatrons with a thorough under-
standing of the history of the American iron and steel industry.

Upon entering the museumfacility visitors first will encounter an orientation
program. This will provide them with the information needed to better utilize the
remainder of the museum. The goal of the orientation center will be to establish a
general outline which can then be developeQ throughout the rest of the museum. A
multi-image presentation or film tracing the development of iron and steel from
ancient times to the present is one method of accomplishing this difficult task.

The formal exhibit area will expand upon the orientation exhibits, employing" artifacts,
graphics, and audio-visual aids, and examining more carefully the topics touched upon
in the orientation. Due to the enormous size of many original artifacts, scale models,
photographs, films, and other media must come into play.


A general outline of these exhibits might include:

1. What is iron
A. Physical properties
B. Chemical properties
II. What is steel
A. Physical properties
~ B. Chemical properties
(- III. The geology of iron
A. Raw materials
1. Iron ores
2. F1uxes
3. Fuels
B. Geographical distribution of raw materials
1. Economic influences
IV. Ancient ironworking
A. Africa
B. Orient
C. Greek and Roman
D. Pre-Modern European
V. European heritage
A. Medieval ironworks
B. Iron in the Renaissance
C. The Industrial Revolution
VI. The New World
A. Early ironworks
..' .


B. Iron in American Revo1uti on

C. Early 19th Century and late 18th Century
VII. The blast furnace
A. Evolution of design
B. New techniques
C. The end product
D. The blast furnace today
VIII. Casting
A. Properties and uses
I B. Evolution of techniques
C. Modern casting
IX. Wrought iron
A. Properties and uses
B. Evolution of production techniques
C. Modern techniques
X. Steel
A. Properties and uses
B. Evolution of production techniques
C. Modern techniques
XI. Forging and rolling
A. Basic principles
B. Evolution of technology
C. Modern techniques
XII. Welding, heat treating and other techniques
A. Description and explanation of processes
B." Uses and importance
.;\ .

. . .
( 77

I XIII. The Workers

A. Work during the colonial and early national periods
( l. Who the workers were
2. The work that they performed
3. Social, religious and economic factors
B. Work in the 19th Century
,{ l. The skills required
l 2. . Wages, hours and housing
3. Job safety
'. c. Immigration
( l. The early period, 1614-1860
2. The IInewll i mmigra t ion, 1870-1930
3. The ethnic community
4. Problems of assimilation
( 5. Post World War II migration
D. The Union
l. The earliest attempts
2. The drive for recognition
\ 3. The Depression and NIRA
4. Recognition and Little Steel
5. The union today
XIV. The Company
A. Early years - small scale enterprises
B. Newtechnology and new business methods) 1860-1900
1. Integration
( 2. Cost accounting
.. 78

I C. Prosperity, 1900-1930
D. Challenges of the post-World War II peri od
1. Foreign competition
2. Environmental control
3. Newtechnology
xv. The Products
A. Historical survey of the products made of iron and steel
I. B. Importance of industry to an economy and society


( One of the major benefits to be derived from establishing an iron and steel museumin
Youngstownat this time is the possibility of acquiring actual iron and steel production
machinery. With the conversion to new mqchinery and the phasing out of all types of
older equipment--from blast furnaces to rolling mills--the Youngstown Iron and Steel
{ Museumhas the chance to acquire some prime artifacts.

These items can be employed in an exhibits program. Through the display and interpretation
of this type of artifact, museumpatrons will be exposed to the reality of iron and steel
~ production on a scale unobtainable in a more traditional exhibit program. The sheer mass
of these artifacts providesan impact that words, pictures, and models can never portray. .

The most feasible means of exhibiting this type of material is to situate them in a large
existing structure. While they will require maintenance, such as occasional painting,
they will not require the environmental controls necessary with more formal exhibits.



Rather than encasing the item, the visitor would be enclosed in a controlled-environment
IIshellll from which he or she can look at and examine the machinery. A variety of audio-
r, visual and graphic aids will explain the items--how they work and their role and signi-
ficance in the iron and steel industry.

Whi1.emuch remains to be done in determining what is available and what is the best way
f to exhibit it, somepreliminary concepts can be put forward:
L 1. A variety of representativ~ machines should be presented.
2. The exhibits should reflect the evolution of the industry as a whole.
3. Each piece of equipment should be interpreted to explain its purpose and method of
( operation.
4. The relationship of worker to machine and the overall role of labor in production
must be examined.
In order to accomplish these goals, a numberof different machines need to be included.
A representative list might include:
1. Blast Furnace
2. Puddling Furnace
3. Crucible Furnace
~ 4. BessemerConverter
5. OpenHearth Furnace
6. Coke Battery
7. Rolling Equipment
8. Forging Equipment
9. ladles
..! .
i 80

10. Transport Equipment

11. .Prime Movers
12. Assorted Subsidiary Equipment
All of these itemss of courses are not available at this time. Somemay become so in
the futures while others may have to be reconstructed. The primary requirement for
this program is a commitment to it) a relentless search to obtain the necessary compon-
~ ents, and the facilities to house the program.
The full implementation of the entire exhibits program will not take place at once. Over
a period of time additional development can enhance the original presentation. Initial
success will add impetus to a continuing program of exhibits which has the promise of
being one of the finest in the United States.

( 81


In order to enhance the educational impact of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum,
plans call for the creation of an archives program to operate in conjunction with the
museum. Although the plans and details of this endeavor are in the early stages of
L development, tt is believed that Youngstown can becomethe location not only for a
unique museum,but also a center for research devoted to the early development and
growth of the steel industry. As of this date there are no centers for the study of
the steel industry anywhere in the country.

The role of the archives center will be twofold. The first function will be to locate,
( collect and preserve important archival material. For this important facet of archival
collection and cataloging, the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumwill rely on the many
years of experience of the Ohio Historical Society. . Oncethe archives are collected,
it is important that the research material benefit the widest number of people through
an extensive educational program. This goal requires that the archives have easy and
comfortable access, that they be properly catalogued and that space for ongoing research
be provided.

The National Iron and Steel Archives Center will be a facility from which research
I about all facets of the iron and steel industry may be undertaken. Utilizing a
trained, professional staff, archives covering a wide range of steel-related matters
will be acquired. As envisioned, the material 'wil1 include both local and national


( 82

l archives concerning the history of the formation and development of the iron and steel
industries. The center will also have a program devoted to the acquisition of documents
concerning the history of the labor supply for the industry (both native American and.
immigrant) as well as the subsequent development of the United Steel Workers of America
and its predecessor movements for the organization of the steel workers. Included in
the archival program will be an extensive oral history project to record and preserve
the experience of the people who helped build the steel industry. This is a new and
~- vital method of historical documentation and one that has not been extensively under-
take~ for the steel industry.
( The Ohio Historical Society recognizes that the collection of business records by
t public agencies is a delicate subject within the business community. For this reason,
the archives program will focus its early. acquisitions on records and documents of a
i. nonsensitive, but historically significant, nature. Negotiations for the acquisition
of the photographic collection of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Companyand a complete
set of that company's Bulletin magazine have already been initiated with Jones and
Laughlin by .the Youngstown planning staff. The general reception by local officials
I of J & L for this material has been cordial and favorable. There are also a number
\ of documents concerning the early steel industry already available in the public sector
that have not been collected into a single location. The acquisition of these two
types of materials will provide that basis for further expansion of archival material.
As other steel companies become aware of the care with which the documents are handled
I and stored in a controlled environment and can view the benefits that will evolve
from the study of this material to the better understanding of the steel industry and
its history, negotiations to acquire the historic archives of other companies will be
t facilitated.
';1 .


A number of people in the local area have been contacted about creating an iron and steel
archive center in Youngstown. The Youngstown Planning Office staff has discussed this
t project with industrial, union, civic, and academic officials and leaders in the
community. Their response has been quite favorable and many have offered their full
I cooperation. (See below for a complete list.)

The archives program will enhance.the educational impact of the Youngstown Iron and

Steel Museumby providing the foundation for scholarly study of the steel industry.
With the necessary research material made readily available in one location in Youngstown,
the study of the iron and steel industry will be facilitated and thereby increase the
< understanding of the history of the steel industry and its role in shaping our society.


Frank Harris
Frank Haber Haber's DepartmentStore
DowntownBoard of Trade
R. E. Hatton -
District Supervisor, Conrail
Gilbert James - Local Businessman and Memberof Chamberof Commerce
Frank Johnson - Public Relations, Conrail

West Johnstone
ThomasMasters --
Executive Director, Youngstown Chamberof Commerce
Masters Office Supply
James McLaughlin - Local Businessman
Howard Shafer -
Fred Tod - Local Businessman and Memberof Chamberof Commerce

< GeorgeButsika - Director of Education, USWA

S. Clark - Assistant Director, District 26, USWA
l Reiss Gibbons - Editor, Steel Labor - USWA
Ed Mann
P. Griffin
- President,
- Director, District 26, USWA(Retired)
Local 1462, Brier Hill, USWA
.;. .

lABOR (Continued)
Dr. ThomasShipka - local labor leader
r Donald Smith - Assistant Editor, Steel Labor - USWA
Henry Evans -
President, Sharon Steel
l -
Ronald Towns District Superintendent J & L
Ed Salt - Historian, Y S & T
~ Perce Kelty -
Chief Photographer, Y S & T (Retired)
L. Randall Walthius -
Public Relations, U.S. Steel
Louis Vicarel : Public Relations, Republic Steel
William Brown - Public Relations, WeanUnited
James Butler -
Public Relations, J & L
Ted Patrick -
Superintendent Buckeye School, J & L
James Walker - Assistant Superintendent, Fuel and Power, J & L
Furman T. Blackwell -
Superintendent, Blast Furnace, &S &T (Retired)
l -
Edward Prokopp Superintendent, General Office Building, J & l
Rodger Slatter -
Manager of Primary Operations, J & L
Samuel Carbon - Superintendent Cold Strip, Y S & T (Retired)

Sen. Harry Meshel Ohio Senator
Phillip Richley - Mayor, City of Youngstpwn
Rocco Mica Mayor, City of Campbell.
Nicholas Deramo Mayor, City of Girard
~ W. Doutt - Mayor, City of Niles
Art Richard - Mayor, City of Warren
John Palermo - Commissioner of Mahoning County
George Bindas - Commissioner of Mahoning County
Charles Barrett - Commissioner of Mahoning County
Julius Geewax
Feli.x Kikel- -Chief
Director of Development,City of Youngstown
Planner, City of Youngstown
William Brenner - Planner, Eastgate Development and Transportation Agency

L 85

Charlotte Cunningham- Lowellville Historical Society
William Masters -
BoardmanHistorical Society
~ Florence Galida -
Campbell Historical Society
Patricia Cummins MahoningValley Historical Society
Elizabeth Szabo International Institute
~ John Zackuzia
Richard Ulrich
Pa. Anthropological Society
Canfield Historical Society
Rebecca Rodgers Poland Historical Society
L -
HowardAley Local Historian
Walter Damon-. Local H.A.P. Representative
William Whitehouse Naturalist, Mill Creek Park
L Ken Zinz -
Austintown Historical Society
Aux. Bixhop William Hughes -
Diocese of Youngstown
Rev. William Connal - Assistant Rector, St. Colombia
Rev. Martin Susko Rector, St. Colombia
Pastor Louis Furtomioto -
Pastor, First Christian Assembly
Pastor Fred Ripper
Rev. Edward Stanton
Youth Pastor, First Christian Assembly
Ecumenical Coalition
Rev. Leo Doboschevits -
Pastor, St. Joseph the Provider
Rev. George Pappas St. Michael, The Archangel
Rev. Edward Witt -
Diocese of Youngstown
Rev. George F. Winca St. Matthias Church
Dennis Finneran - Editor,
Catholic Exponent
Jay Paris - P.hotographer,
Ohio Maqazine
Ernest Brown, Jr. - Reporter, YounqstownVindicator
Dale Peskin - Reporter, Younqstown Vindicator
rI Dennis LaRue - Reporter, Younqstown Vindicator


~~ .
. ... 86


, Dr. John Coffelt - President of Youngstown State University

I E. Catsoulis - Superintendent of Youngstown City Schools
\- Herbert G. Thomas - Superintendent of Liberty City Schools
Dr. Michael J. Elsberry - Superintendent of Struthers City Schools
Dr. Robert P. Shreve -
Superintendent of Mahoning County City Schools
r John R. Holan - Superintendent of Warren City Schools
Robert Pond - Superintendent of Salem City Schools
Luther H. Gutknech - Superintendent of Hubbard City Schools
Robert Hetrick -
Superintendent of Campbell City Schools
Dr. John White. - Department of Anthropology, YSU
Dr. George Beelen -
Chairman of Department of History, YSU
Dr. James Ronda -
Department of History, YSU
L Professor Hugh Earnhart - Director of Oral History, YSU
Ann Harris -Department of Geology, YSU
r Dr. George Kelly -
Department of Biology, YSU
L Robert Griffith -
Director of Mahoning County Library
Professor A.E.T. Morris -
Department of Architecture, Oxford University, England
Miss Patricia Wall Assistant Head Librarian, YSU
John Cvengros -
Teacher, Campbell City Schools
t Larry Lushinski -
Teacher, Youngstown City Schools
Donald Koma History Teacher, Youngstown City Schools
Andrew Hammady History Teacher, YoungstownCity Schools





( 87


Education of the public is the primary goal of the proposed Youngstownmuseum. Museums
in general perform the important role of introducing the public to history in a palatable
), form and thereby facilitate educational processes concerning the past. In short, museums
are successful because they provide an inherent attractiveness and a good atmosphere in
t whiCh learning can be developed and fostered without the disadvantages that often
l- accompanymore structured methods. This is not to say that museumscan replace basic
education as the primary learning tool about the events of our past, but they can,
working in conjunction with other educational institutions, develop programs through
which information can be readily assimilated.
( ,
History is generating increasing interest amongthe public with each successive year.
I History books and historical novels continually appear on the best seller lists while
television and motion picture producers 'find that presentations with historical themes
captivate audiences. Recently, the television programs "Holocaust" and IIRootsll have
drawn more viewers than any previous television presentations. History wrapped in an
attractive packagehas been and continues to be a most lucrative and popular enterprise. .

While many museumshave been successful in meeting the needs of the public, it should
be noted that Science and Industry museums, in the last decade, have led the way in
fulfilling the dual role of attracting and educating visitors. Science and Industry
r museumsare visited by thirty million people annually. The success of this type of


program can best be illustrated by the popularity of the Museumof Science and Industry
in Chicago and, while the Smithsonian Institute draws a large number of visitors each
year, it is their Science and Industry exhibits that consistently attract the most

Because the proposed Youngstownmuseumcombines both the general interest in history and
( in industry-related museums, along with the ability of museumsto serve an important
educational function, this project has an excellent potential for a high level of success.
As can be seen in the information presented in the previous sections, the steel industry
L- and its development in the Mahoning Valley are ideal topics for historical treatment in
( a museum. While few people other than those actually involved with the steel industry
are aware of the processes involved in making steel, the inherent nature of the industry
lends itself to attractive treatment and an informative educational program. These
, two characteristics can be utilized by the planners of the Youngstownmuseum.

The planned areas of coverage in the Youngstownmuseumhave been discussed elsewhere

and do not need extensive reiteratio~ h~re, but it must be noted that the program is
( a diversified one that will appeal to every segment of the local and state-wide public.
~ The museumwill undertake the very important, and to this point ignored, subject of the
making and forming of iron and steel products, as well as an examination of the
development of the industry within the Mahoning Valley. It will also deal extensively
with the human dimensions of the steel industry, examining the interrelationship between
the development of the steel industry and the development of the Mahoning Valley as a
place to work and live. This dual scope will have a tremendous educational impact,
because it demonstrates both the processes used by the industry to make its products


and shows the pervasive influence of iron and steel on the development of the surrounding
community and all of its social structures.

The immense size involved in the steelmaking process lends itself to a museumtreatment
that is different from most of the other types of museumsnow available. Manyof the
exh~bits in the Youngstown museumt as mentioned earliert will involve patrons in the
( exhibits and give them a first hand look at steel production. This kinetic approach
~- will enhance the teaching function of the museum. Thist howevert is not the only type
of exhibit planned and the museumwill incorporate a wide variety of exhibits designed
L- to be informative to almost everyone. As part of its educational function, 'the museum
( will also incorporate a well-designed program of films and lectures that will extend the
educational role into t~e community by providing a variety of programs at schools and
other civic functions. These programs will be both educational and serve as a vehicle
to generate community awareness of the museum.
Visitation by school children will constitute one of the most important educational
functions of the Youngstownmuseum. There are over 160,000 children enrolled in the
, various school systems in the four county area of Ashtabula, Trumbull, Mahoning, and
~ Columbiana Counties. If the area from which children may be drawn is extended to a
seventy mile radiust pupils from Western Pennsylvania, Cleveland and Pittsburgh would
be included. It is projected that a museumdevoted to the development of the steel
industry would successfully draw from these areas since they also are major steel
~ centers and have no educational facilities with an industrial theme. The Youngstown
Planning Office has corresponded with a number of school officials from the Trumbull,
Mahoning and Columbiana County areas and has received enthusiastic responses, demon-
strating the interest and need for the museum.


In order to enrich the educational opportunities of the Youngstownmuseum, programs and

services must be initiated to accommodate the students whose classes visit the facility.
( Educational packets must be prepared which explain to teachers how they can best utilize
the museum. These packets also should contain orientation and follow-up materials which
the students will use in their school prior to and after the museumtrip. Tours and
lectures must be prepared for every grade level and must be so constituted that the
museum's programs dovetail into the curriculum of the various area school systems.
~- Classrooms and. demonstration areas must be incorporated into museumdesign to provide
the ~ppropriate environment for learning. Special programs to aid handicapped and
~ retarded children are also a necessity.

The creation of a museumin the Youngstownarea devoted to the development of the iron
and steel industry is an excellent educational opportunity not only for the residents
of the Mahoning Valley, but also for people throughout the state of Ohio. The develop-
( ment of the steel industry and subsequent development of the Mahoning Valley, both
industrially and culturally, are interconnected. Steel is the heritage, the Ilroots" if
you will, of the valley. While most people in the area are aware of this, surprisingly
few know how steel is made and even fewer know how or why the industry developed along
(\ the banks of the Mahoning River. This phenomena is particularly evident in second and
third generation descendants of the first immigrants who worked in the Mahoning Valley
mills. Social and economic mobility have isolated them from the work of their fathers
and grandfathers. Generally, these steel workers were very proud of the skills and
ingenuity required to make steel. Yet, many felt that a thorough assimilation of their
descendants into society required a college education and white collar job. Because
of this many steel workers have not encouraged their children to go into the mills.

C' .
t 91

L An iron and steel museumwill provide these workers with a meaningful way to share with
I their children the vocation which has made possible this assimilation and upwat'd mobility.

History, although a discipline that is involved with the description and analysis of the
past, serves a useful educational function in helping examine the direction in which
society is headed. The Youngstownmuseumalso will serve this very important function.
( The recent events leading to the decline of steelmaking operations in, the Mahoning Valley
have been well-chronicled. A museumdevoted to the steel industry in Youngstowncon-
rc sequ~ntly will help the people to evaluate the future of the American steel industry as
l . a whole by presenting its past. This is not to say that it will be the museum's intent
to channel people in one direction or another concerning the policy decisions that must
be made, but rather to present the historical foundation upon which new policies and
new directions may be built.

The Youngstownmuseumwill also serve an important state-wide educational function. As
has been mentioned earlier, the primary function of many of the museumslocated in Ohio
is the portrayal of the early settlement,'of the state and few have an urban emphasis.
{ While agriculture is the backbone of the society and its development, it was industry,
and particularly the steel industry, that provided the building blocks. Steel and
steel products are and have been a pervasive force in the development of the state.
Yet, the development of this industry has not received adequate recognition and
treatment as a museumproject.

Indeed, the primary goal of this museumis directed toward making people aware of the
\ processes involved in making iron and' steel and "also how the organization of these



industries led to the development, and subsequent dependence, of a large metropolitan
conununity. All Ohioans will benefit by this educational treatment in the Youngstown





\ 93


The proposed Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumis a large undertaking. The scope of the
mus~um's content is truly national and not at all restricted to the Mahoning Valley.
( All aspe~ts of this important industry--labor, technology and economics--are to be
L examined in a-comprehensive overview. Additionally, the physical size is impressive.
The simple fact is that this is an industry of.gargantuan proportions. Blast furnaces,
~ - rolling mills, coke plants and open hearth furnaces present new problems for museum
{ curators and exhibit designers. The size of these artifacts precludes many
l- traditional methods of storage, conservation and display. Yet, these artifacts must
be integral ~arts of this museumif it is to accurately document the iron and steel

The essential direction of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumhas been set forth both
in this report and also in discussions and public meetings held in the Youngstownarea
( over the past several months. The response of the community, the industry, and govern-
ment officials has been positive and enthusiastic. The degree of excitement which this
project has generated was unanticipated. It points out, however, both the desire and
the need for this type of facility.

The estimates listed below represent a preliminary evaluation of the costs which will


I:" .

t 94

~ be incurred. They do not reflect, however, engineering studies or other highly
technical data. At this point in the planning process, absolute figures just
( cannot be developed.

The YoungstownIron and Steel Museumwill require two distinct types of funding.
\ Capital Improvement funds will be required for new building construction and
\- architectural fees; for existing structure restoration, adaption and architectural
fees; for the production and installation of exhibits; and for equipping the
\ facility with the necessary assortment of museumand office accouterments. Operating
funds will be required for salaries, building and collections maintenance, supplies
and materials, and other miscellaneous expenses incurred in the daily operations of
the museum.
During the 1980-1981 biennium, the development of the Youngstown Iron and Steel
Museumwill require both capital development and operating funds. Capital develop~
ment funds will be expended to build one new structure; to rehabilitate, stabilize
I and adapt existing structures; and to construct and install exhibits. Operating
funds will be required to pay research, design and construction personnel; to mount a
major fund raising effort; and to purchase and maintain equipment and supplies.

This budgetary program assumes that the thirteen acre Jeanette blast furnace site,
presently ownedby Jones and Laughlin, will be donated to the Society. The entire
program will be carried out on that site utilizing existing facilities and building
one new structure.
~I .

( 95


A. NewConstruction ( Building):
Lobby & o.rientation Area 2,0.0.0. Sq. Ft. @$72 Sq. Ft. $ 144,0.0.0.
Auditorium (30.0.seats} 3,0.0.0. Sq. Ft. @$72 Sq. Ft. 216,0.0.0.
Archives/Library Reading Room 3,0.0.0. Sq. Ft. @$38 Sq. Ft. 114,0.0.0.
Archives/Library Stack Area 17,0.0.0. Sq. Ft. @$27 Sq. Ft. 459,0.0.0.
< o.ffices
4,0.0.0. Sq. Pt. @$38 Sq. Ft. 152,0.0.0. .
~ Classraoms/Demonstration Areas 6,00.0. Sq. Pt. @$38 Sq. Pt. 228,0.0.0.
/ Mechanical & Rest Rooms 6,0.0.0. Sq. Ft. @$27 Sq. Ft. 162,0.0.0.-

, B. Existing Facilities: Adaption and restoration of existing structures to

house exhibits, to carry out artifact conservation, and to serve as exhibits
themselves in some cases. $1,675,0.0.0.
C. Architectural and Engineering Fees:
( Implemented for both A and B above $ 60.0.,0.0.0.
D. Exhibits Production and Installation $4,250.,0.0.0.


A. New Construction $1,475,0.0.0.
B. Existing Facilities 1,675,0.0.0.
C. Architectural & Engineering Fees 60.0.,0.0.0.
D. Exhibits 4~250.~0.0.0.


;;, ,

( 96

A. State of Ohio $4,000,000
( B. Other, to include:
Federal Grants
Industry Donations
l Labor Donations
( Private Foundations
l- Individual Contributions 4~000,000
Under the present proposal, project planning would be continued, but on a more intense
scale with a subsequent increase in staffing. Design development, script production
and collections acquisition would commence. As an important component, a major
national fund raising campaign would be initiated to secure the necessary non-state
capital development funds.

"100" FUNDS FY"1980 FY 1981

11 Positions $146,492 $153,130
+ 21%Fringe Benefits 30~763 32,157
$177,255 $185,287



~, .

t 97

"200" FUNDS , 'FY'1980 FY 1981

Rental (Realty Building and Utilities) $ 15,000 $ 15,000
( Contract Services -fund raising and
script production 50,000 50,000
Materials and Supplies 20,000 20,000
Trave 1 7,500 7,500
Printing and Binding 5,000 5,000 ,

$ 98,000 $ 98,000

11300" FUNDS
( Audio-Visual Equipment $ 15,000 $ 10,000
Vehicles 7,500 -0-
Office 1a 000 2,500
I $ 32,500 $ 12,500

.\ TOTAL OPERATING FUNDS, FY 1980..1981 '$307755 $295,287







100 FUNDS - 1980-1981 Biennium

1. *Curator V (Coordinator) 31/1 $ 16,661 $ 17,472
2. *Curator II (Research) 28/1 12,542 13,146
3. *Design Specialist V 30/3 14,456 14,872
( 4. *Secretary I 26/2 10,982 11 ,398 .
l- 5. Curator V (Research) 31/1 15,163 15,891
,I 6. . Curator IV (Research) 30/1 . 13,790 14,456
\.- 7. Curator III (Research) 29/1 12,542 13 ,146
( 8. Curator III (Collections) 29/1 12,542 13,146
, 9. Tech. Specialist V (Conservation) 31/1 15, 163 15,891
10. Tech. Specialist III (Conservation) 29/1 12,542 13,146
r 11. Secretary I 26/1 -. 10,109 10,566
r $146,492 $153,130
+ 21%Fringe Benefits 30,763 32 ,157
$177,255 $185,.287

*Existing staff.



Once the initial museumdevelopment is completed and the museumis opened to the public,
r the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumwill require operating funds. These funds will be
utilized to carry out the educational, collections, and maintenance programs necessary
for the successful operation of this museum. Operating monies also will be used to
update and improve existing programs and to initiate some small-scale new projects.
The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumalways will have to rely upon the State of Ohio to
, prdvide these operating funds. Museumsare not self~supporting institutions; sufficient
L revenue simply cannot be generated by admissions charges and sales programs. 'While the
museumwill continue to solicit funds from the private sector and from federal grant
l programs in the years to come, it is difficult to secure these funds to meet operating
costs. To provide some notion of the cost~ involved, the following budget for fiscal
biennium 1982-1983 is offered.

"100" FUNDS FY1982 FY 1983

45 Position~ $ 557,881 $ 582,875
f + 21% Fringe Benefits 117~155 . 122,404
$ 675,036 $ 7bs,279


( 100

"200" FUNDS FY 1982 "FY 1983

Exhibit Maintenance and Repair $ 25,000 $ 25,000
< New Exhibits-Temporary 25,000 25,000
New Exhibits-Traveling 25,000 25,000
Collections Maintenance and Repair 50,000 50,000
Trave 1 15,000 15,000
( Supplies and Materials 35,000 35,000 ""

Building Maintenance and Repair 50,000 50,000

. Utilities 75,000 75,000
Shipping 15,000 15,000
Printing and Binding. 25,000 25,000
$ 340,000 $ 340,000
"300" FUNDS
NewExhibit Equipment $ 20,QOO $ 20,QOO
New Maintenance Equipment 20,000 20,000
Replacement Office Equipment 5,000 5,000
Collections 25,000 25,000
New Audio-Visual Equipment 25,000 25,000
$ 95,000 $ 95,000

TOTALOPERATINGFUNDS, FY 1982-1983 $1,110,036 $1,14Q,279


- 101

100 FUNDS - 1982-1983Biennium

( .
1. Director 36/1 $ 24,309 $ 24,605
2. Administrative Assistant 30/1 13,790 14,456
3. Secretary I 26/1 10, 109 10,566
{ 4. Curator V 31/1 15,163 15,891

\...... 5. Curator IV 30/1 13,790 14,456

6. ' Curator II I 29/1 12,542 13, 146
7. Curator II I 29/1 12,542 13,1'46
( 8. Tech. Specialist V 31/1 15,163 15,891
, 9. Tech. Specialist IV 30/1 13,790 14,456
. .
29/1 12,542 13,146
10. Tech. Specialist III
I 11. Tech. Specialist III 29/1 12,542 13 ,146
t 12. Tech. Specialist III 29/1 12,542 13,146
13. Technician III 26/1 10, 109 10,566
14. Technician III , 26/1 10,109 lOt 566
15. Technician III 26/1 10, 109 10,566
( 16. Design Specialist V 31/1 15, 163 15,891
17. Design Specialist III 29/1 12,542 13, 146
18. Secretary I 26/1 10 ,109 10,566
19. Typist I 3/1 8,632 9,027
( 20. Editor 31/1 15,153 15,891
21. Photo Specialist 28/1 11 ,586 12,043


I I .


22. A-V Specialist V 31/1 $ 15,1 63 $ 15,891
23. Archivist V 31/1 15 , 163 15,891
24. Archivist II 28/1 11,586 12,043
25. Archivist II 28/1 11,586 12,043
26. Librarian V 31/1 15, 163 15,891
. 27. Librarian II 29/1 12,542 13, 146
..-. 28. Librarian I 28/1 " ,586 12,043
, 29: Secretary I 2J5/1 10 , 109 10,566
1-- 30. Education Specialist V 31/1 15, 163 1-5,891
31. Education Specialist II 29/1 12,542 13,146
"- 32. Secretary I 26/1 10 ,109 10,566
33. Intern 2/1 8,070 8,445
34. Intern 2/1 8,070 8,445
( 35. Intern 2/1 8,070 8,445
36. Bldg. Maint. Supervisor II 31/1 15,163 15,891
37. Custodial WorkerSupervisor . 4/1 9,235 9,651
38. Custodial Worker Supervisbr 4/1 9,235 9,651
{ 39. Custodial Worker 2/1 8,070 8,445
40.'Custodial Worker 2/1 8,070 8,445.
41. Custodial Worker 2/1 8,070 8,445
42. Custodial Worker 2/1 8,070 8,445
. 43. Security Supervisor
44. Security Officer III
28/1 11,586 12,043
26/1 10,109 10,566

~I .

. .


45. Security Officer I 23/1 $ 8t258 $ 8,632
46. Security Officer I 23/1 8t258 8t632

47. Security Officer I 23/1 8t258 8,632

48. Security Officer I 23/1 8,258 8,632
$557,881 $582t875
( + 21% Fringe Benefits 117,1 55 122,404
L $675t036 $705,279

The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumpotentially can draw funding from several sources.
This potential is one of the project's strongest attributes, for it means that no single
source will be relied upon to carry the entire burden.
1. The State of Ohio stands to benefit from this museum. It will provide a unique
( and heretofore missing educational opportunity to this state's citizens--both
young and old. The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum"stourist attraction
potential and its recognition of one of Ohio~smost important industries is

another benefit.

By supplying a portion of the capital funding and assuming the primary

responsibility for operating costs, the state would demonstrate its commitment to
the project as well as providing an impetus for others to contribute. The museum
will require continued support from the state, especially to cover da~to~day


..." .
t 104

2. Federal grant monies from the National Endowmentfor the Humanities and the
National Science Foundation are a second source of possible funding. Several
( types of grant programs now in existence should be thoroughly inVestigated and
pursued. Under most of these programs, funds are provided on a matching basis.

3. Private foundations should be approached for support. Manyfoundations do provide

funds for projects of this sort. The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum"snational
L scope and pertinent subject matter no doubt would stimulate the interest of at
least several foundations.
4. The steel industry is one of this nation's largest and most important businesses.
This museumwill portray the evolution of that industry from its beginnings to
the present. It seems only natural to request aid from the industry, for in
II many ways the project benefits them. Not only the exhibits program, but also
the archives will be a source of pride and a repository of the heritage of the
industry. The steel corporations,
. which have
. shown great interest in the project
thus far, should be approached for financial assistance and for contributions of
( artifacts, graphic materials and for technical assistance.

( To accomplish this on a national basis will require the full-time services of a

( competent and experienced fund raiser. This person must also possess an under~
standing of the industry.
5. The history of labor in the steel industry is a vital segment of the museum
., program. Like the industry, labor stands to benefit greatly from this museum.
:,:t .
,I 105

For the first time, a museumwill present the men and womenwho made the industry
run. The tremendous impact of European immigration and of black migration will be
told, as will the struggle and rise of the unions. Museumplanners have contacted
union officials, rank and file members, and various ethnic organizations. All
have been enthusiastic over the prospects for this museum. All of these groups
should be asked to assist in making the project a reality.
L Once again, such an undertaking will require the services of a public relations
expert who can explain the project and elicit various types of support.
6. Many individuals in the Youngstown area have expressed a personal interest in this
project. They are proud of the role which they and their ancestors have played in
, . the growth of the iron and steel industry and they are anxious to participate in
the project. This type of support probably is not confined to the Mahoning Valley,
( but will be found wherever iron and steel are major industries. The contributions
which dedicated individuals can make must not be overlooked.

All of these sources should be explored in the development of this project. Certainly,
support cannot be generated overnight. The project must be explained and promoted so
that individuals and organizations can become aware of the goals of the Youngstown
Iron and Steel Museum. While hard work and careful planning will be required, it can
and must be done if the museum;s to become a viable institution.


The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumis an exciting project. For the first time anywhere,
a mu~eum,in the state of Ohio, will focus upon the processes and upon the development of
\ the iron and steel industry. This vital industry has contributed significantly to the
L stature of the $tate of Ohio and is one of the most important determinants of American
society as we know it today.

( The Youngstownarea is one of the best locations in the United States for an iron and
1 steel museum. The city is at the center of an immense potential market. Located close
by major transportation routes, Youngstown is easily accessible to that market. Public
i accommodations abound in the Mahoning Valley while other cultural and educational
( institutions throughout the city insure that this museumwill operate as one segment in
an extensive overall program of humanistic enrichment.

The history of the MahoningValley provides the background for such an undertaking that
f few locations in the nation can match. In the nineteenth century, the area was noted
for its ability to produce large quantities of quality iron products. With the
l emergence of steel as the primary metal product in the twentieth century, the Youngstown
area again emerged as one of the major steelmaking centers in the country and for
( decades the city of Youngstown held the unique position of producing more s~eel than
any other city in the world. With the decline of steelmaking operations in the Mahoning
Valley. Youngstown has become our ideal location for the:study of the iron and steel

\. .
~, ,


industry. While several steelmaking companies in the Mahoning Valley continue to lead
the industry in the development and use of progressive steelmaking techniques, the
valley also offers several abandoned mills which are excellent examples of early steel-
making operations and from which a wealth of educational materials may be procured.
The Youngstownarea is also an ideal location for the study of the very important other
side of the steel industry--the human factor. In fact, the Mahoning Valley can be
considered a laboratory of the growth of the iron and steel industries in all of its
\- facets.

L The Ohio Historical Society brings to this venture an expertise unparalleled nationwide.
( While the Society has the maturity to insure stability and realistic planning, it also
has the enthusiasm and the willingness to be innovative which characterizes dynamically
growing institutions. The Society's record of achievement over the past fifteen years
I I is one unmatched by any other state historical society.

It is easy to see that the Mahoning Valley will benefit from this museum. Employment
at the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumand visitation to it will bring money into the
community as well as stimulate visitation to other area cultural institutions. On
\ closer examination, however, it also is evident that all the citizens of Ohio will
profit from the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. This museumwill enable all Ohioans
to understand the complexities of the processes involved in making steel as well as
the history and development of the iron and steel industry, an industry whose influence
in society is pervasive. The educational value of the Youngstownmuseumis .a product
which all Ohioans will share.

, -


Moreover, all Ohioans can be proud of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. The
. progressive venture in museumconcept and design without doubt will draw national
( attention. Just as the Serpent Mound's fame is not limited to AdamsCounty, Ohio,
the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum's drawing power and impact wi.ll not be confined
within the corporation limits of Youngstown. This museumwill be an important addition
to Ohio's impressive and dynamic list of educational and cultural resources.



, 109 .


Many of the persons who will visit the Youngstownmuseumfacilities will have need of a
variety of local services. Those remaining in the vicinity overnight will require
(; hotel/motel accommodations. Manywill find the need to purchase products--newspapers,
L baby bottles, raincoats, or a myriad of other items. Certainly many will have at least
one meal in the area.
( Fortunately, all of these services and more are readily available in the immediate
Youngstownarea. While it would be impossible to list all of the restau.rants, hotels,
. (

motels, and retail stores, the following pages will provide some notion of what is


i '
.;t .
t 110


856-1900 Avalon Inn 90
{ 549-2141 Congress Inn 62
L 759-3410 Days I nn* 138
793-9806 Days Inn* 138
L 758-4515 El-Dorado* 46
533-3149 El-Patio 12
L 538-2221 Holiday Inn* (Exit 15) 108
( 549-2187 Holiday Inn* (Exit 16) 90
Holiday Inn* (Rt. 46) 90
Holiday Inn* (1-80; Rt. 193) 150
(I 744-1131 Hotel Ohio 50
759-3180 HowardJohnson* 155
799-7482 Jan Mar 16
( 536-6273 King1s
. 38
793-9305 Knight's Inn* (Rt. 46) 110
'< 759-3190 L & K
\ 88
758-5737 Lake Park* 48
549-3543 Lone Pine 4
758-4591 Mavette Motor Lodge 30
«\ 538-2211 30
799-0041 Merrimac 8
( 759-2183 Motel "6" 125

I!\ .
r 111
\ 549-3224 Ohio Motel Superior* 40
549-3988 Penn Ohio 41
( 759-3190 Penny Pincher Inn* 82

758-5873 Phil rose 12

{ 538-2231 Pike Econo 22
758-4551 Plaza 20
759-0040 Quality North 50
L 758-2371 Quality TownHouse* 50
, 759-7850 RamadaInn* 154
I 792-3871 Sherwood
l.. 43
758-2315 Sagecoach* 30
r 549-2152
f Stardust 30
\... I
788-5087 Terrace* 18
,I 782-8021 Tower 22
792-2351 Westgate Manor 20
744-0185 Wick Motor Inn 70
758-4556 Wi11i ams Motel 32
TOTAL 2,362

f *AAA Approved
~ -



369-2114 Adeline's Motel 13
652- 1481 Best Western 78
l 872-5979 Betsy Ross 26
e 856-4699 Capri 11
L 392-2515 Downtown* 73
898-2260 Gateway 16
... 399-3606 Holiday Inn 119
( 872-0863 Home Inn 7
399-2766 Imperial Motel 49
872-0988 Pike Plaza Mote1* 36
898-1700 Riverview 18

( 872-7080 Rustic Oaks Lodge 22

1 898-2460 Sunnysi de Motel, 11
: 369-3601 Town & Country (now called Executive Inn) 92
369-4100 Trave10dge 57
\( 872-0971 WarrenMotor Lodge* --1§.

. TOTAL 674

*AAA Approved
;;t .



. 31
Austintown Plaza 6000 Mahoning Avenue
i BoardmanPlaza 201-525 Boardman-Canfield Road 49.
l Colonial Plaza East Main Street, Canfield, Ohio 15
I Eastwood Mall Route 422, Niles, Ohio 109
L Kirkmere P1aza . 3373-3507 Canfield Road 5
Liberty Plaza 3551-3567 Belmont Avenue 41
Lincoln Knolls Plaza 2828-2996 McCartney Road 29
Mahoning Plaza 3303-3377 Mahoning Avenue 16
r Marhi11 Shopping Center 3600 Market Street 10
Markinola Center 2555-2801 Market Street 55
f Marwood Shopping Center 6949-6999 Market Street 8
( 23
McGuffey Mall 701-795 North Garland Avenue
I Southern Park Mall Routes 7 and 224 90
{ Struthers Plaza 962-1020 Fifth Street, Struthers, Ohio 13
Struthers-Poland Plaza 430-466 Youngstown-Poland Road 10
t 2545-2555 Belmont Avenue 14
Union Square Plaza
WedgewoodPlaza 1715-1741 South Raccoon Road 8

Does not include the downtownarea nor the concentrated commercial developments along
main thoroughfares.


I:! .
r -- 114



I This land, which once was the site of the Bessemer Plant of the Republic Corporation,
consists of 39.95 acres along the north bank of the Mahoning River. At present, the
f I
only entrance to this land is under the Market Street viaduct, by the Republic Steel
l.. office building. The city of Youngstown is applying for a grant from the Department
( of Housing and Urban Development in order to purchase the land and improve it for use
l. as an industrial park. The city will apply for the grant during the first quarter of
1979. Plans call for the building of an entrance road between the Cedar Street viaduct
l- and the South Avenue viaduct. This will bring the entrance road into the property at
grade and provide excellent access from the east side of downtown Youngstown. The Ohio
Historical Society can purchase this property at a very minimal cost or possibly acquire
the property at no cost at all. This information came from the Mayor of the city of
f Youngstown and from the head of the city's Economic Development Agency.




.:' .



" Lot No. Cost per Square Foot
Square Feet
Lot #1 4,658 $2.00
l Lot #2 42,723 6.00
Lot'#3 8,980 7.75
Lot #4 20,091 8.00
Lot #5 17,099 8.00
( Lot #6 14,597 7.75
l- Lot #7 7.75
( 8,897
Lot #8 12,385 Not Available
\ Lot #9 9,575 Not Available
Lot #10 5,768 5.00
( Lot #11 7,221 7.00
Lot #12 18,658 Not Available
Lot #13 7,649 . 3.50
Lot #14 7,800 3.25
(- MAP#2
Lot #15 4,495 3.70
Lot #16 95 .90
Lot #17 58,749 Not Available
Lot #18 55,680 Not Available
Lot #19 65,924 Not Available

.' .



Jones and Laughlin) whoacquired the YoungstownSheet and Tube Companythrough a merger,
presently are phasing out operations at the Sheet and Tube General Office Building. A
( former Technical Center has been closed for some time.
Jone~ and Laughlin officials have indicated to the Ohio Historical Society Youngstown
l- Planning Office that they intend to sell the General Office Building and the Technical
( Center. Membersof the Youngstown and Columbus Planning Offices toured the office
building to ascertain its suitability for conversion to museumfacilities. Without
doubt the building could be adapted to a museum. However, as pointed out in the body
( of this report, serious problems would be encountered in such an undertaking.
l The following documentsoffer an overview of the building's history and an account of
{ the facilities available.

( 120


(... General Facilities
73~000 Square Feet
3 Connecting Building Wings of Both Single and Two-Level Design
1 Freestanding Storage Building
J Metal and Glass Construction
L Air Conditioning System
480 V~ 3-Phase Power
l. Steam Heating System
Building #1 Building #2
Single Level - 10~000 Ft. Two Level - 37,000 Ft.2
( 16 Offices 50 Offices
t 4 Toil et Areas 50 Laboratories
Conference Room 12 Photographic and Reproduction Rooms
Library 5 Toilet Areas
, 2 Conference Rooms
f Buil di ng #3 Cafeteria
High Bay Design with Mezzanine
25,000 Ft. Building #4

10-Ton Crane - 651 Span Single Level Storage Area - 1,000 Ft.
Machine Shop
9 Laboratories
3 Offices
Toilet Area

.;\ .
( 124


Available information suggests that the Jeanette blast furnace was erected in 1918 and
, -
that it did not replace any previous structure on the spot where it is located. The
( furnace was designed and largely built by the Brier Hill Steel Corporation, which merged
into the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Campbell Works in 1923. The super-structure apparently
was built by the McClintock-Marshall Company.1 Originally the Jeanette furnace was about
~- ninety feet in height and had a hearth diameter of seventeen feet. The hearth later
( was expanded to eighteen and a half feet by reducing the thickness of the brick work in
\ the bosh and by utilizing cooling plates.2 The furnace sits on an iron base pad thirty
feet in diameter. The iron pad in turn rests on a brick foundation which is forty-three
feet across and sixteen feet thick. Bedrock underlies this foundation. The total cost
k of construction in 1917-18 was about three million dollars, a figure reportedly higher
than normal due to the inflated costs of labor and material caused by World War 1.3

The Jeanette furnace originally was supplied with hot blast air from three stoves which
f were later increased in number to four. The stoves are standard five inch checker
brick with side combustion chambers of the "two-pass" design; they stand one hundred and
five feet high and are twenty-three feet in diameter. Although the Grace furnace is no
longer standing, its stoves, which are of an older McClure three-pass design, now are
located near the Jeanette stoves.4



Jeanette is what used to be described as a "tough" furnace. It was not particularly

efficient, nor did it make consistently good quality iron. Later, when this problem was
t corrected by design modifications, Jeanette became the "best furnace in the Sheet and
Tube Corporation;" that is, it produced the most iron per ton of coke. The furnace
experienced few problems other than an occasional minor break-out, an occurrence which
almost never resulted in a significant loss of production or the necessity to take the
< furnace out of blast to make a major repair, and a rare explosion because of slippage.
While these explosions threw flue-dust and debris throughout the mill, they never
resulted in any major damage. As far as can be determined, only one fatality was
L associated with Jeanette. The tragedy involved a worker who succumbed to some carbon
monoxide gas that had seeped from the combustion chamber of one of the stoves.5
The Jeanette furnace was named for the daughter of the president of Brier Hill Steel,
w. A. Thomas. An account of the initial lighting of the furnace reveals the temper of
the war years:
The hand of little Miss Thomas applied the flame to the wood in the hearth
as the blowers drove the blast thru (sic) the stack thereby setting in
motion the smelting of ore for the iron sorely needed 50 hammerhome from
cannons' mouths, democracy's message to Hun barbarism.

The Jeanette furnace was in almost continuous operation for over fifty years. It was
taken out of blast for the last time in late August 1972.
The Brier Hill Steel Corporation added several other facilities to the Jeanette area
during 1917-18. The one million ton ore dumpand ore bridge were built during this
period along with the adjacent car dumper. The car dumper originally could handle thirty
carS an hour.

( 126


1Interview with Furman T. Blackwell on December6t 1978. Mr. Blackwell began

l. work for Brier Hill Steel in 1919. He later becameGeneral Superintendent of the
Blast Furnace Department. Mr. Blackwell thought that McClintock-Marshall was located
in Pittsburgh and was a subsidiary of Bethlehem Steel.

L 3Youngstown Te1egramt September 20, 1918t p. 1; Youngstown'Vindicator, September 11,

1918, p. 10.

4Interview with Blackwell, December6, 1978, and January 19, 1979; Youngstown
Vindicator, September 22, 1918, p. 10.
Blackwell, December6, 1978.

6Youngstown Telegram, September 20, 1918, p. 1. It must be noted that the furance
was put in operation during World War I:



. .-







Jeanette: Built in 1908, enlarged in 1920, rebuilt in 1948.

~ Hearth 171-0" 1st Blown in 9/20/19 ran to 10/22/24 - 986,843 tons
181-6" 2nd 1/31/25 " " 12/15/28 - 1,066,586 tons
~ 3rd 3/23/29 II " 9/30/41 - 1,369,185 tons
( 4th 11/28/41 " " 1/01/47 - 1,478,428
5th 1948 Carbon Hearth Walls
6th 1953
, 6th Repai rs 1961
L 7th
( & Stove Repairs 1956/1963
I 8th 1966
Grace Furnace Stove Built: 1908
r Jeanette Stoves 1,2,3 1918
l Jeanette Stove 4 1925
Blowing Engine House 1908
Additions 1918
Trestle and Bins 1908 & 1918
Ore Yard 1918

Ship Hoist - 200 HP - 20B - 750A - 230V

400 RPM - 400 FPM
I 10,000# Load

. L ..
r . .

, COMPANY: Youngstown Sheet & Tube WORKING

VOLUME: 22,335 cu. ft.
(~ - WORKS: Bri er Hi 11 HEARTHDIAMETER: 20' 211
FURNACE: No.2 Jeanette DATELASTBLOW-IN: 8-12-66
Gas System Miscellaneous
f No. of off takes 4 - 56.74 sq. ft. Mud gun 4.0 cu. ft. (steam)
... Downcomer . 2 @5'6 = 47.52 sq. ft. Tap hole drill Percussion (column mt.)
Dustcatcher diam. 24' 011 Fuel injection None
r Dustcatcher height 30' 0" No. of iron notches 1
L Primary gas cleaning Orifice plate No. of cinder notches
Final gas cleaning Oxygen enrichment None
, Slag handling system Hard slag pits
I~ Top Pressure Cooling water River water
Top gas analyzer No
Design oper. top. press. 43 oz.
I Control system Butterfly valve Furnace
l Press. equalization Primary clean BF gas
Stockline protection Castings (steel)
Stoves Space between sheel & lining - about 111
Number 4 ,
Packing used Fireclay
Total heating surface 274,188 sq. ft. Stack cooling Plate (copper)
Combust. chamber area Height above mantle 30' 9"
22.47 sq. ft.
( Stove burner capacity N.A. (a) No. of rows 11 .
Air fan capacity 12,500 cfm - 711 (b) Max. & min. spacing 3'011 - 213"
static pressure Bosh construction Bands & cooling plates
{ No. of rows 10
i Burner-stove isolation Burner sleeve and
l blank No. of tuyeres 12
Hot blast valve type Mushroom3011 Tuyere breast cooling Ext. .water cooled
-; Back draft stack:
(a) Note yes or no None
Hearth cooling
Underhearth cooling
C. I. staves
L Underhearth thermoc. None
(b ) Size
Cc) Position Inwall thermoc. No
Stove operation Manual
Fuel enrichment None

I~t .
( . 131

FURNACE - No.2 Jeanette

( Filling System"
Type of stock shed Scale car
Stock shed screening None
(a) Coke
(b) Fe bearing
( Skip Volume 147 cu. ft.
, Skip Speed 360 fpm
L Large bell Cast (hard surfaced)
Large bell hopper 4 pes. (cast)
Vol. large bell hopper 474 cu. ft.
L Sma11 be11 616" @51° (seat 51°)
( Small bell material Manganese(cast)
Distributor Revolving (McKee)



l ./
:;t I

( -


COMPANY: Youngstown Sheet & Tube WORKING

VOLUME: 17,160 cu. ft.
FURNACE: No.1 Grace (idle since 10/60) DATELASTBLOW-IN: 6-9-61
Gas System Miscellaneous
No. of bfftakes 2 - 66.36 sq. ft. Mudgun 4.0 cu. ft. (steam)
L' Downcomer .
Dustcatcher diam.
2 - 56.54
241 0"
sq. ft. Tap hole dri 11 None
Fuel i njecti on
Dustcatcher height 30' 0" No. of iron notches 1
L Primary gas cleaning No. of cinder notches 1
( Final gas cleaning Oxygen enrichment. No
Slag handling system Hard slag pits
Top Pressure Cooling water River water
~- No
Design oper. top. press. N.A. Top gas analyzer
Control system N.A. Furnace
Press. equalization None
Stockline protection Castings (steel)
Stoves Space between shee1 & lining
Packing used
- about 111
Number 4 .

Total heating surface 175,868 sq. ft: Stack cooling Plate (copper)
Combust. chamber area Height above mantle 30'
23.58 sq. ft. (a) No. of rows 10 above mantle
( Stove burner capacity N.A. None
Air fan capacity N.A. (b) Max. & min. spacing
Burner-stove isolation Valve Bosh construction Bands& cooling plates
Mushroom30" No. of rows 10
Hot blast valve type No. of tuyeres 12
Back draft stack:
None Tuyere breast cooling Ext. water cooled
(a) Note yes or no Hearth cooling C. I. staves
( (b) Size Underhearth cooling None.
(c) Position Underhearth thermoc. None
Stove operation Manual Inwa11 thermoc. No
Fuel enrichment None



J;.' .

) " "133


) Fi 11ing System
Type of stock shed Scale car
Stock shed screening None
( a) Coke
(b) Fe bearing
Skip volume N.A.
, \ )
Skip speed N.A.
~ Large be11 . Cast (hard surfaced)
Large bell hopper 2 pcs. (cast steel)
r. Vol. large bell hopper 663 cu. ft.
L Small bell 410" @45° (seat 45°)
) Small bell material Cast steel "

Distributor None



. )



IV r r-
,-,r .

YoungstownSheet & Tube Company

..~ II YoungstownDistrict - Brier Hill Works
No.2 Blast Furnace
Date of Last Blow-out: 8-12-66
f .
, .h Date of Last Blow-in:
Record Campaign:
2277977 Tons
. , Record Month: 34356 Tons
J '".
L ... Rated Capacity 800 Tons/Day
VolumeBelow Tuyeres
Working Volume
1175 Cu. Ft.
22335 Cu. Ft.
Volumeabove 6' Stockline 2394 Cu. Ft.
Total Volume 26904 Cu. Ft.
W.V./H.A. Ratio 74.7
, ,

.;~ .


#53-96-0. L.-634
\ ,


Blowing Engine House - Erected 1908.

~- Construction & Size - One story and two-thirds basement brick - 571611x 1031 X 641 high.
) Foundation -
Heavy concrete mat, heavy concrete walls 141 high, balance 911, 13" and
'\- 17" brick and pilaster 501 to eaves, wood sash windows.
Floor - -
Basement Concrete, heavy floor 8' average below grade.
reinforced over basement, balance concrete on fill.
First - Heavyconcrete
) -
Roof Double pitch type, corrugated iron roofing, 8" channel purl ins 516" on center,
~channel rafters 814" on center, steel trusses 251 on center, 5 longitudinal runs
-j steel trusses, 2 rows built up channel columns 251 on center, 4 36" diameter vents. -
., Mechanical Features Lighting- -
open wiring, metal reflectors. Heating- pipe coils.
Plumbing -
1 shower stall, 1 water closet, 1 lavatory, drains.
Other features -
Office enclosure -
One story concrete block - 121 x 161 x'lOI high.
Miscellaneous steel stairs and platform.

Additions - Pump room - one story brick -
121 x 301, 9" brick walls 121 high average,
corrugated iron roofing
on 6" I beams 31 on center, lighting, extends into building #30.
J -
Instrument and toilet rooms one story brick -
516" x 81 x 8'6" high, 51611x 61 and
41 x 516" X 816" high, concrete foundation, floor and roof, 55 lineal feet 4" brick
walls, 81 x 91 X 91 high, same with 25 lineal feet 9" brick walls, 41 x 61 X 71 high,
concrete foundati on and floor, 14 1i nea 1 feet 4" bri ck wa11S, corrugated iron and steel
frame roof, 61 x 71 X 91 high, same, with 19 lineal feet 9" brick walls.
1 - Corrugated i'ron and steel frame - 51 x 61 X 81 high.
i f


.:~ .
. )

,, . BUILDING#30

, Boiler House (Blast Furances) - Erected 1908.


Construction & Size - High one story brick & metal - 49' x 233' x 33' high.
Foundation - Concrete walls and column footings.
Walls - 9" brick 9' high, corrugated iron on angle girts 24' average high.
., ),
L. Floor - Concr~te on fill, heavy steel plate flooring over trenches.
Roof -
Double pitch, open monitor type, corrugated iron toofing on 8" channel
..... purl ins 5' on center, structural
steel trusses 18'6" on center, 2 rows built up
r Mechanical Features - Lighting - open wiring. Plumbing- 1 water closet, 3 lavatories,
and 1 shower.

Other Features - Miscellaneous steel plate walks around boilers, including steel stairs
and ladders.

Additions - Pumphouse and locker room - one story brick - 12'6" x 68', 12" concrete
, 4' high average, 9" brick 14' high average, concrete floor on slag fill, corrugated
t iron roofing on 8" channel purlins 4' pn center, 12" I beams 17' on center average,
lighting and cast iron radiators, including miscellaneous one story brick entrance
ways to main building.
l .
Basement - 12'6" x 18', 12" concrete walls la' high, concrete floor and lighting.



... ,

\ )

'- ,

Filter Plant - Erected 1910.
\ )
\.. ~..
Construction & Size - One story and basement brick - 33' x 5016" x 23' high.

Foundation - Concrete wall footings.
Walls -
1811 concrete 10' high average~ 13" brick and pilaster 13' average high~ wood
,) sash windows.
Floor - Basement - concrete 20% area, 91 average below grade, 80% - 51 average below grade.
~ \ First - concrete metal pan construction~
girders 25% area~ open around tanks.
611 I beams 1711on center~ 1211 I beams and

Roof - Double pitch, steelcorrugated
center, structural
iron roofing~ 2" decking~ 7" channel pur1ins 31611on
trusses 16'611 on center, 4 - 1211galvanized iron vents.

Mechanical Features Lighting - - conduit wiring~ metal reflectors. Heating pipe -

Plumbing 2 lavatories and 1 water c10set~ 1 shower sta11~ floor drains and
i. )
, . . Other Features -
50 lineal feet 1811concrete partition walls in basement 101 high.
Basement extension -
61 x 15'.
frame toilet room enclosed walls.
Two frame offices -
7' x 101 X 81 high. Miscellaneous

, ....
, ) Additions - Soda ash storage - one story corrugated iron -
1616" x 7l'611~ 1211 concrete
4' high~ 9" brick 8' average high~ corrugated iron 41 average high, concrete floor,
3' above grade, single pitch iron roof, steel channels, steel trusses and columns,



::. I

)" 138

\ - BUILDING #32

Pump House & Intake - Erected 1917.

Construction & Size - One story brick and concrete - 2716" x 651 x 64' high.

~ .
Foundation - Heavy concrete mat and foundation walls.
Wa11s - North and south - 9" bri ck 51 hi gh, 17" bri ck 81 hi gh,
48" concrete 291 high to pumpfloor.
22" concrete 61 high,
Balance heavy concrete wall to concrete mats.

L East 17" brick 181 average high, 48" concrete 291 high to pump floor, balance same
as above.
, .I -
West 17" brick 151 high average, 48" concrete 321 high to pump floor, balance same
as above.

Floor - Pumpfloor - heavy concrete floor, 241 average below grade at north wall.
~ -
Roof Double pitch type, corrugated iron roofing, 2" decking, 8" channel purl ins ,
structural steel roof trusses 1516" average on center.
I Mechanical Features - Lighting -
conduit wiring, metal reflectors. Heating - pipe
coil in office. -
Plumbing 1 water closet, 1 lavatory, 1 shower.

t Other Features - Ba1coni es - 616"
X 191 iin.d 111 x 19', concrete and metal pan
construction on 1511steel beams and chanhe1s. Three 1811x 191 X 81 average high,
.: )
reinforced concrete arched tile walls. Three 21611x 291 steel plate walks, angle
guard rails including miscellaneous steel stairs, landings and platforms.
l .
Addition -Pump room -
141 x 351, including 2 sides and 1 end, walls 17" brick 151
average high, pump room below inside size 201611x 291 X 291 high to pump floor,
,. including 70 lineal feet 4811concrete walls 291 high to pump floor, balance of walls
and floor construction as main pump room, concrete roof, 17' x 371, concrete metal
I) pan construction on steel beams and girders.

\ .

I 139
.. )

Y-50 - Meter House - 5' x 5' - one story brick concrete foundation, 9" brick walls 6'
average high, earth floor, single pitch 4" reinforced concrete slab roof.
Y-51- Switchman Shanty - one story brick - 14' x 3116" x 8'6" average high, concrete
foundation and floor, 9" brick walls, double hung wood sash windows, single pitch,
-.. corrugated iron roof, steel pipe and light steel I beamframing, lighting, pipe coil
heating, 1 water closet, 1 54" semi-circular Bradley wash fountain, 1 shower stall,
, )
floor drains, 1 water heater including Oil Shanty Addition - one story brick 5' x -
5' X 81 high, concrete foundation and floor, 15 lineal feet 9" brick walls,steel
l.. plate and steel frame roof, lighting, heating.

,~- Y-51A- Steam Line t~eter House - one story brick -

6' x 819", brick walls 616"
average high, single pitch corrugated iron roof on steel frame, foundation and floor
taken with steam line tower.

Y-51B - Concrete Wall - 60 lineal feet 15" average concrete 516" high above grade.
Y-54 - HoseHouse one story corrugated iron -
6' x 71 corrugated iron walls 71
high average, wood floor, single pitch roll roofing on wood frame.

Y-55 - Elevated Chart & Control Room - one story
corrugated iron, 61 x 231 corrugated
iron walls on steel frame 916" average high, reinforced concrete floor, single pitch
t roll roofi ng on steel frame, 1i ghti ng ancj
1 12" vent. -
~ -
Y-56 - Valve House one story brick -
18' x 31', concrete wall 6' high, 9" brick
walls 61 average high, cement floor, 51 below grade; single pitch corrugated iron
roofing, steel frame, lighting, 1 9" brick cross partition wall, 1 24" vent. -
Y-58A- LabonShanty & Pump House - one story brick -
14'6" x 2416",38 lineal feet
concrete wall foundation, 9" brick walls 816'1 average high, double hung wood sash
windows, balance of walls are on bin and trestle piers, cement floor, single pitch
.} 6" reinforced concrete slab roof, lighting.

. )

.;' .

I 140
, )


Y-69A- Storage - one story brick - 1116" x 531 t concrete foundation wall 9" brick
) walls 121 average high, cement floor, double pitch corrugated iron roofing on steel
frame, lighting.

Y-70 - Ore Bridge & Car Unloader Foundations North Wall - 2 - 140# rails, r x 911x 5'
"- ties 18" on centert 2 - 100# rails (car dumper) 711x 9" X 41 ties t 18" on center, on
concrete walls 51 wide x 41 high and 10 to 141 wide x 281 high on 191 wide and 101
, ) average hight concrete pad to rock bottom North Car Dumperfpundation, 2 - 100# railst
wood tiest 4' to 51 concrete wall 41 high on 1811x 61611 concrete pad. Ore Bridge Wall,
L 1,022 lineal feet, Car Dumper Wall 8041 average long, South Ore Bridge foundation wall
98l',longt 2 -140# rails, 711 x 911 X 81 tiest 1811 on center on concrete wall 81 to
161611concrete x 36' high on 41 x 21' concrete pad on Raymond concrete piles.
) Y-7l - Stock Delivery Trestle - 271 x 6961t section 4 standard gauge rajls, wood tiest
( ~4' wide 211wood plank walk with 31611high angle guard rails on 611I cross girders
~~ 61 on center on 594 lineal feet 4 runs 3011I and 102 lineal feet 4 runs 4811built up
steel stringers with 1511channel spreaders 91 on centert heavy reinforced concrete
I piers and abutments 30' average on center, lighting, 271 to 431 X 2941 section 6
standard gauge rails, wood tiest 201 wide 211plank walk with 3'611 high angle guard
ra il on 6" I cros s gi rders 61 on center, 6 runs 30" I s tri ngers wi th 1511channe 1
cross girders on reinforced concrete piers and abutment 301 on center.
l . Y-72
Garage - one story brick -
high, earth floor, single
201611 'I.'
281, concrete foundation walls
411 reinforced concrete slab
t 911 brick
) -
Onestory brick hose house 51611 x 71611,concrete foundation,
high, brick floort flat concrete slab roof.
9" brick walls 6'

Y-73 - Tar Loading Shed - 16' x 83', 20" average reinforced concrete wall 6" average
high, balance of walls open, double pitch, corrugated iron roofing, structural steel
roof trusses, 911built up columns and concrete piers 3' wide, 1/411 steel plate walk
and angle guard rails supported by roof trusses, lighting. '

~ Y-74 - Pedestrian Bridge - 156 lineal feet 416" widet angle and gas pipe guard rails,
supported by pipe bridge trusses. 29' and 201 section, 41611 wide, 2" plank floor
supported by light structural steel trusses, structural steel columns and concrete
~ piers, 2 runs steel stairs and landings.


~I ,
\ )

\ DBA -

i..~ Replacement True Assessed

Description & Item No. Value Depreei ation Value Value Tax
\ ),
Blowing House Engine (29) $228,800.00 65/35% $ 52,050.00 $ 18,217.50 $ 874.44
L. Boiler House (10) 166,080.00 70/35% 32,380,00 11,333.00 534.98
Filter Plant (31) 70,800.00 70/35% 13,810.00 4,833.50 232.00
PumpHouse & Intake (32) 346,270.00 65/15% 103 ,OlD. 00 36,053.50 1,730.57
,\.0...-. Steam LineMeter House (Y-51A) Sound Value 150.00 52.50 2.52
) Wall (Y-51B) 2 , 100 . 00 80/50% 1,060.00 73.50 3.52
Hose House (V-54) SoundValue 50.00 17.50 .84
... ~ Elevated Chart & Control
Room(V-55) 1,970.00 65/40% 410.00 143.50 6.89
I Valve House (V-56) Sound Value 100.00 35.00 1. 68
Retaining Wall (Y-58A) 3,980.00 70% 1,190.00 416.50 19.99
I ) Railroad Trestle (V-67) 43,200.00 65/50% 7,560.00 2,646.00 127.01
Clock House (V-67A) 1,400.00 40/50% 420.00 147.00 7.06
Railroad Trestle (V-68) 49,920.00 65/50% 8,740.00 3,059.00 146. 83
(. . Storage. (V-69A) 8,220,/00 65/50% 1,440.00 504.00 24. 19
Ore Bridge & Car Unloader
(Y-70) 2,351,630.00 70/50% 352,750.00 123,462.50 5,926.20
) 468,720.00 65/50% 82,030.00 28,710.50 1,378.11
\ Stock Delivery Trestle (Y-68)
Garage (Y-72) 5,150.00 65/50% 900.00 315.00 15. 12
. TOTALTAX $11,031.96
TAX - 10% Roll Bck $ 9928.76




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Assessed Value is 35%of Listed Value
r) Tax Rate is $48/Thousand

\. - Acreage
.), at
Lot $15,000 Per Acre Value
773 .04 $ 600
I 773 .09 1,350
l. 773 .79 11,850
) 773 2.00 30,000
8869 .48 7,200
8869 .0677 1,020
8868 .47 7,050
8867 .568 8,250
l 797 .114 1,710
I ) 797 .051 770
797 1.1 16,310
662 4.39 65,850
1 . 1.94 29,100
. 800
1658 1.94 29,100
776 4.59 68,850
. ) 1652 2.21 33,150
774 .294 4,410
1661 7.37 110,550

Total tax value is: $7 , 180. 15

Total tax - 10 roll back: $6,462.14


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The three mill models--the seventy-nine inch hot strip mill, the seamless pipe mill, and
the butt-weld tube mill--were desgined and constructed by employees of the Youngstown
.) Sheet and Tube Campbell Works. The work was directed by Myron Curtis, Sales and
L Promotion Manager; Georg'e E. James, Superintendent of the pattern shop; and Edward
Hendricks, Superintendent of the No.1 machine shop at the Campbell Works. The models
. > were built to exact scale. Little information is available concerning the butt-weld
) tube mill model, but apparently it was the first of the models constructed, being built
in 1934.

The largest of the th~ models is the seventy-nine inch hot strip mill, built in 1935.
.) Built on a scale of 3/411 to the foot, the mill is twenty-six feet long and weighs two
and one-half tons. This weight does not include the coiler located at the end of the
model. The model is powered by a pair of two and one-half horsepower motors that were
built and furnished by Westinghouse. From the two non-working replicas of slab
reheating furnaces, slabs move to the scale breaker and then onto the twenty-three
foot stretch of four roughing mills and six finishing mills. The sheets are then cut
to the desired length by flying shears and finally coiled into rolls. Like the actual
hot strip mill, the model was designed to handle six pieces at one time. The model was
made from 355 separate castings and was constructed over a period of two and one-half

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) 144

The seamless mill model was built in 1938--about the time that the actual mill was placed
into operation by the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Campbell Works. It was constructed on
) a scale of one inch to the foot and is twenty-three feet long, four and one-half feet
wide, and weighs over three tons. The castings used in the model weigh 6,600 pounds.
Like the other models, all the construction, with the exception of the castings, was
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done by employees of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Campbell Works. This mill required
) seventy-eight days to build. It utilizes interchangeable rolls and adjustable piercing
~ units, and produces pipe of various sizes.

\ The models were displayed at var.ious industrial shows and exhibitions throughout the
country before they were moved into their present location in the Buckeye School of
the YoungstownSheet and Tube Campbell Works (now Jones and Laughlin). The models won
numerous awards and accolades for their design, construction, and ability to demonstrate
the functions of the actual mills.



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) 146

\ )

Youngstown, located in the northeastern part of OhiD, five miles from the Pennsylvania
lin~, and midway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, is the center of the fourth largest
.) steel producing district in the country. The area within the city is. approximately
L thirty-five square miles, while the metropolitan area extends to a radius of twenty
) Youngstown's population, according to the 1970 census, of 140,909 is housed .in 46,866
dwelling units. The Youngstown-Warren metropolitan area has a population of 536,836
with a trading area population of over 800,000.

While exact statistical information on the lineage of the population within the
metropolitan area is no longer obtainable, a sizeable portion are descendents of
t Eastern and Southern Europeans who came'to the Mahoning Valley in the last two decades
,, of the nineteenth century to work in the iron and steelmaking plants. The largest
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\ group which at present is recognizable statistically is of Italian descent and comprises
about twenty-five percent of the population. Approximately twelve percent of the people
in the Mahoning Valley are Black.

/ )
Although it is in close proximity to the business and industrial centers, the residential
section of Youngstown occupies the surrounding hills and rolling area, making possible
( numerous attractive residential districts. The streets are well kept, shaded, and

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connect with a system of improved highways and freeways traversing the area in all
directions. There are more than 448 miles of combined sanitary and surface sewers
,) and over 350 miles of paved streets.

Youngstown has a HomeRule Charter form of government. The mayor is the chief
executive officer, elected for a term of two years. The legislative power of the
{ city is vested in a council consisting of the president and seven members elected
L for a term of'two years. Youngstown is the county seat of Mahoning County. The
valuation of its personal and real property and intangible property is $529,269,930
~ and its bonded debt is $22,646,160 which includes all types of outstanding bonds,
except school bonds.

The Youngstown district is primarily recognized as a great steel producing center.

Its several large steelmaking operations include U. S. Steel (Ohio Works), Jones and
Laughlin, Republic Steel, and Copperweld Steel. A number of spin-off businesses
supply the steel industry with a wide variety of essential products. Approximately
one-third of the district work force i~ either directly or indirectly involved with
the production of steel in the Mahoning Valley, although the percentage has fallen
due to the recent mill closings.

A wide diversity of manufacturing and other business concerns are located within
the Youngstown metropolitan area. Mechanical and moulded rubber goods, electric lamps,
a wide number of aluminum extrusions and products, steel office furniture, rolling
mill equipment, automotive parts, automotive assembly, truck assembly, steel building
specialties, paint, slacks, raincoats, plastics, electronic equipment, paper envelopes,


I }

and manyother different prod~cts add to the manufacturing importance of the Youngstown
area. The city is also the hub of a large trucking and transportation network. It is
) served by ninety-five freight terminals and six railroad lines.

The financial needs of the community are satisfied through two national banks, two
state banks, and three savings and loan institutions. More than $2.5 billion in bank
) clearings in 1977 (the last year for which statistics are available) were conducted
L through the seventy-four local offices of these financial institutions.

~ The city also contains representatives of both the printed and broadcast media. The
) Youngstown Vindicator, a locally-owned newspaper which began publication in the 1880s,
is published daily and on Sunday and has a circulation of over 100,000 daily and
157,000 Sunday papers. Four television stations in the Youngstownarea represent all
four major national networks (ABC, CBS, NBC,and PBS). Six radio broadcasting
) stations are located in Youngstown, including WYSU-FM, a station offering educational
and cultural services from the campus of YoungstownState University.
The spiritu~lneeds of the community are served by 350 churches: 278 Protestant
(representingall principal denominations); 53 Catholic (Youngstown is the See City of
the YoungstownDiocese); 11 Eastern Orthodox; and 4 Jewish synagogues.



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Youngstown-Warren Metropolitan Area (Mahoning-Trumbul1 Counties) 536,837

.) Mahoning County 304,526
~ City of Youngstown 140,909
Source: 1970 U.S. Census of Population
l Youngstown is the center of an 800,000 population trading area.

L Size-rank-among Ohio cities (population) 7th

Elevati on (feet above sea 1eve1) : High 1148 feet
" Low 825 feet
( City of Youngstown 35 square miles
\J Assessed Valuation: Real Estate, Public Utilities and
f4ahoning County
Personal Property -
1978 (estimate)
City of Youngstown $ 529,269,930
Tax Rate (per $1,000) $48.20
I City Income Tax Rate 15 mil s
, ) State Sales Tax 4%
Ohio State Income Tax 1/2 - 3 1/2%
Daylight Savings Time from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October.


.Clearinghouse Banks 4
\ )
Branches 49
( Deposits (June 1978) $ 935,746,000
Assets (June 1978) $1,060,110,000
Savings & Loan Associations 3
l Assets (June 1978) $ "638,862,000
) Deposits (June 1978) $ 742,290,000
( Postal Receipts (1~77) $ 8,813,325
Bank Clearings $2,"443,625,347


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) 150

Youngstown State University (October 1978) 15,598 students
) Penn-Ohio Junior College (October 1978) 250 students
Youngstown College of Business & Professional Drafting (October 1978) 400 students
Mahoning County 51 schools
t Enrollment (October 1978) 29,500 students
l Parochial (Youngstown & Mahoning County) 26 schools
Enrollment (October 1978) 9,655 students
? Youngstown Public Schools 40 schools
L Enrol1~ent (October 1978) 18,242 students

I Airlines Serving Area:

) Allegheny Airlines, Inc.
Dade Air Charter
United Airlines, Inc.
Y.oungstownAirways (Executive Fleet)
Air Freight Forwarding Service available
) Greyhound Package Express
Hilson Moving Transfer CompanyExpress
Trailways Package
Motor Freight Terminals 95
Railroads Serving Area:
.) Chessie System
Pittsburgh and Lake Erie
Youngstown and Northern
Youngstown and Southern
Lake Erie and Eastern

Building Permits (Valuation) 1977 - Mahoning County

Retail Sales (Est.) 1977 - Youngstown-Warren Metropolitan Area
$ . 53,913,849
Value added by manufacture est. (U.S. Dept. of Commerce) $2,444,700,000



Population, 1970' Persons 3-34 years old enrolled in school

U.S. Rank 62 Kindergarten and Elementary 98,454
) Tota 1 536,0'03 High School 42,677
'. Per Square Mile 522 College 15,0'84
hange, 1960'-1970' 1abor Force, 1970' (16 years old and overl
Total 5.5 Total 211,543
I . N,et Migrati on % -3.8
) Fema1e % . 5"1.4 Civilian Labor Force - Total 2". ,230'
II Urban % 77.3 Employed -
Total 199,485
IL Age Industry
Under 5 years % 8.2 Manufacturing % 42.9
I_. 18 years and over % 65.2 Wholesale & Retail Trade % 19.5
) 65 years and over % 9.4 Services % 5.3
Median age % 29.3 Educational Services % 5.9
Construction % 4.9
Foreign Stock
Total % 21. 8 Employed
Government % 10'.0'
Leading country of irigin % IT 24.6
II) , Persons of Spanish heritage % 1.1 White Collar Workers
Birth Rate - per 1,0'0'0' pop., 1968 16. 1 Professional,
Sales and Clerical
% 17.9
Death Rate - per 1,0'0'0' pop., 1968 ; 9.9
Cra'ftsmenand Foreme.n% 17.6
Education, 1970'
I Persons 25 years old and over 293,90'0'
School years completed:
Median (years) 12. 1
Less than 5 years % 4.7
4 years high school or more 52. 1
4 years college or more 6.9


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I 152


West Johnstone ~ Executive Director of Youngstown Chamber of Commerce
Fred Tod - Local Businessman and Member of Chamber of Commerce
, GilbertJames -
Local Businessman and Member of Chamber of Commerce
Raymond Jaminette -
Howard Shafer - Architect
) Robert Buchanan - Architect
f James Olsavsky - Architect
Thomas Mosier - Architect
Thomas Syrakis - Architect
( William Steinmetz - Architect
j R. E. Hatton - District Supervisor, Conrail
Frank Johnson - Public Relations, Conrail
Michael Pontikous - Master Painting Company
Anthony Ricci - Ricci Photography Studio
Frank Harris - Downtown Board of Trade'

Frank Haber - Haber's Department Store

James McLaughlin - Local Businessman
Thomas Masters - Masters Office Supply
James E. Modarelli - Jeweler
Jay Showalter - Insurance Underwriter

James P. Griffin -
Director, District 26 USAW(Retired)
S. Clark -
Assistant Director, District 26 USAW
George Butsika
Reiss Gibbons -
Director of Education, USAW
Editor, Steel Labor USAW -

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. Donald Smith -
Assistant Editor, Steel Labor - USAW
Dr. Thomas Shipka - Local Labor Leader
Ed Mann - President Local 1462, Brier Hill - USAW
\ -
Henry Evans President, Sharon Steel
I... -
Leo Murphy Public Relations, Sharon Steel
Walter Mathews Public Relations, Sharon Steel
I) -
Ronald Towns District Superintendent - J & L
L Ed Salt - Histor.ian, Youngstown
Sheet and Tube
Perce Kelty - Chief Photographer, YoungstownSheet and Tube (Retired)
Randall Walthius Public Relations, U. S. Steel
Louis Vicare1 - Public Relations, Republic Steel
William Brown Public Relations, WeanUnited
James Butler -Public Relations, J & L
John Hall -
Superintendent of Maintenance, J & L
~ -
Jack Weber Public Relations, J & L
Ted Patrick -
Superintendent Buckeye School, J & L
Ed Rodgers - Act. District Superintendent, J & L
Gene Bova - Superintendent Fuel and Power, J & L
James Walker - Asst. Superintendent Fuel and Power, J &L
RaymondHarris - Superintendent of Safety at Brier Hill - J & L
\ H. Wolfe - Superintendent of Safety, U.S. Steel
L Archie Bianco - Chief Rigger, Sharon Stee' (Retired)
Furman T. Blackwell -
Superintendent Blast Furnaces, Y S &T (Retired)
Edward Prokopp Superintendent General Office Building, J & L
Rodger Slatter -
Manager of Primary Operations, J & L
Cyril Zetts - Chief Annealer, Y S & T (Retired)
Gene Yaun General Foreman, Seamless ~1il1, J & L
Joseph Navinski -
ShearmanPickler Department, Y S &T (Retired)
Joseph Ruby Hot Strip Roller, Y S & T (Retired)
,) -
Samuel Carbon Superintendent Cold Strip, Y S & T (Retired)



..' .



Senator Harry Meshel - Ohio Senator

Phillip Richley - Mayor, City of Youngstown
Rocco Mica - Mayor of City of Campbell
Nicholas Deramo - Mayor, City of Girard
W. Doutt- Mayor, City of Niles
Art Richard -Mayor, City of Warren
John Palermo - Commissioner Mahoning County
George Bindas -Commissioner Mahoning Coulity
Charles Barrett -
Commissioner Mahoning County
L Jul ius Geewax "- Director of Deve1opment, City of Youngstown
Felix Kikel -
Chief Planner, City of Youngstown
William Brenner - Planner, Eastgate Development & Transportation Agency
George Zokel - Planner, Eastgate Development & Transportation Agency
) Patrick Ungaro - Councilman, City of Youngstown

Charlotte Cunningham - Lowellville Historical Society

William Masters - BoardmanHistorical Society
Florence Galida -
CampbellHistorical Society
Patricia Cummins- Mahoning Valley Historical Society
Elizabeth Szabo International Institute
John Zackuzia - Pa. Anthropological Society
Richard Ulrich - Canfield Historical Sotiety
Rebecca Rodgers - Poland Historical Society
Howard Aley - Local Historian
Walter Damin - Local H.A.P. Representative

William Whitehouse Naturalist, Mill Creek Park
Ken Zinz -
Austintown Historical Society
) Aux. Bishop William Hughes - Diocese of Youngstown
Rev. William Connel Asst. Rector, St. Colombia
Rev. Martin Susko Rector, St. Colombia
Pastor Louis Furtomioto -
Pastor, First Christian Assembly
Pastor Fred Ripper -
Youth Pastor, First Christian Assembly

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) 155

Rev. Edward Stanton - Ecumenical Coalition
Rev. Leo Doboschevits - Pastor, St. Joseph the Provider
Rev. GeorgePappas- St. Michael the Archangel
Rev. Edward 'wi;tt - Q; oce:se: of '( oUflgs teliln
Rev. GeorgeF. Winca - St. Matthias Church
) Dennis Finneran - Editor, Catholic Exponent
~ Jay Paris -
PDotographer, Ohio Magazine
Ernest Brown, Jr. - Reporter, Youngstown Vindicator
Dale.Peskin - Reporter, YoungstownVind;.cator
Dennis LaRue - Reporter, Youngstown Vindicator
Cindy Ikins - Talk ShowHost, WYTV
) Gary Coverly - Talk ShowHost, WYTV
Jeffrey Pierce - Station Manager and News Director, WYTV
TomHolliday - News Director, WYSU
Lowell Bridges - Reporter, WYTV

Dr. John Coffelt - President of Youngstown State University
E. Catsoulis -
Superintendent of Schools, Youngstown City
Herbert -
G. Thomas Superintendent of ~iberty City Schools
Dr. Michael J. Elsberry - Superintendent of Struthers City Schools
Dr. Robert P. Shreve - Superintendent of Mahoning County Schools
) John R. Holan - Superintendent of Warren City Schools
Robert Pond -
Superintendent of Salem City Schools
Luther H. Gutknech - Superintendent of Hubbard City Schools
Robert Hetrick - Superintendent of Campbell City Schools
Dr. John White - Department of Anthropology, YSU
Dr. George Beelen - Chairman of Department of History, YSU
) Dr. James Ronda - Department of History, YSU
Professor HughEarnhart - Director of World History, YSU
Ann Harris - Departmentof Geology, YSU
Dr. George Kelly - Department of Geology, YSU
Robert Griffith - Director of Mahoning County"Library


Professor A.E.T. Morris - Department of Architecture, Oxford University, England
Miss Patricia Wall -
Assistant Head Librarian, YSU
) John Cvengros -
Teacher, Campbell City Schools
Larry Lushinski - Teacher, Youngstown City Schools
Donald Koma - History Teacher, Youngstown City Schools
Andrew Hammady- History Teacher, YoungstownCity Schools

In addition, the Project Director addressed the following groups:

Alliance of Mahoning County Historical Societies
Camppell Historical Society
Lowellville Historical Society
McGuffey Historical Society
Mahoning County Genealogical Society
Youngstown State University President's Breakfast Forum
DowntownLion's Club

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