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THE YOUNGSTOWN MUSEUMPROJECT

Planning Project Report Prepared by the Office of Planning The Ohio Historical Society

ThomasH. Smith, Director, The Ohio Historical Society William G. Keener, Chief, Office of Planning Julius Simchick, Coordinator, Youngstown Office

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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I. II. III.
IV. V.

Background ofthe project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
The Ohio Historical Society.

Youngstown Theme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Museum . . The eed N foranIron Steel and Museum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1
3
6

9

The Development of theIronand Steelndustry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 I

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A.The Furnace.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Processes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ..... .
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
9.
10.

1.

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Cast Iron.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Iron. Stee1 . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Blister and Cementation Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Crucible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Steel. Bessemer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Steel. Open Hearth.. . . . ".. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 .
Electric,
Rolling Basic Oxygen, and QBOP
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Blast

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B.Labor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 .. 1. 2. The Early Period.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The odern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 M Era.. . .
C. Immigration D. Working

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 32
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E. Unionism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 .. F. Labor Today. . . . . . . . .. . . . . It. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 .
VI. VII.

Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 ..
45

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. . . . . . . . . 35

The Mahoning Valley:AShortHistory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Youngstown

Today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 52 . A. Automobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Access.
B. Airand Access.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bus
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C. Lodging, Restaurant andShopping Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 D. OtherCultural/Recreational/Educational Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . 54
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VIII. Potential MuseumSites IX. Collections
X.

Exhibits. A. Formal Exhibits

B. Large Artifact Exhibits XI. ArchivesProgram. . . .
,.

XII. The Museumas an Educator XIII. Budget. . . . .
A. Museum Program Types of Funding Continued Operating Sources of Funding Requirements B. C. D. Summary

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63 71 74 74 78 81 87 93 93 94 99

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Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

I II III IV

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Appendix V

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Appendix VI Appendix VII

. 103 . 106 .109 .114 .118 .124 . 143 .146 . 152

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1.

BACKGROUND THE PROJECT OF

The Youngstown MuseumProject
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is being undertaken by the Ohio Historical

Society in

par~ia1 fulfillment of its legal obligations as detailed in Section 149.30 and subsequent sections of the Ohio Revised Code. This legislation gives the Society

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responsibility

for many of the state's

historical

activities

and programs. in the

The prospect of establishing
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an Ohio Historical

Society museumfacility years.

Youngstown area has been under discussion

for at least fifteen

A number of

persons in the Youngstown area have approached the Society at various times to suggest the propriety of such a venture. The Society likewise has had an interest in such a project.
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This was expressed implicitly

in the Society's

Ten Year Plan as submitted to Board of

the Ohio General Assembly in June, 1974.

In that document, the Society's

Trustees made clear that the concentration of historic sites and museumsin predominantly rural areas could not serve the'needs and desires of all Ohioans. Based on
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this

principle,

the Board gave the development of urban facilities capital improvement plans.

the highest

priority

in future

Throughout the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the Society was so engaged in a myriad
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of other projects

that the active planniTIg of a Youngstown facility
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had to remain a

hope for the future.

Interest remained high, however, both on the part of the Society

and also on the part of a number of persons in Youngstown.

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2 In 1977 the Ohio General Assembly passed AmendedSubstitute House Bill Number618. Line item appropriation 360-508 provided the Society with funding through June 30, 1979 for the purpose of planning a Youngstown museumfacility. The General Assembly stipulated that the Society should work toward lithe development of a program dealing

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with the historical

growth of the MahoningValley.

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In addition to the Youngstown facility~ the Society is planning museumcomplexes in Cleveland and. Wooster. To coordinate these efforts and to insure their efficient planning, an Office of Planning was established at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus. Early in 1978, the Youngstown Planning Office was opened in the heart of downtownYoungstown. A local project coordinator was hired to head that office. A small research and secretarial staff has been added to the Youngstownoffice while other researchers and designers have continued to work on the project in Columbus. The project coordinator has contacted many people in the Youngstown area to determine the extent of local support and to discover what types of programs are desirable and feasible. At the same time, research nas been undertaken to explo}'e possible museum themes, locations, costs, and benefits. A variety of possible museumprograms have been and are continuing to be explored. This report will examine some of the pertinent issues associated and the operation of a Youngstownhistorical facility. with the establishment

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II.

THE OHIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY

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Foundedin 1885, the Ohio Historical Society is a private, nonprofit educational institution. The Society, one of the largest state historical organizations in the nation, manages and operates more.than sixty sites across the state for the benefit of Ohio's citizens. Under Section 149.30 and subsequent sections of the Ohio Revised Code, the Society is chartered in general to IIpromote a knowledge of history and archaeology, especially of Ohio. . .11and is responsible for a number of other duties which are more specifically detailed in the Revised Code. The Society receives state funds to help fulfill its duties as specified in the abovementioned legislation. In addition to its museumand state memorial 'programs, the Society is responsible for archives administration for the State of Ohio a~d its political subdivisions. An eighteen-member board of trustees governs the Ohio Historical Society. Half of its members are elected by the membership while the remaining nine are appointed by the Governor. A director, selected by the Board of Trustees, administers Society operations.' Over four hundred employees are required to implement the Society's many diverse programs. The Archives Division, which is the official repository for state documents. also maintains more than five hundred manuscript collections and an extensive audiovisual archives. The Library Division oversees an excellent non-circulating research

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4 library containing more than 125,000 volumes. one of the finest in the nation. This division's newspaper collection is

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The Society operates a series of diverse museumprograms throughout Ohio. Natural history museums, wildlife preserves, and interpretive programs educate Ohio citizens abo~t their environment--both present day and past. The Society's expertise in prehistoric archaeology, which has b~en recognized worldwide since 1885, is demonstrated through both .scholarly and popular publications. Several archaeology site museums, as well as exhibits at the Ohio Historical Center in Columbus, inform the public about the prehistoric
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peoples who once inhabited this area.

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Sometwenty-three history museumsor restored buildings comprise the bulk of the Society's history interpretation programs. Subjects range from an examination of the settlement of the Northwest Territory at the restored section of the CampusMartius stockade in Marietta to man's first exploration beyond this planet at the Neil Armstrong Museumin Wapakoneta. Ohio's presidents of the United States are well represented by the Rutherford B. Hayes home, museumand library; by the Ulysses S. Grant birthplace and schoolhouse; by the William Henry Harrison tomb; and most recently by the acquisition of the Warren G. H~rding home and memorial. Presidents, however, do not dominate the Society's efforts. Black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar's Dayton home is maintained as a museum, as are the homes of composer Benjamin Hanby and abolitionist John Rankin. Fort Meigs, the largest restored stockade in the nation, tells the story of the War of 1812, while Fort Laurens commemorateswith a museumthe only permanent Revolutionary War installation in Ohio. Here also is a tomb containing the remains of the unknown soldiers who died at. Fort Laurens while fighting for American independence.

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5 In 1965 the Society embarkedon a major expansion and renovation program. In the

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ensuing thirteen years, the Society has opened fifteen new museumswhile also making major improvements at eight existing museums. To date, this program has provided the people of Ohio with approximately 350,000 square feet of new exhibits as well as three major living history sites. This represents one of the largest capital improvement, exh~bit, and interpretation programs ever undertaken by a state historical society.

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III.

YOUNGSTOWN MUSEUMTHEME

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Whenthe YoungstownMuseumPlanning Project was initiated, the planners maintained no pre~onceived notion of what the major thematic thrust of the museumwas to be. The establishment of the museum's theme is most important, for it is the prerequisite for all future planning. Only when the theme is determined, can questions relating to museumlocation, size and cost be examined realistically. To begin, a number of alternatives were sought out and considered. Data was assembled to determine the subject areas most appropriate to the Youngstown-MahoningValley locale. Manypersons were interviewed in an attempt to determine the prevailing opinion of local residents concerning desirable or appropriate themes. While the museumis not being undertaken solely for the benefit of these residents, community support is imperative to the success of any such undertaking. A motorist driving through the Mahoning Valley is soon aware that this is no placid landscape. The valley is alive with sights and sounds. Smokestacks reach into the

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clouds, stretching upwardsfrom sprawling complexes of black iron and brick.
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Even at

some distance, an assortment of sounds echo out across the valley clatteri~g and screaming. Everywhere, railroad tracks announce that, here, movement is the watchword. At night the sky is aglow with lights--not from the heavens, but from flaming openings in the dark buildings which lie along both sides of the Mahoning River. Everywhere, the valley speaks of the presence of man on a huge scale.

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This tour along the Mahoning River is, in a sense, an excursion to the very foundation of American industry. The Mahoning Valley is one of the nation's most important steel producing areas. From 1802, when the Heaton brothers erected the first iron furnace west of the Allegheny Mountains, to the present, the Valley has produced much of the. iron and steel used in building America's railroads, bridges and buildings. Iron and steeJ are the building blocks from which nearly all of American industry is built. The automobiles we drive are made from Mahoning Valley steel, as are the pipes that bring oil to the surface of the earth and transport it from well to refinery, and the trucks which bring it to the corner gas station. Victor Clark, a noted economic historian, once remarked that "no single thing better measures the industrial standing of a nation than its use of metal" and steel is the most important metal of the modern

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Certainly, no area of the United States better illustrates
iron and steel industry than the Mahoning Valley.

the development of

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this nation's

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Any person who walks through downtownYoungstownor its hinterland inquiring of people on the street about the history or present state of the Mahoning Valley will be struck by the similarity of their responses. Everyone talks about iron and steel. A visitor is not only surrounded by the physical facilities which today, and for many years past, have produced this basic building block of industry, but also finds that nearly every resident has some connection with the industry. Many.work or have worked .in the plants of Republic, Youngstown Sheet and Tube, Sharon, or U. S. Steel; others can recount the generations of their families who worked in the mills. Above all else, one is struck by the pride these people have in their town and in its primary industry. Over and over again, one hears, liThebest steel in the world is Youngstownsteel." Along with

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8 this sense of pride, one is aware that these people also have a tremendous appreciation of the heritage of the Mahoning Valley iron and steel industry. Throughout the plants, when people hear that the visitor is from the Ohio Historical Society, they point out that the plant tour is itself a lesson in history. uYouwant a good museum?", many ask. "Why, this plant is a museum--just look at these open hearths; they're 1917 and they don't make them like that anymore." As the planning for the Youngstown historical facility progressed, one fact became very evident. The historical development of the Mahoning Valley not only parallels the historical development of the American iron and steel industry, it is one of its most vital segments. As an important corollary to this basic fact, the people of the Mahoning Valley view the iron and steel industry as the theme for the proposed museum. Therefore, surveys of both the history of the region, and also of community response indicate the most appropriate theme for the Youngstownmuseumfacility is the history of the American iron and steel industry.

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IV.

THE

NEEDFOR AN IRON AND STEEL MUSEUM

The importance of the iron and steel industry to the historical development and present ( status of the United States is difficult to estimate. emergence of modern America has been considerable. The industry's role in the

An examination of the amount of

iron and steel produced makes evident that this industry's growth and success parallels the.development of American technology and the economic status of the country as a

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whole.

The following diagrams give a notion of this phenomenal growth.

Note that

from 1700 to 1879 the output listed is for iron while from 1886 to 1975 th~ figures represent the output of steel. This reflects the change in ferrous metals production

which occurred with the advent of processes for manufacturing inexpensive steel during

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the 1880s.

As these statistics show, the production of iron and steel has increased leaps in the past 280 years, not only in terms of gross tonnage,

by quantum

but also in terms of

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per capita production.

By comparing the output of iron and steel with the general

economic, status of the United States, it is evident that the output has been closely tied to the overall economic well being of the nation. The relationship between

production of iron and steel and the general prosperity of the country is,so intricate

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that a change in one generally accompanies a change in the other.

Another relationship can be found in these figures. (

During periods of our history when

rapid technological development and industrial growth took place. the output of iron and

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10 steel rose. This is not at all surprising, for first iron and then later steel were the essential materials for industrial building. For example, the railroad boomwhich occurred during the latter half of the nineteenth century consumed vast quantities of steel. Between 1865 and 1900, the American rail network grew from 40,000 miles of track to 250,000 miles. During this boomperiod of railway much of the nation's total steel production; in 1887 into rail production. Rolling stock also consumed a period. In 1834 an average locomotive weighed seven sixty-ton and larger locomotives were not uncommon. building steel rails accounted for alone 2,139,640 tons of steel went great deal of steel during this and a half tons. By the 1880s,

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The steel industry's growth has made it one of the most important segments of the American economy. In 1976 the 454,128 persons who worked in the steel industry earned $8,331,464,000. In addition, millions of workers in other industries and services are dependent to at least some degree on steel. Witness the economic disruption which results when the demand for steel slumps or when the industry is slowed by labor disputes. Despite the historical and the contemporary importance of the iron and steel industry, few Americans knowmuch about it. While the news media makes us aware of troubles that spring up in the industry from time to time, few of us are knowledgeable about the size, operations or historical origins of this vital part of our nation.

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Iron and steel, both the products and also the industry itself. are such important elements of American history that museumtreatment is to say the least highly desirable; To understand the development of the United States--its economy, its society, its culture--one must examine this vital industry.

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11 Museums are one of the most pervasive disseminators contemporary America. Recent statistics per year. indicate of historical information in this in country

that museum visits data especially population

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total

more than 308,000,000

What makes this

impressive is

that the number of museumvisits about one-third.

exceeds the total

of the United States by

In other words, many Americans visit

more than one museum each year. visits? These are

Whydo people attend museums and what do they get out of their difficult questions, they would defy classification by even a modern-day Linnaeus. and interpret

for museumsare so varied in theme, content,

and approach that

All museums,however, do

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share some things

in common. All exhibit

objects in an attempt to increase

and diffuse knowledge about our environment, past and present. This fundamental purpose makes museumseducational institutions in the truest sense. However; they differ fundamentally from other educational institutions, such as schools, in their reliance upon objects rather than the written differ process. Museumsgive no tests; or printed word to convey information. they ~ward no grades. are the basis popular appeal. They allow Museums also the learning

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from schools in that museumsseldom rely on coercion to stimulate

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These two factors,

the employment of objects and the absence of coercion, which is lacking in printed works.

of the museum's success as an educator as well as the foundation of its Objects provide a sense of tangibility

the past or the foreign to becomefirsthand, thereby forming the foundation on which even abstract concepts can be built. As one curator remarked, "Girls are much more interesti:ng than descriptions of girls."

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12 The use of objects as educational tools is combined with an absence of coercion. No one is forced to enter a museum. No one is tested on what they received once inside. This increases the enjoyment of museumsand, as educators acknowledge, it is easier to learn in a pleasant environment. Museumcurators and exhibit designers are well aware that no one is forced to enter museums. They therefore strive to make the museum's environment attractive, for one measure of a museum's success is its visitation. At the same time, museumofficials recognize that education is their institutions' primary goal. Thus, museumsattempt to educ~te in an environment of entertainment and pleasure. One need only look at some of the most successful museumprograms offered in this country to see that this is so. People are visiting museumsineve~increasing numbers and they are finding that learning about the past can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience.
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It is evident that the iron and steel industry for many years has been a vitally important segment of the American society and economy. It is also clear that museums are one of the best transmitters of historical information. An iron and steel museum

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would fill a great need. iron and steel.

Still,

no museumin the United States today is devoted to

The Ohio Historical Society has restored an 1850s charcoal iron furnace near Wel1ston, Ohio. Somemuseums, like the Smithsonian, do look at portions of the iron. and steel industry, but have not attempted a comprehensive portrayal. The same is true of period reconstructions, such as Saugus Iron Works and Hopewell Village, whose interpretations are limited to a single locale and period of time. While these and similar efforts demonstrate that museumsare aware that iron and steel deserve coverage, as yet none

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have developed a full-scale portrayal. This seems especially odd in light of the fact that museumsdo exist for the glass, oil and textile industries, and they are very successful. A museum which focuses on a portrayal of iron and steel will help makepeople aware of the historical development of the industry. By providing an understanding of the origins and the evolution of iron and steel in America, this museumwiil help in the understanding of the present. As the remaining chapters of this report will show, now is the ideal time for such an undertaking and Youngstown is the ideal 10catfon.

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14

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V.

THE DEVELOPMENT OFTHE IRONANDSTEELINDUSTRY for the museum--to understand why the

To discuss the merits of Youngstown as a location Mah~ning Valley is at this
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time so ideal a choice--one must have some understanding of Because the two are so intertwined, of the valley.

the evolution history

of the iron and steel industry.

a

of the industry

is in many respects also a history

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In 1619 a group of British investors attempted to erect an ironworks in Virginia. When a group of Indians protested the intrusion into their territory by killing the ironworkers and demolishing the facilities, Somefifty activity years later, iron production in the NewWorld ceased. The center of the new Rhode Island, and

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iron production had been reintroduced.

had moved to NewEngland where ore obtained from bogs or ponds was utilized From Massachusetts, ironworking spread to Connecticut, The most important iron center in pre-Revolutionary in Pennsylvania. Here were found the raw materials like

to make iron.

then to NewJersey and NewYork. America, however, was established

needed to make iron, the streams to provide water power, and the entrepreneurs, William Henry Stiegel, who were willing to exploit the situation. Using local materials and selling primarily to local markets, these early iron

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manufacturing concerns were small-scale entetprises. Nevertheless, they supplied much needed iron, first to the Colonies and later to the new United States. (

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15 All of these establishments used the same type of raw materials and all relied upon a commontechnology to produce their iron. This processs in facts has changed little from ancient times to the present. Refinementss to be sures have increased production, cut costs, and permitted the utilization of less scarce materials. Yet, the basic method of making iron is the same for today's giant corporations as it was for the Southhampton adventurers who sought to make iron in seventeenth century Virginia.
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THE PROCESSES'

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A. . The Blast Furnace - Metallic iron is rarely found in nature. Iron tends to react readily with oxygen, forming an iron oxide. One of the most common,and troublesome, of these oxides is called "rust." Deposits of natural iron oxide, or .iron ore, vary in chemical content. While some contain as much as seventy-five to eighty percent iron others possess as little as twenty percent. The job of the iron maker is to remove the oxygen and other impurities from the ore, thereby leaving only the iron. This process, whose chemical name is reduction, might be expressed by this formula: Fe304+heat~Fe to.. It is important to note that this is a chemical reaction and not merely the "me1ting" of the iron free from its surrounding i~purities, as is often the case with other metals such as gold.

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Other elements often are present in the ore and they too must be eliminated from the final product. For instances two particularly troublesome impurities are sulfur and phosphorous. A flux added to the reaction traps these and other impurities, facilitating removal. Limestones the most commonlyused flux, melts and traps these impurities in a liquid suspension which is removed as it floats to the top of the heavier molten iron.

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MODERN STEEL PRODUCTION PROCEDURES
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f IHISHED PRODUCTS IN AN NFINITE CONSIDERING (HE"ICAl PRO RYlES, AND SHAPES.

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MOLTEN STEEL
NOTE: VACUUM TREATH£NT OF LIQUID STEEL IS

CONTINUOUS ASTING C

FURNACE

~~~Q~~I~~ ~~~:RREFINED METALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY END USES.

MOLTEN STEEL LIMESTONE ..) MOLTEN STEEL
NOTE:
A MODIFICATIONOF THE B.O.F, IS THE O,-8.0.P. IN
WHICH THE OXYGEN AND OTHER GASES ARE BLOWN IN FROI1THE BOTTOH RATHER THAN THE TOP AS SHOWN.

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SLAGBLAST MOLTENI RON FURNACE

BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE

A HALL BUT SIGHIFICANT P RCEHTAGE HEATEDINGOT OF SELl S SQUEEZED FORG IN I KG P ESSESTO MAKELARGESHAFTS F R powER PLANTS. NUCLEAR PLANT C ONEHTS.ANDOTHERPRODUCTS.

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COKE OVENS
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16 The reduction of iron ore to metallic iron takes place at very high temperatures-several thousand degrees farenheit. The achievement of these enormous temperatures, one of the greatest difficulties encountered in iron production, takes place in a large reaction vessel called a blast furnace (see diagram). The basic design and the principles of the blast furnace operations have remained constant for centuries. Ore, fuel, and flux are dumped into the furnace from the top. The furnace is operated continuously, for when allowed to cool the furnace's refractory lining must be replaced. The burning fuel provides.the heat for the reaction, which becomes progressively more intense as the'mixture descends further down into the furnace. The enormous heat required precludes allowing the fuel to burn under strictly atmospheric conditions. Air is pumped into the blast furnace through openings in its base. This blast of air, much akin to the blacksmith's bellows, forces a more rapid and intense combustion, thereby raising the temperature to the needed degree. In the past century two major innovations have taken place in the design and operation of blast furnaces. The first involved preheating the blast air prior to blowing it into the furnace. Heating the air increased the yield of iron, thus cutting production cost. As the nineteenth century closed, American blast furnaces had raised both the pressure and the temperature of their blast air. By adopting this so-called "hard driving" technique, American iron producers were able to make enormous profits on an ever-increasing output of iron. The second major innovation in blast furnace practice involved a change in the fuel. For centuries, iron was made in charcoal-fueled "furnaces. While charcoal was a nearly ideal fuel in terms of energy output and lack of impurities. it was expensive. limited

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-'

)

17

supplies of wood as well as the cost of the labor required to convert the wood to
)

!)

charcoal continually increased the cost of this fuel. Nonetheless, charcoal was the preferred fuel well into the nineteenth century. Beginning in the 1840s, however, ironmasters gradually switched to other fue1s--first to anthracite coal and then to coke made from bituminous coal. Several advantages thus were gained: (1) the cost of iron production dropped with declining fuel costs and (2) larger furnaces could be built because coke could be stacked higher than charcoal without crushing. These larger furnaces provided an economy of scale and also allowed American furnaces to supply the huge demands for iron products. At the same time these major changes were winning acceptance throughout the industry, a number of refinements were introduced into blast furnace practice. Improvements in materials handling, energy conservation and by-product utilization all helped to increase yields and profits. By the first decades of the twentieth century, however, the main principles of blast furnace design and operation were established. and they continue to- operate today. Iron, as it emerges from the blast furnace, products. is of limited use in the fabrication which remain in the iron. Blast
.

)

)

)

of final

This is largely due to the impurities

furnace iron contains approximately 3.5 to 4.5 percent carbon, .5 to 5 perce~t silicon,
)

.5 to 2 percent manganese, .035 to 19 percent phosphorous, and less than .05 percent sulfur. The carbon content, influenced by the other elements present, either combines with the iron or disperses within the iron in the form of graphite flake~. Carbon gives the iron many of its most important characteristics. Cast iron, which contains more than 3 percent carbon, is brittle and cannot easily be welded or forged. Iron

)

J

... '

,,--.

)

18

)

with a carbon content of .25 to 1.7 percent is called steel. This special form of iron has such excellent strength and workability characteristics that it is the primary metal of modern society. Until 1856, however, steel was so difficult to produce that little of it was made. Finally, iron containing only traces of carbon--essentially pure iron-is called wrought iron. This metal, while it lacks the strength and wearing qualities of steel, historically has been easier to produce than its stronger brother. In addition, wrought iron is easily worked and welded. For centuries it was the primary ferrous metal. Whil~ these definitions provide a ready identification for ferrous metals and indicate at least the desired final product, if not the method of production, their simplicity is misleading. For centuries the chemistry of iron and steel was uncertain. Steel, for example, was often believed to be a purer iron than wrought iron, rather than the Moreover, the extreme temperatures necessary iron-carbon mixture we now know it to be
o.

for iron and steel production often precluded precise experiment~tion or even observa)

°

tion. Variety in the ore, fuel, flux, and furnace linings further compoundedthese difficulties. Until the twentieth century, iron production and metallurgy was an art, not a science. Blast furnace iron is seldom considered a finished product. The iron must first undergo conversion to wrought iron or to steel, or it must be cast into usable articles. Usually b1ast furnace iron is either cast as pigs or is taken in its molten state for conversion or casting elsewhere. Following the iron as it comes from the blast furnace and tracing the methods which have been employed in turning it into finished products is in many ways analogous to reading a history of much of the iron and steel industry. The remainder of this section examines the production of the three major ferrous metal

)
~

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)

19 products: cast irons wrought irons and steel. While what follows is a simplified overview of the developments which have occurred over the past two centuriess it does provide a foundation on which a discussion of the importance of the Mahoning Valley industry can be built.
B. Cast Iron

)

- Although

cast

iron lacks many of the workability

and durability

)

characteristics of wrought iron and steels it nevertheless always has had important uses. As the" name suggestss this form of iron is most suitable for casting rather than for rolling or forging. Cast iron is so brittle that it cannot be worked with hammerand anvils nor can it be welded in the blacksmith's forge. It iss howevers the cheapest iron product since it requires little in the way of purification before actual fabrication takes place. For centuries ironmasters cast implements directly in front of the mouth of the blast furnace. Molds of pots or kettles or cannon were formed in the sand in front of the furnace's hearth. Whenthe furnace was tappeds the molten iron ran out and filled the molds. While the quality of items produced by this technique often left much to be desireds the method was cheap and suitable for the utilitarian ware most commonlycast. Castings not made directly from the furnace are produced in a foundry. Here furnace iron is remelted and casts most often in molds made of a special sand. In modern foundriess the iron often is brought from the blast furnace in a molten state by special railroad cars. . This eliminates the cost of remelting. (See diagram.)

)

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,..,.,

HISTORIC CAST IRON PRODUCTION PROCEDURES

<~
IRON ORE
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BLAST FURNACE LIMESTONE FOUNDRY
I

FINISI

P S REMELTEID ANDCASTINTO IN THE FOUNDRYIG IRON FINISHEDPRODUCTS.

CHARCOAL

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-

. --

-------

PIG IRONCASTING
IRON FROMTHE BLAST FURNACE IS EITHER CAST INTO PIG IRON OR CAST DIRECTLY INTO A FINISHED PRODUCT.

DIRECTCASTING

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MODERN CAST IRON PRODUCTION PROCEDURES
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IRON ORE
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CAST I RONI
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LIMESTONE

BLAST FURNACE
CUPOLA FURNACE THE CUPOLA FURNACI: IS USED TO REMELT PIG IRON FOR CAST:NG.

COKE

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20

)

Until the mid-nineteenth century, wrought iron was the primary ferrous metal. Several factors contributed to the predominance of this type of iron. Due to its very low carbon content, wrought iron is malleable, easily welded, and easier to produce. Traditionally iron makers found it easier to remove all rather than. just some of the carbon. Wrought iron's major drawback prior to the introduction of modern furnace designs was its high melting temperature--higher than either steel or cast iron, whose carbon content lower their melting points.
C. Wrought Iron

-

For ~enturies, wrought iron often was made by a direct reduction process. Here the ore was reduced to wrought iron in one step in a furnace called a bloomery. As the ore was reduced to iron, it was exposed to the air which slowly oxidized out the carbon. Then it was hammeredor rolled repeatedly to remove impurities. Although the amount of iron produced by a single furnace was not great, bloomeries were rela)

tively inexpensive to build. This accounts at least in part for the process's well into the nineteenth century.

enduring

In 1784 an Englishman named Henry Cort introduced the "puddling" process for producing wrought iron. Pig, or blast furnace, iron was melted in a reverberatory furnace, a furnace which kept the burning fuel separated from the iron. Once the metal melted, workers called "puddlers" stirred the iron with long iron "rabbling" bars. This brought the molten iron into contact with the air where the oxYgen oxidized the carbon in the iron, virtually burning it away. As the iron's carbon content decreased, the melting point of the iron increased to such an extent that the successful removal of the carbon was marked by a general loss of fluidity' of the pool of iron. Whensufficient carbon was thus removed, the iron tended to form a pasty ball of semi-molten wrought

I

)

21 iron interspersed with liquid and solid impurities. At this point the ball was removed

and squeezed by hammer or roller )

to force out the impurities.

The puddling process remained the primary means of obtaining wrought iron until the first quarter of the twentieth century. In fact, the Aston process, which now is used

to produce wrought iron,
)

is

little

more than a Inechanizedand sophisticated puddling

operation. Developed by Dr. James Aston in conjunction with Edward B. Story, this process incorporates all the stages of the puddling operation--metal refining, slag melting, and processing--to form a slag impregnated sponge ball. The steps, however, are done in separate stages. utilizing separate furnaces and pieces of equipment.

)

In the Aston process, pig iron first is melted in a cupola furnace. The molten metal next is worked in a Bessemer converter where carbon is removed. Concurrently, slag is melted in a separate furnace which has no refractory lining to alter the slag's composition. Once melted the slag is poured into a large ladle. The molten iron, at a temperature between 2,800 and 2,900 degrees, then is poured slowly into the slag. The unequal temperatures of the two mixtures cause intense agitation, producing a

)

violent evolution of gases and a thorough, but temporary, mixture of iron and slag.

.

The surplus slag is poured from the ladle, leaving a white bot sponge ball of iron. This sponge ball is pressed mechanically into a bloom and then rolled into either slabs or billets, making it ready for further reduction. Prior to the introduction of the Aston process in the early 1930s, a puddler and his helper could produce about 3,000 pounds of wrought iron a day. With the new Aston technology) ten thousand pounds of iron could be produced in twenty minutes and a single furnace complex was capable of replacing eighty hand-puddled furnaces.

. )

, /

THREETYPES OF WROUGHT IRON PRODUCTION
)

BLOOMERY

ti II
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FINISHED PRODUCTS ) BLOOMERY

F

PUDDLINGFURNACE

:~-~~ PLATE'
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IRON ORE
REMOVESCARBON AND OTHER IMPUR[T[ES FROM CAST [RON. REMOVESSLAG FROM [RON SPONGE BALL.

~TUBE

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GALVANIZED ANDOTHER FLAT ROLLEDPRODUCTS F[NAL PRODUCTS OF M[LL SOLDTO MANUFACTURERS.

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HOT ROLLEDBARS
'~~~~/';I~~/;;~~~
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CHARCOAL

BLAST FURNACE

A
PUDDLING FURNACE LEVER SQUEEZER

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MOLTEN REF[NED [RON [S ADDED TO MOLTEN IRON SILICATE SLAG WHICH PRECIPITATES SMALL FRAGMENTS OF [RON. THESE FRAGMENTSCOHERE TO FORM A SPONGELIKE BALL IMPREGNATEDWITH LIQUID SLAG. BLAST FURNACE

mEZES SLAGFRai SPOOGEY IROOBAU..

LIMESTONE

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) , COKE

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22

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...

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~.

Steel is the primary building block of modern society. Its availability, cost, strength, and durability are so favorable when compared to other materials that steel is in a class by itself. Bridges, tools, buildings, ships, and automobiles are built primarily of steel. Moreover, steel often is an important ingredient even when other materials are employed. Concrete, for example, gains much of its strength from the steel reinforcement bars buried within it. Without steel, modern urban society would be impossible.
D. Steel

-

Despite its present importance, the widespread use of steel did not commenceuntil
)

about

)

the period of the Civil War. To be sure, steel has been produced for centuries by Western man and perhaps even longer in the Orient and Africa. Its use', however, was confined to special applications requiring very limited quantities, such as in the manufacture of clock springs or edged weapons. The prestige of Sheffield, Damascus, Toledo, and Japanese samurai swords remain a testimony to the steelmaking technology employed at these locations. Several obstacles prevented the quantity production of steel. The fact is that steel--

)

iron with a carbon content of .25 to 1.7 percent--was difficult to produce. The ignorance of steel's composition often prevented even an attempt to develop a process capable of producing the desired product. The high temperatures involved and the delicate balance of carbon to iron further complicated matters. The first European steel was produced perhaps as early as 1200 B.C. by a process which historians can only surmise. In all probability, a spongy ball of wrought iron was allowed to remain in contact with the charcoal of the forge until some of the charcoal's

)

)

)

23 carbon was absorbed into the iron. This basic technique was employed both in the Middle East and also in the Orient. The process yielded some very fine tool steel which often found its way into the manufacture of swords and armor. By the seventeenth century, Europeans had discovered procedures for quenching and then reh~ating, or tempering, steel. This allowed smiths to forge steel blades which were hard and durable while at the sametime eliminating the extreme brittleness which accompanied steel which had been only quenched. E. Blister and Cementation Steel By the time of the Middle Ages, ironworkers hqd discovered case-carburization. They found that by placing an iron implement in a charcoal~filled crucible and then heating the container to a red hot temperature and maintaining this state for somehours, they were left with a tool which had a hard skin capable of taking a keen edge. What these medieval technologists were doing was forming a steel sheath on an iron core by forcing a minute amount of carbon absorption in the outermost layers of the iron. Beginning early in the seventeenth century, this principle was used to produce blister steel. Bars of wrought iron were packed in charcoal and then slowly heated. As the bars underwent the conversion to steel on their outer layers, the oxide and slag present reacted with the carbon to form carbon monoxide gas. This in turn caused blisters on the bar, hence the name blister steel. Blister steel, owing to the nature of the technique, was not very uniform. The carbon content was higher at the surface of the bar than at its center. To overcome this problem, several blister bars were forgewelded together to form a more homogeneous product called cementation steel. These cementation bars then were worked in the forge to produce durable steel utensils.

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I)

BLISTERANDCRUCIBLESTEELPRODUCTION
)

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IRON ORE
,.

C~ENTATION
)

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BLAST FURNACE LIMESTONE

MORE UNIFORM STEELJSE ERAL BARS OF BLISTER gTEEL ARE FORGEWELDED TQGETHER PRIOR TO MAKING TH~ FINISHED PRODUCT.

To OBTAI~A

'
II r

FINAL PRODU

BLISTERSTEEL FURNACE
IN THE BLISTER STEEL FURNACEJ WROUGHT'IRON BARSJ PACKED IN CHARCOALJ ARE HEATED RED HOT AND HELD AT THAT TEMPERATURE FOR A PERIOD OF SEVERAL HOURS. CARBON FROM THE CHARCOAL IS ABSORBED INTO THE OUTER LAYERS

.

1 D

)

)

OF THE IRON BAR FORMING A SHEATH OF STEEL SURROUNDING AN
IRON CORE.

CHARCOAL
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PIG IRONCASTING

~:r

CRUCIBLE STEELFURNAC- FORGING FORM TO FINAL PRODUC I

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24 F. Crucible Steel - About 1740 Benjamin Huntsman, a watchmaker living in Sheffield, England, discovered a better method for obtaining high quality steel. Huntsman found that blister and cementation steel lacked the uniformity he required when making watch springs. Even when forge-welded, cementation bars lacked a truly uniform dispersal of carbon. To counteract this, Huntsman developed a coke-fired reverbatory furnace capable of attaining and sustaining very high temperatures. He next procured crucibles able to withstand great heat. Into these containers Huntsman placed bars of cementation steel. Whenmelted, "the carbon mixed uniformly and the steel could then be cast and subsequently worked into finished products. The process yielded a high carbon homogeneous steel-well suited for tools and watch parts. Although Huntsman tried to keep his process a secret, details leaked out to other Sheffield stee1makers and by 1787 the area was noted for its superb crucible steel. For nearly a century, the crucible steel method was the best steelmaking technique available. While the quality of crucible steel was high, and indeed the process continued to be employed for years in the manufacture'of tool steel, the output was limited and the cost was high. G. Bessemer Steel Until the introduction of the Bessemerprocess of steel production in 1856, steel was a specialty product consumed primarily in small quantities by tool and cutlery maker~. Wrought iron was the primary ferrous metal. In 1850, for example, English steelmakers produced only 60,000 tons of steel while that nation's wrought iron industry turned out 2,500,000 tons of their product.

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-

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)

.F

)

25

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The requirements of growing nineteenth century technology, however, demanded more than wrought iron could provide. The softness and poor wearing characteristics of wrought iron created problems for the nineteenth century engineer. Railroads, for instance, needed strong durable rails--a requirement which wrought iron rails simply could not fulfill. Nor could the crucible steel manufacturers meet the increasing demand; their output was too limited and their product was too expensive. The Bessemer steel process rectified these shortcomings by giving the world an inexpensive method of making huge quantities of "steel. While Englishman Henry Bessemer is credited with this steelmaking process, many individuals actually contributed to its success. In fact, Kentucky ironmaster William Kelley later claimed to have discovered a nearly identical process some five years earlier than Bessemer. Nevertheless, Bessemer exploited the contributions of others and through the force of his personality received credit for the new process.

.)

)

)

)

The basic concepts and principles underlying the Bessemerprocess were not radical. The technique involved blowing air through molten cast iron. The oxygen in the air blast removedsilicon and carbon through an oxidation reaction. Moreover, the heat generated by this reaction was sufficient to raise the temperature of the metal beyond the melting point of full decarburized iron (cast iron, with its high carbon content, melts at approximately 12000 C while pure iron requires at least 15300 C). . In short, the air blowing through the iron burned away carbon and silicon, while at the same time raising the temperature high enough to keep the metal liquid.

)

J

)

26 After Bessemer demonstrated the process in 1856, it became an overnight sensation, enabling its inventor to sell licenses for the use of his patent. Steel makers quickly discovered, however, that the Bessemer process worked well only with certain types of iron. For example, cast iron which had been made from are high in sulfur or phosphorous content was not suitable for use in a Bessemer converter. Shortly after Bessemer's announcement, Robert Mushet developed a process for the introduction of manganese into air-blown steel. The manganBsecounteracted the harmful effects of oxygen and sulfur. Whenhe learned of this, Bessemer added Spiegeleisen-a manganese-rich cast iron--to his steel. The Spiegeleisen, added to the ladle after the metal was "blown," not only eliminated the sulfur problem but also replaced some of the oxidized carbon. This permitted a careful adjustment in the final carbon content of the steel. Other refinements, such as improvements in the lining, construction, and operation of the Bessemer converter, made the process a commercial success. In its final form, the operation of the Bessemer converter was one of the marvels of :, the age. (See illustration.) The open-topped converter, made of steel plates lined with silica firebricks, was mounted on trunnions which permitted it to tilt. To start the steelmaking operation, the converter was tilted and molten blast furnace iron; usually some three to five tons, was poured in. The air blast, coming up through the bottom of the converter, was started. Slowly the converter was returned to its upright position. As the blast continued, flames shot from the mouth of the converter until the carbon was removed." Then the converter again was tilted, this time to pour the metal into a moveable ladle where the Spiegeleisen was added. Finally, the molten steel was poured into ingot molds and allowed to cool.

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2

BESSEMER STEEL PRODUCTION PROCEDURES

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IRON ORE
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BLAST FURNACE
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COAL

R A P
INGOTC!STING
HOT FORGING

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MOLTENIRON

BESSEMER STEEL PLANT
)

BESSEMER CONVERTE S (A) )

ARE CHARGEDWITH MOLTEN IRO~

FURNACETHROUGHT~E CHARGINGSPOUTS (B). SPEIGELEISEN (MAN~ANESERICH CAST IRON)) ~

!

AFTER CON MELTED IN (

(C)J IS ADDED TO fHE STEEL THEREBY ELIMINATING SULFl ! ADJUSTING FINAL a RBON CONTENT. CONVERTER(A) IS Er
)

LADLE (D)

WHICH I~ PIVOTED BY THE LADLE CRANE I

(E) 0'

AND FILLS

THE MO ~S. I

THE INGOT CRANE (F)

THEN REMO

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A.
B. C.
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BESSEMER CONVERTERS CHARGING SPOUTS
CUPOLA FURNACESFOR

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MELTING SPEIGELEISEN
D. E. F. LADLE LADLE CRANE INGOT CRANES E

a

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27 The process also changed both the size and the business organization of the iron and steel industry. Bessemer production required iron practica1ly free from phosphorous. Thus, only certain iron ores could be utilized in making the cast iron for a Bessemer converter. Moreover, since the Bessemer used only already molten iron, it was most economical to place blast furnaces and steel plants close together under single ownership. These factors led to integrated steelmaking facilities and the adoption of modern business management techniques. Perhaps best exemplified by the Carnegie organization, individual giant companies owned ore and coal mines, blast furnaces, Bessemer plants, and rolling mills. This arrangement was the foundation of the modern industrial steel corporation.
H.

)

I

)

successful introduction of the Bessemer process, the American iron and steel industry experienced a fundamental transformation. Steel assumed a new importance in American industrial development as it replaced wrought iron as the primary ferrous metal.
Open Hearth

- With the

)

)

The Bessemer process, however, had serious shortcomings. Only ore free from phosphorous was suitable for the cast iron used in Bessemer production. This stringent requirement precluded the use of much of America's iron ore reserves. Furthermore, because the process relied on molten iron, Bessemer converters could not utilize scrap iron and steel. Since most fabrication techniques generated such scrap, the Bessemer's inability to employ this valuable waste was a serious shortcoming. The speed of the Bessemer process created yet another problem. The conversion to steel took place so rapidly that operators did not have the time necessary to make any adjustments in chemical content. Once the process began, it could not be slowed, accelerated, or held. Moreover, because the blast consisted of plain air, which contains about seventy percent

)

-,

)

28 nitrogen, Bessemer steel had a nitrogen content of .01 - .02 percent. This made the steel more liable to strain-age hardening and embritt1ement, thus limiting its use in cold-rolled applications. The open hearth process overcame these problems and eventually displaced the Bessemer as the primary method of making steel. In 1856, the same year of Bessemer's discovery, Frederick Siemens, a naturalized Englishman of German origin, obtained a patent for his heat-regeneration furnace. (See illustration.) First employed extensively in the glass industry, the heat-regeneration furnace was basica11y.a reverbatory furnace which utilized waste heat from the furnace itself to preheat its own combustion air. Siemens thus utilized two well-known principles in his invention. Like the puddling furnaces, Siemen's design incorporated an open hearth with reverbatory heating--one in which the molten material lay on an open bed and was subjected to heat passed over it. From then current blast furnace design, Siemens realized the gain in thermodynamic. efficiency which was obtained by preheating the combustion air. Along with this, he noted that much of the heat poured into puddling furnaces was lost up the chimney. Siemens passed this waste heat through a maze of loose firebrick which absorbed much of the heat. By passing the combustion air through the heated firebricks prior to mixing it with the fuel, the combustion air was then preheated. While simple in principle, the open hearth regeneration system did require some clever design. Two firebrick chambers were necessary; one was itself heated while at the same time the combustion air was heated in the other. At set valves were switched so that the chamber formerly used to heat the air was nowitself being heated and vice versa. All in all, the regeneration method of Siemens worked very well by utilizing heat that otherwise would have been wasted. intervals,

)

)

)

)

)

)

F

)

29

"

)

The fuel commonlyemployed was gas generated from converting coal to coke. In this way, another economy was gained. As coal is made into coke, volatile gas is liberated--gas which was used to operate the open hearth furnaces. As in the case of the Bessemer, operating a steel furnace in conjunction with an integrated steel facility cut costs. About 1863 Frenchmen Emile and Pierre Martin developed procedures for making first-rate

)
~

steel in an open hearth furnace. The Martin brothers utilized pig iron, iron ore, and scrap metal. This ability to combine a variety of raw materials gave the process great flexibility. The capacity of open hearth furnaces also was increased--often to some one hundred tons. This was necessary to offset the time--about twelve to sixteen hours-required to produce a heat (one,furnace load) of finished steel. The lengthY time element actually proved to be a benefit since it gave operators the opportunity to adjust the chemical content of the steel by adding various alloys and other substances. As important as these developments in open hearth technology were, a fundamental problem remained. Iron containing phosphorous still could not be employed in steelmaking. Like the Bessemer, the Siemens-Martin open hearth furnace could not produce quality steel from iron containing phosphorous, and this greatly limited the entire steel industry. In 1875 two English cousins, Sidney Thomas and Percy Gilchrist, made a crucial discovery. They found that when lime was added to molten steel the phosphorous was removed. This principle soon was applied to the refractory lining of the furnace itself. By using widely available magnesite rock as the basis for the firebrick lining, phosphorous was eliminated from the finished steel. Since magnesite was basic, as opposed to the acidic firebrick formerly used, the Thomas-Gilchrist technique was labeled the basic open hearth method.

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OPENHEARTHSTEEL PLANT

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AJ BJ CJ D. REGENERATIVE OVENS E. FURNACEHEARTH

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REVERSING VALVE FOR COKEGAS

F. G. H.

SPOUT CASTINGLADLE INGOTMOLDS

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REVERSINGALVEFORAIR V

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OPENHEARTHFURNACE OPERATIONSCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
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D
Regenerators
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8 in

a. m x ;j II) c: !!!

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LCOKE GAS PASSES THROUGH REVERSING VALVE
MOVES GOES THROUGH IT ENTERS THE FURNACE. MEANWHILE) B WHERE

1

INTO REGENERATOR A. IT ABSORBS BY REVERSING

HERE IT FINALLY VALVE

A MAZE OF RED HOT FIRE BRICK WHERE AIR REGULATED IT IS ALSO HEATED

HEAT.

2

.)

INTO REGENERATOR

BY RED HOT FIRE BRICK.

THE HOT AIR PASSES

UP THE PORT AND MEETS

THE HOT COKE GAS AT THE FURNACE. IS FORCED DOWN ON THE METAL PASSES OUT OF BY BY THE METAL

THE AIR AND COKE GAS IGNITE AND THE FLAME THE ROOF OF THE FURNACE. HEAT NOT ABSORBED

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m x :r
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Furnace

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A Regenerators

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Reversing Valves: Always operated In tandem

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THE FURNACE INTO REGENERATORS D. C) THE HEAT FROMTHE EXHAUST GASES.
)

THESE REGENERATORS ABSORB MOST OF

THE EXCESS ESCAPES INTO A CHIMNEY.

II. AFTERABOUT MINUTES OF OPERATION) REGENERATORS AND B HAVE COOLED 30 A BY
HEATING THE COKE GAS AND AIR WHILE REGENERATORS AND C HEATED BY THE COMBUSTIONGASES. TO HEAT THE METAL.

D HAVE BEEN

INTENSELY

REVERSING VALVES 1 AND 2 ARE REVERSEDAND

THE CURRENTSOF GAS AND AIR MOVE IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION AND CONTINUE )

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30
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While basic refracto~ linings' could be installed in both open he~rth furnaces and in Bessemer converters and would enable either to utilize iron containing phosphorous, it most often fo~nd application in the open hearth. Indeed, the open hearth began to overtake the Bessemer in terms of steel output. By 1907, worldwide open hearth production surpassed that of the Bessemer. The new process's versatility, combined with the high quality of its steel, gave the open hearth the competitive edge. By mid-twentieth century, no Bessemer steel was made in American steel plants. advent of the scientific metallurgy and automated control systems, the deliberate slowness of open hearth furnaces had become a detriment by the 1950s. As the demand for steel increased throughout this century, steel manufacturers continually looked to new technology to meet the demand. The electric furnace, first applied to steelmaking in 1899 by Paul Heroult of France, was one of the techniques which received considerable attention. (See illustration.) Huge currents, sent through carbon electrodes suspended in molten iron, heated the metal and oxidized the carbon. Because .no conventional fuel was used, the electric furnace added no contaminants to the steel and allowed operators to adjust the final chemical content of the steel with great precision. Although expensive to produce, electric furnace steel's extremely high quality made it the choice for many critical applications.

I.

Electric Furnace, Basic OxygenFurnace and

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- With the

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Among latest developments within the steel industry was the introduction of the the basic oxygen furnace. Developed in the late 19405 and early 1950s, it, in essence, uses purified oxygen as an agent for the reduction of such impurities as carbon,

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--

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31 Although a number of designs for basic oxygen furnaces have phosphorous, and silicon. evolved, all basically blow oxygen through a water-cooled lance onto an iron and slag bath. Unlike the open hearth, the scrap and molten iron charge can be fed into the furnace in

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a m~tter of minutes. The oxygen furnace also has the advantage in terms of energy efficiency--the open hearth process requires the introduction of heat from an outside source and is 'wasteful because the heat has to pass through a layer of slag that lies on top of the molten bath. In: the oxygen method, the heat is a result of the oxidation processes that take place during the blowing of oxygen directly onto the molten metal; basic oxygen furnaces do not require outside sources of heat. These two advances resulted in a considerable reduction in the time required to prodce a "heat" of steel. While the fastest open hearths require a minimumof six to seven hours-for each "heat," the basic oxygen process takes less than an hour to produce the same tonnage. The Q-BOP, an oxygen process developed during the late 1960s, is a throwback to the Bessemer process, although metallurgically the processes are not at all similar. The Q-BOPvessel resembles the Bessemer converter because both blow the blast up through the metal bath from tuyeres placed at the bottom of the vessel. The use of oxygen instead of air produces a very different effect, however, from that attained in the Bessemer process. Most important is the absence of nitrogen in the blast ~hat is passed through the metal, thus reducing the impurities present in the steel. Oxygen also has the advantage of producing much higher temperatures and developing,better metallurgical practices during the process.

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is produced, all companies use similar means to form the molten steel into a finished product. At present, some steel is cast or forged into its final product. The methods employed are not significantly different, at least in outward appearance, from the processes described earlier for cast or forged wrought iron. method of reducing steel into a finished product, however, is by

Rolling

- Once steel

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The most prevalent rolling.

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From the steelmaking furnace, molten steel is poured into refractory lined ladles. From these the steel is carried by an overhead crane to a pouring platform where it is poured into cast iron molds. These molds are removed after the steel has solidified, but before it has cooled completely, and are taken to the blooming mill. At the blooming mill, the ingots are rolled into either blooms, billets, rounds, or slabs, depending upon what purpose the steel is to serve. This is accomplished by heating the ingot to a predetermined uniform temperature in a gas-fired furnace called a "soaking pit." From there the ingots'are passed through a series of rolling stands where the ingot is reduced in size and formed into the appropriate shape required by the finishing mill to which it is then sent. The finishing mills are responsible for reducing these blooms, billets, rounds or slabs into their finished forms of pipe, rod, wire, sheet or the wide variety of other products necessary for industrial .and commercial needs. The rolling mill is a product of the development and ingenuity of American technology. An example of this advanced technology can readily be seen in a continuous hot strip

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mill, and this is only one example amongmany. Steel slabs two to seven inches thick are fed into a train of roughing stands at one end of the mill and are reduced in thickness while being held to a uniform width. From there the slabs are sent to the finishing mill where their thickness is reduced again. At this stage the steel is only a fraction of an inch thick. Its length, however, has increased greatly. In a continuous mill, each steel piece may be undergoing reduction in three or more sets of rollers at the same time. The timing of the steel moving through the various ro~ls is critical. The steel sheet reaches speeds of 1800 feet per minute as it comes out of the'final rollers and is either cut to the desired length or is wound into coils. LABOR The early iron and steel mills operated to a great extent on human labor. A man with a strong back was the most efficient iron and steelmaking machine a companycould install. The folk hero of the steel mills was a mythical seven-foot tall man made of solid steel. According to legend, when asked his name by Hungarians who wprked in the mill, he answered Joe Magarac (Mah-zhe-rahk). Magarac is the Hungarian word for jackass. Whenthe men laughed at his being named Joe Jackass, he retorted: "Sure! Magarac, Joe, Oats me. All I do is eatit and workit same lak jackass donkey. Me. I be only steel mans in whole world, ya damn right." All early iron and steel workers had to be a little bit of a Magarac.
A.

first iron enterprise relied upon this type of human labor. In 1802 the Heaton brothers, James and Dan, constructed one of the first blast furnaces west of the Allegheny River. This furnace operated along the lines that-charcoal iron furnaces had been operating for the previous five or six
The Early Period

- The MahoningValley's

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centuries:

trees were chopped down, the woodstacked, and then burned to makethe

charcoal; ore was gathered from the bottom of streams and outcroppings in nearby cliffsides; and limestone was dug from the ground. The furnace's air blast first operated by a IItrompell and later by a waterwheel and bellows. The raw materials were carried to the top of the furnace by wheelbarrows pushed up a hillside ramp. Once there they were dumped into the open top of the furnace-.

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Everything that occurred at the furnace- fell under the direct supervision of the ironmaster. The iron's quality depended primarily on the skill of this man--the more astute the ironmaster. the better the iron. With no scientific method of testing his product, the ironmaster depended solely on his experience to produce a good product. His skill took years to develop. The ironmaster judged when the iron furnace was ready to tap by the color, the smell, and, some say, the taste of the metal. Iron and steelmaking remained a skilled trade for many years. In the wrought iron industry puddlers stood by open furnaces stirring the bath with long bars until the iron turned into a sponge-like mass. The mass was then formed into balls weighing two or

three hundred pounds apiece and were taken to a press where they were madeinto bars
or blooms. Only the puddlers' skill enabled them to knowwhen the iron was ready for

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the press. .
Rollers were also men who had spent years mastering their craft. With no entirely accurate method by which to judge roll pressure and with human labor alone to help pull the sheets through rolls, rollers had to depend upon their years of experience to produce the necessary thickness and smoothness of the flat rolled sheets. ~ ) .

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35 Al~ost every occupation in the mills required highly-skilled labor. This skilled labor generally was supplied by men of Anglo-Saxon or Irish background. Many of these men had learned their trade in the English mills and factories, and in many cases the skill was passed from father to son. These skilled laborers constituted a tightly knit group; they were almost a closed society resistant to any type of change that would endanger their jOb or status in the mills. As mechanization of the steel mills took place, however, this closed society began to break down. ....
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discovery of better blast furnace methods, the introduction of the Bessemer and open hearth processes, and the development of modern metallurgical techniques, the making of iron and steel was removed from the realm of the I'black arts. II The skill of the master was no longer needed to produce large amounts of uniform, high-quality iron and steel. Now, because of the immense tonnage of iron and steel produced, the steel companies needed large numbers of semi-skilled and unskilled men rather than a few highly skilled men. Pre-industrial work habits disappeared as time clocks and efficiency experts dictated work schedules. Skill became secondary to durability. These changes fundamentally altered the character of the work force in the steel plants.
~he Modern Era
IMMIGRATION

- With the

The first

settlers

of the Mahoning Valley were descendants of the English,. Scotch-

English, and Scotch-Irish who first settled along the east coast 1n the l6~Os. Many of these people of Anglo-Saxon background established the Valley's mills in the mid. 1800s. They supplied the bulk of the labor for the mills of this period most of which were relatively small affairs producing a limited amount of iron products. With the

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rapid expansion of the railroads during and after the Civil War, a huge demand for iron and steel arose. The Bessemer and open hearth processes, along with improvements in blast furnaces, made it possible to meet this demand. However, this rapid expansion created a great labor shortage in all steelmaking areas of the country. The demand for labor was filled by the tidal wave of immigrants which flooded the United States. In all, fourteen million immigrants poured into the country between 1860 and 1900, and some eighteen million more followed between 1900 and 1930. These immigrants 1ef~ their homes for a variety of reasons, ranging from a desire to escape poverty and persecution to a desire to make their fortune' quickly and then return to their former homes. In any event, upon arriving in the United States the immigrants needed jobs, and most, by choice or need, ended up in the factory or in the mines. With the growth of the steel industry, urban areas sprung up around the mills. Steel manufacture dominated the cities near the factories: steel constituted five-sixths of the industry in Young~town, one-half in Pittsburgh, and one-fifth in Cleveland by the early 1900s. Into these and other such cities poured the immigrants seeking work in the mills. Unlike earlier English and Irish immigrants, this new group did not speak English. Their customs and backgrounds differed completely from the Anglo-Saxon culture which confronted them in the United States. These 'Iforeigners" overwhelmed' the cities and towns around the mills. A Youngstown Vindicator article in 1924 commented that in Young~townit seemed that "seventy-five percent of the people here are foreigners." By 1925 in the nearby town of East Youngstown (now Campbell)~ the foreign-born population so outnumbered the few Anglo-Saxon farmers of Coitsville Township that they constituted over ninety percent of the towns population. Partly by necessity and partly by choice, the new.

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comers grouped together with others from their country of origin. Thus in Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley Polish. Greek. Russian. Slovak. and Hungarian neighborhoods emerged. The process of mechanization in the steel industry was not smooth; mechanization did not

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take place instantly. In some jobs. such as puddling. the need for highly skilled labor was eliminated altogether. The new immigrants filled these unskilled jobs. The older skilled English and Irish workers were either bumped back to semi-skilled positions moved up in rank to foremen and supervisors. Some. of course. simply remained in their skilled jobs. This created friction or tension within the labor force. The or

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English-speaking population of the mills resented these non-English speaking foreigners. The immigrants for their part realized that their lack of skills made them easily replaceable. Yet. the immigrants provided a stable labor force for the expanding steel factories. for they needed the money. Although nearly twenty percent of the newly-arrived immigrants intended to work temporarily in the milTs and then to return to their native countries rich. most were more interested in settling down in their new country and raising a family. In order to do this. they needed jobs. To keep the jobs meant doing what they were told. not causing trouble. and not angering the boss. The steel companies themselves ~elped control the labor force by providing company housing for the workers--such as the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyhouses in East Youngstown--and credit at the company store. A laborer who lived ina company house and was in debt to t~e company store was not likely to cause trouble.

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WORKING CONDITIONS
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Working conditions in the mills around the turn of the century were almost intolerable. Working ten hours on the day shift and fourteen hours on the night shift, the worker had only twenty-four hours off every two weeks. The pay scale for the majority of workers ranged from fourteen to sixteen cents an hour. The work itself, carried on in a hot mill, was physically exhausting and dangerous. Early blast furnaces were charged by hand as men called "fillers" dumped their charges of iron ore, coke, and limestone into the open tops'of the furnaces. Manywere felled by the heat or overcome by furnace gas. Open hearth workers shoveled scrap iron, dolomite, and lime into the raging furnace by hand. On the rolling mills, men called "catchers" used tongs to grab the metal passing through the rolls and flip it over the rolling stand for another pass-~more than one laborer returned home at night with burned or crushed fingers. Manyworkers lost their eyesight in explosions of hot metal or were crippled when a limb was mangled in the heavy machinery. The men continued to work, however, for they had wives and families to support and the company store had to be paid. Also, men always knew that they could' be replaced; if one "hunkie" did not want to work, there were twelve more waiting at the mill gate who did. The immigrant faced hatred and bigotry from almost every direction. A belief in Anglo-

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Saxon superiority was used as a weapon against these East European irnmigrants. Joseph Butler, an officer in the United States Steel Corporation, President of the American Iron and Steel Institute, and one of the most important men in the Mahoning Valley, described the immigrants as being "born and bred" to nothing but hard, mindless labor, much like cattle bred for more milk or a higher yield of meat per pound. Butler pictured them as IIherding together in droves, living on little or nothing, and hoarding

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39 most of their earnings.

II

Adding insult to injury, Butler also wrote that the immigrants
susceptible experiences to unsound social and political propaganda, which with government in the Old World." If Butler's

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were IImore than ordinarily reacts strongly upon their

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opinions were shared by the top steel company officials. one can easily imagine the attitude of the foreman. It was commonpractice for the boss to expect a kickback in return for hiring the worker in the first place. If for some reason the worker did not respond or if he angered the foreman in some other way, it was certain that the next morning that worker would be out of a job. At times it must have appeared to the immigrant that even his own children were not in sympathy. As they grew up, the children learned English and eventually they forced their parents into learning the new language. These children of immigrants knew that they differed from children born in America, and they felt the resentment of native born children. be respected. They wanted to fit into this society and they wanted their parents to While speaking your own language at homemight be acceptable, when in

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public the children wanted their parents to speak English. Moreover, in marriage they were not content to restrict their amours to fellow countrymen. Assimilation into American culture was difficult, but nevertheless, ongoing. In 1929, with the stock market crash and the onset of the Depression, politicians found themselves suddenly vulnerable. The immigrants along with their sons and daughters saw an opportunity and took it. Immigrants ran for a variety of public offices'--from Mayor and City Council to dogcatcher. Often, they won. Before 1929 immigrants were not a political force in the Mahoning Valley. As they became a force to contend with, they were transformed from Hunkies, Polacks and Dagos into Hungarians. Poles and Italians.

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The Poles and Italians Italian-Americans, An ethnic heritage
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and others then moved into the status

of Polish-Americans and

and during times of crisis, such as World War II, just plain Americans. became a source of pride, not a stigma.

UNIONISM

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This report is not intended to recount industry. However, a brief summary of seems necessa~y since it became such a we shall call attention to some of the union recognition and acceptance.

the entire history of unionism in the steel the union's development in the Mahoning Valley powerful force in the Youngstownarea. Thus, highlights of the steelworker's struggle for

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By the second decade of the twenti~th century, conditions in the mills could not continue as they were. The problems caused by long hours, low pay, and hazardous working conditions, eventually had to be corrected. Workers could be pushed only so far, no matter how much they needed a job. The first sign of real trouble in Youngstowncame in early 1916. The Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyhad received many World War I orders for steel when the workers struck the planti Nearly 1,000 of 7,500 workers employed at the Sheet and Tube were willing to risk their jobs by striking. The strikers gathered at the Wilson Avenue bridge entrance to the mill in East Youngstown. James A. Campbell. President of Sheet and Tube, announced a pay raise for commonlabor from nineteen and one-half cents an hour to twenty-two cents, time and a half for overtime, and double time for Sunday. Campbell felt that talking to the men and threatening loss of jobs would bring the situation under control. Whenthe strikers refused the offer and demanded twenty-five cents an hour, the residents of East Youngstownbecame uneasy. After a workmanwas arrested, two hundred of his friends stormed the Municipal Building )

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and secured )

his release.

Mill

guards then sealed off the entrance to the plant. occurred on the Wilson Avenue bridge

According to newspaper accounts, a confrontation

when someonein the crowd fired a shot at the guards. In reaction, the nervous guards fired a volley into the mass of workers, wounding several and causing them to flee in panic. The strikers then broke into the Sheet and Tube offices Whenthey lost control at the bridge and of the blaze, it spread burned all
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the records they could find.

swiftly. the fire

Angered by the shootings, the mob refused to let the fire department fight at the mill offices. Strikers broke into nearby saloons and drank whatever with drink, set out to burn everything set fire in sight. to

they found, and having filled
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For several

hours, in a drunken frolic in ruins.

the strikers

to enough buildings

leave the business district

By the time a volunteer buildings

committee of citizens

was organized to halt the rampage, thirty-four
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with a value of one and a

half million dollars were destroyed. Several families escaped the flames only by chopping their way out of blazing buildings, and three men died of wounds as a result of the conflagration.
themselves.

A great number of the wounded had been shot by the strikers .

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Early on the morning of January 8 one thousand soldiers armed with machine guns and ammunition.
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arrived

in East Youngstown took sat near the

Whenthe three regiments of militia

command,a stunned peace returned. sites of their former homes. After

Many people were homeless and just

1916 and throughout World War I, union demandstook a back seat to the demands By 1919, however, unions were again in the forefront of steel news.

of the war.
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and tear gas. As the strike spread, ten marchers were killed in Chicago, three men were killed in Massi11on, two in Youngstown, and one in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. The steel companies laid in a formidable store of guns and ammunition. The YoungstownSheet and Tube Companyfurnished an inventory of its arsenal: 453 revolvers, 369 rifles, 190 shotguns, and 8 army machine guns. Republic Steel stockpiled 532 revolvers, 64 rifles with 1,325 rounds of ammunition and 245 shotguns with 2,707 gas grenades. The companies also furnished local law enforcement agencies with tear-gas guns and ammunition.-

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Fina11y the army restored order. Under the pressure of World War II, the strike was settled in 1942 when all four companies signed contracts with the union. The Youngstown Sheet and Tube had to reinstate discharged workers and pay $170,000 in back wages. Republic Steel paid $350,000 to men who were beaten and shot during the strike and over a half-million dollars in back wages to discharged workers. The United Steelworkers of America was now, finally, the bargaining agent for the country's steelworkers.
LABOR TODAY

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Labor in the steel industry today is a far cry from the early 1900s. Safety rules and conditions are enforced and the company and the unions for the most part are able to work together to solve the problems of the industry without resorting to violence or strikes. Labor and management relations continue to improve; today they are better than ever. The steel companies have realized that better working conditions increases the productivity of the workers. The unions have realized that cool, levelheaded collective bargaining can achieve union aims without the need for a financially crippling strike. The companies and the unions seemed to have achieved the wish of U. S. Steel President Benjamin F. Fairless. In 1952 he told the Union's Wage and

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Policy Committee, IIWemust find ways not only to work together) but to live together

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and understand each other1s problems.1I

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VI.

THEMAHONINGALLEY: A SHORT V HISTORY have been associated with the steel

Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley historically industry. )
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In fact,

the development throughout the valley would have been very different

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were it not for iron and steel. The growth of the Youngstown area was due, primarily, to the growth of the steel mills. New Yorker John Young was the person most reponsible for the establishment of Youngstown,

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the first

settlement in what is nowMahoningand Trumbull Counties. In the fall
The following

of 1796

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Young purchased from the Connecticut Land Company15,560 acres of land in the Mahoning Valley for $16,085.16. j spring he journeyed up the Ohio, Beaver, and After Young had built a cabin at Spring Common, Mahoning River Valleys with a group of surveyors to a spot known as Spring Common nd a there laid out YoungstownTownship. he brought his wife and children to the Ohio territory. Mrs. Young, however, did not like Youngstownand by 1804 she had convlnced her husband to return to NewYork. This ) ended Young's involvement with the town. Until the canal system was established and the iron and steel industry had developed,

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farming was the primary occupation of the residents in the Youngstownarea., In 1810, Youngstown had a population of 773 people. However, the nearby farming village of Poland, Ohio, had a population of 836. Thus Poland was the big city while Youngstown

was merely a small farm village. )

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In 1802 two brothers, Jamesand DanHeaton [or Eaton], beganerecting the first iron furnace west of the Allegheny River. The stone stack was located on Yellow Creek, near Struthers, Ohio. This furnace, which the brothers named"Hopewell," was put into blast in 1805. The furnace--which was built of native stone and used the side of a bluff as its back wall--never operated efficiently. The top of the furnace, some twenty feet above the base, was parallel with the top of the bluff, thus facilitating loading the furnace with ore, charcoal and limestone. The ore was found in the creek bed or in outcroppings in the sides of nearby hills; trees in the vicinity were cut for charcoal; and the limestone was mined in nearby Lowellville. Blast air was produced by a Iitrompe," which was a wooden tank with one opening at the top and another some ~istance down and at one side. Water from Yellow Creek was piped into the top of this tank. A considerable amount of air was carried with the water. This air was compressed by the weight of the water and thus formed continuous blast. Since the "trompell never worked well, neither did the furnace. In addition, the men complained that it was always cold and damp around the furnace. At best, "Hopewell" could produce two to three tons of iron per week. Whenall the workers joined the army to fight in the War of 1812, the furnace was abandoned. "Hopewell" never ran again. In 1807, Robert Montgomeryand John Struthers built the area's second furnace on Yellow Creek. While the furnace stack was similar to "Hopewell," it was equipped with a superior blast mechanism which utilized an undershot water wheel and. bellows in place of the troublesome trompe. Although this furnace was a definite improvement over "Hopewell," financial difficulties forced Montgomeryand Struthers to shut it down in 1812. It never operated again.

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Jamesand DanHeaton returned to the iron business when they built the area's third furnace in Niles, Ohio. This new furnace, named "Maria," was probably the best of the early Mahoning Valley charcoal furnaces. The Heatons operated this furnace until 1842. Eventually "Maria" passed into the hands of James Ward, who operated it successfully for a number of,years. The only early Mahoning Valley charcoal stack to survive into the raw coal era, the "Maria" furnace eventually became obsolete due to the rapid march of events and was torn down. The fourth and final charcoal iron furnace built in the Mahoning Valley was constructed in 1835 by Isaac Heaton, son of James, on Mill Creek. Knownas the "Trumbull" furnace, it was the first furnace built in Youngstown proper. The Heatons previously had owned an unsuccessful woolen mill on the creek and it was on this property that Isaac erected his furnace. The stone stack was nine feet across at its base and about thirty feet high. Trumbull furnace was capable of producing as many as three to four tons of iron per day. As was common with these early furnace operations, however, the are deposits soon were depleted and the timber was cut so far back that making the necessary charcoal soon became difficult. By 1850 the furnace had ceased operating altogether. At this time it appeared that ironmaking in the Mahoning Valley was at an end. Howe~er, two discoveries made in 1845 put the Mahoning Valley iron industry back on its feet. First it was discovered that raw coal could be used as the furnace fuel instead of

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charcoal and that Brier Hill block coal was the best coal for this purpose. The second discovery made was that of a deposit of high grade iron are in Mineral Ridge, Ohio. This combination of Brier Hill coal and Mineral Ridge black band are initiated a building boom in the local iron industry.

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48 Probably the honor of being the first person to use block coal as the main reducing agent in the blast furnaces belongs to Governor David Tod. Governor Tod owned a farm

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in Brier Hill that was underlayed with coal. For years he had attempted to sell the coal as a home heating fuel; and had even offered a free cast iron stove to anyone who would try a ton of his coal. Soon after Tod began the full scale mining of his coal, Wilkes, Wilkinson and Company, a concern in which Tod was a partner, built the IIMaryll furnace at Lowe11vil1e, Ohio. This furnace, which was specifically designed to use raw block coal as its fuel, was such a success that it started a coal mining boom in Youngstown. Coal mining became a major industry in the valley. The second major discovery--that of high grade ore in Mineral Ridge--was made by John Lewis, a Welsh miner, early in 1845. Lewis noticed a rock which was presumed to be slate while at work in the coal mines. After a closer examination, Lewis concluded that it was actually iron ore similar to a variety known in Scotland as IIb1ack bandll ore. A sample of the ore was taken to James Ward's Maria furnace and tested. The results indicated that the IIslate rock" was a valuable high grade iron ore which produced a fine-grained soft iron especially suitable for casting intricate patterns. Later, black band ore was mixed with other local and Lake Superior ores to produce an iron widely known as IIAmerican Scotch Pigll and "Warner's Scotch Pig.1I After 1845 the local iron industry grew rapidly. In the ensuing thirty years, no fewer than twenty-one blast furnaces were erected in the Mahoning Valley. To supply the demand for raw materials and to transport the finished products, the Mahoning Valley's entire transportation network was improved. Until 1856, the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal carried the bulk of freight into and out of the Mahoning Valley and thus

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49 played a crucial role in the valley's industrial development. Although the life of the canal consisted of time borrowed from the newly emerging railroads, it nevertheless moved an amazing amount of freight, and continued to do so even after the coming of the steam locomotive. The last barge, which journeyed down the canal in 1872, carried a load of limestone from Lowe11vi11e, Ohio to a Brier Hill furnace. Ironically, perhaps the major beneficiaries of the Canal's trade in Youngstownwere the railroads, for they learned from the Canal's financial success that a profit could be made in the region. As the heirs to the canal trade, the railroads were instrumental in the development of Youngstown's booming iron and steel industry. In 1848 the Cleveland and Mahoning Railroad was granted its first charter, and by 1856 the road was operating from Cleveland through Warren to Youngstown. Using the old canal bed as their right of ways, the railroads aided the growth of the steel industry to such an extent that the Youngstown area became the third largest steel-producing center in the country. At one time more steel was produced within the Youngstown corporate limits than in any other city in the world. In turn, the steel mills created business for the railroads. In his 1976 bicentennial history, HowardA1ey noted

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Youngstown'scontribution to the railroad industry: . "Because of the immensetonnage
of the local iron and steel industries, it was said that more trains of cars, per day, passed beneath Center Street bridge in Youngstown than anywhere else in the nation."

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Because of the tremendous improvements in steelmaking and the steadfast willingness of local citizens to invest in the local iron and steel industry, by the end of World War I the Mahoning Valley had acquired the nickname, "Little Ruhr Valley. II The flourishing steel industry brought thousands of workers into the area. No longer was

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Youngstownthe small farming village unable to compete with Canfield for the county seat because of its size. After mergers and consolidations, in 1919 the Youngstown area could rely upon four major steel companies--Youngstown Sheet and Tube, United States Steel, Republic Steel, and Brier Hill Iron and Steel--to provide the bulk of employment in the valley. Furthermore, the Youngstown area was one of the most progressive stee1producing areas in the world. The Brier Hill Iron and Steel Comapny, for example, was the first company in the United States to hire a chemist to improve the quality and to increase the production of iron and steel. In 1919 the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companybuilt the most advanced metallurgical laboratory in the world to study the steelmaking process. Youngstownwas a one-industry town and that industry was booming. The growth of the industry continued at a rapid pace until the 19305, when the Depression halted its rapid expansion. Growth resumed at the start of World War II and continued, but at a more moderate pace, until the mid-1960s. Production cutbacks, a strike, or any other problem that would slow production or close the mills brought economic disaster to the entire Youngstown area, so dependent was the economy on iron and steel. It was common to see three generations of steel workers in the mills: grandfather, father, and son all working together to make the Youngstown area one of the greatest centers in the world. steelmaking

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Since the mid 1960s, steel has not played quite so prominent a role in the Mahoning Valley's economy. However, the pervasive importance of steel in the Youngstown area was graphically demonstrated on September 19, 1977, when the Lykes Corporation--new owner of the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company--c10sed a large part of its Campbell

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51 Works and laid off approximately 5,000 men. A sense of shock and disbelief raced through the valley, for it was almost unthinkable that such a thing could happen. Almost immediately a local group of clergy and laymen organized in an attempt to save the Campbell Plant. This group, the Ecumenical Coalition, has generated community-wide support in its effort to reopen the plant under worker-community. ownership. The Coalition might not succeed, but its very existence indicates that steel is still vital to the economic health of the Mahoning Valley and that, when faced with a disaster, the community can unite for the commongood. Even with its major industry in a state of decrine, Youngstown continues to regard itself as a steel town. The industry may not playas major a role in the life of the community as it did in the earlier part of this century, but it continues to be a major force in the Mahoning Valley.

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VII.

YOUNGSTOWN TODAY

While Youngstown1s suitability
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from

an historical perspective as the site for a museum

devoted to the steel industry is reflected in the previous sections, some consideration

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also must be given to Youngstown's present ability to support a large museum facility. Museum pl~nners now recognize the necessity of making museums more readily available to and more convenient for the traveler in terms of access and accommodations. Initially,

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a museum may survive on support by the local population alone, but with the passage of
time it becomes imperative to attract visitors from outside the immediate area. Youngstown has the potential to attract tourists and the ability to conveniently accommodate them. (See Appendix VI for a statistical overview of Youngstown.)

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AUTOMOBILE ACCESS , Located midway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, two major steel-producing centers, and ( midway between Chicago and New York, arterial highway systems.

Youngstown is situated at the crossroads of the Eastern half of the United States.

Youngstown is bracketed by two major East-West
(the

The city rests between Interstate 80 and Interstate 76

Ohio Turnpike) and lies only a in the country. (

few miles from this intersection--one of the busiest

The volume of traffic on Interstate 80 has been estimated by the
Half of that figure represents out-of-state traffic. Interstate

Eastgate Development and Transportation Agency as approximately thirty thousand cars

and trucks per day.

76,
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which passes to

the south of Youngstown, carries between fifteen and twenty Youngstown connects with both of these major highways (See Maps.)

thousand cars and trucks per day.

via Interstate 680, which channels traffic through the heart of the city.

YOUNGSTOWN'S MILE AND550 MILE MARKETS 100
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REGIONALINTERSTATEHIGHWAYS SERVINGYOUNGSTOWN
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AIR ANDBUSACCESS
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The city operates YoungstownMunicipal Airport, conveniently located north of the downtown area. The Mahoning Valley is also in close proximity to the airports of both Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Greyhound and Continental Trailways also operate bus service terminals within the city limits. LODGING, RESTAURANT ANDSHOPPING FACILITIES Youngstown possesses a potential drive-by tourist market from which visitors for a major museummay be drawn. The city also has the facilities to conveniently accommodate these people. Over 2,300 roomsare available in the various hotels and motels scattered throughout the Youngstownmetropolitan area; mosta~ near the Interstate exits. Another 674 rooms are available in nearby Warren. Besides these motel accommodations, a large number of campgrounds are available within a forty mile radius of Youngstown. These provide camping ranging from primitive to full-facility sites for recreational vehicles. Included are five state parks: Pymatuning State Park, Mosquito State Park, West Branch State Park, Guilford Lake State Park, and Beaver Creek State Park. .
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Youngstown metropolitan area also offers good restaurants and excellent opportunities

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for shopping. The downtownarea contains two department stores and a number of smaller specialty shops. Youngstown has been committed for a number of years to the visual improvement of the downtownarea and, with the completion earlier this year of the mall area, has accomplished this goal within the retail district. The downtownarea is now not only convenient, but it is also a pleasant place to shop. The shopping needs of the metropolitan area are further accommodated by two major malls, the Eastwood Mall in Niles and the Southern Park Mall in Boardman. Here can be found a complement of

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department stores,
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stores,

restaurants,

and movie theaters.

The area also has

a number of other plazas and shopping centers Mahoning Valley.
OTHER CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/EDUCATIONAL

conveniently

located throughout the

ACTIVITIES

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Although the surroundings in the Mahoning Valley reflect the industrial activity with which the area is largely associated, the development of cultural and recreational activities has not been ignored. In the YoungstownPhilharmonic Orchestra, Youngstown offers a good symphonic music program. The orchestra produces five concerts yearly, presenting a full range of classical offerings, generally in conjunction with a famous guest artist. Performances are staged at Powers Auditorium, originally a lavishly ornate movie theater built in 1931 by the native born Warner brothers. The city also has the MondayMusical Series which are productions sponsored by a local civic-minded organization and feature recognized artists in solo performances~ Along with the SymphonySociety, Youngstown offers an excellent community-sponsored . amateur playhouse program. The playhouse started during the mid-1920s, utilizing as its first theater a converted stable which had been constructed in the 1880s and was used by Governor Tod1s son for keeping horses. The theater--known as the Arlington Street Theater--was located on Youngstown1snear north side and contained a 165-seat auditorium. The first performance at that theater was presented in January, 1928.
When the Community Theater forced to close ran into Street financial Theater. problems during The group, the Depression, it was

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the Arlington

however, had too much energy

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talent to allow this to interfere with the presentation of drama in Youngstown. They

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moved their operations to Idora Park on the city's south side. They also presented several plays on local radio stations during the lean Depression years. While efforts continued during this period to reopen the theater on Arlington Streett a fire totally gutted the building and terminated these activities. Instead, the theater group located potential new surroundings in a former movie house--The Ohio Theater. There, the playhouse group, referred to as the Youngstown CommunityTheater, presented a number of theatrical productions from 1942 until Octobert 1958. By that time, the quality and stature of the productions, as well as the number of people involved, had far outgrown the available facilities. A new building located near G1enwoodAvenue on the city's south sidet was planned and built. The first play in the new structure was presented in January, 1959. Today the Playhouse presents eight new plays yearly. Offerings span the entire repertoire of drama and comedy from Shakespearian tragedies to light musical comedies. The Playhouse, whose productions are well-attended by the Mahoning Valley community, also has a children's theater program designed to attract the interest and attention of younger members of the community. Youngstown State University also plays a vital part in the cultural and intellectual atmosphere of the Mahoning Valley. The 120 acre campus, located only a few blocks from downtownYoungstown, has a student enrollment of 15,000 and offers a wide range of degree programs on both the undergraduate and the graduate level. The 'University maintains a close relationship with the city's cultural, intellectual, business and

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industrial interests. This interaction with the city can be seen in the cooperation between the University library and the Youngstown Public Library. Housed within a
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short city block of each others the two libraries have ,developed a system which minimizes duplication and thereby procures greater efficiency from the dollars spent on acquisitions. The,University produces a number of plays, operas and musical offerings each year which are open to the public. ManyMahoning Valley residents take advantage of this by attending. In conjunction with the Dana School of Music, an excellent college at the University ~ specializing in music education, Youngstown State presents a varied series of classical music programs, including the weekly Dana Recital Series and other specially produced presentations. The Speech and DramaDepartment also offers four plays a year produced on the stage of Bliss Hall. Youngstown State University's lecture series presents a wide range of speakers from all facets of American public life. These lectures are delivered at Stambaugh Auditorium, located off campus on the city's north side, and at Powers Auditorium.
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also participates in a full range of varsity athletic competitions in affiliation with the NCAA Division II and the Mid-Continent Conference, a newhighly competitive conference which has quickly made known its presence in Division II. The basketball program under the guidance of head coach DomRosselli is housed in Beeghley Center. The football program, as well as several other varsity teams, will soon be situated in a new multi-million dollar all 'sports complex under construction at the present time.

The University

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57 The Butler Institute of American Art, with over 6,000 pieces of American art in its permanent collection, is one of the most respected galleries in the country. Butler

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Institu~e is one of only several art museumsin the nation devoted entirely to the collection and display of American art in all of its many facets. Organized in 1919 by Joseph G. Butler, Jr., one of Youngstown's foremost iron and steel managers, the art collection was first housed in Butler's home. The collection later was moved into a beautiful new facility designed in Early Italian Renaissance style by the noted architectural firm of McKim,Meade and White. The Institute is located on Wick Avenue, adjacent to the campus of Youngstown State University. The exhibits include an American Indian collection that is among the most complete in existence and a display of clipper ship models that is one of the finest inland collections in the nation.. A rare set of miniatures of all the presidents from W~shington through Kennedy and a group of 118 Currier and Ives prints share space in the structure with a valuable treasure of paintings and sculptures. The gallery attracts thousands of visitors each year to its special shows and regular exhibits. Located within several hundred feet of the Butler Institute is the Arms Museum,the home of the Mahoning Valley Historical Society. The Society itself was an outgrowth of casual meetings between several of the more prominent early settlers in the Mahoning Valley. It was chartered on Septemer 10, 1875, as the Mahoning Valley Historical Society. Organized for the collection and preservation of books, records, papers and interesting relics relating to the history and settlement of the Mahoning Valley, the Society moved to its present location in 1961. The Society's small museumis housed in IIGreystones,1I formerly the dwelling of the Arms family, one of the most prominent families of the Mahoning Valley and leaders in business and industrial activity within the area.

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By stipulation of the Arms bequest, the museum's first floor is kept exactly as it was during the days of the Arms family. The Arms' period piece possessions include family portraits, furniture, china, glassware, silver, linens, oriental rugs and art objects. The china and glassware are frequently changed to display the large and valuable collection acquired by the family. The second floor presents a history of the settlement of the Mahoning Valley and includes pictures, documents, early maps, relics, articles of clothing and furniture. The lower floor has a large exhibition room with pioneer farm and household 'tools, implements and utensils, antique toys, and Indian relics. Also on dis~lay is the sizeable Fellows Gun Collection. One of the most popular educational and recreational facilities in Youngstown is Mill Creek Park. Containing 1,467 acres, of which 917 acres are undeveloped, Mill Creek Park surrounds the creek bed and gorge that contain Mill Creek. The park features scenic drives, paths, three lakes, and recreational facilities. The largest township park in the country, it extends from the mouth of Mill Creek at the Mahoning River, a few blocks from central downtownYoungstown, through a picturesque gorge to an area south of the Boardman-Canfield Road in Boardman Township.

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The park owes its existence to the efforts of Volney Rogers. Born in East Palestine, Mr. Rogers movedto the Youngstown area to practice law. Rogers, an outdoorsmanat heart, fell in love with the natural beauty of the Mill Creek Gorge area. Motivated by the news that a sawmill companyhad purchased a large parcel of land along the east gorge, Rogers began to buy the area surrounding the banks of Mill Creek. Either through outright purchase, or through the purchase of options, he was able to negotiate contracts with 154 of the 196 people whoownedland along the gorge. While securing

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options on much of the land in the area, Rogers also enlisted the support of other 'likeminded individuals. Within a year of his first purchase, Rogers convinced the Ohio General Assembly to secure the land as a public park. Whenthe legislation passed on February 12, 1891, it required the acceptance of the project by a majority of residents in Youngstown. Volney Rogers' dream of a park was accepted by the people of Youngstown on April 6, 1891 by a vote of better than three to one. This was a full three years before the first Ohio State Park was established. Mill Creek Park differs from all state parks, hOwever, because it originally required a majority consent and functioned only with the financial support of the local citizens, and it still does. Muchof the early industry in the area was located within the present day park. Mill Creek offered an abundant water supply and the fall of the land through the gorge area produced the necessary power to drive machinery. One mill has been preserved. The building is the third mill at that location--the first two were washed away by floods. The present building erected between 1845 and 1846 houses a museum. Park officials have undertaken a study to rebuild the milling machinery in the hope of returning the building to its original function. The park also offers a number of recreational activities other than those specifically associated with the nature and history of the Mill Creek area. Three large recreational playgrounds incorporate areas for football, basketball, tennis, and playgro~nd areas for children with supervised activities in the summermonths. A thirty-six hole golf course also is available. Fifty picnic areas and over two hundred picnic tables are available for public use in the park as well as several cabins and pavilions designed for group use.

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Among the manyvaried recreational activities available in the MahoningValley to both the traveler and resident alike is Idora Park, an excellent ride-oriented amusement park
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enjoyed by thousands of people each year. Located on Youngstown's south side, adjacent to Mill Creek Park, Idora first opened in 1895. At that time, the facilities were meager, consisting of a merry-go-round, a dance hall, an outdoor theater, picnic areas, and a few caged animals. Idora Park quickly grew, however, into an excellent amusement park by adding a large number of rides and other entertainment. The dance hall, which at one time was considered one of the finest in the eastern United States, has hosted many of the biggest names in the dance band business. Idora Park also operates two roller coasters, the larger of which was built during the Depression. That roller coaster offers the flavor of the shakey, up-and-down, twisting and turning of frame-built coasters. The Idora Park merry-go-round, built in 1890, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. One of the most interesting events in the Mahoning Valley area (Mahoning County Fair) which is held yearly on the fairgrounds labor Day weekend~ Attracting more than'ha1f a million people beyond the immediate surrounding area, the Canfield Fair ranks organized and one of the largest county fairs in the country. The fairgrounds house is the Canfield Fair in Canfield during the yearly, many from far as one of the best

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seventy permanent buildings with a valuation of over $1.5 million, fourteen paved highways and a 6,400 seat grandstand. Attractions lnc1ude
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all of the activities expected at a first ra~e fair: shows with headline stars, midway rides, 475 concession stands, 1,400 feet of games, excellent food and a wide range of educational and agricultural exhibitions. Amongthe most interesting

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61 exhibits are the steam-powered farm machinery display and the Pioneer Village. The

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Village consists of a number of historic building~ that have been moved onto the fairgrounds and preserved there in their original forms. The buildings include Elisha Whittlesey's Canfield law office (1840), a one-room library (1910) which served as a branch library in a nearby community, a one-room schoolhouse (c. 1900), a blacksmith's shop (mid-1800s) originally built in Canfield to house a sawmill, a doctor's office (1913), a country store (late 1800s), a log cabin (1829), a railroad station (1870), and a railroad watchtower (c. 1880). The Mahoning Valley also houses a Historic Places. These landmarks and residents of the area alike. Greek Revival lines, today houses number of sites listed on the National Register of are informative and interesting for both visitors The Old Rayen School, constructed in 1862-66 along the YoungstownBoard of Education. Originally it

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housed the city's first
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secondary school.

Tours of the building can be arranged.

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'S;i:e OTI~Trti;am 'fto"'lmes'1"lc:T:Iufley"~ 'Do,ynooQ

home. McGuffey, famous for his Eclectic Readers, lived in the area for eighteen years and although none of the original McGuffey-associated buildings remain,. the site has

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been purchased and preserved by a local group.
National Historic

In 1966 the site was designated a

Landmark and a plaque was unveiled.

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The Austin Log Cabin, located in Austintown just west of Youngstown, is a reminder of America's frontier past. Although the specific history of the cabin is uncertain, the rectangular, two-story log house was probably built before 1820 by Judge Calvin Austin of Warren, Ohio. Available evidence indicates that Austin never occupied the house, but had it built as a speculative venture to 'ur~ s~tt1ers into the Austintown area.

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Trumbull County, also intersected by the Mahoning River, lies to the north of Youngstown. Several sites of historical interest are loca~ed here. Amongthese is the William McKinley Memorial. This large tribute to President McKinley, with its statue of the President surrounded by a massive columned structure, is located in Niles, McKinley's boyhood home. The nearby city of Warren maintains a number of houses and buildings of his~orical value centrally located in its downtownarea and generally referred to as "Millionaire's Row.1I Most of these structures, once the homes of Warren's first families, were built during the second half of the nineteenth century. Others, like the Trumbull County Court House and the public library, are governmental offices and are open to the public. Youngstown, because of its central location and the convenience of the network of interstate highways in the area, has the potential to draw visitors not only from the local community and the State of Ohio, but from a large portion of the northern part of the United States. Not only can visitors be conveniently accommodatedby available motel and restaurant facilities, the area offers a wide variety of cultural, recreational, and historical actlvities that may round' out a vis'it to the Youngstown area. A major museumdevoted to the steel industry would in no way interfere with or duplicate any of the other activities in the Mahoning Valley. In a very substantial way, an iron and steel museumwould serve not only to inject a measure of vitality into the local economY, it also would serve to attract new interest for many of these other activities.

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VIII.

POTENTIAL MUSEUMSITES

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While examining the Youngstown area for the theme of the proposed museum, the Planning Office found it natural to canvass the community for possible museumsites and to try to determine what items possibly could become available for collections and exhibits. After several lmpractical ideas for the proposed museumwere rejected, the theme of the dev~lopment of the steel industry was selected as a starting point for more intensive study. Then the examination of possible sites for the proposed museumbegan in earnest. Through interviews with officials from various steel companies in the area, public officials of the communities in the Mahoning Valley, and influential private citizens with an interest in the project, the Ohio Historical Society was able to determine that a wealth of material may become available to the Society to help produce the proposed museum.

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~ t Personnel from the YoungstownPlanning Office and the Office of Planning in Columbus toured the steel mills belonging to the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company(now Jones and Laughlin Steel), Sharon Steel Corporation, and United States Steel Ohio Works. One of the first observations to be made on a tour through a steel mill is that nothing is small. No matter what the age or condition of the particular mill, virtually everything is built on an enormous scale. A simple ladle to move molten metal is twenty feet high, a small blast furnace is one hundred feet tall and a normal tap at an open hearth furnace contains one hundred and fifty tons of hot metal. It soon became quite obvious that the design of a steel museumwould have to be enormous in

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size if it were to convey the feeling of an actual steel production plant. mind, the Planning Office took steps to select a potential museumsite.
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With this in

A good urban museumsite should be large enough to provide adequate building, parking, and display space; it should be easily accessible from major highways and, if possible, it should have some historical connection with the theme of the museum. Several areas in
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Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley meet these criteria. Due to excellent freeway access and central location, downtownYoungstownwas examined to determine if the proposed museumpossibly could be located there. On the east end of the downtownarea a- number of urban renewal plots of land are available. Most of the plots would be too small for the proposed museum, however, especia11y when visitor parking space is considered. However, one plot of land along the north bank of the Mahoning River, between the South Avenue and Market Street bridges, might be suitable. The land now belongs to the Republic Steel Corporation; it was the site of the old Republic Steel Bessemer Plant, now demolished. In the first quarter of 1979, the City of Youngstown will apply for a grant from the Departmeht of Housing and Urban Development to purchase the 35.95 acres and improve them for use as an industrial park. The City plans to request allowance for adding an entrance to the land between the Cedar Street and South Avenue viaducts. This will provide excellent access to the land from the east end of the downtownarea. Conversations with the mayor of Youngstown and the head of the city's Economic Development Agency led the Ohio Historical Society to believe that if the Society does select this land as a site for the proposed museum, the property can be obtained at little or no cost. The site's major drawback is its size. Since this land is nowscheduled to become the site of an industrial park, only a small portion of the

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space could be allotted to a museum. (For further renewal sites, see Appendix II.)
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information on this and other urban

Another potential site, presently owned by the Republic Steel Corporation, is near the east end of Youngstown at Center Street. This site is now an active steel mill. However,
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Rep~b1ic's plans call for the three blast furnaces and coke plant to be shut down as new facilities are constructed in Warren, Ohio. This site does not appear as desirable as other potentia~ sites because it is not centrally located, although it does have excellent access to the new freeway system. Furthermore, at the moment its availability is questionable due to its status as an active steel-producing facility. Other possible sites, although not as potentially available for the Youngstownmuseum project, include land in the now-closed portion of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Campbell Works. However, land in this area is not as readily accessible by freeways and major routes as the two previously mentioned sites. Furthermore, there is a possibility that the Ecumenical Coalition will be able to reopen the facilities as an active community-worker owned steel company. Even so, it still may be possible to acquire a site which was once part of a steel plant. Benefits would be gained by adapting an existing structure for a museumsite. Utilizing such a structure(s) would add authentic historic value to the museumas well as reduce costs. Several structures in Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley would be excellent for this purpose. One of the best complexes, but probably the least available, is the former Youngstown Sheet and Tube General Office and the Technical Center, located on U.S. Route 7 (Market Street) in BoardmanTownship. The buildings, built in 1958, are

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66 located on fifty-six acres of landscaped property and between them contain over 256,000 square feet of floor space. Because of the merger between YoungstownSheet and Tube and the LTVCorporation, the buildings are in the process of being closed and eventually will be sold. Within the 178,000 square feet of the General Office Building are an auditorium, a fully-equipped cafeteria, and at least 100,000 square feet of open space which could constitute a potential display area. The Technical Center houses 78,000 square feet with good potential for display purposes, as well as sixteen offices, 'twelve photographic and reproduction rooms, and a two-story open bay area which comprise 25,000 square feet of potential display space. (For further details on the buildings, see Appendix III.) The buildings, however, have three major drawbacks. First, despite excellent access from the freeways, the buildings are removed from the center of the city and their corresponding steel mills. Second, the purchase price of the buildings may be in excess of what the Society can afford. Third, there 'is a possibility that the Mahoning Valley Economic Development Committee will establish a 'national steel research center in the buildings. Anyone or a combination of these three reasons may preclude the Society from acquiring this site. Two other sites with structures already on them are located in the Brier Hill section of Youngstown. Brier Hill, once the home of Governor David Tod, was the location of the Brier Hill Iron and Steel Company. Brier Hill Iron and Steel merged with the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyin 1923. Two groups of structures are located just off the Route 680 exit on U.S. Route 422 and are less than a mile from the Route 80 exit in Girard, Ohio. The first and least desirable structure is the old Brier Hill

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67 Division Office building, built in 1929 by the YoungstownSheet and Tube Company. The six-story building is now for sale under private ownership. Although the brick and steel "I" beam constructed building contains 9,000 square ~et of space per floor, it is in need of major renovation. The building possibly could be purchased rather cheaply, but the cost of renovation and a relatively small property lot reduce the building1s desirability as a museumsite. The second and"most desirable area also is located at Brier Hill and contains the

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Jeanette blast furnace. The facility currently is owned by. Jones and Laughlin Steel and was part of the merger package between Jones and Laughlin and the YoungstownSheet and Tube Company. The structures on this location include a blast furnace, eight heater stoves, a boiler house, a large empty casting house, and a blast engine house, as well as railroad trestles, stock houses and other small structures. (For complete information and history on the site, See Appendix IV.) Utilization of the Jeanette site would open an entirely new concept in museumconstruction and provide one of the most unique museums in the country. Preliminary meetings with first the YoungstownSheet and Tube Companyand then Jones and Laughlin Steel indicated that Jones and Laughlin would be willing to enter into negotiations with the Ohio Historical Society for exchanging ownership of the sixteen-acre Jeanette site, either through purchase of the site by the Ohio Historical Society or as a gift to the Society from Jones and Laughlin. Meetings also were held with the Ecumenical Coalition and with the United States Ste~l Workers Local 1462 to determine if either of these organizations would object to the Society acquiring the site. Neither organization objected, however, due to the enormous cost-over twenty-eight million dollars--of refurbishing the furnace as an active iron producing facility.

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Jeanette first was put into blast in 1918 and is now the smallest blast furnace existing in the Mahoning Valley. Because the furnace site is east of the Division Street bridge (Route 711 and 680), it is removed from the rest of the Brier Hill Plant. Standing alone on the banks of the Mahoning River, Jeanette is a handsome edifice. With proper restoration the site could be made into a unique and noteworthy museum. Membersof the Office of Planning in Columbusand the Youngstown Planning Office have toured the Jeanette site several times to determine if the facility, properly renovated, could be the central focus and primary exhibit of the proposed museum. The qualities of the Jeanette comp1ex--excel1ent accessibility, large amounts of needed space, and historic significance to the Mahoning Va1ley--qualify the site as a potentially superb museumdedicated to iron and steel. Another consideration worth noting is that although most iron and steelmaking equipment can be moved to a museumsite, moving a blast furnace would be prohibitively expensive.
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Additionally,

the furnace is located across the Mahoning River from the United States

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Steel CompanyOhio Works. This plant, presently operating at a reduced rate, probably will be closed within the next several years. The Ohio Works contain the wor1d1s only operating steam-driven blooming mill, which was built circa 1907. Someday it may be possible to add this superb old mill, with its three-story high flywheels, to the proposed Youngstownmuseumat very little cost. The Jeanette complex and the Ohio Works are connected conveniently by private vehicular and railroad bridges across the Mahoning River.

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Acquisition of the Jeanette site would mark another contribution to historic

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preservation

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by the Ohio Historical Society. In the near future there will be no blast furnaces left in the Youngstown area. The four blast furnaces in Campbell will shut down by the end of 1979. The three furnaces of Republic Steel will close down shortly thereafter. Jeanette already is out of blast, and only one furnace at the Ohio Works is operating presently. Because of their value as steel scrap, every non-operating facility will be disassembled and fed into open hearth and BOFfurnaces to make new steel; in this way the old Bessemer plants gradually vanished. Within the next few years, the skyline of the Youngstownarea, once silhouetted with twenty-seven blast furnaces, will be flat. Whatever site is selected for the proposed museum, new structures undoubtedly will have to be built to house collections, displays, and archives; to function as an orientation center, and to provide the necessary space for offices and storage. The Youngstown museumwill need approximately 41,000 square feet of building space to ensure adequate room in which to operate a successful museumprogram. This space would provide room for orienting visitors about to tour the museum, as well as house exhibits (mill models, photographs, artifacts, etc.) and a collection of steel company archives which the Society plans to acquire. Historical collections require care, and museumitems must be stored in a secure, controlled environment, safe from the ravages of moisture and heat. Artifacts must receive restoration or conservation to ensure their longevity and space must be provided for the laboratories and photographic rooms that would be necessary for this restoration and preservation. The new structure or structures can be constructed on a factory site, such as the Jeanette site. It also might be possible to construct the new facility within an

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existing industrial structure. While a factory building is muchtoo di.fficult to heat and weatherproof, the "building-within-a-building" concept cou.ld answer the problems of heating, insulation and weatherproofing.

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IX.

COLLECTIONS policy is a fundamental part of any good museum to employ artifacts as a part of their of our material

A coherent and comprehensive collections program.

Museumsnot only have a responsibility educational for future generations.

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overall culture

program, they also have a duty to preserve portions by definition they are not museumsif

While museumsare no longer merely open storehouses of they ignore three dimensional

the relics materials.
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of the past,

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A collection

of steel mill

artifacts

would be quite

unlike

any ordinary

museumcollection. ingots, molds,

Ladles, open hearth furnaces,
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crane hooks, hot-metal

cars, rolling

stands,

and other items are weighed in at tons instead of pounds. artifacts heavy, they also are huge; fifteen

Not only are some of the an

to twenty feet high is not an 'uncommon

height for items used in steel manufacturing. Items such as these should provide . excellent attraction for the proposed museum.
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Furthermore, several area steel mills have mill models that would make excellent displays for the proposed museums. Amongthese are three model mills built by the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companyduring the mid-1930s. There is a complete seventy-nine inch hot strip model, a butt weld pipe mill model and a seamless pipe mill model. Built to exact scale, all of these models are working models; they each produce a product.. As with other steel artifacts, they are also heavy. The seventy-nine inch hot strip model alone weights over three tons. l t ! \t 11 (For further information on the models, see Appendix V.)

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Models such as these three and others produced by Republic Steel
manufacturer of steel mil 1st may be available the proposed museum.

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Society for use in

to the Ohio Historical

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Along with large itemst such as the modelst area mills also maintain collections of photographs, printed material and records. YoungstownSheet and Tubet alonet had a photographer on its staff since 1903 and saved every negative ever taken. Steel companies often regard these materials as worthless and they eventually end up in the land fill when the company runs out of storage space. A museumdevoted to the iron and steel industry can preserve these photographs, publications and records in an active archives program. The museumcould become a repository for all steel companies and a major research center for future scholars studying the industry. Both to insure an adequate supply of artifacts suitable for exhibition and to preserve expendable itemst the YoungstownIron and Steel Museum must pursue a vigorous collections program. Artifacts must be sought out ~ith diligence--it is not enough to depend on unsolicited donations. Such an effort requires a great expenditure of staff timet first to determine what is needed and then to seek it out. Curators must be sensitive to the industrYt both past and presentt in order to realize what artifactst collections. records and other steel related items are important to demonstrating the development of the iron and steel industry. They must have contacts with various steel. companies in the United States to insure that valuable material is not discarded with the thought that IInobodywould want this junk. II.

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73 The broad outlines mentioned here will allow the YoungstownIron and Steel Museumto establish it~elf as one of the most unique museumsin the United States. Not only will the people of Youngstownand the Mahoning Valley be able to take pride in their heritage but people from the entire country will be able to see the ways in which iron and steel has played a .major part in the development of the United States.

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X. EXHIBITS
Exhibits will be the principle product of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumproject. program that the collections of artifacts are program that

It is through a vigorous exhibits
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presented to the public. It is also through a well developed exhibits the museumfulfills most of its educational goals. Ideally, several fundamentally different types of exhibits will will

be employed at the produce an exciting

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Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. Together these exhibits and informative museumcapable of providing standing of the history of the American iron and steel

museumpatrons with a thorough underindustry.

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FORMAL XHIBITS E Upon entering the museumfacility visitors first will encounter an orientation needed to better utilize the center will be to establish a from task. program. This will provide them with the information remainder of the museum. The goal of the orientation

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general outline multi-image

which can then be developeQ throughout the rest of the museum. A or film tracing the development of iron and steel difficult

presentation

ancient times to the present is one method of accomplishing this
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The formal exhibit

area will

expand upon the orientation

exhibits,

employing" artifacts, touched upon scale models,

graphics, and audio-visual aids, and examining more carefully the topics in the orientation. Due to the enormous size of many original artifacts, ( photographs, films, and other media must come into play.

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75 A general outline of these exhibits 1. What is iron
A. Physical properties B. Chemical properties What is steel A. Physical properties B. III. Chemical properties

might include:

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The geology of iron A. Raw materials

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1. Iron ores 2. F1uxes 3. Fuels
Geographical distribution of raw materials

1.

Economic influences

Ancient ironworking A. Africa B. Orient Greek and Roman Pre-Modern European C. D.

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European heritage A. Medieval ironworks B. Iron in the Renaissance Revolution C. The Industrial The New World A. Early ironworks

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76 B. Iron in American Revo1uti on 18th Century

VII.

C. Early 19th Century and late The blast furnace A. B. C. Evolution of design New techniques The end product furnace today

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D. The blast Casting
A.

Properties
Evolution

and uses
of techniques

B. C.
IX.

Modern casting Properties and uses techniques

Wrought iron A. B. Evolution of production C. Modern techniques Steel A. Properties Evolution and uses of production techniques B. C.

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Modern techniques and rolling of technology and other techniques of processes Basic principles Evolution Modern techniques heat treating Description and explanation

XI.

Forging A. B. C.

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XII.

Welding, A.

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B." Uses and importance

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XIII.

The Workers A. Work during the colonial and early national periods

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2. B.

Who the workers were

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The work that they performed 3. Social, religious and economic factors Work in the 19th Century l. The skills required 2. . Wages, hours and housing 3. Job safety
Immigration

l. The early period, 1614-1860
2. 3.

4.
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The IInewll i mmi ra t ion, 1870-1930 g The ethnic community Problems of assimilation

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5. Post World War II migration D. The Union l. The earliest attempts 2. The drive for recognition 3. The Depression and NIRA 4. Recognition and Little Steel 5. The union today The Company
A.

Early years

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small scale enterprises

B.
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Newtechnology and new business methods) 1860-1900 1. Integration

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2.

Cost accounting

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C. D.

Prosperity, Challenges

1900-1930 of the post-World War II peri od

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Foreign competition

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Environmental control

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3. Newtechnology The Products A. Historical survey of the products made of iron and steel B. Importance of industry to an economy and society

LARGE ARTIFACT EXHIBITS

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One of the major benefits to be derived from establishing an iron and steel museumin Youngstownat this time is the possibility of acquiring actual iron and steel production machinery. With the conversion to new mqchinery and the phasing out of all types of older equipment--from blast furnaces to rolling mills--the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumhas the chance to acquire some prime artifacts. These items can be employed in an exhibits program. Through the display and interpretation of this type of artifact, museumpatrons will be exposed to the reality of iron and steel production on a scale unobtainable in a more traditional exhibit program. The sheer mass

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of these artifacts

providesan impact that words, pictures,

and models can never portray.

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The most feasible means of exhibiting this type of material is to situate them in a large existing structure. While they will require maintenance, such as occasional painting, they will not require the environmental controls necessary with more formal exhibits.

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Rather than encasing the item, the visitor would be enclosed in a controlled-environment IIshellll from which he or she can look at and examine the machinery. A variety of audiovisual and graphic aids will explain the items--how they work and their role and significance in the iron and steel industry. Whi1.emuch remains to be done in determining what is available to exhibit it, somepreliminary concepts can be put forward: and what is the best way

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1. A variety of representativ~ machines should be presented. 2. The exhibits should reflect the evolution of the industry as a whole. 3. Each piece of equipment should be interpreted to explain its purpose and method of operation. 4. The relationship of worker to machine and the overall role of labor in production must be examined. In order to accomplish these goals, a numberof different machines need to be included. A representative list might include: 1. Blast Furnace 2. Puddling Furnace 3. Crucible Furnace 4. BessemerConverter 5. OpenHearth Furnace 6. Coke Battery 7. Rolling Equipment 8. Forging Equipment 9. ladles

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10. Transport Equipment 11. .Prime Movers 12. Assorted Subsidiary Equipment All of these itemss of courses are not available at this time. Somemay become so in the futures while others may have to be reconstructed. The primary requirement for this program is a commitment to it) a relentless search to obtain the necessary components, and the facilities to house the program.

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The full implementation of the entire exhibits program will not take place at once. Over a period of time additional development can enhance the original presentation. Initial success will add impetus to a continuing program of exhibits which has the promise of being one of the finest in the United States.

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XI.

ARCHIVESPROGRAM

In order to enhance the educational plans call
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impact of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum, with the

for the creation

of an archives program to operate in conjunction

museum. Although the plans and details of this endeavor are in the early stages of development, tt is believed that Youngstown can becomethe location not only for a unique museum,but also a center for research devoted to the early development and growth of the steel industry. As of this date there are no centers for the study of the steel industry anywhere in the country. The role of the archives center will be twofold. material. The first For this
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function

will

be to locate,

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collect

and preserve important archival and cataloging,

important facet of archival rely on the many

collection it

the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum will

years of experience of the Ohio Historical
is important that the research material program.

Society.
benefit

Oncethe archives are collected,
that the archives have easy and

the widest number of people through

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an extensive educational

This goal requires

comfortable access, that they be properly be provided. The National about all trained,

catalogued and that space for ongoing research

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Iron and Steel Archives Center will industry

be a facility

from which research Utilizing a

facets of the iron and steel

may be undertaken.

professional staff, archives covering a wide range of steel-related matters will be acquired. As envisioned, the material 'wil1 include both local and national

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archives concerning the history of the formation and development of the iron and steel industries. The center will also have a program devoted to the acquisition of documents concerning the history of the labor supply for the industry (both native American and. immigrant) as well as the subsequent development of the United Steel Workers of America and its predecessor movements for the organization of the steel workers. Included in the archival program will be an extensive oral history project to record and preserve the experience of the people who helped build the steel industry. This is a new and vital method of historical documentation and one that has not been extensively undertake~ for the steel industry. The Ohio Historical Society recognizes that the collection of business records by public agencies is a delicate subject within the business community. For this reason, the archives program will focus its early. acquisitions on records and documents of a nonsensitive, but historically significant, nature. Negotiations for the acquisition of the photographic collection of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Companyand a complete set of that company's Bulletin magazine have already been initiated with Jones and Laughlin by .the Youngstown planning staff. The general reception by local officials of J & L for this material has been cordial and favorable. There are also a number of documents concerning the early steel industry already available in the public sector that have not been collected into a single location. The acquisition of these two types of materials will provide that basis for further expansion of archival material. As other steel companies become aware of the care with which the documents are handled and stored in a controlled environment and can view the benefits that will evolve from the study of this material to the better understanding of the steel industry and its history, negotiations to acquire the historic archives of other companies will be facilitated.

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A number of people in the local area have been contacted about creating an iron and steel archive center in Youngstown. The Youngstown Planning Office staff has discussed this project with industrial, union, civic, and academic officials and leaders in the community. Their response has been quite favorable (See below for a complete list.) enhance.the educational made readily will industry impact of the Youngstown Iron and study of the steel in one location industry. in Youngstown, available and its and many have offered their full cooperation.

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The archives program will Steel Museumby providing

the foundation for scholarly

With the necessary research material

the study of the iron and steel industry

be facilitated

and thereby increase the role in shaping our society.

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understanding of the history BUSINESS

of the steel

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Frank Haber Haber's DepartmentStore Frank Harris DowntownBoard of Trade R. E. Hatton District Supervisor, Conrail Gilbert James - Local Businessman and Memberof Chamberof Commerce Frank Johnson - Public Relations, Conrail West Johnstone Executive Director, Youngstown Chamberof Commerce ThomasMasters Masters Office Supply James McLaughlin - Local Businessman Howard Shafer Architect Fred Tod - Local Businessman and Memberof Chamberof Commerce

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LABOR

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GeorgeButsika

S. Clark
Reiss
James

Ed Mann

P.

- Director of Education, USWA - Assistant Director, District 26, USWA Gibbons - Editor, Steel Labor - USWA
- President,
Griffin

- Director, 1462, Brier 26, USWA(Retired) District Local Hill, USWA

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lABOR

(Continued)

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Dr. ThomasShipka

Donald Smith

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- local labor leader Assistant Editor, Steel Labor

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STEELINDUSTRY Henry Evans President, Sharon Steel Ronald Towns District Superintendent J & L Ed Salt - Historian, Y S & T Perce Kelty Chief Photographer, Y S & T (Retired) Randall Walthius Public Relations, U.S. Steel

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William Brown - Public Relations, WeanUnited Public Relations, J & L James Butler Ted Patrick Superintendent Buckeye School, J & L James Walker - Assistant Superintendent, Fuel and Power, J & L Furman T. Blackwell Superintendent, Blast Furnace, &S &T (Retired) Edward Prokopp Superintendent, General Office Building, J & l Manager of Primary Operations, J & L Rodger Slatter Samuel Carbon - Superintendent Cold Strip, Y S & T (Retired)

Louis Vicarel : Public Relations, Republic Steel

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GOVERNMENT

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Sen. Harry Meshel Ohio Senator Phillip Richley - Mayor, City of Youngstpwn Rocco Mica Mayor, City of Campbell. Nicholas Deramo Mayor, City of Girard

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W. Doutt

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Director Development,City of Youngstown - - - Planner,of Eastgateof Development and Transportation Chief Planner, City Youngstown William Brenner
Julius Geewax

- Mayor, City of Niles Art Richard - Mayor, City of Warren John Palermo - Commissioner of Mahoning County George Bindas - Commissioner of Mahoning County Charles Barrett - Commissioner of Mahoning County
Feli.x Kikel

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Agency

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HISTORICAL

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Charlotte Cunningham Lowellville Historical Society William Masters BoardmanHistorical Society Campbell Historical Society Florence Galida Patricia Cummins MahoningValley Historical Society Elizabeth Szabo International Institute Pa. Anthropological Society John Zackuzia Richard Ulrich Canfield Historical Society Rebecca Rodgers Poland Historical Society HowardAley Local Historian Walter Damon-. Local H.A.P. Representative William Whitehouse Naturalist, Mill Creek Park Ken Zinz Austintown Historical Society

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RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY

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Diocese of Youngstown Rev. William Connal - Assistant Rector, St. Colombia Rev. Martin Susko Rector, St. Colombia Pastor Louis Furtomioto Pastor, First Christian Assembly Pastor Fred Ripper Youth Pastor, First Christian Assembly Ecumenical Coalition Rev. Edward Stanton Pastor, St. Joseph the Provider Rev. Leo Doboschevits Rev. George Pappas St. Michael, The Archangel Diocese of Youngstown Rev. Edward Witt Rev. George F. Winca St. Matthias Church
Aux. Bixhop William Hughes

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MEDIA
Catholic Exponent - Jr.- - Reporter, YounqstownVindicator Ohio Maqazine Ernest Brown, Dale Peskin - Reporter, Younqstown Vindicator Dennis LaRue - Reporter, Younqstown Vindicator

Jay Paris

Dennis Finneran Editor, P.hotographer,

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EDUCATION

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Robert Pond Superintendent of Salem City Schools Luther H. Gutknech - Superintendent of Hubbard City Schools Robert Hetrick Superintendent of Campbell City Schools Dr. John White. - Department of Anthropology, YSU Dr. George Beelen Chairman of Department of History, YSU Department of History, YSU Dr. James Ronda Professor Hugh Earnhart - Director of Oral History, YSU Ann Harris Department of Geology, YSU Dr. George Kelly Department of Biology, YSU Robert Griffith Director of Mahoning County Library Professor A.E.T. Morris Department of Architecture, Oxford University, Miss Patricia Wall Assistant Head Librarian, YSU John Cvengros Teacher, Campbell City Schools Teacher, Youngstown City Schools Larry Lushinski Donald Koma History Teacher, Youngstown City Schools Andrew Hammady History Teacher, YoungstownCity Schools

Herbert G. Thomas - Superintendent of Liberty City Schools Dr. Michael J. Elsberry - Superintendent of Struthers City Schools Dr. Robert P. Shreve Superintendent of Mahoning County City Schools John R. Holan - Superintendent of Warren City Schools

E. Catsoulis

Dr. John Coffelt

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- President of Youngstown State University
Superintendent of Youngstown City Schools

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XII.

THE MUSEUM AN EDUCATOR AS

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Education of the public

is the primary goal of the proposed Youngstownmuseum. Museums the public to history in a palatable museums educational processes concerning the past. In short,

in general perform the important role of introducing

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form and thereby facilitate are successful whiCh learning

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because they provide an inherent attractiveness can be developed and fostered without methods.

and a good atmosphere in

the disadvantages that often

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accompanymore structured

This is not to say that museumscan replace basic tool about the events of our past, but they can, institutions, develop programs through

education as the primary learning

working in conjunction with other educational which information can be readily assimilated.
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History

is generating increasing

interest

amongthe public with each successive year. appear on the best seller lists while

History books and historical

novels continually

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television and motion picture producers 'find that presentations with historical themes captivate audiences. Recently, the television programs "Holocaust" and IIRootsll have drawn more viewers than any previous television presentations. History wrapped in an

,

attractive

packagehas been and continues to be a most lucrative

and popular enterprise.
it should

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While many museumshave been successful be noted that Science and Industry fulfilling museumsare visited by thirty the dual role of attracting million

in meeting the needs of the public, and educating visitors. people annually.

museums, in the last

decade, have led the way in Science and Industry type of The success of this

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88 program can best be illustrated by the popularity of the Museumof Science and Industry in Chicago and, while the Smithsonian Institute draws a large number of visitors each year, it is their Science and Industry exhibits that consistently attract the most attention. Because the proposed Youngstownmuseumcombines both the general interest in history and in industry-related museums, along with the ability of museumsto serve an important educational function, this project has an excellent potential for a high level of success. As can be seen in the information presented in the previous sections, the steel industry and its development in the Mahoning Valley are ideal topics for historical treatment in a museum. While few people other than those actually involved with the steel industry are aware of the processes involved in making steel, the inherent nature of the industry lends itself to attractive treatment and an informative educational program. These two characteristics can be utilized by the planners of the Youngstownmuseum. The planned areas of coverage in the Youngstownmuseumhave been discussed elsewhere and do not need extensive reiteratio~ h~re, but it must be noted that the program is a diversified one that will appeal to every segment of the local and state-wide public. The museumwill undertake the very important, and to this point ignored, subject of the making and forming of iron and steel products, as well as an examination of the development of the industry within the Mahoning Valley. It will also deal extensively with the human dimensions of the steel industry, examining the interrelationship between the development of the steel industry and the development of the Mahoning Valley as a place to work and live. This dual scope will have a tremendous educational impact, because it demonstrates both the processes used by the industry to make its products

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and shows the pervasive influence of iron and steel community and all of its social structures.

on the development of the surrounding

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The immense size involved in the steelmaking process lends itself to a museumtreatment that is different from most of the other types of museumsnow available. Manyof the
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exh~bits in the Youngstown museumt as mentioned earliert will involve patrons in the exhibits and give them a first hand look at steel production. This kinetic approach will enhance the teaching function of the museum. Thist howevert is not the only type of exhibit planned and the museumwill incorporate a wide variety of exhibits designed to be informative to almost everyone. As part of its educational function, 'the museum will also incorporate a well-designed program of films and lectures that will extend the educational role into t~e community by providing a variety of programs at schools and other civic functions. These programs will be both educational and serve as a vehicle to generate community awareness of the museum. Visitation by school children will constitute one of the most important educational functions of the Youngstownmuseum. There are over 160,000 children enrolled in the

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various school systems in the four county area of Ashtabula, Trumbull, Mahoning, and Columbiana Counties. If the area from which children may be drawn is extended to a seventy mile radiust pupils from Western Pennsylvania, Cleveland and Pittsburgh would be included. It is projected that a museumdevoted to the development of the steel industry would successfully draw from these areas since they also are major steel centers and have no educational facilities with an industrial theme. The Youngstown Planning Office has corresponded with a number of school officials from the Trumbull, Mahoning and Columbiana County areas and has received enthusiastic responses, demonstrating the interest and need for the museum.

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In order to enrich the educational opportunities of the Youngstownmuseum, programs and services must be initiated to accommodate the students whose classes visit the facility. Educational packets must be prepared which explain to teachers how they can best utilize the museum. These packets also should contain orientation and follow-up materials which the students will use in their school prior to and after the museumtrip. Tours and lectures must be prepared for every grade level and must be so constituted that the museum's programs dovetail into the curriculum of the various area school systems. Classrooms and. demonstration areas must be incorporated into museumdesign to provide the ~ppropriate environment for learning. Special programs to aid handicapped and retarded children are also a necessity. The creation of a museumin the Youngstownarea devoted to the development of the iron and steel industry is an excellent educational opportunity not only for the residents of the Mahoning Valley, but also for people throughout the state of Ohio. The development of the steel industry and subsequent development of the Mahoning Valley, both industrially and culturally, are interconnected. Steel is the heritage, the Ilroots" if you will, of the valley. While most people in the area are aware of this, surprisingly few know how steel is made and even fewer know how or why the industry developed along the banks of the Mahoning River. This phenomena is particularly evident in second and third generation descendants of the first immigrants who worked in the Mahoning Valley mills. Social and economic mobility have isolated them from the work of their fathers and grandfathers. Generally, these steel workers were very proud of the skills and ingenuity required to make steel. Yet, many felt that a thorough assimilation of their descendants into society required a college education and white collar job. Because of this many steel workers have not encouraged their children to go into the mills.

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An iron and steel their children

museumwill provide these workers with a meaningful way to share with which has made possible this assimilation and upwat'd mobility.

the vocation

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History, although a discipline that is involved with the description and analysis of the past, serves a useful educational function in helping examine the direction in which society is headed. The Youngstownmuseumalso will serve this very important function. The recent events leading to the decline of steelmaking operations in, the Mahoning Valley have been well-chronicled. A museumdevoted to the steel industry in Youngstownconsequ~ntly will help the people to evaluate the future of the American steel industry as a whole by presenting its past. This is not to say that it will be the museum's intent to channel people in one direction or another concerning the policy decisions that must be made, but rather to present the historical foundation upon which new policies and new directions may be built. The Youngstownmuseumwill also serve an important state-wide educational function. As has been mentioned earlier, the primary function of many of the museumslocated in Ohio is the portrayal of the early settlement,'of the state and few have an urban emphasis. While agriculture is the backbone of the society and its development, it was industry, and particularly the steel industry, that provided the building blocks. Steel and steel products are and have been a pervasive force in the development of the state. Yet, the development of this industry has not received adequate recognition and treatment as a museumproject. Indeed, the primary goal of this museumis directed toward making people aware of the processes involved in making iron and' steel and "also how the organization of these

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92 industries museum.

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led to the development, and subsequent dependence, of a large metropolitan conununity. All Ohioans will benefit by this educational treatment in the Youngstown

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XIII.

BUDGET'

The proposed Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumis a large undertaking.
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The scope of the

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mus~um's content is truly national and not at all restricted to the Mahoning Valley. All aspe~ts of this important industry--labor, technology and economics--are to be examined in a-comprehensive overview. Additionally, the physical size is impressive. The simple fact is that this is an industry of.gargantuan proportions. Blast furnaces, rolling mills, coke plants and open hearth furnaces present new problems for museum curators and exhibit designers. The size of these artifacts precludes many traditional methods of storage, conservation and display. Yet, these artifacts must be integral ~arts of this museumif it is to accurately document the iron and steel industry.
MUSEUMPROGRAM

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The essential direction of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumhas been set forth both in this report and also in discussions and public meetings held in the Youngstownarea over the past several months. The response of the community, the industry, and government officials has been positive and enthusiastic. The degree of excitement which this project has generated was unanticipated. It points out, however, both the desire and the need for this type of facility.

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The estimates listed below represent a preliminary evaluation of the costs which will
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r be incurred. They do not reflect, however, engineering technical data. At this point in the planning process, cannot be developed. TYPES OFFUNDING studies or other highly absolute figures just

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The YoungstownIron and Steel Museum will require two distinct types of funding. Capital Improvement funds will be required for new building construction and architectural fees; for existing structure restoration, adaption and architectural fees; for the production and installation of exhibits; and for equipping the facility with the necessary assortment of museumand office accouterments. Operating funds will be required for salaries, building and collections maintenance, supplies and materials, and other miscellaneous expenses incurred in the daily operations of the museum. During the 1980-1981 biennium, the development of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum will require both capital development and operating funds. Capital develop~ ment funds will be expended to build one new structure; to rehabilitate, stabilize and adapt existing structures; and to construct and install exhibits. Operating funds will be required to pay research, design and construction personnel; to mount a major fund raising effort; and to purchase and maintain equipment and supplies. This budgetary program assumes that the thirteen acre Jeanette blast furnace site, presently ownedby Jones and Laughlin, will be donated to the Society. The entire program will be carried out on that site utilizing existing facilities and building one new structure.

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CAPITAL DEVELo.PMENTCo.STS:

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A. NewConstruction (o.ne Building): Lobby & o.rientation Area Auditorium (30.0.seats} Archives/Library Reading Room Archives/Library Stack Area o.ffices Classraoms/Demonstration Areas Mechanical & Rest Rooms

2,0.0.0. Sq. 3,0.0.0. Sq. 3,0.0.0. Sq. 17,0.0.0. Sq. 4,0.0.0. Sq. 6,00.0. Sq. 6,0.0.0. Sq.

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Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. Pt. Pt. Ft.

@$72 @$72 @$38 @$27 @$38 @$38 @$27

Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq. Sq.

Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. Pt. Ft.

$

144,0.0.0. 216,0.0.0. 114,0.0.0. 459,0.0.0. 152,0.0.0. 228,0.0.0. 162,0.0.0..

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$1,475,0.0.0.

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B. Existing Facilities: Adaption and restoration of existing structures to house exhibits, to carry out artifact conservation, and to serve as exhibits themselves in some cases. $1,675,0.0.0. C. Architectural and Engineering Fees: Implemented for both A and B above $ 60.0.,0.0.0. D. Exhibits Production and Installation $4,250.,0.0.0.
SUMMARY o.F CAPITAL DEVELo.PMENT Co.STS:

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A. B. C. D.

New Construction Existing Facilities & Engineering Fees Architectural Exhibits

$1,475,0.0.0. 1,675,0.0.0. 60.0.,0.0.0. 4~250.~0.0.0. $8,0.0.0.,0.0.0.

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PROPOSED CAPITALDEVELOPMENT FUNDING: A. State of Ohio
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$4,000,000

B.

Other, to include: Federal Grants Industry Donations Labor Donations Private Foundations Contributions
4~000,000 $8,000,000

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Individual

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OPERATINGUNDS F Under the present proposal, and collections acquisition project planning would be continued, but on a more intense production scale with a subsequent increase in staffing. Design development, script

(

would commence. As an important component,

a major

national fund raising campaign would be initiated capital development funds. "100" FUNDS 11 Positions + 21%Fringe Benefits

to secure the necessary non-state

(

FY"1980 $146,492 30~763 $177,255

FY 1981 $153,130 32,157 $185,287

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"200" FUNDS
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Rental (Realty Building and Utilities) Contract Services fund raising and script production Materials and Supplies Trave 1

'FY'1980 $ 15,000
50,000 20,000 7,500 5,000 $ 98,000

FY 1981 $ 15,000

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Printing

and Binding

50,000 20,000 7,500 5,000 $ 98,000

,

11300"
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FUNDS

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Audio-Visual Vehicles Office

Equipment

$ 15,000 7,500 1a 000 $ 32,500

$ 10,000 -02,500 $ 12,500 $295,287

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TOTAL OPERATING FUNDS, FY 1980..1981

'$307755

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98

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100 FUNDS

- 1980-1981
POSITION

Biennium
RANGE/STEP

( I..

1980

1981

1.

.(

2.

l\.( I

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3. 4. 5. Curator V (Research)

*Curator V (Coordinator) *Curator II (Research) *Design Specialist V *Secretary I

31/1 28/1 30/3
26/2

$ 16,661
12,542 14,456
10,982

$ 17,472
13,146 14,872 11 ,398

.

31/1
30/1 29/1 29/1
31/1 29/1
.

15,163
13,790

15,891
14,456

, I

6. . Curator IV (Research) 7. Curator III (Research) 8. Curator III (Collections)
9. Tech. Specialist 10. Tech. Specialist V (Conservation) III (Conservation)

12,542 12,542
15, 163 12,542

13 ,146 13,146
15,891 13,146

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11. Secretary

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26/1

-. 10,109
$146,492 30,763 $177,255

10,566
$153,130 32 ,157 $185,.287

+ 21%Fringe Benefits
.

*Existing staff.

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CONTINUED OPERATINGEQUIREMENTS: R Once the initial museumdevelopment is completed and the museumis opened to the public, the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum will require operating funds. These funds will be utilized to carry out the educational, collections, and maintenance programs necessary for the successful operation of this museum. Operating monies also will be used to update and improve existing
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programs and to initiate

some small-scale

new projects.

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The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumalways will prdvide these operating museum will funds.

have to rely upon the State of Ohio to institutions; sufficient grant

Museumsare not self~supporting funds from the private

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revenue simply cannot be generated by admissions charges and sales programs. 'While the continue to solicit sector and from federal programs in the years to come, it is difficult to secure these funds to meet operating costs. To provide some notion of the cost~ involved, the following budget for fiscal

l

biennium 1982-1983 is offered.
}

"100"

FUNDS 45 Position~

FY1982

FY

1983

$ 557,881
117~155

$

582,875

f

+ 21% Fringe Benefits

(
\

. 122,404

$ 675,036

$ 7bs,279

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.:<

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100 "200" FUNDS

FY

1982 25,000 25,000 50,000 15,000
35,000

"FY

1983

Exhibit Maintenance and Repair
<

$ 25,000

$

25,000

New Exhibits-Temporary New Exhibits-Traveling Collections Trave 1 Maintenance and Repair
and Materials

25,000 25,000 50,000 15,000
35,000
""

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,

Supplies

,
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.

.

Building Maintenance and Repair
Utilities
Shipping Printing and Binding.

50,000
75,000
15,000 25,000

50,000
75,000 15,000
25,000

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l"300"
I

$ 340,000
FUNDS

$ 340,000

(

NewExhibit Equipment
New Maintenance Replacement Collections Equipment Equipment Equipment
,

$

20,QOO

$ 20,QOO
20,000 5,000
25,000

20,000 5,000
25,000

Office

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New Audio-Visual

25,000

25,000 $ 95,000

$ 95,000
TOTALOPERATING FUNDS, FY 1982-1983 $1,110,036

$1,14Q,279

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100 FUNDS -

101

1982-1983Biennium
'RANGE/STEP 1982 1983 -

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POSITION

1.
4.

Director

2. Administrative Assistant 3. Secretary I
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36/1 30/1
26/1 31/1
30/1 29/1 29/1

$ 24,309 13,790
10, 109 15,163
13,790 12,542 12,542

$ 24,605 14,456
10,566 15,891
14,456 13, 146 13,1'46

Curator V
Curator
'

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5.

IV II I

I

6.
7.

Curator II I
Curator

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8. Tech. Specialist V
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9. Tech. Specialist IV
10. Tech. Specialist III

31/1 30/1
29/1

15,163 13,790
12,542

15,891 14,456
13,146

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Tech. Specialist
Tech. Specialist Technician III Technician III Technician III

III III ,

29/1 29/1 26/1 26/1 26/1

12,542 12,542 10, 109 10,109 10, 109

13 ,146 13,146 10,566 lOt 566 10,566

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16. Design Specialist 17. Design Specialist
18. Secretary 19. Typist I 20. Editor I

V III

31/1
29/1 26/1 3/1 31/1 28/1

15, 163
12,542 10 ,109 8,632 15,153 11 ,586

15,891
13, 146 10,566 9,027 15,891 12,043

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21. Photo Specialist

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POSITION

RANGE/STEP

1982 $ 15,1 63 15 , 163 11,586 11,586 15, 163 12,542

1983 $ 15,891 15,891 12,043 12,043 15,891 13, 146

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22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

A-V Specialist Archivist V Archivist II Archivist II Librarian V

V

27. Librarian II
28. Librarian I
29: 30. 31. 32. 33. Secretary Education Education Secretary Intern I Specialist Specialist I V II

31/1 31/1 28/1 28/1 31/1 29/1

28/1
2J5/1

" ,586
10 , 109 15, 163 12,542 10 ,109 8,070

12,043
10,566 1-5,891 13,146 10,566 8,445

,
1--

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31/1 29/1 26/1 2/1

.

34. Intern
35. Intern

2/1
2/1

8,070
8,070

8,445
8,445

36. Bldg. Maint. Supervisor II 37. Custodial WorkerSupervisor
{ 38. Custodial 39. Custodial 40.'Custodial 41. Custodial 42. Custodial Worker Supervisbr Worker Worker Worker Worker

.

31/1
4/1 4/1 2/1 2/1 2/1 2/1 28/1

15,163
9,235 9,235 8,070 8,070 8,070 8,070 11,586

15,891
9,651 9,651 8,445 8,445. 8,445 8,445 12,043

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43. Security Supervisor

44. Security Officer III

26/1

10,109

10,566

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POSITION

<:

45. Security Officer I 46. Security Officer I 47. Security Officer I 48. Security Officer I
+ 21% Fringe Benefits

RANGE/STEP.. 23/1 23/1 23/1 23/1

1982 $ 8t258 8t258 8t258 8,258 $557,881 117,1 55 $675t036

1983 $ 8,632 8t632 8,632 8,632 $582t875 122,404 $705,279

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SOURCES FUNDING OF

(

The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumpotentially can draw funding from several sources. This potential is one of the project's strongest attributes, for it means that no single source will be relied upon to carry the entire burden. 1. The State of Ohio stands to benefit from this museum. It will provide a unique and heretofore missing educational opportunity to this state's citizens--both young and old. The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum"stourist attraction potential and its recognition of one of Ohio~smost important industries is another benefit.
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By supplying a portion of the capital funding and assuming the primary responsibility for operating costs, the state would demonstrate its commitment to the project as well as providing an impetus for others to contribute. The museum will require continued support from the state, especially to cover da~to~day operations.

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2.
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Federal grant monies from the National Endowmentfor the Humanities and the National Science Foundation are a second source of possible funding. Several types of grant programs now in existence should be thoroughly inVestigated and pursued. Under most of these programs, funds are provided on a matching basis.

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Private foundations should be approached for support. Manyfoundations do provide funds for projects of this sort. The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum"snational scope and pertinent subject matter no doubt would stimulate the interest of at least several foundations. The steel industry is one of this nation's largest and most important businesses. This museumwill portray the evolution of that industry from its beginnings to the present. It seems only natural to request aid from the industry, for in many ways the project benefits them. Not only the exhibits program, but also the archives will be a source of pride and a repository of the heritage of the industry. The steel corporations, which have shown great interest in the project . .

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thus far, should be approached for financial assistance and for contributions of artifacts, graphic materials and for technical assistance.
To accomplish this on a national basis will require the full-time services of a competent and experienced fund raiser. This person must also possess an under~ standing of the industry.
5.

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The history of labor in the steel industry is a vital segment of the museum program. Like the industry, labor stands to benefit greatly from this museum.

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105 For the first time, a museumwill present the men and womenwho made the industry run. The tremendous impact of European immigration and of black migration will be told, as will the struggle and rise of the unions. Museumplanners have contacted union officials, rank and file members, and various ethnic organizations. All have been enthusiastic over the prospects for this museum. All of these groups should be asked to assist in making the project a reality. Once again, such an undertaking will require the services of a public relations expert who can explain the project and elicit various types of support.

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Many individuals in the Youngstown area have expressed a personal interest in this project. They are proud of the role which they and their ancestors have played in the growth of the iron and steel industry and they are anxious to participate in the project. This type of support probably is not confined to the Mahoning Valley, but will be found wherever iron and steel are major industries. The contributions which dedicated individuals can make must not be overlooked.

All of these sources should be explored in the development of this project. Certainly, support cannot be generated overnight. The project must be explained and promoted so that individuals and organizations can become aware of the goals of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. While hard work and careful planning will be required, it can and must be done if the museum;s to become a viable institution. (

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SUMMARY

The Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumis an exciting project.

For the first

time anywhere,

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a mu~eum,in the state of Ohio, will focus upon the processes and upon the development of the iron and steel industry. This vital industry has contributed significantly to the stature of the $tate of Ohio and is one of the most important determinants of American society as we know it today. The Youngstownarea is one of the best locations in the United States for an iron and

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steel museum. The city is at the center of an immense potential market. Located close by major transportation routes, Youngstown is easily accessible to that market. Public accommodations abound in the Mahoning Valley while other cultural and educational institutions throughout the city insure that this museumwill operate as one segment in an extensive overall program of humanistic enrichment. The history of the MahoningValley provides the background for such an undertaking that few locations in the nation can match. In the nineteenth century, the area was noted for its ability to produce large quantities of quality iron products. With the emergence of steel as the primary metal product in the twentieth century, the Youngstown area again emerged as one of the major steelmaking centers in the country and for decades the city of Youngstown held the unique position of producing more s~eel than any other city in the world. With the decline of steelmaking operations in the Mahoning Valley. Youngstown has become our ideal location for the:study of the iron and steel

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industry. While several steelmaking companies in the Mahoning Valley continue to lead the industry in the development and use of progressive steelmaking techniques, the valley also offers several abandoned mills which are excellent examples of early steelmaking operations and from which a wealth of educational materials may be procured. The Youngstownarea is also an ideal location for the study of the very important other side of the steel industry--the human factor. In fact, the Mahoning Valley can be considered a laboratory of the growth of the iron and steel industries in all of its facets. The Ohio Historical Society brings to this venture an expertise unparalleled nationwide. While the Society has the maturity to insure stability and realistic planning, it also has the enthusiasm and the willingness to be innovative which characterizes dynamically growing institutions. The Society's record of achievement over the past fifteen years is one unmatched by any other state historical society. It is easy to see that the Mahoning Valley will benefit from this museum. Employment at the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museumand visitation to it will bring money into the community as well as stimulate visitation to other area cultural institutions. On closer examination, however, it also is evident that all the citizens of Ohio will profit from the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. This museumwill enable all Ohioans to understand the complexities of the processes involved in making steel as well as the history and development of the iron and steel industry, an industry whose influence in society is pervasive. The educational value of the Youngstownmuseumis .a product which all Ohioans will share.

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Moreover, all Ohioans can be proud of the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum. The . progressive venture in museumconcept and design without doubt will draw national attention. Just as the Serpent Mound's fame is not limited to AdamsCounty, Ohio, the Youngstown Iron and Steel Museum's drawing power and impact wi.ll not be confined within the corporation limits of Youngstown. This museumwill be an important addition to Ohio's impressive and dynamic list of educational and cultural resources.

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APPENDIX I Many of the persons who will

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visit the Youngstownmuseumfacilities will have need of a variety of local services. Those remaining in the vicinity overnight will require hotel/motel accommodations. Manywill find the need to purchase products--newspapers, baby bottles, raincoats, or a myriad of other items. Certainly many will have at least one meal in the area.

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Fortunately, all of these services and more are readily available in the immediate Youngstownarea. While it would be impossible to list all of the restau.rants, hotels, motels, and retail stores, the following pages will provide some notion of what is available.

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MOTELS THEYOUNGSTOWN IN AREA
TELEPHONE

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MOTEL Avalon Inn Congress Inn Days I nn* Days Inn* El-Dorado* El-Patio Holiday Inn* (Exit
Holiday Holiday Inn* Inn* (Exit (Rt. (1-80;

.

ROOMS

856-1900 549-2141 759-3410 793-9806 758-4515 533-3149 538-2221
549-2187

90 62 138 138 46 12 15)
16) 46) Rt. 193)

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108
90 90 150 50

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744-1131

Holiday Inn* Hotel Ohio

\

759-3180 799-7482
536-6273
793-9305 759-3190

HowardJohnson* Jan Mar
King1s
Knight's L & K Inn* (Rt.

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46)

155 16
38 110 88

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758-5737 L t
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549-3543 758-4591

Lake Park* Lone Pine Mavette Motor Lodge

« \

48 4 30

538-2211
799-0041 759-2183

May*
Merrimac

30
8 125

Motel "6"

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549-3224
549-3988 759-3190

Ohio Motel Superior*
Penn Ohio

40
41

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758-5873 538-2231 758-4551
759-0040

Penny Pincher Phil rose Pike Econo Plaza

Inn*

82 12 22 20

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758-2371

Quality North Quality TownHouse*

50 50

,

759-7850
792-3871

RamadaInn*
Sherwood

154
43

r

758-2315
549-2152

Sagecoach*
Stardust

30
30

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788-5087

Terrace*

18
22

782-8021
792-2351

Tower
Westgate Manor Wick Motor Inn Wi11i ams Motel TOTAL
.

20 70

744-0185 758-4556

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2,362

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*AAA Approved

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MOTELS THEWARRENREA IN A TELEPHONE 369-2114 652- 1481 MOTEL Adeline's Motel Best Western Betsy Ross Capri Downtown* Gateway Holiday Inn
Home Inn

ROOMS 13 78 26 11 73 16 119
7

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872-5979 856-4699 392-2515 898-2260 399-3606
872-0863

\...

399-2766
872-0988 898-1700 872-7080 898-2460 369-3601 369-4100

Imperial Motel
Pike Plaza Mote1* Riverview Rustic Oaks Lodge

49
36 18 22 11 (now called 92 57

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Sunnysi de Motel, Town & Country Trave10dge

Executive Inn)

\(

872-0971

WarrenMotor Lodge* TOTAL

--1§.
674

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*AAA Approved

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MAJOR SHOPPING CENTERS THEYOUNGSTOWN IN AREA

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NAME
Austintown Plaza BoardmanPlaza Colonial Plaza Eastwood Mall Kirkmere P1aza . Liberty Plaza
Lincoln Knolls Plaza

ADDRESS

NUMBER F UNITS O

6000 Mahoning Avenue 201-525 Boardman-Canfield Road East Main Street, Route 422, Niles, 3373-3507 Canfield 3551-3567 Belmont Canfield, Ohio Road Avenue Ohio

31
49.

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15 109 5 41
29

2828-2996 McCartney Road

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Mahoning Plaza Marhi11 Shopping Center
Markinola Center Marwood Shopping Center McGuffey Mall Southern Park Mall

3303-3377 Mahoning Avenue 3600 Market Street
2555-2801 Market Street 6949-6999 Market Street 701-795 North Garland Avenue Routes 7 and 224

16 10
55 8 23 90

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Struthers Plaza Struthers-Poland

Plaza

Union Square Plaza Wedgewood Plaza

962-1020 Fifth Street, Struthers, 430-466 Youngstown-Poland Road 2545-2555 Belmont Avenue 1715-1741 South Raccoon Road

Ohio

13 10 14 8

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Does not include the downtownarea nor the concentrated main thoroughfares.

commercial developments along

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APPENDIX II

This land, which once was the site of the Bessemer Plant of the Republic Corporation,
consists of 39.95 acres along the north bank of the Mahoning River. only entrance to this office building. land is under the Market Street viaduct, The city At present, the by the Republic Steel for use

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of Youngstown is applying for a grant from the Department

of Housing and Urban Development in order to purchase the land and improve it

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as an industrial park. The city will apply for the grant during the first quarter of 1979. Plans call for the building of an entrance road between the Cedar Street viaduct and the South Avenue viaduct. grade and provide excellent Historical the property Society This will bring the entrance

road into the property at

access from the east side of downtown Youngstown. The Ohio can purchase this property at a very minimal cost or possibly acquire
This information came from the Mayor of the city of Economic Development Agency.

at no cost at all.

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Youngstown and from the head of the city's

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VACANT URBAN RENEWAL LANDIN DOWNTOWN YOUNGSTOWN

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MAP#1 -Lot No. Lot #1 Lot #2 Lot'#3 Lot #4 Lot #5 Lot #6 Lot #7
Lot #8

Square Feet 4,658 42,723 8,980 20,091 17,099 14,597 8,897
12,385

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Cost per Square Foot $2.00 6.00 7.75 8.00 8.00 7.75 7.75
Not Available

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Lot #9 Lot #10 Lot #11 Lot #12 Lot #13

9,575 5,768 7,221 18,658

Not Available 5.00 7.00 Not Available

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7,649
7,800

.

3.50
3.25

Lot #14
(MAP#2 Lot #15 Lot #16 (Lot #17 Lot #18 Lot #19 " (

4,495 95 58,749 55,680 65,924

3.70 .90 Not Available Not Available Not Available

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APPENDIXII I

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Jones and Laughlin) whoacquired the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company through a merger, presently are phasing out operations at the Sheet and Tube General Office Building. A former Technical Center has been closed for some time. Jone~ and Laughlin officials have indicated to the Ohio Historical Society Youngstown Planning Office that they intend to sell the General Office Building and the Technical Center. Membersof the Youngstown and Columbus Planning Offices toured the office building to ascertain its suitability for conversion to museumfacilities. Without doubt the building could be adapted to a museum. However, as pointed out in the body of this report, serious problems would be encountered in such an undertaking.

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The following documentsoffer an overview of the building's history and an account of the facilities available.

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YOUNGSTOWN SHEETAND TUBE COMPANY RESEARCH CENTER General Facilities 73~000 Square Feet 3 Connecting Building Wings of Both Single and Two-Level

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Design

1 Freestanding

Storage Building System System

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Metal and Glass Construction Air Conditioning 480 V~ 3-Phase Power Steam Heating

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Building

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Single Level 16 Offices

-

10~000 Ft.

2

Building

#2

Two Level - 37,000 Ft.2 50 Offices 50 Laboratories 12 Photographic and Reproduction Rooms 5 Toilet Areas

4 Toil et Areas Conference Room Library

,

2 Conference Rooms
Buil di ng #3 High Bay Design with Mezzanine 2 25,000 Ft. Cafeteria

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Building #4 Single Level Storage Area

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10-Ton Crane - 651 Span Machine Shop 9 Laboratories 3 Offices Toilet Area

- 1,000 Ft.

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APPENDIX IV Available information suggests that the Jeanette blast furnace was erected in 1918 and on the spot where it is located. The built by the Brier Hill Steel Corporation, which merged

that it did not replace any previous structure furnace was designed and largely

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into the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Campbell Works in 1923. The super-structure apparently was built by the McClintock-Marshall Company. Originally the Jeanette furnace was about 1 ninety feet in height and had a hearth diameter of seventeen feet. The hearth later was expanded to eighteen and a half feet by reducing the thickness of the brick work in the bosh and by utilizing cooling plates.2 The furnace sits on an iron base pad thirty feet in diameter. The iron pad in turn rests on a brick foundation which is forty-three feet across and sixteen feet thick. Bedrock underlies this foundation. The total cost of construction in 1917-18 was about three million dollars, than normal due to the inflated costs of labor and material a figure reportedly higher caused by World War 1.3

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The Jeanette furnace originally was supplied with hot blast air from three stoves which were later increased in number to four. The stoves are standard five inch checker brick with side combustion chambers of the "two-pass" design; they stand one hundred and five feet high and are twenty-three feet in diameter. Although the Grace furnace is no longer standing, its stoves, which are of an older McClure three-pass design, now are located near the Jeanette stoves.4

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125
Jeanette

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is what used to be described as a "tough" furnace. It was not particularly efficient, nor did it make consistently good quality iron. Later, when this problem was corrected by design modifications, Jeanette became the "best furnace in the Sheet and Tube Corporation;" that is, it produced the most iron per ton of coke. The furnace experienced few problems other than an occasional minor break-out, an occurrence which almost never resulted in a significant loss of production or the necessity to take the furnace out of blast to make a major repair, and a rare explosion because of slippage. While these explosions threw flue-dust and debris throughout the mill, they never resulted in any major damage. As far as can be determined, only one fatality was associated with Jeanette. The tragedy involved a worker who succumbed to some carbon monoxide gas that had seeped from the combustion chamber of one of the stoves.5 The Jeanette furnace was named for the daughter of the president of Brier Hill Steel, w. A. Thomas. An account of the initial lighting of the furnace reveals the temper of the war years: The hand of little Miss Thomas applied the flame to the wood in the hearth as the blowers drove the blast thru (sic) the stack thereby setting in motion the smelting of ore for the iron sorely needed 50 hammerhome from cannons' mouths, democracy's message to Hun barbarism. The Jeanette furnace was in almost continuous operation for over fifty taken out of blast for the last time in late August 1972. years. It was

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The Brier Hill Steel Corporation added several other facilities to the Jeanette area during 1917-18. The one million ton ore dumpand ore bridge were built during this period along with the adjacent car dumper. The car dumper originally could handle thirty carS an hour.

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FOOTNOTES (
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1Interview with Furman T. Blackwell on December6t
l.

1978. Mr. Blackwell began was located

work for Brier Hill in Pittsburgh ,.2Ibid.

Steel in 1919.

He later

becameGeneral Superintendent of the

~ ,
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Blast Furnace Department.

Mr. Blackwell thought that McClintock-Marshall of Bethlehem Steel.

and was a subsidiary

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3Youngstown Te1egramt September 20, 1918t p. 1; Youngstown'Vindicator, 1918, p. 10.

September 11,

4Interview with Blackwell, December6, 1978, and January 19, 1979; Youngstown Vindicator, September 22, 1918, p. 10. 5 Blackwell, December6, 1978. 6Youngstown Telegram, September 20, 1918, p. 1. was put in operation during World War I: It must be noted that the furance

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JEANETTE FURNACEITE S

(

TOTALACREAGE:
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128
FACILITIES

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~

Jeanette:

Built in 1908, enlarged in 1920, rebuilt 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6th 7th 8th
Blown in

in 1948. " "
II "

Hearth 171-0" 181-6"

9/20/19 ran to 10/22/24
1/31/25 3/23/29 11/28/41 1948 1953 1961
1956/1963

12/15/28
9/30/41

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L

1,478,428 1/01/47 Carbon Hearth Walls

-

986,843 tons 1,066,586 tons 1,369,185 tons

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Repai rs & Stove Repairs

1966 1908 1918 1925 1908 1918 1908 & 1918 1918

Grace Furnace Stove Built: Jeanette Jeanette Stoves 1,2,3 Stove 4

r l

l

Blowing Engine House Additions Trestle and Bins Ore Yard Ship Hoist

- 200

HP

400

20B

( ! I l

- 750A RPM - 400 FPM
10,000#

230V

Load

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FURNACE SPECIFICATIONS

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130

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COMPANY: WORKS: FURNACE:

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Youngstown Sheet & Tube Bri er Hi 11 No.2 Jeanette

WORKINGOLUME: V HEARTH DIAMETER: DATELASTBLOW-IN: Miscellaneous

22,335 cu. ft.
20' 211

8-12-66

Gas System No. of off takes 4 - 56.74 sq. ft. Downcomer . 2 @5'6 = 47.52 sq. ft.
diam. 24' 011

Dustcatcher

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Dustcatcher height Primary gas cleaning Final gas cleaning Top Pressure

30' 0" Orifice

plate

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Design oper. top. press. 43 oz. Control system Butterfly valve Press. equalization Primary clean BF gas Stoves Numbe r Total heating surface Combust. chamber area Stove burner capacity Air fan capacity
Burner-stove isolation
, 4 274,188 sq. ft. 22.47 sq. ft. N.A. 12,500 cfm - 711 static pressure Burner sleeve and blank Mushroom3011

4.0 cu. ft. (steam) Mud gun Percussion (column mt.) Tap hole drill None Fuel injection 1 No. of iron notches 1 No. of cinder notches None Oxygen enrichment Slag handling system Hard slag pits River water Cooling water No Top gas analyzer Furnace Stockline protection Castings (steel) Space between sheel & lining - about 111
Packing used Stack cooling Height above mantle Fireclay Plate (copper) 30' 9"

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Hot blast valve type Back draft stack: (a) Note yes or no (b ) Size Cc) Position Stove operation Fuel enrichment

None Manual None

(a) No. of rows (b) Max. & min. spacing Bosh construction No. of rows No. of tuyeres Tuyere breast cooling Hearth cooling Underhearth cooling Underhearth thermoc. Inwall thermoc.

11 . 3'011 - 213" Bands & cooling plates 10 12 Ext. .water cooled C. I. staves None None No

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131

(

. FURNACEPECIFICATIONS No.2 Jeanette S -

- Continued

,
(

Filling

System" Scale car None 147 cu. ft. 360 fpm Cast (hard surfaced) 4 pes. (cast) 474 cu. ft. 616" @51° (seat 51°) Manganese(cast) Revolving (McKee)

~

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Type of stock shed Stock shed screening (a) Coke (b) Fe bearing Skip Volume Skip Speed Large bell Large bell hopper Vol. large bell hopper Sma be11 11 Small bell material Distributor

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132
FURNACE SPECIFICATIONS COMPANY: WORKS: FURNACE: Youngstown Sheet & Tube

(

WORKINGOLUME: V HEARTH DIAMETER: DATELASTBLOW-IN:

Brier Hill No.1 Grace (idle since 10/60)

17,160 cu. ft. 161 0"
6-9-61

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Gas System No. of bfftakes Downcomer . Dustcatcher diam. Dustcatcher height Primary gas cleaning Final gas cleaning

Miscellaneous
2 2

- 66.36 sq. - 56.540" sq. 241
30' 0"

ft. ft.

~-

(

Top Pressure Design oper. top. press. Control system Press. equalization
Stoves Number

N.A. N.A.

Mudgun Tap hole dri 11 Fuel i njecti on No. of iron notches No. of cinder notches Oxygen enrichment. Slag handling system Cooling water Top gas analyzer Furnace

4.0 cu. ft. (steam) None None 1 1 No Hard slag pits River water No

None
4 175,868 sq. ft: 23.58 sq. ft. N.A. N.A. Valve Mushroom 30"
None

.

(

(

Total heating surface Combust. chamber area Stove burner capacity Air fan capacity Burner-stove isolation Hot blast valve type Back draft stack: (a) Note yes or no (b) Size (c) Position Stove operation Fuel enrichment

Manual None

Castings (steel) Stockline protection about 111 Space between shee1 & lining Packing used Fireclay Stack cooling Plate (copper) 30' Height above mantle 10 above mantle (a) No. of rows None (b) Max. & min. spacing Bosh construction Bands& cooling plates 10 No. of rows 12 No. of tuyeres Ext. water cooled Tuyere breast cooling C. I. staves Hearth cooling None. Underhearth cooling None Underhearth thermoc. No Inwa11 thermoc.

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FURNACE

SPECIFICATIONS

-

No.1

Grace

-

Continued

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Fi 11ing System Type of stock shed Stock shed screening ( a) Coke (b) Fe bearing Skip volume Skip speed . Large be11 Large bell hopper Vol. large bell hopper Small bell Small bell material Distributor

Scale car
None

N.A. N.A.
Cast (hard surfaced) 2 pcs. (cast steel) 663 cu. ft. 410" @45° (seat 45°)

Cast steel

"

None

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YoungstownSheet & Tube Company YoungstownDistrict - Brier Hill Works No.2 Blast Furnace Date of Last Blow-out: 8-12-66 Date of Last Blow-in: 1-30-68 2277977 Tons Record Campaign: Record Month: 34356 Tons Rated Capacity 800 Tons/Day 1175 Cu. Ft. VolumeBelow Tuyeres 22335 Cu. Ft. Working Volume Volumeabove 6' Stockline 2394 Cu. Ft. Total Volume 26904 Cu. Ft. W.V./H.A. Ratio 74.7 --' w ~

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135 #53-96-0. L.-634
BUILDING #29

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Blowing Engine House - Erected 1908.
~I

Construction

& Size

- One story

and two-thirds basement brick - 571611 1031 X 641 high. x

)

'\-

Foundation Heavy concrete mat, heavy concrete walls 141 high, balance 911, 13" and 17" brick and pilaster 501 to eaves, wood sash windows.
Floor Basement Concrete, heavy floor 8' average below grade. reinforced over basement, balance concrete on fill.

-

-

-

First

- Heavyconcrete

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Roof Double pitch type, corrugated iron roofing, 8" channel purl ins 516" on center, ~channel rafters 814" on center, steel trusses 251 on center, 5 longitudinal runs steel trusses, 2 rows built up channel columns 251 on center, 4 36" diameter vents.

-

-

Mechanical Features Lighting open wiring, metal reflectors. 1 shower stall, 1 water closet, 1 lavatory, drains. Plumbing

-

-

-

Heating- pipe coils.

Other features Office enclosure One story concrete block Miscellaneous steel stairs and platform.
, )

-

-

-

121

x

161 x'lOI

high.

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J

story brick 121 x 301, 9" brick walls 121 high average, on 6" I beams 31 on center, lighting, extends into building #30. Instrument and toilet rooms one story brick 516" x 81 x 8'6" high, 51611x 61 and 41 x 516" X 816" high, concrete foundation, floor and roof, 55 lineal feet 4" brick walls, 81 x 91 X 91 high, same with 25 lineal feet 9" brick walls, 41 x 61 X 71 high, concrete foundati on and floor, 14 1i nea 1 feet 4" bri ck wa11S, corrugated iron and steel frame roof, 61 x 71 X 91 high, same, with 19 lineal feet 9" brick walls.
Additions corrugated iron roofing

- Pump room - one

-

-

-

)

1

- Corrugated

i'ron and steel

frame

-

51

x

61 X 81 high.

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136

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BUILDING#30 Boiler House (Blast & Size Furances)

.

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Erected 1908. brick & metal

Construction
Foundation

-

High one story

-

49' x 233' x 33' high.

-

Concrete walls and column footings.
9' high, corrugated iron on angle girts 24' average high.

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L.

Walls

-

9" brick

Floor

-

Concr~te on fill,

heavy steel

plate flooring

over trenches. on 8" channel 2 rows built up

.....
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Roof Double pitch, open monitor type, corrugated iron toofing purl ins 5' on center, structural steel trusses 18'6" on center, columns. Mechanical Features and 1 shower. Other Features and ladders.

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- Lighting -

open wiring.

Plumbing- 1 water closet, 3 lavatories,
including steel stairs

- Miscellaneous

steel

plate walks around boilers,

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Additions - Pumphouse and locker room - one story brick - 12'6" x 68', 12" concrete 4' high average, 9" brick 14' high average, concrete floor on slag fill, corrugated iron roofing on 8" channel purlins 4' pn center, 12" I beams 17' on center average, lighting and cast iron radiators, including miscellaneous one story brick entrance ways to main building. Basement - 12'6" x 18', 12" concrete walls la' high, concrete floor and lighting.

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137
BUILDING#31

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Filter

Plant

Construction

- Erected 1910. & Size - One story

and basement brick

- 33'

x 5016" x 23' high.

Foundation
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- Concrete

wall footings. 10' high average~ 13" brick and pilaster 13' average high~ wood

Walls 1811 concrete sash windows.

-

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- Basement - concrete 20% area, 91 average below grade, 80% - 51 average below grade. - 25%concrete open around construction~ 611 I beams 1711on center~ 1211 I beams and metal pan girders area~ tanks. - Double pitch, steel trusses iron roofing~ 2" decking~ 7" channel pur1ins 31611on corrugated center, structural 16'611 on center, 4 - 1211galvanized iron vents.
Floor First
Roof
911

I~ i. )

Lighting Mechanical Features coils. Plumbing 2 lavatories sewers.

-

-

- conduit

wiring~ metal reflectors. Heating pipe and 1 water c10set~ 1 shower sta11~ floor drains and

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Other Features 50 lineal feet 1811concrete partition walls in basement 101 high. 61 x 15'. Two frame offices 7' x 101 X 81 high. Miscellaneous Basement extension frame toilet room enclosed walls.

-

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Additions - Soda ash storage - one story corrugated iron

, ....

1616" x 7l'611~ 1211 concrete 4' high~ 9" brick 8' average high~ corrugated iron 41 average high, concrete floor, 3' above grade, single pitch iron roof, steel channels, steel trusses and columns, lighting.

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138
BUILDING #32 Pump House & Intake

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- Erected
-

1917.

Construction
.

& Size

One story brick and concrete

- 2716" x 651 x 64'

high.

Foundation
Wa 11s

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)

48" concrete 291 high to pumpfloor.

- Heavy concrete mat and foundation walls. - North and south - 9" bri ck 51 hi gh, 17" bri ck 81 hi gh,

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East 17" brick 181 average high, 48" concrete 291 high to pump floor, balance same as above. West 17" brick 151 high average, 48" concrete 321 high to pump floor, balance same as above.

-

Balance heavy concrete wall to concrete mats.

22" concrete 61 high,

) r \ ~

Floor

-

Pump floor

- heavy concrete

floor, 241 average below grade at north wall.

Roof Double pitch type, corrugated iron roofing, 2" decking, 8" channel purl ins , structural steel roof trusses 1516" average on center.
)

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Mechanical Features - Lighting conduit wiring, metal reflectors. coil in office. Plumbing 1 water closet, 1 lavatory, 1 shower.

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Other Features X 191 iin.d 111 x 19', concrete and metal pan construction on 1511steel beams and chanhe1s. Three 1811x 191 X 81 average high, reinforced concrete arched tile walls. Three 21611x 291 steel plate walks, angle guard rails including miscellaneous steel stairs, landings and platforms.
Addition

- Ba1coni es - 616" -

Heating

- pipe

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Pump room 141 x 351, including 2 sides and average high, pump room below inside size 201611x 291 X including 70 lineal feet 4811concrete walls 291 high to and floor construction as main pump room, concrete roof, pan construction on steel beams and girders.

-

1 end, walls 17" brick 151
291 high to pump floor, pump floor, balance of walls

17' x 371, concrete metal

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139
)

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YARD CONTINUED

Y-50 - Meter House - 5' x 5' - one story brick concrete foundation,
average high, earth floor,
1.-:'

single pitch 4" reinforced

9" brick walls 6' concrete slab roof.

-..
,
)

Y-51- Switchman Shanty - one story brick - 14' x 3116" x 8'6" average high, concrete foundation and floor, 9" brick walls, double hung wood sash windows, single pitch, corrugated iron roof, steel pipe and light steel I beamframing, lighting, pipe coil heating, 1 water closet, 1 54" semi-circular Bradley wash fountain, 1 shower stall, floor drains, 1 water heater including Oil Shanty Addition - one story brick 5' x
5' X 81 high, concrete foundation and floor,

l..
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I

15 lineal feet 9" brick walls,steel

-

plate and steel

frame roof,

lighting,

heating.

Y-51A- Steam Line t~eter House - one story brick

6' x 819", brick walls 616" average high, single pitch corrugated iron roof on steel frame, foundation and floor taken with steam line tower.

-

Y-51B

- Concrete

Wall

-

60 lineal

feet 15" average concrete 516" high above grade.

,

Y-54 - HoseHouse one story corrugated iron 6' x 71 corrugated iron walls 71 high average, wood floor, single pitch roll roofing on wood frame.
)

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Y-55

corrugated iron, 61 x 231 corrugated iron walls on steel frame 916" average high, reinforced concrete floor, single pitch roll roofi ng on steel frame, 1i ghti ng ancj 1 12" vent. o
Chart & Control Room

- Elevated

- one story

-

~)

Y-56 - Valve House one story brick 18' x 31', concrete wall 6' high, 9" brick walls 61 average high, cement floor, 51 below grade; single pitch corrugated iron roofing, steel frame, lighting, 1 9" brick cross partition wall, 1 24" vent.

-

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14'6" x 2416",38 lineal feet concrete wall foundation, 9" brick walls 816'1 average high, double hung wood sash windows, balance of walls are on bin and trestle piers, cement floor, single pitch 6" reinforced concrete slab roof, lighting.

Y-58A- LabonShanty & Pump House - one story brick

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140
YARDCONTINUED

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Y-69A Storage - one story brick - 1116" x 531 t concrete foundation wall 9" brick walls 121 average high, cement floor, double pitch corrugated iron roofing on steel frame, lighting.
Y-70 - Ore Bridge & Car Unloader Foundations North Wall - 2 - 140# rails, r x 911x 5' ties 18" on centert 2 - 100# rails (car dumper) 711x 9" X 41 ties t 18" on center, on concrete walls 51 wide x 41 high and 10 to 141 wide x 281 high on 191 wide and 101 average hight concrete pad to rock bottom North Car Dumperfpundation, 2 - 100# railst
wood tiest 4' to 51 concrete wall 41 high on 1811x 61611 concrete pad. Ore Bridge Wall, 1,022 lineal feet, Car Dumper Wall 8041 average long, South Ore Bridge foundation wall 98l',longt 2 -140# rails, 711 x 911 X 81 tiest 1811 on center on concrete wall 81 to 161611concrete x 36' high on 41 x 21' concrete pad on Raymond concrete piles.

")

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Y-7l - Stock Delivery Trestle - 271 x 6961t section 4 standard gauge rajls, wood tiest ~4' wide 211wood plank walk with 31611high angle guard rails on 611I cross girders 61 on center on 594 lineal feet 4 runs 3011I and 102 lineal feet 4 runs 4811built up
steel stringers with 1511channel spreaders 61 on center,
91

on centert

heavy reinforced

concrete

I .) l .

piers and abutments 30' average on center, lighting, 271 to 431 X 2941 section 6 standard gauge rails, wood tiest 201 wide 211plank walk with 3'611 high angle guard
ra il on 6" I cros s gi rders 6 runs 30" I s tri ngers wi th 1511channe 1
'I.'

cross girders

on reinforced

concrete piers and abutment 301 on center.
201611

't,

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Y-72

Onestory brick hose house 51611 x 71611,concrete foundation, high, brick floort flat concrete slab roof.

- Garagehigh, earth floor, - one story brick average single
-

281, concrete foundation walls
411 reinforced concrete slab

t

911 brick

pitcht

roofing.

9" brick walls 6'

Y-73 - Tar Loading Shed - 16' x 83', 20" average reinforced concrete wall 6" average high, balance of walls open, double pitch, corrugated iron roofing, structural steel roof trusses, 911built up columns and concrete piers 3' wide, 1/411 steel plate walk

() ~ ~
l~

and angle guard rails supported by roof trusses, supported by pipe bridge trusses.
Y-74

lighting.

'

- Pedestrian

Bridge

- 156 lineal

29' and 201 section,

feet 416" widet angle and gas pipe guard rails,
41611 wide,

2" plank floor

supported by light structural steel trusses, piers, 2 runs steel stairs and landings. )

structural

steel columns and concrete

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141
THE YOUNGSTOWN SHEET & TUBE COMPANY DBA BRIER HILL WORKS

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CITY OF YOUNGSTOWN MAHONING COUNTY, OHIO 1975 CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY

i..~ \ ),

Description

& Item No.

Replacement Value Depreei ation 65/35% 70/35% 70/35% 65/15% 80/50% 65/40%
70%

True Value

Assessed Value $

Tax 874.44 534.98 232.00 1,730.57 2.52 3.52 .84 6.89 1. 68 19.99 127.01 7.06 146. 83 24. 19 5,926.20 1,378.11 15. 12
$11,031.96

L.

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$228,800.00 Blowing House Engine (29) 166,080.00 Boiler House (10) 70,800.00 Filter Plant (31) 346,270.00 PumpHouse & Intake (32) Steam LineMeter House (Y-51A) Sound Value 2 , 100 . 00 Wall (Y-51B) SoundValue Hose House (V-54) Elevated Chart & Control 1,970.00 Room(V-55) Sound Value Valve House (V-56) 3,980.00 Retaining Wall (Y-58A) 43,200.00 Railroad Trestle (V-67) 1,400.00 Clock House (V-67A) 49,920.00 Railroad Trestle (V-68) Storage. (V-69A) 8,220,/00 Ore Bridge & Car Unloader 2,351,630.00 (Y-70) 468,720.00 Stock Delivery Trestle (Y-68) 5,150.00 Garage (Y-72)

$ 52,050.00 32,380,00 13,810.00

$ 18,217.50 11,333.00 4,833.50 103 ,OlD. 00 36,053.50 150.00 52.50 73.50 1,060.00 17.50 50.00 410.00 100.00 1,190.00 7,560.00 420.00 8,740.00 1,440.00 352,750.00 82,030.00 900.00 143.50 35.00 416.50 2,646.00 147.00 3,059.00 504.00 123,462.50 28,710.50 315.00 TOTAL TAX
TAX

65/50% 40/50% 65/50% 65/50% 70/50% 65/50% 65/50%

- 10% Roll

Bck

$ 9928.76

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142 PROPERTY FORJEANETTE TAX (1975) Assessed Value is 35%of Listed Value

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Tax Rate is $48/Thousand
CLASSOF PROPERTY I

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Lot 773 773 773 773 8869 8869 8868 8867 797 797 797 662 800 1658 776 1652 774 1661 Total tax value is: Total tax - 10 roll

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Acreage at $15,000 Per Acre .04 .09 .79 2.00 .48 .0677 .47 .568 .114 .051

Value $ 600 1,350 11,850 30,000 7,200 1,020 7,050 8,250 1,710 770 16,310 65,850 29,100 29,100 68,850 33,150 4,410 110,550

1.1

.
)

. 1.94
1.94
4.59 2.21 .294 7.37
$7 , 180. 15

4.39

.

)

back:

$6,462.14

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143

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APPENDIXV

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The three mill models--the seventy-nine inch hot strip mill, the seamless pipe mill, and the butt-weld tube mill--were desgined and constructed by employees of the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Campbell Works. The work was directed by Myron Curtis, Sales and Promotion Manager; Georg'e E. James, Superintendent of the pattern shop; and Edward Hendricks, Superintendent of the No.1 machine shop at the Campbell Works. The models were built to exact scale. Little information is available concerning the butt-weld tube mill model, but apparently it was the first of the models constructed, being built in 1934. The largest of the th~ models is the seventy-nine inch hot strip mill, built in 1935. Built on a scale of 3/411 to the foot, the mill is twenty-six feet long and weighs two and one-half tons. This weight does not include the coiler located at the end of the model. The model is powered by a pair of two and one-half horsepower motors that were built and furnished by Westinghouse. From the two non-working replicas of slab reheating furnaces, slabs move to the scale breaker and then onto the twenty-three foot stretch of four roughing mills and six finishing mills. The sheets are then cut to the desired length by flying shears and finally coiled into rolls. Like the actual hot strip mill, the model was designed to handle six pieces at one time. The model was made from 355 separate castings and was constructed over a period of two and one-half months.

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144 The seamless mill model was built in 1938--about the time that the actual mill was placed into operation by the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Campbell Works. It was constructed on a scale of one inch to the foot and is twenty-three feet long, four and one-half feet wide, and weighs over three tons. The castings used in the model weigh 6,600 pounds. Like the other models, all the construction, with the exception of the castings, was done by employees of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Campbell Works. This mill required seventy-eight days to build. It utilizes interchangeable rolls and adjustable piercing units, and produces pipe of various sizes. The models were displayed at var.ious industrial shows and exhibitions throughout the country before they were moved into their present location in the Buckeye School of the YoungstownSheet and Tube Campbell Works (now Jones and Laughlin). The models won numerous awards and accolades for their design, construction, and ability to demonstrate the functions of the actual mills.

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146

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APPENDIX VI Youngstown, located in the northeastern lin~, part of OhiD, five The area within miles from the Pennsylvania largest the city is. approximately

and midway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, producing district square miles, in the country. while the metropolitan

is the center of the fourth

.)

steel

L

thirty-five miles.
Youngstown's dwelling with

area extends to a radius of twenty

~
) (

population,

according

to the 1970 census,

of 140,909 is housed .in 46,866 of 536,836

units.

The Youngstown-Warren metropolitan area population of over 800,000.

area has a population

a trading

. )

While exact statistical metropolitan

information

on the lineage of the population within a sizeable portion

the

area is no longer obtainable,

are descendents of The largest

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Eastern and Southern Europeans who came'to the Mahoning Valley in the last two decades of the nineteenth century to work in the iron and steelmaking plants. statistically is of Italian group which at present is recognizable descent and comprises

about twenty-five percent of the population. in the Mahoning Valley are Black.
/ )

Approximately twelve percent of the people

Although it

is in close proximity

to the business and industrial

centers,

the residential

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section of Youngstown occupies the surrounding hills and rolling area, making possible numerous attractive residential districts. The streets are well kept, shaded, and )

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147 connect with a system of improved highways and freeways traversing the area in all directions. There are more than 448 miles of combined sanitary and surface sewers

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and over 350 miles of paved streets. Youngstown has a HomeRule Charter form of government. The mayor is the chief executive officer, elected for a term of two years. The legislative power of the city is vested in a council consisting of the president and seven members elected for a term of'two years. Youngstown is the county seat of Mahoning County. The valuation of its personal and real property and intangible property is $529,269,930 and its bonded debt is $22,646,160 which includes all types of outstanding bonds, except school bonds. The Youngstown district is primarily recognized as a great steel producing center. Its several large steelmaking operations include U. S. Steel (Ohio Works), Jones and Laughlin, Republic Steel, and Copperweld Steel. A number of spin-off businesses supply the steel industry with a wide variety of essential products. Approximately one-third of the district work force i~ either directly or indirectly involved with the production of steel in the Mahoning Valley, although the percentage has fallen due to the recent mill closings. A wide diversity of manufacturing and other business concerns are located within the Youngstown metropolitan area. Mechanical and moulded rubber goods, electric lamps, a wide number of aluminum extrusions and products, steel office furniture, rolling mill equipment, automotive parts, automotive assembly, truck assembly, steel building specialties, paint, slacks, raincoats, plastics, electronic equipment, paper envelopes,

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and manyother different prod~cts add to the manufacturing importance of the Youngstown area. The city is also the hub of a large trucking and transportation network. It is served by ninety-five freight terminals and six railroad lines. The financial needs of the community are satisfied through two national banks, two state banks, and three savings and loan institutions. More than $2.5 billion in bank clearings in 1977 (the last year for which statistics are available) were conducted through the seventy-four local offices of these financial institutions. The city also contains representatives of both the printed and broadcast media. The Youngstown Vindicator, a locally-owned newspaper which began publication in the 1880s, is published daily and on Sunday and has a circulation of over 100,000 daily and 157,000 Sunday papers. Four television stations in the Youngstownarea represent all four major national networks (ABC, CBS, NBC,and PBS). Six radio broadcasting stations are located in Youngstown, including WYSU-FM, station offering educational a and cultural services from the campus of YoungstownState University. needs of the community are served by 350 churches: 278 Protestant all principal denominations); 53 Catholic (Youngstown is the See City of the Youngstown Diocese); 11 Eastern Orthodox; and 4 Jewish synagogues. The spiritu~l (representing

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Youngstown-Warren Metropolitan Area (Mahoning-Trumbul1 Counties) Mahoning County City of Youngstown Source: 1970 U.S. Census of Population Youngstown is the center of an 800,000 population trading area.
CITY

536,837 304,526 140,909

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Size-rank-among Ohio cities (population) Elevati on (feet above sea 1eve1) : High
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Low

City of Youngstown Assessed Valuation:

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f4ahoning County $1,436,199,000 City of Youngstown $ 529,269,930 Tax Rate (per $1,000) $48.20 City Income Tax Rate 15 mil s State Sales Tax 4% Ohio State Income Tax 1/2 3 1/2% Daylight Savings Time from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October.

Real Estate, Public Utilities and 1978 (estimate) Personal Property

7th 1148 feet 825 feet 35 square miles

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FINANCE
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.Clearinghouse Banks Branches Deposits (June 1978) Assets (June 1978) Savings & Loan Associations Assets (June 1978) Deposits (June 1978) Postal Receipts (1~77) Bank Clearings

4 49 $ 935,746,000 $1,060,110,000 3 $ "638,862,000 $ 742,290,000 $ 8,813,325 $2,"443,625,347

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EDUCATION
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Youngstown State University (October 1978) Penn-Ohio Junior College (October 1978) Youngstown College of Business & Professional Mahoning County Enrollment (October 1978) Parochial (Youngstown & Mahoning County) Enrollment (October 1978) Youngstown Public Schools Enrol1~ent (October 1978)
TRANSPORTATION

15,598 250 Drafting (October 1978) 400 51 29,500 26 9,655 40 18,242

students students students schools students schools students schools students

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Airlines Serving Area: Allegheny Airlines, Inc. Dade Air Charter United Airlines, Inc. Y.oungstownAirways (Executive Fleet) Air Freight Forwarding Service available Express: Greyhound Package Express Hilson Moving Transfer CompanyExpress Trailways Package Motor Freight Terminals Railroads Serving Area: Conrail Chessie System Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Youngstown and Northern Youngstown and Southern Lake Erie and Eastern
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY

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Building t

Permits

(Valuation)

1977

Retail Sales (Est.) 1977 - Youngstown-Warren etropolitan Area M Value added by manufacture est. (U.S. Dept. of Commerce)
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- Mahoning County

$

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53,913,849

$1,796,562,000 $2,444,700,000

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Population, 1970' U.S. Rank Tota 1 Per Square Mile hange, 1960'-1970' Total
N,et Migrati on %
Fema1e % . Urban %

62 536,0'03 522 5.5 -3.8
5"1.4 77.3

Persons 3-34 years old enrolled Kindergarten and Elementary High School College

in school 98,454 42,677 15,0'84

1abor Force, 1970' (16 years old and overl Total 211,543 Civilian Labor Force - Total 2". ,230' Employed Total 199,485

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Age

Industry
%

Under 5 years

8.2
% % 65.2 9.4 29.3

18 years and over 65 years and over Median age %

Manufacturing % Wholesale & Retail Services %

Trade %
%

42.9 19.5 5.3

Educational Services
Construction %
%

5.9
4.9
10'.0'

Foreign Total
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Stock %
%

Leading country of irigin
Persons Birth Rate

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of Spanish heritage

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%
1968 1968
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21. 8 24.6 1.1 16. 1

Employed
Government

White Collar Professional,

Workers Managerial

1,0'0'0' pop., 1,0'0'0' pop.,

Death Rate

9.9

Sales and Clerical

Cra'ftsmenand Foreme.n %

%

%

17.9

22.0'

17.6

Education,
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1970' 293,90'0' 12. 1 4.7 52. 1 6.9

Persons 25 years old and over School years completed: Median (years) Less than 5 years % 4 years high school or more 4 years college or more

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APPENDIX VII
LIST OF CONTACTS, MADE BY PROJECT DIRECTOR, OF PEOPLE FAVORABLE TO THE IRON & STEEL MUSEUM

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BUSI~ESS West Johnstone

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- Architect James Olsavsky - Architect Thomas Mosier - Architect Thomas Syrakis - Architect William Steinmetz - Architect R. E. Hatton - District Supervisor, Conrail Frank Johnson - Public Relations, Conrail Michael Pontikous - Master Painting Company Anthony Ricci - Ricci Photography Studio Frank Harris - Downtown Board of Trade' Frank Haber - Haber's Department Store James McLaughlin - Local Businessman Thomas Masters - Masters Office Supply James E. Modarelli - Jeweler
Robert Buchanan Jay Showalter
LABOR

Local Businessman and Member of Chamber of Commerce GilbertJames Local Businessman and Member of Chamber of Commerce Raymond Jaminette Architect Howard Shafer - Architect

Fred Tod

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Director

of Youngstown

Chamber of Commerce

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- Insurance
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Underwriter

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James P. Griffin Director, District 26 USAW (Retired) S. Clark Assistant Director, District 26 USAW George Butsika Director of Education, USAW Reiss Gibbons Editor, Steel Labor USAW

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hABOR(Continued) . Donald Smith Assistant

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Dr. Thomas Shipka
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Ed Mann - President
STEEL INDUSTRY

- Local

Editor,

Steel

Labor

Labor Leader Local 1462, Brier Hill

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USAW

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Henry Evans President, Sharon Steel Leo Murphy Public Relations, Sharon Steel Walter Mathews Public Relations, Sharon Steel Ronald Towns District Superintendent - J & L
Ed Salt

William Brown Public Relations, WeanUnited James Butler -Public Relations, J & L John Hall Superintendent of Maintenance, J & L Jack Weber Public Relations, J & L Superintendent Buckeye School, J & L Ted Patrick

Perce Kelty - Chief Photographer, Youngstown Sheet and Tube (Retired) Randall Walthius Public Relations, U. S. Steel Louis Vicare1 - Public Relations, Republic Steel

- Histor.ian, Youngstownheet and Tube S

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Furman T. Blackwell Superintendent Blast Furnaces, Y S &T (Retired) Edward Prokopp Superintendent General Office Building, J & L Manager of Primary Operations, J & L Rodger Slatter Cyril Zetts - Chief Annealer, Y S & T (Retired) Gene Yaun General Foreman, Seamless ~1il1, J & L Joseph Navinski ShearmanPickler Department, Y S &T (Retired) Joseph Ruby Hot Strip Roller, Y S & T (Retired) Samuel Carbon Superintendent Cold Strip, Y S & T (Retired)

J - Superintendent Superintendent,and & L J &L Fuel and Power, J & L James Walker - Asst. Superintendent Fuel Power, RaymondHarris - Superintendent of Safety at Brier Hill - J & L H. Wolfe - Superintendent of Safety, U.S. Steel Archie Bianco - Chief Rigger, Sharon Stee' (Retired) Gene Bova

Ed Rodgers - Act. District

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GOVERNt~ENT

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- Ohio Senator Richley - Mayor, City of Youngstown Rocco Mica - Mayor of City of Campbell Nicholas Deramo - Mayor, City of Girard W. Doutt- Mayor, City of Niles Art Richard Mayor, City of Warren John Palermo - Commissioner Mahoning County George Bindas Commissioner Mahoning Coulity Charles Barrett Commissioner Mahoning County Jul ius Geewax "- Director of Deve1opment, City of Youngstown Felix Kikel Chief Planner, City of Youngstown William Brenner - Planner, Eastgate Development & Transportation Agency George Zokel - Planner, Eastgate Development & Transportation Agency Patrick Ungaro - Councilman, City of Youngstown
Senator Harry Meshel
Phillip

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HISTORICAL

William Masters
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Cunningham - Lowellville Historical Society - BoardmanHistorical Society Florence Galida CampbellHistorical Society Patricia Cummins- Mahoning Valley Historical Society Elizabeth Szabo International Institute Charlotte Richard Ulrich - Canfield Historical Sotiety Rebecca Rodgers - Poland Historical Society Howard Aley - Local Historian Walter Damin - Local H.A.P. Representative William Whitehouse Naturalist, Mill Creek Park Ken Zinz Austintown Historical Society
John Zackuzia - Pa. Anthropological Society

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RELIGIOUS
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Aux. Bishop William Hughes

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Rev. William Connel Asst. Rector, St. Colombia Rev. Martin Susko Rector, St. Colombia Pastor, First Christian Assembly Pastor Louis Furtomioto Pastor Fred Ripper Youth Pastor, First Christian Assembly

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Diocese of Youngstown

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RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY (Continued)

Rev. Edward Stanton
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Ecumenical

Coalition

Rev. Leo Doboschevits - Pastor, St. Joseph the Provider Rev. GeorgePappas- St. Michael the Archangel
Rev. Edward 'wi;tt MEDIA

Rev. GeorgeF. Winca - St. Matthias Church
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Q; oce:se: of '( oUflgs teliln

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Dennis Finneran - Editor, PDotographer, Jay Paris

Ernest Brown, Jr.
Cindy Ikins

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Reporter, Youngstown Vindicator

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Dennis LaRue - Reporter, Youngstown Vindicator - Talk ShowHost, WYTV Gary Coverly - Talk ShowHost, WYTV Jeffrey Pierce - Station Manager and News Director, TomHolliday - News Director, WYSU Lowell Bridges - Reporter, WYTV
EDUCATION

Dale.Peskin - Reporter, Youngstown Vind;.cator

WYTV

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Dr.

John

Coffelt

E. Catsoulis
Herbert )

John R. Holan
Robert Pond

Superintendent of Schools, Youngstown City G. Thomas Superintendent of ~iberty City Schools Dr. Michael J. Elsberry - Superintendent of Struthers City Schools of Mahoning County Schools Dr. Robert P. Shreve - Superintendent

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President

of Youngstown

State

University

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Superintendent of Salem City Schools Luther H. Gutknech - Superintendent of Hubbard City Schools Robert Hetrick - Superintendent of Campbell City Schools Dr. John White - Department of Anthropology, YSU Dr. George Beelen - Chairman of Department of History, YSU Dr. James Ronda - Department of History, YSU Ann Harris

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of Warren

City

Schools

Professor HughEarnhart - Director of World History, - Departmentof Geology, YSU
Dr. George Kelly
Robert Griffith

YSU

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YSU

Director

of Mahoning County"Library

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EDUCATION (Continued) Assistant Head Librarian, YSU Teacher, Campbell City Schools Larry Lushinski Teacher, Youngstown City Schools John Cvengros

Professor A.E.T. Morris - Department of Architecture, Oxford University, England
Miss Patricia

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Donald Koma - History Teacher, Youngstown City Schools Andrew Hammady- History Teacher, YoungstownCity Schools
In addition, the Project Director addressed the following groups:

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Alliance of Mahoning County Historical Societies Camppell Historical Society Lowellville Historical Society McGuffey Historical Society Mahoning County Genealogical Society Youngstown State University President's Breakfast DowntownLion's Club

Forum

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