This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Submitted by, J. NELSON (3510920075) V. NITTYANANDAM (3510920078) C.S. PRASAD KUMAR (3510920088) J. RAJESH MANICKAM (3510920100) D. RAM KUMAR (3510920109)

History The control chart was invented by Walter A. 1924. If the chart indicates that the process being monitored is not in control. with variation only coming from sources common to the process) then data from the process can be used to predict the future performance of the process. Process parameters should never be adjusted for a process that is in control. Shewhart's boss. which can then be eliminated to bring the process back into control. set forth all of the essential principles and considerations which are involved in what we know today as process quality control. That diagram. also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts. where there . Because amplifiers and other equipment had to be buried underground. includi ng whether or not to change process control parameters. wrote an internal memo introducing the control chart as a tool for distinguishing between the two. recalled: "Dr. Shewhart while working for Bell Labs in the 1920s. About a third of that page was given over to a simple diagram which we would all recognize today as a schematic control chart. Moreover. there was a business need to reduce the frequency of failures and repairs. The control chart can be seen as part of an objective and disciplined approach that enables correct decisions regarding control of the process. and the short text which preceded and followed it.Control charts Control charts. Shewhart prepared a little memorandum only about a page in length. they had realized that continual process -adjustment in reaction to non-conformance actually increased variation and degraded quality. analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation. The company's engineers had been seeking to improve the reliability of their telephony transmission systems. as this will result in degraded process performance. is stable. If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i. Shewhart framed the problem in terms of Common.and special-causes of variation and. By 1920 they had already realized the importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process. George Edwards. A control chart is a specific kind of run chart that allows significant change to be differentiated from the natural variability of the process. Dr.e." Shewhart stressed that bringing a production process into a state of statistical control. on May 16. in statistical process control are tools used to determine whether or not a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control.

After the defeat ofJapan at the close of World War II. While Dr. Dr. spread Shewhart's thinking.g. His ensuing involvement in Japanese life.g. he understood data from physical processes typically produce a "normal distribution curve" (a Gaussian distribution. In 1924 or 1925..is only common-causevariation. Deming became the foremost champion and proponent of Shewhart's work. standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated using all the samples Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' are drawn typically at 3 standard errors from the center line . He discovered that observed variation in manufacturing data did not always behave the same way as data in nature (Brownian motion of particles). Deming served as statistical consultant to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. a mean. mean of the proportions) A center line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic The standard error (e. and keeping it in control. Shewhart drew from pure mathematical statistical theories. Shewhart concluded that while every process displays variation. Dr. Shewhart's innovation came to the attention of W. and long career as an industrial consultant there. then working at the Hawthorne facility.. while others display uncontrolled variation that is not present in the process causal system at all times. Chart details A control chart consists of: Points representing a statistic (e. proportion) of measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data] The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e. Shewhart created the basis for the control chart and the concept of a state of statistical control by carefully designed experiments. and the use of the control chart.. mean of the ranges. the mean of the means. Deming later worked at the United States Department of Agriculture and then became the mathematical advisor to the United States Census Bureau. also commonly referred to as a "bell curve"). is necessary to predict future output and to manage a process economically. Edwards Deming. widely in Japanese manufacturing industry throughout the 1950s and 1960s.g. Over the next half a century. some processes display controlled variation that is natural to the process. range.

. In practice. or systematic patterns within. Since increased variation means increased quality costs.The chart may have other optional feat res. the process mean (and hence the center line) may not coincide with the specified value (or target) of the quality characteristic because the process' design simply can't deliver the process characteristic at the desired level. The control limits tell you about process behavior and have no intrinsic relationship to any specification targets or engineering tolerance. machine operators) to focus on performing to specification when in fact the least cost course of action is to . typically two standard errors above and below the center line Division into zones.g. known as a special cause variation. with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone Annotation with events of interest. incl ing: Upper and lower warning limits. all points will plot within the control limits. Any observations outside the limits. suggest the introduction of a new (and li ely unanticipated) source of variation. This makes the control limits very important decision aids. drawn as separate lines. Control charts limit specification limits or targets because of the tendency of those involved with the process (e. a control chart "signaling" the presence of a special cause requires immediate investigation. as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the process's quality Chart usage If the process is in control.

. The purpose of control charts The success of Shewhart's approach is based on the idea that no matter how well the process is designed. however. just due to commoncauses. Instead of immediately launching a process improvement effort to determine whether special causes are present. The purpose in adding warning limits or subdividing the control chart into zones is to provide early notification if something is amiss. Note that with three sigma limits. that is used to monitor the process parameter. try to transform them. the Quality Engineer may temporarily increase the rate at which samples are taken from the process output until it's clear th at the process is truly in control.keep process variation as low as possible. the mean). The measurement-function (e. 2. Choice of limits Assumptions underlying Control Charts The two important assumptions are: 1. Attempting to make a proc ess whose natural center is not the same as the target perform to target specification increases process variability and increases costs significantly and is the cause of much inefficiency in operations. In practice.g. This simple decision can be difficult where the process characteristic is continuously varying. The purpose of control charts is to allow simple detection of events that are indicative of actual process change. the control chart provides statistically objective criteria of change. if your data seem very far from meeting this assumption. there exists a certain amount of nature variability in output measurements. where the change is bad then its cause should be identified and eliminated. is distributed according to a normal distribution. When change is detected and considered good its cause should be identified and possibly become the new way of working. one expects to be signaled approximately once out of every 370 points on average. Process capability studies do examine the relationship between the natural process limits (the control limits) and specifications. Measurements are independent of each other.

and some action should be taken. The points that are plotted on the graph are compared to a pair of control limits. the proof of the pudding is in the eating. The design of control charts is a compromise between the risks of not detecting real changes and of false alarms. The coarse result of Chebyshev's inequality that. In its basic form. The control chart is supposed to detect the presence of special causes of variation. An alarm signaled by a control chart may indicate that special causes of variation are present. ranging from taking a re-check sample to the stopping of a production line in order to trace and eliminate these causes. that for any unimodal probability distribution. On the other hand. the probability of an outcome greater than k standard deviations from the mean is at most 4/(9k2). The finer result of the Vysochanskii-Petunin inequality. for any probability distribution. Though he initially experimented with limits based on probability distributions. the process is said to be out -of-control. A point that exceeds the control limits signals an alarm. an a larm may be a false one. Shewhart ultimately wrote: . the process is said to be in-control. the probability of an outcome greater than k standard deviations from the mean is at most 1/k2. As the practical engineer might say. The empirical investigation of sundry probability distributions reveals that at least 99% of observations occurred within three standard deviations of the mean. If the process variation includes both random and special causes of variation. when in practice no change has occurred in the process. Shewhart set 3-sigma (3-standard error) limits on the following basis.When the variation in process quality is due to random causes alone. Such justification must come from empirical evidence that it works. the control chart is a plot of some function of process measurements against time. Shewhart summarized the conclusions by saying: fact that the criterion which we happen to use has a fine ancestry in highbrow statistical theorems does not justify its use.

Ascribe a variation or a mistake to a special cause when in fact the cause belongs to the system (common cause). under such conditions. however. in terms of sample variance. The control chart is intended as a heuristic. An alternative method is to use the relationship between the range of a sample and its standard deviation derived by Leonard H. Deming insisted that it is not a hypothesis test and is not motivated by the Neyman-Pearson lemma..under a wide range of unknowable ci rcumstances. Rules for detecting signal The most common sets are: The Western Electric rules The Wheeler rules (equivalent to the Western Electric zon e tests[5]) The Nelson rules There has been particular controversy as to how long a run of observations. future and past . Deming's intention was to seek insights into the cause system of a process . an estimator which tends to be less influenced by the extreme observations which typify specialcauses. should count as a signal.Some of the earliest attempts to characterize a state of statistical control were inspired by the belief that there existed a special form of frequency function f and it was early argued that the normal law characterized such a state.and special-causes of variation. then generalized functional forms were tried. 3-sigma limits provided . the usual estimator. 7. C. When the normal law was found to be inadequate.. from the two errors 1. Hence. a rational and economic guide to minimum economic loss.He claimed that. Tippett... . Today. all on the same side of the centre line. (Also known as a Type I error) 2. Ascribe a variation or a mistake to the system (common causes) when in fact the cause was special. is not used as this estimates the total squared -error loss from both common. 8 and 9 all being advocated by various writers. all hopes of finding a unique functional form f are blasted. the standard deviation (error) required is that of the common-cause variation in the process. He contended that the disjoint nature of population andsampling frame in most industrial situations compromised the use of conventional statistical techniques. with 6. (Also known as a Type II error) [edit]Calculation of standard deviation As for the calculation of control limits.

Alternative bases In 1935.or 2-sigma change in the mean). if a special cause does occur. those responsible for the underlying process are expected to determine whether a special cause has occurred. even though one may not have actually occurred. it may not be of sufficient magnitude for the chart to produce an immediate alarm condition. If a special cause occurs. the in-control average run length (or in-control ARL) of a Shewhart chart is 370.0027 or 370. replacing 3sigma limits with limits based on percentiles of thenormal distribution. adopted control charts. When those changes are quantified. However. then that cause should be eliminated if possible.The most important principle for choosing a set of rules is that the choice be made before the data is inspected. the British Standards Institution. Meanwhile. For a Shewhart control chart using 3-sigma limits. If one has. as their out-of-control ARLs are fairly short in these cases. If worse.4 observations. no special causes are present in the system). Performance of control charts When a point falls outside of the limits established for a given control chart. it is appropriate to determine if the results with the special cause are better than or worse than results from common causes alone. it may be appropriate to intentionally retain the special cause within the system producing the results.27% probability of a point exceeding 3-sigma control limits. under the influence of Egon Pearson and against Shewhart's spirit. This move continues to be represented by John Oakland and others but has been widely deprecated by writers in the Shewhart -Deming tradition. there is approximately a 0. Since the control limits are evaluated each time a point is added to the chart. Choosing rules once the data have been seen tends to increase the Type I error rate owing to testing effects suggested by the data. Other types . It is known that even when a process is in control (that is. the Shewhart chart does not detect these changes efficiently. Therefore. for smaller changes (such as a 1. one can describe that cause by measuring the change in the mean and/or variance of the process in question. this false alarm occurs on average once every 1/0. It turns out that Shewhart charts are quite good at detecting large changes in the process mean or variance.4. it readily follows that every control chart will eventually signal the possible presenc e of a special cause. it is possible to determine the out-of-control ARL for the chart. If better.

of control charts have been developed . imagine a process that produces soap bars. the principle is itself controversial and supporters of control charts further argue that. the weights are recorded. which detect smaller changes more efficiently by making use of information from observations collected prior to the most recent data point. is 5 gm.] However. because that average usually follows a geometric distribution. 4. The production manager wants to monitor the mean weight of soap bars produced on the line. especially where knowledge about the cause system of the process is weak. For each sample. The monitored parameter is the process mean. The target value of a the weight of a single soap bar is 100 gm. Some authors have criticised the use of average run lengt hs (ARLs) for comparing control chart performance. The points on the plot will be the sample means (where each sample consists of 10 measurements). and their mean/average is compute d. The sample means are estimates of the process mean. it is impossible to specify a likelihood function for a process not in statistical control. such as the EWMA chart and theCUSUM chart. It is also known that an estimate of the weight standarddeviation for a single soap bar. The center line in this case will be equal to 100 gm (the target). criticisms Several authors have criticised the control chart on the grounds that it violates the likelihood principle. An Example To give you a feel of this statistical terminology. Daily samples of 10 bars are taken. which has high variability and difficulties. in general. during a stable period of the process. 2. The control limits are given by 100 ± 3 · 5 / root(10) Sensitizing rules for control charts . 1. 3.

The most popular stopping rules were suggested by the "Western Electric Company" ("WECO"). In both cases it is assumed that a normal distribution underlies the relevant estimators. 4 of 5 consecutive points fall beyond 1-sigma limits. It has been shown that Shewhart-type charts are efficient in detecting medium to large shifts. but within control limits. These rules supplement the ordinary rule: "One point exceeds the control limits".09 sigma" limits (corresponding to 0. 8 consecutive points fall on one side of the centerline.2% of false alarms). but within control (3-sigma) limits. . while the British Standard uses "3. One attempt to increase the power of Shewhart-type charts is by adding supplementary stopping rules based on runs.The American Standard is based on "three -sigma" control limits (corresponding to 0.27% of false alarms). Here are the most popular Western Electric rules: y y y 2 of 3 consecutive points fall outside warning (2 -sigma) limits. but are insensitive to small shifts.

- CUSUM PDF
- SPC
- Cusum.xls
- M03b-MHR-1
- SPC presentation.ppt
- SQC
- CUSUM Control Charts
- ch17-StatisticalQuality
- DMA Control Chart
- Int J Qual Health Care-1998-Benneyan-69-73
- Control Charts
- Statistical Quality Control
- Statistical Quality Control
- Quality and Statistical Process Control PPT @ BEC DOMS
- Sec 45 Statistical Process Control
- Control Charts in Qc in Construction
- Xbar-s Control Charts
- Control Chart
- 1
- Quality Control, Basic Control Charts
- Mod10 Control Chart
- Mod10 Control
- Combined PDF for Quiz 2
- Process Dynamics and Control Solutions
- Quality Dictionary
- 08 CM0471 Module 8
- ControlChart2.pdf
- How to Create a Control Chart
- SPC Course Material
- ISO 8258
- c chart

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd