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# Testing a Hypothesis

## Carry out measurements on an accurately known standard.

Experimental value is different from the true value.

## Is the difference due to a systematic

error (bias) in the method - or simply
to random error?

SIGNIFICANCE TEST

## Figure shows (A) the curve for the true

value (mA = mt) and (B) the experimental
curve (mB)
NULL HYPOTHESIS : Ho
Ho: to imply that there is no difference between the observed and known
values apart from that due to random variation.
Ho : x = μ

If ItI < certain critical value  then the null hypothesis is retained

If ItI > certain critical value  then the null hypothesis is rejected

## The critical value of t for a given significance level can be found

from Table A-2 Miller (ex P: 0.05 (5%) or 0.01 (1%)).
Example 1 :

Example 2.

Ho : the two methods give same result
Ho : μ1 = μ2
If s1 and s2 are not significantly different, use pooled s :
Example 3 :

If the standard deviation is not equal :
t = - 8.48 critical value t 5 = 4.03

## t > critical value t, Ho is rejected

There is evidence that the mean concentration of the thiol
differs between the group.
Paired t-test
Two methods of analysis are compared by applying both of them to
the same set of test materials, which contain different amounts of
analyte.

## Paracetamol concentration in tablets by two different methods. Tablets

from ten different batches.
In addition to random measurement error, differences between
the tablets and the differences between the methods may also
contribute to the variation between measurement.

## d (difference between each pair of

the results given by the methods

## Where d and sd are the mean and standard deviation respectively of d

values, the differences between the paired values.
Rerata d = 0.159, sd = 0.570

## t < t9, Ho is retained

the methods do not give significantly different results for the paracetamol
concentration.
One-sided and two-sided test (One-tailed and two-tailed test)

The methods described so far have been concerned with testing for a
difference between two means in either direction.

## Not concern positive or

Two-sided or two- tailed
negative trend

## One-sided or one- tailed concern to decrease or

increase trend
F-test for the comparison of standard deviations

## The significance tests described so far are used Detect systematic

for comparing means errors
OUTLIERS
Titration result : 12.12, 12.15, 12.13, 13.14, 12.112 ml

Outlier?

Grubbs` test

## Ho presumes that there are no outliers, and the population has a

normal distribution.
DIXON`S TEST (Q-Test)