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Experiment: The Melting and Freezing Points of

Napthalene

Aim: To determine the melting and freezing points of


napthalene,C10H8
Apparatus: Boiling tube, 250cm3 beaker, thermometer,
tripod stand, retort stand with clamp, Bunsen burner,
stopwatch, conical flask, wire gauze.
Materials: Napthalene, C10H8 , tap water.
Procedure:
A. Heating of napthalene, C10H8
1. A boiling tube was filled with napthalene, C10H8 to a
depth of 3cm and a thermometer was put into it.
2. The boiling tube was suspended in a beaker half –
filled with water using a retort stand and a clamp.
The level of napthalene, C10H8 in the boiling tube
was ensured to be below the level of water in the
beaker.
3. The water was heated and the napthalene, C10H8
was stirred slowly with the thermometer. When the
temperature of the napthalene, C10H8 reached 60c,
the stopwatch started.
4. The temperature and state(s) of the napthalene,
C10H8 were recorde at half-minute intervals until
the temperature of the naptahlene, C10H8 reached
90c.

B. Cooling of napthalene, C10H8


1. The boiling tube in Activity A was removed from
the water bath. The outer surface of the boiling
tube was dried and immediateley it was put in a
conical flask, as shown in the figure. The
napthalene, C10H8 was stirred continuously.
2. The temperature and state(s) of the napthalene,
C10H8 were recorded at half-minute intervals until
the temperature dropped to about 60c.
Results:
A. Heating of napthalene, C10H8
Time (min) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7.
. . . . . . . . . . . 5
05 05 0 5 0 5 0 5 0

Temperatur 61. 65.0 67. 71. 7


e ( C) 0 0 0 6
.
0

State Soli Soli


d d
B. Cooling of napthalene, C10H8
Time 0. 0. 1. 1. 2 2 33 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
(min) 0 5 0 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 5 05 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5
Temper
ature
( C)
State

Graph: Plot a graph of temperature against time for the


heating and cooling of napthalene, C10H8 on the grids
below.
Inferences:
The flat section in each graphs indicates a change of
state. The temperature remains constant as the heat
energy is used to change the state of napthalene, C10H8
Dicscussions:
1. Why was a water bath used to heat the napthalene,
C10H8 ?
To ensure that the napthalene, C10H8 is heated
evenly.

2. During the cooling of napthalen, C10H8 explain why


(a) The boiling tube must be placed in a conical
flask.
The air trapped in the conical flask is a poor
conductor of heat. This helps to minimise the heat
loss to the surroundings which may affect the
accurancy of the freezing point obtained.
(b) The
napthalene, C10H8 must be stirred
continuously.
To ensure an even temperature during the cooling of
napthalene, C10H8 in order to avoid supercooling.
3. From your graphs, deduce the melting and freezing
points of napthalene, C10H8.
The melting and freezing points of napthalene, C10H8
are 80c.
4. Explain why the temperature remain constant for
sometime in both heating and cooling curve.
In the heating curve of napthalene, C10H8 the heat
energy absorbed by the particles is used to
overcome the forces between the particles so that
the solid can turn into liquid. In the cooling curve of
napthalene, C10H8 the heat loss to the surroundings
is exactly balanced by the heat energy liberated as
the particles attract one another to form a solid.

Conclusion: The melting and freezing points of


napthalene, C10H8 are the same, which is 80c.