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Form 4 Biology Chapter 8 Dynamic Ecosystem

8.1 Food Chain, Food Web and Trophic Level

(b) (ii) Explain the energy transfer in the food chain. [4 marks]

The interaction between Biotic Components in Relation to Feeding

1 Competition
Graph A - Intraspecific competition
Competition between the same species of Paramecium . Competing for the same niche, food,
nutrient and space. At the end of experiment, the population of Paramecium aurelia is higher
compared to the population of P. caudatum.

Graph B - Interspecific competition

Competition between different species of Paramecium. Competing for the same niche, nutrient
and space. At the end of the experiment, the population of P. aurelia increases whereas P.
caudatum decreases. Showing that P. aurelia are more adaptable / stronger compared to P.

2 Prey-predator relationship
Form 4 Biology Chapter 8 Dynamic Ecosystem
Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamp
Adaptation of mangrove swamp

Zonation of Mangrove Swamp

Figure 8.13 Different zones at a mangrove swamp

(i) The seaward zone is fully exposed to high tides twice daily. The mangrove species that inhibit
this zone are the Anicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.
(ii) The middle zone is inhibited by the Rhizophora sp.
(iii) The inland zone, which is less frequently covered by sea water and often receives freshwater
from the ground, is inhibited by the Bruguiera sp.
7. Diagram 7 shows a mangrove swamp.

Diagram 7

Explain why most plants cannot colonise and grow in the swamps. [5 marks]
Explain how the mangrove trees adapt themselves to the harsh living
[5 marks]
Answer scheme:
(i) P1: The ground is too soft and unable to support plants,
P2: The water-logged / muddy swamps provide very little oxygen for root respiration.
P3: The swamp water has a high concentration of salt and is hypertonic.
P4: The plants growing in swamp will have the problem of dehydration.



P1: Root system which is highly branched and spreads over a big area to give good
support to the plants.
P2: Pneumatophores (breathing roots) which grow protruding upwards above the
P3: The plant cells have high concentration of cell sap.
P4: Hence, the cells are able to withstand the high salt content of the swamp.
P5: _________________________________________________________________________

P6: __________________________________________________________________

P7: __________________________________________________________________

P8: _________________________________________________________________________
Trial SPM Biolgoy 2012


Year 1870
P1: Colonization process occur
P2: pioneer species colonises the newly formed pond
P3: pioneer species/floating plant causes change in the pond
P4: so that the environment in the pond is more favourable for other
P6 : Pioneer die, the remains accumulated at the base of the pond
P7 : Decomposes by bacteria/fungi
P8 : Soil more nutrients / more fertile
P9 : The pond bank more shallower

Year 1950
P10: Succession occur
P11: successor plant/emergent plant gradually replace floating plant
P12: result in greater plants death that sink to the bottom of the
P13: raising the pond bed/making the pond more shallow//water
level in the pond decreases
P14 : No longer favourable for the successor
P15 : more favourable to the terrestrial plants