You are on page 1of 26

Design for Manufacturing

and Assembly II:


Design Guidelines
by Kenneth Youssefi

Product Design and Manufacturing Minicurriculum


San José State University

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 1


DFM Design Guidelines

Another aspect of Design for Manufacturing is to


make each part easy to produce.
The up-to-date DFM guidelines for different processes
are axiomatic: they are based on accurate and deep
knowledge of each process. They should be obtained
from a production engineer knowledgeable about the
process. The manufacturing processes (tools and
equipment) are constantly refined and improved.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 2


DFM Design Guidelines
Injection Molding
Fabrication of Plastics
Injection Molding

Process Overview
(see also Injection Molding lecture notes)

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 3


DFM Design Guidelines
Injection Molding

Provide adequate draft


angle for easier part
removal from mold.

Don’t

Minimize section thickness;


Do cooling time is proportional
to the square of the thickness.
Reduce cost by reducing the
cooling time.
Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 4
DFM Design Guidelines
Injection Molding

Keep rib thicknesses less than


60% of the part thickness in
order to prevent voids and
sinks.

Avoid sharp corners, they


produce high stress and
obstruct material flow.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 5


DFM Design Guidelines
Injection Molding

Provide smooth transitions, Keep section thickness uniform


avoid changes in thickness around bosses.
when possible.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 6


DFM Design Guidelines
Injection Molding
• Use standard general tolerances; do not tolerance:
Dimension Tolerance Dimension Tolerance
0 ≤ d ≤ 25 ± 0.5 mm 0 ≤ d ≤ 1.0 ± 0.02 inch
25 ≤ d ≤ 125 ± 0.8 mm 1 ≤ d ≤ 5.0 ± 0.03 inch
125 ≤ d ≤ 300 ± 1.0 mm 5 ≤ d ≤ 12.0 ± 0.04 inch
300 ± 1.5 mm 12.0 ± 0.05 inch

• Minimum thickness recommended; .025 in or


.65 mm, up to .125 for large parts.
• Round interior and exterior corners to .01-.015 Standard thickness
in radius (min.), prevents an edge from chipping. variation.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 7


DFM Design Guidelines
Rotational Molding

Rotational molding process consists of six steps


• A predetermined amount of plastic, powder or liquid form,
is deposited in one half of a mold.
• The mold is closed.
• The mold is rotated biaxially inside an oven.
• The plastics melts and forms a coating over the inside
surface of the mold.
• The mold is removed from the oven and cooled.
• The part is removed from the mold.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 8


Rotational Molding Machines

Vertical wheel machine

Turret machine

Shuttle machine
Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Rock and roll machine Slide 9
Rotational Molding

Advantages

• Molds are relatively inexpensive.


• Rotational molding machines are much less
expensive than other type of plastic processing
equipment.
• Different parts can be molded at the same time.
• Very large hollow parts can be made.
• Parts are stress free.
• Very little scrap is produced

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 10


Rotational Molding
Limitations

• Cannot make parts with tight tolerance.


• Large flat surfaces are difficult to achieve.

• Molding cycles are long (10-20 min.)

Materials
Polyethylene (most common), Polycarbonate (high heat
resistance and good impact strength), Nylon (good wear and
abrasion resistance, good chemical resistance, good
toughness and stiffness).

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 11


Rotational Molding

Nominal wall thickness

• Polycarbonate wall thickness is typically between .06 to


.375 inches, .125 inch being an ideal thickness.
• Polyethylene wall thickness is in the range of .125 to .25
inch, up to 1 inch thick wall is possible
• Nylon wall thickness is in the range of .06 to .75 inch.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 12


Rotational Molding Examples

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 13


Rotational Molding Examples

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 14


DFM Design Guidelines
Sheet-metal Forming

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 15


DFM Design Guidelines
Sheet-metal Forming

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 16


DFM Design Guidelines
Sheet-metal Forming

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 17


DFM Design Guidelines - Casting
Casting, one of the oldest manufacturing processes, dates back to 4000
B.C. when copper arrowheads were made.

• Casting processes basically involve the introduction of a molten


metal into a mold cavity, where upon solidification, the metal takes
on the shape of the mold cavity.
• Simple and complicated shapes can be made from any metal
that can be melted.

• Example of cast parts: frames, structural parts, machine


components, engine blocks, valves, pipes, statues, ornamental
artifacts…..

• Casting sizes range form few mm (teeth of a zipper) to 10 m


(propellers of ocean liners).

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 18


Casting Processes

1. Preparing a mold cavity of the desired shape with proper


allowance for shrinkage.
2. Melting the metal with acceptable quality and temp.
3. Pouring the metal into the cavity and providing means
for the escape of air or gases.
4. Solidification process, must be properly designed and
controlled to avoid defects.
5. Mold removal.
6. Finishing, cleaning and inspection operations.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 19


Sand Casting Terminology

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 20


Casting Defects
Hot spots – thick sections cool slower than other sections
causing abnormal shrinkage. Defects such as voids, cracks
and porosity are created.

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 21


Casting Defects and Design
Consideration

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 22


DFM Design Guidelines - Casting

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 23


DFM Design Guidelines - Casting

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 24


DFM Design Guidelines – Machining

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 25


End

DFMA II ~ Design Guidelines

Ken Youssefi SJSU: PDM II Slide 26