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1. Let BE and CF be the altitudes of an acute triangle ABC, with E on AC and F on AB.

Let O be the point of intersection of BE and CF . Take any line KL through O with K on

AB and L on AC. Suppose M and N are located on BE and CF respectively, such that

KM is perpendicular to BE and LN is perpendicular to CF . Prove that F M is parallel to

EN .

E

F

O L

K

M N

B C

π π

∠OLN = − ∠N OL = − ∠KOF = ∠OKF.

2 2

It follows that ∠F M O = ∠OEN . This forces that F M is parallel to EN .

2. Find all primes p and q such that p2 + 7pq + q 2 is the square of an integer.

Solution: Let p, q be primes such that p2 + 7pq + q 2 = m2 for some positive integer m. We

write

5pq = m2 − (p + q)2 = (m + p + q)(m − p − q).

We can immediately rule out the possibilities m + p + q = p, m + p + q = q and m + p + q = 5

(In the last case m > p, m > q and p, q are at least 2).

Consider the case m+p+q = 5p and m−p−q = q. Eliminating m, we obtain 2(p+q) = 5p−q.

It follows that p = q. Similarly, m + p + q = 5q and m − p − q = p leads to p = q. Finally

taking m + p + q = pq, m − p − q = 5 and eliminating m, we obtain 2(p + q) = pq − 5. This

can be reduced to (p − 2)(q − 2) = 9. Thus p = q = 5 or (p, q) = (3, 11), (11, 3). Thus the

set of solutions is

{(p, p) : p is a prime } ∪ {(3, 11), (11, 3)}.

3. Find the number of positive integers x which satisfy the condition

hxi h x i

= .

99 101

(Here [z] denotes, for any real z, the largest integer not exceeding z; e.g. [7/4] = 1.)

hxi h x i

Solution: We observe that = = 0 if and only if x ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , 98}, and

99 101

hxi h x i

there are 98 such numbers. If we want = = 1, then x should lie in the set

99 101 hxi h x i

{101, 102, . . . , 197}, which accounts for 97 numbers. In general, if we require = =

99 101

k, where k ≥ 1, then x must be in the set {101k, 101k + 1, . . . , 99(k + 1) − 1}, and there

are 99 − 2k such numbers. Observe that this set is not empty only if 99(k + 1) − 1 ≥ 101k

and this

h xrequirement

i h x i is met only if k ≤ 49. Thus the total number of positive integers x for

which = is given by

99 101

49

X

98 + (99 − 2k) = 2499.

k=1

– » – »

x x

[Remark: For any m ≥ 2 the number of positive integers x such that =

m−1 m+1

2 2

m −4 m −5

is if m is even and if m is odd.]

4 4

4. Consider an n × n array of numbers:

0 1

a11 a12 a13 ··· a1n

Ba

B 21 a22 a23 ··· a2n C

C

B . .. C

B . C

@ . . A

an1 an2 an3 ··· ann

Suppose each row consists of the n numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . , n in some order and aij = aji for

i = 1, 2, . . . , n and j = 1, 2, . . . , n. If n is odd, prove that the numbers a11 , a22 , a33 , . . . , ann

are 1, 2, 3, . . . , n in some order.

Solution: Let us see how many times a specific term, say 1, occurs in the matrix. Since

1 occurs once in each row, it occurs n times in the matrix. Now consider its occurrence off

the main diagonal. For each occurrence of 1 below the diagonal, there is a corresponding

occurrence above it, by the symmetry of the array. This accounts for an even number of

occurrences of 1 off the diagonal. But 1 occurs exactly n times and n is odd. Thus 1 must

occur at least once on the main diagonal. This is true of each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . , n.

But there are only n numbers on the diagonal. Thus each of 1, 2, 3, . . . , n occurs exactly once

on the main diagonal. This implies that a11 , a22 , a33 , . . . , ann is a permutation of 1, 2, 3, . . . , n.

5. In a triangle ABC, D is a point on BC such that AD is the internal bisector of ∠A. Suppose

∠B = 2∠C and CD = AB. Prove that ∠A = 72◦ .

Solution 1.: Draw the angle bisector BE of ∠ABC to meet AC in E. Join ED. Since

∠B = 2∠C, it follows that ∠EBC = ∠ECB. We obtain EB = EC.

A

β β

E

2β

α β

α α

B D C

Consider the triangles BEA and CED. We observe that BA = CD, BE = CE and

∠EBA = ∠ECD. Hence BEA ≡ CED giving EA = ED. If ∠DAC = β, then we obtain

∠ADE = β. Let I be the point of intersection of AD and BE. Now consider the triangles

AIB and DIE. They are similar since ∠BAI = β = ∠IDE and ∠AIB = ∠DIE. It follows

that ∠DEI = ∠ABI = ∠DBI. Thus BDE is isoceles and DB = DE = EA. We also

observe that ∠CED = ∠EAD + ∠EDA = 2β = ∠A. This implies that ED is parallel to

AB. Since BD = AE, we conclude that BC = AC. In particular ∠A = 2∠C. Thus the

total angle of ABC is 5∠C giving ∠C = 36◦ . We obtain ∠A = 72◦ .

Solution 2. We make use of the charectarisation: in a triangle ABC, ∠B = 2∠C if and

only if b2 = c(c + a). Note that CD = c and BD = a − c. Since AD is the angle bisector,

we also have

a−c c

= .

c b

This gives c2 = ab − bc and hence b2 = ca + ab − bc. It follows that b(b + c) = a(b + c) so

that a = b. Hence ∠A = 2∠C as well and we get ∠C = 36◦ . In turn ∠A = 72◦ .

Since x, y, z are the sides of a triangle, we know that |x − y| < z, |y − z| < x and |z − x| < y.

Multiplying these, we obtain the required inequality.

7. Prove that the product of the first 200 positive even integers differs from the product of the

first 200 positive odd integers by a multiple of 401.

Solution: We have to prove that

If we expand this as a polynomial in x, the constant terms get canceled as there are even

number of odd factors ((−1)200 = 1). The remaining terms are integral multiples of x and

hence the difference is a multiple of x. Thus 401 divides the above difference.

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