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1/U (Total Heat Transfer Coefficient) 0.

01 hdi (fouling factor inside the p

h0 (Heat transfer coefficient ousite the pipe) 6000 hdo (fouling factor outside the
hd0 11111.11
kw 47
Do 0.03 Dittus-boelter equation for hi
Di 0.02 k of dowtherm
hdi 666.67 hi
hi (heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe) 214.5

Ucalc 149.56
Ucalc/Uassume 1
Uassume 149.4
Q (heat to be removed from the reactor)(kW) 1.87E+06
∆Tm 174.81 ∆Tm
A 71.76

Length of tube 3 the lenght of the tube

was assumed to be 3m
Area of one tube 0.24 Area of 1 tube = Pix
No of tubes 299.71 DxL
Actual 300 No of tubes =
TotalArea/ Area of 1
Shell Inside Diameter (m) 2 passes 0.59 tube.

Total cross section area of the300 pipes 70.62 velocity through the
Dowtherm Volumetric Flow Rate (cubic meter/sec) 7.12E+01 tube = Dowtherm
FLow Rate / T.Cross
Velocity through tubes 1.01 check Q
sectional Area

Prandt No of Dowtherm 0.01

Reynolds No of Dowtherm 80419.05

Pressure Drop Across the Heat Exhchanger

the pressure drop across the heat exhanger is calculated by the formula;
Specific gravity 0.997
∆P =( 4*L*shear stress of wall )/ D
Therfore, acc ording to
to calculate the shear stress of the wall, we use the Blasius Model;
between density of a s
specific gravity; densi

shear stress 2.38

Pressure Drop across the Heat Exchanger: 357511.06

velocity (v) m/s 1.01

height (m) 12.5
Density of the dowtherm 997
Gravitatonal Constant 9.81

Pressure Drop Across the Reactor

velocity 9.92E-01
diameter(mm) 0.05
Density of the dowtherm 997
viscosity 0 to calculate the shear stress, w
Reynolds number : 224830.15 Reynolds number and see whe
shear stress 1.79 than 100,000 and then we calcu
Pressure Drop Across the Reactor 4080.27 using the equation above.
length = 30 m
Pressure Drop from the reactor to the Heat Exhanger
Height (Δz) 12.5
Velocity out of the reactor 9.92E-01 Inorder to calculate the pressure
reactor to the heat exchanger; w
the Bernoulli's equation.
(V1^2/2g) + z1 + (P1/ρg) = (v2^2
Inorder to calculate the pressure
Velocity into the heat exchanger 1.01 reactor to the heat exchanger; w
gravitational constant 9.81 the Bernoulli's equation.
denisty of the dowtherm 997 (V1^2/2g) + z1 + (P1/ρg) = (v2^2
According to Bernoullis theorem; (P2/ρg)
Pressure drop -122,241.15 Rearranging the above equation;
ΔP =((V2^2- V1^2)*ρ)/2 - ρgΔz
Total Pressure Drop throught the heat exchanger and the pipework to and from the reactor
Pressure drop across the heat exchanger 357511.06
Pressure drop across the reactor 4080.27
Pressure drop from the reactor to the heat exchanger -122,241.15
Total Pressure drop 239,350.18
(fouling factor inside the pipe)
the hdi and hdo values were calculated by reciprocating 0.00009 and
(fouling factor outside the pipe)
0.0015 values. Values 0.00009 and 0.0015 are the fouling resistance
values found online.
us-boelter equation for hi the heat transfer coefficient is found by the Dittus - boelter equation
0.13 Nu = (hzD/K) = 0.023 Re4/5 Pr0.3
214.5 where hz = hi
where Re = 9269.55
Pr = (Cp .µ)/ K where Cp = 2.2 KJ/Kg/K, µ = 0.3x 10-3 and K = 0.13 W/m/K)
(convert to kW)

∆Tm is calculated using the equation ((T1 -t2)-(T2-t1))/(ln(T1-t2)/(T2-t1)) where T 1=

dowtherm inlet temperature, T2 = outlet temperatture and t = wall temperature. T1 =
382Celsius, T2 = 370 C
t = 201.12 (using steam tables at bar gauge =15 which is 16 absolute bar pressure.
hence we have to find the temperature between the pressures 15 ad 20) T at 15bar =
198.3 and Tat 20 bar = 212.4. therefore to calculate the wall temperature = Tat 15 bar +
((Tar 20 bar - Tat 15 bar )/5) = 201.12.
the are is calculated using the equation ; A = Q/(Ux ∆Tm).

Shell ID calculated from tube-sheet

layout table in slides on the VLE based
city through the on a triangular arrangement . There
= Dowtherm
w Rate / T.Cross are 2 passes in the heat exchanger and
ional Area the shell diameter converted from
23.25in into metres.

Specific gravity 0.997 Density of water 1000

Therfore, acc ording to the realtionship
between density of a substance and the
specific gravity; density of the dowtherm 997

ate the shear stress, we see if the

s number and see whether it is less
,000 and then we calculate it by
e equation above.
30 m

calculate the pressure drop from the

the heat exchanger; we have to use
ulli's equation.
+ z1 + (P1/ρg) = (v2^2/2g) + z2 +
calculate the pressure drop from the
the heat exchanger; we have to use
ulli's equation.
+ z1 + (P1/ρg) = (v2^2/2g) + z2 +

ng the above equation;

^2- V1^2)*ρ)/2 - ρgΔz
0.00009 and
g resistance


= 0.13 W/m/K)

) where T 1=
perature. T1 =

bar pressure.
0) T at 15bar =
re = Tat 15 bar +