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Nov 01, 2010

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vlsi cad basics part 2

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vlsi cad basics part 2

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Reference materials

• C.L.Liu, “Introduction to Combinatorial Mathematics”, McGraw-Hill (1968)

• J.L.Gross and J.Yellen, “Graph Theory and its Applications,” Second Edition (Discrete

Mathematics and Its Applications), Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2005.

• F. Buckley and M. Lewinter, “ A Friendly Introduction to Graph Theory, Prentice

ECE-256a •

Hall”, 2002.

J.M.Aldous, R.J.Wilson, “Graphs and Applications: An Introductory Approach” (with

lecture 2 CD-ROM), Springer; 1st ed. 2000. Corr. 3rd printing edition (February 10, 2003)

– G

Gary Chartrand,

Ch t d IIntroductory

t d t G

Graph

h Th

Theory, D

Dover P

Publications;

bli ti U

Unabridged

b id d edition

diti

(December 1, 1984)

– R. J. Trudeau, Introduction to Graph Theory (Dover Books on Advanced Mathematics)

Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska Dover Publications; 2Rev Ed edition (February 9, 1994)

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department • And many more books on combinatorial mathematics and graph theory

mms@ece.ucsb.edu.

256a 2

256a 1

Incidence: edge is incident on its vertices. B

• Graph G(V,E) consists of 2 sets:

e1 C

Vertex adjacency: vertices u,v, are e2

V= finite set of vertices {v}

adjacent if e=(u,v) ε E. A e3

D

E=set of edges {e}

Simple graph: graph with no parallel edges or self loops.

loops

• Undirected

U di t d graph

h

Each edge e ε E associated with an unordered pair Degree of vertex: d(v) = number of edges incident to v.

of vertices:

Path: sequence of edges {ei, ei+1, …}

u e v

e = (u,v)

Euler path: path which contains each edge once and only

once.

256a 3 256a 4

E

e4 Connected graph: if for every u,v ε V there exists E

B

Path length: number of edges in the path. e8

e9 A path from u to v. B

In G1: {e1,e4,e9,e7,e5} – path of length 5. e1 e2 C

e7 F

e6 C

e3 F

Circuit – closed path. A e5

D

E A D

G1 Subgraph G’ of G:

Acyclic graph: graph with no cycles (ex. G2). B G4

e2 F

E

A e3 only if (u,v) ε E. (G5 is a subgraph of G4)

D B

G2

Euler circuit: circuit which contains each edge once and only once. Proper subgraph: E’ E, V’ V. F

Example: E

e4 A D

e10 B {e10,e4,e1,e2,e9,e8,e7, ( G5 is also a proper subgraph of G4.

e8 e6, e3, e12, e5,e11} G5

e9

e1 e2 C

e7 F e11

e6

A e3 e5

D

G3 e12

256a 5 256a 6

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Spanning subgraph: subgraph with V=V’. E Maximal subgraph G’ of G w.r.t. some property P: if G’

B

has the property P, and G’ is not a proper subgraph of any

C

F

other subgraph of G having the property P.

A D

Component of G: maximal G6 Component of G: maximal

connected subgraph of G. c2 connected subgraph of G. c2

E E

B B

c1 c1

C F C F

A D A D

H H

I I

256a 7 256a 8

property: G’ has the property P, and B

E=directed edges or arcs; e= (u,v) is an ordered pair of

F vertices.

P is a proper subgraph of G’.

A D

Example: The subgraph induced by the

red edges in G is a minimal spanning G u v

subgraph of G.

Directed path: sequence of arcs { (u,v), (v,w)….}

Directed circuit (cycle): closed directed path.

red edges in G1 is a minimal connected B

spanning subgraph of G1.

C

F Acyclic digraph: digraph with no directed circuits.

A D

G1

256a 9 256a 10

In-degree:

d − (v); Γ − (v) = {w | ( w, v ) ∈ E}

v Strongly connected:if there is a directed path u->v

and v->u for all vertices in D.

Out-degree: v (All vertices are strongly connected)

d + (v ); Γ + (v ) = {w | (v, w) ∈ E}

|v| |v|

−

d (vi ) = d + (vi )

i =1 i =1

256a 11 256a 12

2

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maximal strongly connected subgraph. From G disconnects G, I.e. G-S is disconnected,

And has exactly 2 components.

Minimally connected:

of any edge destroys the “strongly C2

connected” property. C1

256a 13 256a 14

Cut: set of edges having one end vertex in V1, and The first graph

the other in V2, and

The bridges of Konigsberg

∪ =V

V1 ∩V2 = 0, V1 V2 C

C

D D

Min-cut = cut of minimum cardinality A

v1 v2 A

This is a cut

cut, but not a cut

cut-set

set B

(not a minimal set of edges).

v3

v4 v5

B

Resultant graph has 3 connected components, Problem: Start at any of the four land areas, walk through each bridge

v1 v2 exactly once, and return to the starting point ( Euler circuit).

not 2.

v3

v4 v5

256a 15 256a 16

V d(v)=k.

K n has | E |=

2

Note: Kn is (n-1) regular.

K6

Clique of G: set of vertices S ⊆, such

V that

the induced subgraph of G on S is a complete Bipartite graph: graph whose vertices can be

graph.

h divided into two sets such that no edges connect

vertices in the same set.

Clique problem: determine if a given

simple graph has a clique of size k.

256a 17 256a 18

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if |V1|=m, |V2|=n and there is an edge between every subsets: V1 ,V2 ,Vs.t.

k each edge has one

pair if vertices v1 ∈ V

, 1 v2 ∈ V2 vertex in some Vand i the other in . V j

3-partite graph.

V1 V2 V1 V2

Complete bipartite Bipartite graph.

graph.

256a 19 256a 20

Isomorphism

The sum of the degrees = 2 x the number of edges.

Graphs represent structural relations between n

d (vi ) = 2 E

vertices. i −1

Two graphs G and H are isomorphic, if there is The number of vertices of odd degree is even.

a one-to-one

one to one correspondence between their sets A graph G has an Euler path if and only if it is connected

of vertices and their sets of edges, such that the and has two or no vertices of odd degree.

corresponding edges of G,H are incident on the

corresponding vertices of G,H, A graph G has an Euler circuit if and only if it is connected

and all vertices or of even degree.

256a 21 256a 22

u with d in (u ) = 0and at least one vertex v with A directed graph contains an Euler path, iff its

d out (u ) = 0 underlying graph is connected and contains one

vertex , a, such that

d out ( a ) = d in (a ) + 1

Directed Euler circuit and at most one vertex, b, such that

d in (b) = d out (b) + 1

A directed graph contains an Euler

circuit if and only if its underlying graph is while for all other vertices, v

connected and, for all vertices v :

d out (v) = din (v)

d out (v) = d in (v)

256a 23 256a 24

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every vertex appears once and only once.

Traveling Salesman Problem

Dodecahedron

(Hamilton 1857) Visit all cities exactly once and return to starting point

traveling minimum distance.

Find

Fi dHHamiltonian

ilt i circuit

i it off minimum

i i llength

th iin a given

i

weighted graph.

Hamiltonian path: a path in which every vertex

Vertex: city to be visited

appears once and only once. No efficient

Edge: road between 2 cities

techniques exist for finding Hamiltonian W(e): length of the road.

circuits in a graph.

TSP : min w(e)

256a 25 256a 26

a Hamiltonian circuit is that it has the same

number of vertices in each set. A tree is a connected graph with no circuits.

(directed) edge between every pair of vertices.

contains all the vertices of the graph.

Every complete directed graph has a Hamiltonian

path.

256a 27 256a 28

If Prim’s algorithm

• the vertices of a graph, G, are divided into

two disjoint sets, A and B; and 1. Draw in shortest edge

• e is the minimum length edge with one vertex 2. Thereafter, draw in shortest edge which does

in A and another in B not complete a circuit.

2

then there exists a minimum spanning tree, 12 2

12

T, which contains e. 10 3 5 3 5

10

10 10

B 8 8

A e e is the min length edge.

256a 29 256a 30

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2. Find unmarked vertex u such that L(u) = min.

6 If u = T, STOP.

3. For each e = (u,v), set

4 2 2 L(v)=min(L(v), L(u) + l(e))

2 3 4. Mark u, go to 2.

7

3 7 T

S

4

(4) 6 (7)

2 3 2

5 6

4 2 2

6 7 2 3

S T

3 (3) (5) 7

4 (8)

2 3 2

5 6

(2) 6 (6)

256a 31 256a 32

∞ 6 ∞ 4 6 ∞

4 2 2 4 2 2

3 3

0 7 2

7 ∞ 0 3

7 2

7 ∞

3 3

S

∞ 4 ∞ T 4 ∞

2 3 2 2 3 2

5 6 5 6

∞ 6 ∞ 2 6 ∞

256a 33 256a 34

4 6 ∞ 4 6 ∞

4 2 2 4 2 2

3 3

0 3

7 2

7 ∞ 0 3

7 2

7 ∞

3 3

4 7 4 7

2 3 2 2 3 2

5 6 5 6

2 6 2 6

8 8

256a 35 256a 36

6

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4 10 4 10

6 6

4 2 2 4 2 2

3 3

0 3

7 2

7 ∞ 0 3

7 2

7 ∞

3 3

4 7 4 76

2 3 2 2 3 2

5 6 5 6

2 6 2 6

8 7 8 7

256a 37 256a 38

4 10 4 10 9

6 6

4 2 2 4 2 2

3 3

0 3

7 2

7 ∞ 0 3

7 2

7

13

3 3

4 76 4 76

2 3 2 2 3 2

5 6 5 6

2 6 2 6

8 7 8 7

256a 39 256a 40

4 10 9 4 10

6 6 9

4 2 2 4 2 2

7 2 3 7 2 3

0 3 0 3

3 7 3 7 13

76 13 76

4 4

2 3 2 2 3 2 11

5 6 5 6

2 6 2 6

8 7 8 7

256a 41 256a 42

7

9/28/2010

4 10 9

6

(4) 6 (7)

4 2 2

7 2 3 4 2 2

0 3 2 3

3 7 13

7

S T

4 76 3 ((3)) (5) 7

3 2 11 4

2 (8)

5 6 2 3 2

5 6

2 6 8 7 (2) 6 (6)

256a 43 256a 44

1. Set L(v) – 0, u = S

2. For each e = (u,v), set

• V = events, E = tasks

L(v) = max(L(v), L(u)+l(e))

• l(e) = time needed to complete task e,

3. Repeat 2 for all visited vertices.

• the shortest possible completion time is determined

by the longest (critical) path.

(9)

7 (2) 7

2 3 2 3

S (16)

10 10

T

3 3

4 4

6 (3) 6 (12)

Find the longest path in directed graph.

256a 45 256a 46

Independent Sets

An independent set is maximal if the addition

A set of vertices of any graph is an independent set if

of any other vertex causes it to become

dependent.

and only if no vertices in the set are adjacent.

Is the number of vertices in its largest maximal

A D A

F F D Independent set.

E E

G H B C H

G

A D

F

E

G H

256a 47 256a 48

8

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only if it is maximal.

B C 0

0

A 0

F D 0

E

0

G H 0

0

0

Non-max independent sets: EH, BFG,AC.

Max independent sets: ACH, BDFG.

A maximal independent set on the chessboard

In any graph G: I(G)>=D(G).

256a 49 256a 50

it has ones everywhere the second does.

1 0 1 1 0 covers 1 0 0 1 0

covers a 1 in each column.

1 0

1 1 0 1 1 0

does not

1 1 1 0 0 0 Smallest covering 0 1

cover

Covering set 0 1 0 1 1 0 set.

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 1

1 0

1 1

256a 51 256a 52

If a column a covers column b, column a may be eliminated If row a covers row b, row b can be eliminated

U V W X Y Z U W Y Z

A 1 0 0 1 1 0 A 1 0 1 0 1 0 U W Y Z W Y Z

B 1 1 1 0 0 0 B 1 1 0 0 0 0 A A 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0

C 0 1 0 1 1 0 C 0 0 1 0 1 0 B 1 1 0 0 0 0

U B 1 0 0 D covers B and E

Covers

D 0 1 1 1 0 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1

C 0 0 1 0 1 0Y D 1 0 1

E 1 0 0 1 0 1 E 1 0 0 1 0 1

D 0 1 0 1 0 1 E 0 0 1

E 1 0 0 1 0 1

V covers W

A covers C

X covers Y

W Y Z Smallest covering set : rows A and D

A 0 1 0

D 1 0 1

256a 53 256a 54

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