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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71

DOI 10.1007/s10470-007-9036-x

A 2.4 GHz low power wireless transceiver analog front-end


for endoscopy capsule system
Baoyong Chi Æ Jinke Yao Æ Shuguang Han Æ
Xiang Xie Æ Guolin Li Æ Zhihua Wang

Received: 25 September 2005 / Revised: 13 January 2007 / Accepted: 29 January 2007 / Published online: 25 May 2007
 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Abstract This work presents the design and implemen- 1 Introduction


tation of a 2.4 GHz low power wireless transceiver analog
front-end for the endoscopy capsule system in 0.25 lm Different from the conventional endoscopic technique, the
CMOS. The prototype integrates a low-IF receiver analog wireless endoscopy system allows us to directly study the
front-end (low noise amplifier, double-balanced down- entire digestive tract without any anesthesia or insufflation.
converter, band-pass-filtered AGC loop, and ASK demod- The wireless endoscopy system lessens the pain the pa-
ulator) and a direct-conversion transmitter analog front-end tients suffer from and lowers the risks associated with the
(20 MHz IF PLL with well-defined amplitude control cir- endoscopic examination. So, many people start to research
cuit, ASK modulator, up-converter, and output buffer) on a the wireless endoscopy system and some preliminary
single chip together with one integrated RF oscillator and developments have been achieved recently [1–3].
two LO buffers. Trade-off has been made over the design The presented wireless endoscopy system is shown in
boundaries of the different building blocks to optimize the Fig. 1. It consists of the wireless capsule, the portable
overall system performance. All building blocks feature the device, and the computer. The wireless capsule is her-
circuit topologies that enable comfortable operation at low metically packaged and could be swallowed by the pa-
power consumption. As a result, the IC works at a 2.5 V tients. Inside the capsule, a CMOS image sensor captures
power supply, while only consuming 15 mW in receiver the images of the human digestive tract, then the image
(RX) mode and 14 mW in transmitter (TX) mode. To build data are sent to an integrated circuit for the digital signal
a complete transceiver for the endoscopy capsule system, processing (such as image compression, coding, and so on).
only an antenna, a duplexer, and a digital controller are A wireless transceiver is also integrates into the same chip
needed besides the presented analog front-end chip. to transfer the image data to the transceiver outside the
patient body and to receive the control instructions from
Keywords Wireless transceiver  RF  CMOS  the outside transceiver. Batteries and illumination devices
AGC  ASK modulator  ASK demodulator  Endoscopy are also installed in the capsule. Outside the patient’s body,
capsule system  Low power there is a wireless transceiver connected to a computer or a
recording device. The image data can be stored in the
recording device, and could be used by the doctor in the
future, or the capsule can be controlled by a computer and
the image data can be displayed on the computer screen in
real time. The system uses a bi-direction communication
B. Chi (&)  Z. Wang
Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing mode, which makes it possible that the behavior of
100084, China the circuits inside the capsule could be controlled by the
e-mail: chibylxc@tsinghua.edu.cn transceiver outside the patients’ body. For example, the
circuits inside the capsule could be controlled to work in
J. Yao  S. Han  X. Xie  G. Li
Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, sleep mode to save power consumption when the capsule
Beijing 100084, China passes the uninteresting digestive tract part. Another

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60 Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71

Fig. 1 The presented wireless


endoscopy system

example is that the circuit inside the capsule could be 1. Digital controller inside the capsule: It includes
controlled to generate a micro-current to stimulate the SRAM, the image compression module, the base-band
muscle of the digestive tract and push the capsule forward communication processing module, the control unit,
when the doctor wants to ignore the uninteresting part, the the interface with the CMOS image sensor, the power
action could speed up the movement of the capsule inside management module, LEDs, the micro-current drivers
the patients’ body. and so on.
In the whole wireless endoscopy system, the integrated 2. Wireless transceiver analog front-end: The transceiver
circuit in the capsule is the most crucial part. It must be operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The receiver link
highly integrated since the volume inside the capsule is uses ASK modulation, and could restore the digital
limited, and its power consumption must be low since the instructions from the weak RF signal received by the
small size battery contains limited energy and the capsule antenna; the transmitter link also uses ASK modula-
should work for more than 24 h. The integrated circuit in- tion, and could convert the digital image data into the
side the capsule is an analog–digital mixed signal low strong RF signal which will be radiated out by the
power SOC (shown in the solid frame in Fig. 2), and con- antenna.
sists of the digital controller (shown in the dashed frame in
A low power CMOS image sensor is off-chip. It could
Fig. 2) and the wireless transceiver analog front-end.
capture the raw image data with Bayer color filter array

Fig. 2 Analog–digital mixed


signal SOC architecture inside
the capsule

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 61

(CFA) and send the image data to the SOC chip for the grated oscillator. The resulted 10 MHz IF signals are AC-
digital signal processing. coupled to a band-pass-filtered automatic gain controlled
The paper presents the design and implementation of the (AGC) loop which consists of a two-stage cascade variable
low power wireless transceiver analog front-end for the gain amplifier (VGA), a constant gain amplifier, a peak
endoscopy capsule system in 0.25 lm CMOS. Trade-off detector and a feedback Gm-C low-pass filter. The AGC
has been made over the design boundaries of the different loop automatically adjusts the gain based on the signal
building blocks to optimize the overall system perfor- strength to ease the demodulation of the following ASK
mance. All building blocks feature circuit topologies that demodulator. The Gm-C filter in the AGC loop forms a
enable comfortable operation at low power consumption. negative feedback from the output of the VGA to the input
This work shows the possibility of achieving the perfor- of the VGA. The feedback makes the VGA function as a
mance required by the endoscopy capsule system in high-pass filter, which could remove the low frequency
0.25 lm CMOS. noise and the DC-offset from the RF circuits [8]. After the
AGC loop, the signals are demodulated by the ASK
demodulator and the restored digital data are buffered by
2 Architecture description several inverters and sent to the digital controller.
The received signal strength is designed to be between –
Since A/Dc or D/Ac would consume so much power at the 80 dBm and –40 dBm, and the RF front-end (LNA and
present technology [4], our wireless endoscopy capsule Mixer) provides about +17 dB voltage gain. The signal
system could not contain A/Dc or D/Ac. The receiver in- amplitude for the digital data ‘1’ before the ASK demod-
side the capsule must restore the original digital data in the ulator is well defined (~22 mV) by the AGC loop so that
analog field and the transmitter must implement the digital the demodulator could demodulate the signals correctly.
modulation in the analog field. Also consider the power The data rate of the receiver is about 256 kbps. This data
consumption, RF PLL could not be used since the fre- rate is high enough since the instruction information from
quency divider would consume a lot of power [5–7]. It the outside transmitter is simple and occasional.
means RF carrier frequency could not be control accurately The transmitter inside the capsule also uses the ASK
and ASK becomes the only feasible modulation mode. modulation, it modulates the digital data from the digital
The transceiver analog front-end inside the capsule for controller, up-converts the signals to 2.4 GHz ISM band
the wireless endoscopy capsule system is shown in Fig. 3. and radiates the signals out with the antenna. The 20 MHz
The receiver inside the capsule demodulates the re- PLL generates the IF sine carrier signal with the well-
ceived ASK signals and sends the restored digital data to defined amplitude, which could reduce the harmonics and
the digital controller. In details, 2.4 GHz RF signals re- accurately control the output power of the transmitter. The
ceived by the antenna are first amplified by the low noise ASK modulator modulates the IF carrier signals, and the
amplifier (LNA) and then mixed in the down-converter modulated ASK signals are up-converted to RF band and
with the local oscillating signals generated by the inte- are buffered by the on-chip RF buffer. The RF buffer

Fig. 3 The presented wireless


transceiver analog front-end

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outputs 0 dBm power into 50 W load (the impedance of the LNA is a fully integrated LC-tuned cascode amplifier
antenna). The buffered signals are finally radiated out by with inductive source degeneration. L2 provides the
the antenna. The data rate of the transmitter is 2 Mbps. source-degeneration inductance to generate the real resis-
To integrate the transceiver analog front-end on the tance at the gate of M1, and the resistance looking into the
same chip with the digital controller under the limited gate of M1 is transformed into 50 W (the impedance of the
cost, CMOS process is the only feasible choice. Since antenna) by the LC impedance matching network L1, C2.
the passive components (especially the inductors) in the M2 is a cascode transistor to improve the reverse isolation
CMOS process have quite low quality factor and the performance and to reduce the Miller effect of M1. L3
allowable power consumption is also quite low, it is a resonates with C3 at the operation frequency to provide the
big challenge to design the analog front-end, especially load for LNA. To receive the possible strong signals, the
the on-chip oscillator. The oscillator generates the local gain of LNA is adjustable by changing the voltage level at
oscillating signals for the down-converter and the up- the gate of M3.
converter, its phase noise performance has a great effect NF of LNA is optimized under the limited power con-
on the communication quality of the transceiver. For our sumption with Smith Chart tool. During the optimization, it
presented negative-resistance LC oscillator, the phase is found that the loss of the on-chip inductor L1 has the
noise performance mainly depends on the quality factor most severe effect on NF of LNA, and the effect of the
of the inductors and the power consumption. In our inductor L2 on NF could be ignored. So the crucial opti-
design, two high quality off-chip inductors are used for mization goal is to reduce the loss of the inductor L1,
the LC oscillator. Since the oscillating frequency should which could be achieved by increasing the size of M1 and
be controlled with some degree accuracy, the capacitor the inductance of L2. But the gain and linearity of LNA
array is integrated into the chip. The oscillator could be would become worse at the limited power consumption.
trimmed after the type-out to adjust its oscillating There exists tradeoffs between NF, linearity and gain, some
frequency. design iterations are necessary.
The down-converter is the classical double-balanced
Gilbert mixer [9], but the mixer is biased at the low power
3 Circuit description consumption. One input port of the mixer (B) is connected
to the output of LNA, and another input port (C) is con-
In this section, the design and the implementation of the nected to AC ground by the capacitance C5. The low pass
transceiver analog front-end is described in details. The RC load (R5, C6/R6, C7) of the mixer would attenuate the
whole analog front-end is divided into three parts: RF high frequency components and further improve the RF-IF,
front-end, IF part and the bias circuit. LO-IF isolation performance. The output signals of the
down-converter are AC-coupled to the receiver IF part.
3.1 RF front-end The transmitter RF front-end consists of the up-con-
verter and the output buffer. The up-converter is the clas-
The RF front-end consists of LNA, the down-converter, the sical differential-input, differential-output double-balanced
up-converter, the output buffer, the LC oscillator, and mixer [9] with LC resonant loads, but the mixer is biased in
the LO buffers (Fig. 2). Figure 4 shows the schematic of the low power consumption, so it is difficult to achieve
the LNA and the down-converter. high gain. The output signals of the up-converter are sent to

Fig. 4 The schematic of LNA


and the down-converter

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 63

the output buffer. The buffer consists of two-stage cascade The AGC loop automatically adjusts the signal strength to
LC tuned differential amplifiers to provide enough gain. ease the demodulation of the following ASK demodulator
The stack technique is utilized to lower the power con- (ASK DET). The Gm-C filter inside the AGC loop forms a
sumption. Figure 5 shows the schematic of the output negative feedback from the output of the VGA to the input
buffer. M1, M2, L1, and L2 form the first stage of the of the VGA. The negative feedback makes the VGA
output buffer, and M3, M4, L3, and L4 form the second function like a high-pass filter to filter the low frequency
stage. The first stage is stacked on top of the second stage noises and the DC-offset from the RF front-end [8], which
to reuse the current. Here, the signal travels through the makes the DC-couple feasible.
path shown in black, while the supply current flows After the AGC loop, the signals are demodulated by an
through the path shown in gray. The bypass capacitor Cb ASK demodulator and the restored digital data are buffered
provides AC ground at the sources of M1, M2. The RF and sent to the digital controller. The output signal
output signals of the first stage are AC-coupled to the amplitude of the AGC loop is set to a low value to lower
second stage through C3, C4. The output of the buffer is the power consumption. A differential peak detector is used
matched to the antenna by the on-chip impedance matching to detect both the peak value and the vale value, and the
network and the balanced-unbalanced impedance trans- differential detector could avoid the effects of the common
former. mode error induced by the constant gain amplifier on the
The LO signals are provided by the integrated oscillator, AGCs control accuracy and the bit-error-rate (BER) of the
it is a negative-resistance LC oscillator. The outputs are ASK demodulation. The error between the peak detector’s
buffered by the LO buffers to drive the commutating output and the reference is amplified by a DDA, and the
switches in the down-converter and the up-converter. resulted signals are feedback to the VGA as the gain
control signals.
3.2 IF part To achieve a wide gain tuning range and the stable loop
dynamic under the various input signal amplitude, the two-
The receiver IF part consists of a band-pass-filtered AGC stage VGA is designed to have the exponential gain control
loop and an ASK demodulator. The operating frequency is characteristics. Figure 7 shows the schematic of the two-
about 10 MHz, but consider the frequency drift of the stage VGA. It is a modified version of P. Huang’s topology
integrated oscillator, the IF analog circuits are designed to [10]. Each stage is a fully differential amplifier with an on-
still work within the frequency range 5–20 MHz. Figure 6 chip common-mode feedback loop to stability the output
shows the detailed block diagram of the receiver IF part. common mode voltage level. Vin+, Vin– is the IF signals
The IF signals from the receiver RF front-end are AC- from the receiver RF front-end. The differential pair M3,
coupled to an AGC loop which consists of one variable M4 converts the IF signals into the current signals. Another
gain amplifier (VGA), one constant gain amplifier (CA), differential pair M5, M6 also converts the feedback signals
one peak detector (PEAKDET), one differential difference Vfb+, Vfb– from the Gm-C low-pass filter into the current
amplifier (DDA) and one feedback Gm-C low-pass filter. signals. The above two current signals are subtracted at the

Fig. 5 The schematic of the


output buffer

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Fig. 6 The detailed block


diagram of the receiver IF part

nodes Vout+, Vout– and the resulted outputs are converts Vc+, Vc– are converted into the current signals and control
into the voltage signals again by the active load M9, M10. the tail bias currents of M3–M6 to adjust the gain of the
Since Vfb+, Vfb– are the low-pass filtered copy of the amplifier.
signals Vin+, Vin–, the forward signal path function like a The Gm-cell in the Gm-C filter is a linearized OTA with
two-order high-pass filter. Indeed, the forward signal path the source degenerated resistance. A open-loop amplifier
functions like a band-pass filter due to the native low-pass with a replica biasing [11] is used to provide a 20 dB
characteristics of the VGA itself. The gain control signals constant gain, which could relax the requirement on VGA
gain tuning range.
Any error of the peak detector results in an almost
identical error in AGC output. To lower the power con-
sumption, the output signal amplitude of the AGC loop is
set to a low value, so the ASK demodulator is designed to
be rather sensitive. If the gain of the AGC loop is too high,
the noise will become large, but if the gain of the AGC
loop is too low, the wanted signal is weaken. Both cases
will increase BER of the ASK demodulator. Based on the
above, it is crucial to design a low error peak detector. A
modified version of kruiskamp and Leenaerts’s peak
detector [12] is used. Figure 8 shows the partial schematic
of the peak detector. It only detects the highest peak
(Vout+) of the input signals. The circuit to detect the
lowest vale (Vout–) is the symmetrical version of Fig. 8.
The principle of the presented peak detector could be ex-
plained as following: The input voltage signals (Vin+, Vin–
) are compared with Vout+ by the operational amplifier
(OPA). If the highest peak of the input signal is higher than
Vout+, OPA would output low voltage in a short period to
drive M1(M4), so there is current flowing out the drain of
M1(M4). Since M1 and M2(M3 and M4) form a CMOS
current mirror, there is current to charge the capacitance Cp
and improve the voltage level of Vout+. The charge pro-
cess will continue until Vout+ is as high as the highest peak
of the input signals. After that, the output of OPA is turned
back to high voltage level, and M1 and M4 are always off
and the voltage level of Vout+ would keep unchanged, thus
Vout+ is the highest peak voltage of the input signals and
the peak detecting function has been implemented. Ip is a
Fig. 7 (a) The schematic of one VGA Stage; (b) the connection weak bias current to periodically refresh the voltage level
between two VGA stages of Vout+, which could avoid the case that Vout+ keeps the

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 65

Fig. 8 The partial schematic of the peak detector

past highest peak and could not follow the amplitude var-
iation of the present input signals. The refresh period limits
Fig. 10 The schematic of the ASK modulator
the highest data rate of the receiver.
The ASK demodulator presented is a fully differential
well-controlled threshold detector. Its detecting threshold is ference. The voltage difference is further amplified by the
automatically well defined to avoid the wrong detection. OPA and buffered by two inverters to restore the original
Figure 9 shows the schematic of the ASK demodulator. digital data.
The ASK demodulator consists of a rectifier [13] and a The transmitter IF part consists of an integrated 20 MHz
hysteresis comparator. The rectifier outputs a current pro- IF PLL and an ASK modulator. The IF PLL provides the IF
portional to the absolute value of the differential input sine carriers with the well-defined amplitude for the mod-
voltage, and then the hysteresis comparator restores the ulator, it could reject the harmonics and accurately control
original digital data from the current signal envelope. In the power at the output of the transmitter. It is a simple
details, the input voltage signals are converted into the integer-N PLL and consists of a divide-by-4 asynchronous
currents (I1, I2, I1a, I2a) by the differential pair M1, M4/ divider, a constant amplitude ring VCO, a rail-to-rail
M2, M3. The currents (I1, I2, I1a, I2a) are sent to the charge pump, a zero dead zone PFD and a second-order
current mirrors to do the subtraction operation, and the loop filter. The outputs of the PLL are differentially sent to
resulted current I1–I2a, I2–I1a are got in the drains of M7 the ASK modulator.
and M12. According to the basic principle of the current The ASK modulator is only an on-off switch. When the
mirror, only one between I1–I2a, I2–I1a is not equal to zero transmitted data is ‘1’, the switch is on, the 20 MHz IF
at the same time. The currents are transferred by the carriers are passed by without the loss; when the trans-
NMOS current mirrors M7/M8/M9, M12/M13/M14 and mitted data are ‘0’, the switch is off, the outputs of the ASK
summed at the nodes A, B. After further current mirroring modulator have no IF carriers. The schematic of the ASK
(by the PMOS current mirror) the currents I3, I4 are got. modulator is shown in Fig. 10. C+, C– are the sine carriers
The value of I3, I4 is equal to I1+I2–I1a–I2a. I3, I4 are sent from the IF PLL, the digital data Din from the digital
to a hysteresis comparator (M15-M18, the bias current controller controls the switches M1–M4. If Din is ‘1’, M1,
sources Ib2, Ib3), I3 sources current for one branch of the M2 is close and M3, M4 is off, the differential carriers are
comparator and I4 sinks currents from another branch of transferred to IF+, IF– without the loss; while Din is ‘0’,
the comparator, the action would result in a voltage dif- M1, M2 is off and M3, M4 is close, IF+, IF– are connected

Fig. 9 The schematic of the


ASK demodulator

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to a common mode level Vcom, no carriers exists at the the voltage at the node E equal to the voltage at the node
outputs of the modulator. Thus, the ASK modulation is D. If the voltage at the node D has the same temperature
implemented. coefficient with the resistor R7, the current flowing into
R7 would be independent on the temperature. The tem-
3.3 Bias circuit perature-independent current is mirrored by the current
mirrors M5, M6 to provide the bias currents for other
The transceiver analog front-end is all biased by an on-chip circuits.
bandgap voltage reference or a constant-temperature cur-
rent source. Figure 11 gives out the schematic of the
bandgap reference and the constant-temperature current 4 Experiment results
source [14]. The bandgap reference can work at the low
power supply and consists of Q1, Q2, R1–R4, M1–M3 and The transceiver analog front-end has been implemented in
an operational amplifier (OPA 1). The voltage at the node 0.25 lm CMOS. Figure 12 shows its layout. The die area
C is independent on the temperature. The capacitor C1 is is 3.1 mm · 2.5 mm, most of which is occupied by the
added to filter the bias noise. OPA 2 forms a unit-gain passive components (inductors, capacitors, PADs) and
amplifier to enhance the driving capability of the bias ESD protection circuits.
voltage VB. Figure 13 shows S11 of the receiver analog front-end.
The bandgap reference also provides a reference volt- When RF frequency is between 2.4 GHz and 2.5 GHz–S11
age at the node D, but the voltage is dependent on the is smaller than –16 dB, so the receiver has implemented
temperature. The feedback loop (OPA 3, M5, R7) forces on-chip input impedance matching.

Fig. 11 The schematic of the


bandgap reference and the
constant-temperature current
source

Fig. 12 The layout of the


transceiver analog front-end

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 67

Fig. 13 S11 of the receiver analog front-end

Fig. 16 (a) The frequency characteristics of the forward signal path


(VGA, the constant gain amplifier and the Gm-C low-pass filter); (b)
The gain control curve of the forward signal path. P1 is the gain
Fig. 14 The conversion gain and NF of the receiver RF front-end control signal and proportional to the input signal amplitude (P1 is the
(LNA & Mixer) output of the peak detector)

Figure 14 shows the conversion gain and NF of the re- RF front-end is smaller than 7.4 dB and the conversion
ceiver RF front-end (LNA & Mixer). During this experi- power gain is higher than 11 dB when RF frequency is
ment, the IF frequency is 10 MHz, the load impedance is between 2.4 GHz and 2.5 GHz. However, the indeed load
set to be 500 W. Figure 14 shows that NF of the receiver of the RF front-end (LNA & Mixer) in the integrated

Fig. 15 IIP3 of the receiver RF


front-end (LNA & Mixer)

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68 Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71

Fig. 17 The various waveforms of the receiver analog front-end

receiver is 10 kW, so the voltage gain of the RF front-end Figure 17 gives out the various waveforms of the re-
would be high, and the following IF circuits should have ceiver analog front-end, the signal source is a ASK mod-
little effects on the noise performance of the receiver. ulated sine signal with the amplitude 28 lV (for ‘1’) or
Figure 15 shows IIP3 of the receiver RF front-end (LNA 2 lV (for ‘0’) and RF carrier frequency is 2.443 GHz, the
& Mixer). Still, IF is 10 MHz and the load is set to be source resistance is 50 W and the data rate is 200 kbps.
500 W. The figure shows that IIP3 of the receiver RF front- VRFin is the RF input signal, VIF is the differential output
end is about –33.3 dBm when the RF frequency is between voltage of the receiver RF front-end (LNA, the down-
2.4 GHz and 2.5 GHz. converter, the LC oscillator and the LO buffer), the IF
The frequency characteristics of the forward signal path frequency is about 12 MHz, the voltage gain of the re-
(VGA, the constant gain amplifier and the Gm-C low-pass ceiver RF front-end is about 17 dB. VLO is the LO signals
filter) are shown in Fig. 16(a), where P1 is the gain control generated by the integrated oscillator. VAGC_out is the
signal and proportional to the input signal amplitude (P1 is output signal of the AGC loop, and Dout is the demodu-
the output of the peak detector). The constant gain ampli- lated digital data.
fier is included in the simulation. Figure 16(a) shows that a Figure 18 gives out the various waveforms of the
–40 dB/dec attenuation has been achieved in low fre- transmitter analog front-end, the data rate is 2 Mbps and
quency, so the DC offset and the other low frequency the load is 50 W impedance. Din is a pulse with a period
noises could be rejected. Figure 16(a) also shows that the of 1 ls. Vout_PLL is the 20 MHz IF carrier with the
forward signal path functions like a band-pass filter, the amplitude 190 mV from IF PLL. Vout-Mod is the ASK
bandwidth is variable along with the gain, 3 dB bandwidth modulated signal, Vout_PA is the output voltage of the
is about 20 MHz at the highest gain (about 40 dB) and buffer, the buffer could output about 0 dBm power into
extends to about 100 MHz at the lowest gain (about 4 dB). 50 W load.
The gain control curve given in Fig. 16(b) shows that the The transceiver analog front-end works at a power
relationship between the gain in dB and the control voltage supply of 2.5 V, while only consuming 15 mW in receiver
is almost linear, so the gain control function is exponential. (RX) mode and 14 mW in transmitter (TX) mode. The

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 69

Fig. 18 The various waveforms


of the transmitter analog front-
end

performance of the transceiver analog front-end is sum- 5 Conclusions


marized in Table 1.
This work presents the design and implementation of a
Table 1 Summarized performance of the presented transceiver ana- 2.4 GHz low power wireless transceiver analog front-end
log front-end for the endoscopy capsule system in 0.25 lm CMOS.
Receiver analog front-end Transmitter analog front-end Trade-off has been made over the design boundaries of the
different building blocks to optimize the overall system
Sensitivity –84 dBm Output power ~0 dBm
performance. All building blocks feature circuit topologies
IF frequency 5 MHz– Bandwidth <5 MHz
that enable comfortable operation at low power consump-
20 MHz
tion. As a result, the IC works at a power supply of 2.5 V,
Maximum input –40 dBm
power while only consuming 15 mW in receiver (RX) mode and
Modulation mode ASK Modulation mode ASK 14 mW in transmitter (TX) mode. To build a complete
Data rate <256 kbps Data rate <2 Mbps transceiver for the endoscopy capsule system, only an
Power consumption 15 mW Power 14 mW antenna, a duplexer, and a digital controller are needed
consumption besides the presented analog front-end chip. This work
shows the possibility of achieving the performance

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70 Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71

required by the endoscopy capsule system in 0.25 lm Baoyong Chi received the B.S.
CMOS. degree in microelectronics from
Peking University, Beijing,
China, in 1998 and the Ph.D
Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by National degree in 2003 from Tsinghua
Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 90407006, University, Beijing, China. He
60475018 and The Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation under Grant now serves as an Associate
104028. Professor in Institute of Micro-
electronics, Tsinghua Univer-
sity. His research interests
References include RF integrated circuit
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lithic fractional-N frequency synthesizer with a 3-b third-order
delta-sigma modulator. Acta Electronica Sinica, 33(8), 1492– Shuguang Han is a Ph.D can-
1496 didate in Department of Elec-
6. Chi, B., Shi, B., & Wang, Z. (2004). CMOS implementation of tronic Engineering, Tsinghua
RF PLL frequency synthesizer. Acta Electronica Sinica, 32(11), University, Beijing, China. His
1761–1765 research interests include ana-
7. Chi, B., Zhu, X., Huang, S., & Wang, Z. (2004). 1 GHz mono- log integrated circuits and RF
lithic high spectrum purity fractional-N frequency synthesizer integrated circuits for wireless
with a 3-b third-order delta-sigma modulator. 7th International transceiver systems.
Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuits Technology,
Beijing, China, 2, 1504–1507
8. Kim, J. (2001). CMOS transceiver design for short range wireless
telemetry, Ph.D thesis. The University of Minnesota
9. Gilbert, B. (1968). A precision four-quadrant multiplier with sub-
nanosecond response. IEEE Journal Solid-State Circuits, SC-3,
365–373
10. Huang, P., Chiou, L., & Wang, C. (1998). A 3.3V CMOS
wideband exponential control variable gain amplifier. IEEE
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Monterey,
Xiang Xie received the Ph.D
CA, USA, 285–288
degree in 2006 from Tsinghua
11. Palmisano, G., & Salerno, R. (1998). A replica biasing for con-
University, Beijing, China. His
stant-gain CMOS open-loop amplifiers. IEEE International
research interests include bio-
Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Monterey, CA, USA, 363–
medical electronic product
366
development and digital inte-
12. Kruiskamp, M. W., & Leenaerts, D. M. W. (1994). A CMOS
grated circuit design.
peak detect sample and hold circuit. IEEE Transactions on Nu-
clear Science, 41(1), 295–298
13. Harjani, R., Birkenes, O., & Kim, J. (2000). An IF stage
design for an ASK-based wireless telemetry system. IEEE
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Geneva,
Switzerland, 52–55
14. Gray, P. R., Hurst, P. J., Lewis, S. H., et al. (2001). Analysis and
design of analog integrated circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc

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Analog Integr Circ Sig Process (2007) 51:59–71 71

Guolin Li serves as an Assis-


tant Professor in Department of
Electronic Engineering, Tsing-
hua University, Beijing, China.
His research interests include
RF/Microwave circuits and
wireless systems.

Zhihua Wang received his


B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in Communication and Elec-
tronic Systems from the
Department of Electronic
Engineering, Tsinghua Uni-
versity, Beijing, China, in
1983, 1985, and 1990, respec-
tively. He has become a Pro-
fessor in the Department of
Electronic Engineering,
Tsinghua University since
1997. He has served as the
official member of the com-
mission C of China National
Commission of URSI starting
in 1998 and the Chairman of IEEE Solid-State Circuit Society Beijing
Chapter since 2000. His major research interests are the design
methodology of integrated circuits and systems, design of integrated
circuits for communication, analog and RF integrated circuit, as well
as high-speed real-time signal processing.

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