You are on page 1of 14

[01-15] 밑줄 친 부분과 가장 비슷한 단어나 표현을 고르시오.

01. The committee members have not decided which of the two strategies they should
adopt to successfully complete the task.
(A) expedite (B) employ
(C) manipulate (D) abandon

02. In her speech, she offered several compelling examples to support her ideas.
(A) controversial (B) illusionary
(C) doubtful (D) unavoidable

03. By 1844, Darwin had convinced himself that species are not immutable, but worked
on to get further evidence.
(A) equitable (B) ineligible
(C) edible (D) changeable

04. The people are completely indifferent as to who wins the local election since there
has been so long a struggle between the major and minor parties.
(A) unfettered (B) not interested
(C) undifferentiated (D) not knowledgeable

05. Thousands of products become obsolete in the electronic industry every year.
(A) beneficial (B) available
(C) outmoded (D) updated

06. Regardless of the increasing importance of women in the labor field and the
campaign for equal rights, it is interesting to note that women in some countries
still consider homemaking the most important of their responsibilities.
(A) to make it up (B) to put down
(C) to write up (D) to be aware

07. Virtual reality holds exciting potential for ‘exposure therapy,’ in which patients are
encouraged to relive traumatic memories.
(A) painful (B) puerile
(C) hallucinatory (D) drastic

08. The American auto industry, the epitome of arrogance to customers, is an awful
candidate for a bailout.
(A) expectancy (B) essence
(C) protocol (D) pronoun

09. Parents should take in their stride the innumerable petty irritations any adult
dealing with children has to endure.
(A) be anxious about (B) not deal with
(C) be more concerned with (D) not be upset by

10. Reckless distribution of complicated derivative products throughout the global

market, detached from the real economy, put the global financial market into crisis.
(A) unoriginal (B) disingenuous
(C) foreign (D) speculative

11. Stronger commitment was promised for digital technologies, particularly services
and devices to speed the convergence between broadcasting and telecommunications.
(A) congregation (B) optimum
(C) union (D) renovation

12. Harold Pinter ended his Nobel Prize acceptance speech with these words. “I believe
that, despite the enormous odds which exist, unflinching, unswerving, fierce
intellectual determinations as citizens to define the real truth of our lives and our
societies is a crucial obligation which devolves upon us all. It is, in fact, mandatory.”
(A) compulsory (B) charitable
(C) arbitrary (D) commendable

13. The Korean economy has been going downhill for some time and economic indexes
have fallen to dire levels.
(A) deflated (B) extraordinary
(C) appalling (D) tragic

14. The government will ease some “anti-market” housing regulations soon, in a bid
to stimulate the sluggish property market, a top official said yesterday.
(A) retrograding (B) morose
(C) hazardous (D) listless

15. Time was, national crises stimulated saving. But thrift today has a negative, miserly
(A) misfiring (B) stingy
(C) ominous (D) generous

[16-26] 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것은?

16. Annual investments in genetic engineering firms _______ down slightly this year
due to the world’s economic recession.
(A) went (B) reduced
(C) declined (D) jumped

17. The forensic team took a blood _______ from the suspect to send it to the national
science lab.
(A) selection (B) model
(C) sample (D) example

18. Throwing a litter from cars is _______ by law and you will be fined heavily when
(A) forbidding (B) permitted
(C) prohibited (D) admitted

19. The things that we would like to avoid like pain, despair, and ongoing disputes
are the reality that we must undertake, and the things that we would like to live
with, like wealth and money, are those that we must _______. They are the shadows
of desire.
(A) induce (B) release
(C) compel (D) perpetrate

20. The president-elect, who has struggled to give up cigarettes, still sneaks an
occasional smoke. That cigarettes can ensnare someone as disciplined as Obama
speaks to their _______.
(A) addiction (B) capacity
(C) delusion (D) contagion

21. Methane is made by decaying plants or found in the burps, belches and other
_______ of animals from termites to cattle and people.
(A) assault (B) fusion
(C) cataracts (D) emissions

22. Intel Corp., the world’s biggest maker of semiconductors, said fourth-quarter profit
dropped 90 percent after the recession _______ demand and forced the company
to write down the value of its investments.
(A) curbed (B) vilified
(C) churned (D) excluded

23. Congress laid the foundation for an economic recovery plan, clearing the way for
a new _______ of bailout cash for the financial industry.
(A) withdrawal (B) deposit
(C) infusion (D) transplant

24. Refugee flows are up after years of decline as violence _______ in hot spots around
the globe.
(A) derails (B) deregulates
(C) frustrates (D) flares

25. Just as China’s economic boom fueled a roaring demand for raw materials across
the world, so too did it _______ a frenzy for recyclable paper, plastic and metals.
(A) exceed (B) contain
(C) spur (D) extinguish

26. Super-industrialism, the next stage of eco-technological development, requires even

higher _______ since masses of workers have to constantly move again to new places
for jobs whenever necessary.
(A) settlement (B) mobility
(C) demand (D) responsibility

[27-30] 빈칸에 적당한 것을 고르시오.

27. _______ the next few months, we plan to arrange a joint venture with leading
companies in the countries in Southeast Asia.
(A) Within (B) Since
(C) At (D) With

28. My father believed that family members should help each other and made us _______
some chores every Saturday.
(A) to do (B) does
(C) do (D) did

29. My boss does not mind taking a business trip now and then, but he dislikes _______
too much time away from home.
(A) take (B) spending
(C) spent (D) be taken

30. This dish _______ better if you add some more fresh herbs and garlic.
(A) is tasted (B) would have tasted
(C) tasted (D) tastes

[31-34] 밑줄 친 부분 중 잘못된 것은?

31. Typically, more trade fairs are holding in the fall than in any other month
(A) (B) (C)
because of the weather in this region.

32. Foreign teachers are complaining over the government’s new immigration law
(A) (B)
to ask them to submit police background checks and medical documents.
(C) (D)

33. The young pitcher threw the ball so hardly that the batter could not hit it at all.
(A) (B) (C) (D)

34. Insulin is a substance for which enables muscles to absorb sugar from the blood,
(A) (B)
and to break it up for the purpose of obtaining energy.
(C) (D)

[35] 올바른 표현을 고르시오.

35. (A) If I will be you, I would buy a new car.

(B) If he has been more careful, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
(C) I heard you saw a great movie last night. I wish I have gone with you.
(D) I got an invitation to my sister’s graduation. I wouldn’t have been able to go
without the invitation.

[36] 밑줄 친 부분이 틀린 것을 고르시오.

36. (A) What is the reason for doing this exercise?

(B) Your grade in this course depends on passing the tests and doing the homework.
(C) She dreamed of climbing a mountain.
(D) The teacher insists at giving a test.

[37] Which one is closest in meaning to the underlined part?

37. In our culture, money equals success. Does it also equal masculinity? Yes ―
to the extent that a man is too often measured by his money, by what he is ‘worth.’
Not by his worth as a human being, but by what he is able to earn, how much
he can command on the ‘open market.’
(A) show off his money in public
(B) give orders at the market place
(C) succeed in marketing
(D) be popular out in the open market

[38] Which one is most appropriate in the blank?

38. Brotherly love is love between equals: but, indeed, even as equals we are not always
“equals”; inasmuch as we are human, we are all in need of help. Today I, tomorrow
you. But this need of help does not mean that the one is helpless, the other powerful.
Helplessness is a _______ condition; the ability to stand and work on one’s own
feet is the permanent and common one.
(A) eternal (B) transparent
(C) lasting (D) transitory

[39] 다음 글의 빈 칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 알맞은 것은?

39. If we as women want change in all aspects of our lives, we must recognize that
capitalism is uniquely capable of co-opting piecemeal change. Capitalism is capable
of taking our visionary changes and using them against us. For example, many
married women, recognizing their oppression in the family, have divorced. They
are thrown, with no preparation of protection, into the labor market. For many
women this has meant taking their places at the row of machines. Corporations
are now recognizing the capacity for exploitation in divorced women. The turnover
in such jobs is incredibly high. “If she complains, _______.”
(A) she can reunite with her husband
(B) she can be replaced
(C) she shall be given a promotion
(D) she can be re-educated

[40-60] 다음 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오.


In its battle against the financial crisis, the U.S. government has extended its full
faith and credit to an ever-growing swath* of the private sector: first homeowners,
then banks, now car companies. Soon, Barack Obama will put the government credit
card to work with a massive fiscal boost for the economy. Necessary as these steps
are, they raise a worry of their own: Can the United States pay the money back?
The notion seems absurd: Banana republics** default, not the world’s biggest, richest
economy, right? The United States has unparalleled wealth, a stable legal tradition,
responsible macroeconomic policies and a top-notch, triple-A credit rating. U.S.
Treasury bonds are routinely called “risk-free,” and the United States has the unique
privilege of borrowing in the currency that other countries like to hold as
foreign-exchange reserves.
Yes, default is unlikely. But it is no longer ① _______. Thanks to the advent of
credit derivatives ― financial contracts that allow investors to speculate on or protect
against default ― we can now observe how likely global markets think it is that Uncle
Sam will ② renege on America’s mounting debts. Last week, markets pegged the
probabilities of a U.S. default at 6 percent over the next 10 years, compared with just
1 percent a year ago. For technical reasons, this is not a precise reading of investors’
views. ③ _______, the trend is real, and it is grounded in some fundamental concerns.

*swath: strip, belt **Banana republic: a pejorative term for a country with a primitive
economy and sometimes a puppet state of a major power

40. 윗글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?
(A) 미국은 세계에서 경제규모가 가장 크다.
(B) 미국의 법제도는 안정적이다.
(C) 미국경제의 신용도는 매우 높다.
(D) 미국의 대외부채 상환율은 증가하는 추세이다.

41. 문맥상 빈 칸 ①에 들어갈 표현으로 알맞은 것은?

(A) feasible (B) unthinkable
(C) realistic (D) constant

42. ② renege와 바꾸어 쓸 수 있는 말을 본문 중에서 고른다면?

(A) default (B) battle
(C) hold (D) speculate

43. 글의 흐름상 빈 칸 ③에 들어갈 표현으로 알맞은 것은?

(A) Because (B) Therefore
(C) And (D) Nonetheless


Textbooks for primary school students have been accused of containing

illustrations that could create a gender bias. Male characters appear about 30
percent ① _______ girls in textbook illustrations and are portrayed as main
characters according to a paper coauthored by Prof Kwon Chi-soon of Seoul National
University of Education and Kim Kyung-hee, a teacher at Euncheon Elementary
School in Seoul.
“Male characters play important roles in many cases while female characters
often play passive roles,” the research team said in the paper. “Children are
② vulnerable to the biased role models and textbook writers have to remove those
sexual stereotypes.”
The paper said men are depicted as a president, politician, judge, doctor, and
university professor, while women appear as a teacher, nurse, and bank teller.
Male characters play the main roles about 60 percent ③ _______ their counterparts
in textbooks, it said.

44. 빈 칸 ①과 ③에 공통으로 들어갈 표현으로 적당한 것은?

(A) more often than (B) more rarely than
(C) less rarely than (D) less often than

45. 밑줄 친 ②와 바꾸어 쓸 수 있는 말은?
(A) imperceptive (B) opposed
(C) susceptible (D) adamant


It has been particularly important to bring to light language that reinforces the
dominant culture’s views of disability. A useful step in that process has been
the construction of the terms ableist and ableism, which can be used to organize
ideas about the centering and domination of the non-disabled experience and point
of view. Ableism has recently landed in the Reader’s Digest Oxford Wordfinder,
where it is defined as “discrimination in favor of the able-bodied.” I would add,
extrapolating from the definitions of racism and sexism, that ableism also includes
the idea that a person’s abilities or characteristics are determined by disability
or that people with disabilities as a group are _______ to non-disabled people.
Although there is probably greater consensus among the general public on what
could be labeled racist or sexist language than there is on what might be considered
ableist, that may be because the nature of the oppression of disabled people is
not yet as widely understood.

46. 장애자의 차별에 대한 서술자의 입장을 가장 잘 표현한 것은?

(A) critical (B) satirical
(C) flexible (D) imaginative

47. 글의 흐름상 빈 칸에 알맞은 것은?

(A) exceptional (B) inferior
(C) parasitic (D) extraneous


A very large number of people cease when quite young to add anything to a limited
stock of judgments. After a certain age, say 25, they consider that their education
is finished.
It is perhaps natural that having passed through that painful and boring process,
called expressly education, they should suppose it over, and that they are equipped
for life to label every event as it occurs and drop it into its given pigeonhole. But

one who has a label ready for everything does not bother to observe any more,
even such ordinary happenings as he had observed for himself, with attention,
before he went to school. He merely acts and reacts.
For people who have stopped noticing, the only possible new or renewed
experience, and, therefore, new knowledge, is from a work of art. Because that
is the only kind of experience which they are prepared to receive on its own terms,
they will come out from their shells and expose themselves to music, to a play,
to a book, because it is the accepted method of enjoying ① such things. True,
even to plays and books they may bring artistic prejudices which prevent them
from seeing that play or comprehending that book. Their artistic sensibilities may
be as crusted ② _______ as their minds.
But it is part of an artist’s job to break crusts, or let us say rather that artists
who work for the public and not merely for themselves are interested in breaking
crusts because they want to communicate their intuitions.

48. 윗글의 제목으로 알맞은 것은?

(A) The Process of Education (B) The Origin of Art
(C) Art and the Role of Education (D) Education and the Role of Art

49. 밑줄 친 ①이 가리키는 것은?

(A) some memorable events in one’s life
(B) such art forms as music, a play, or a book
(C) a new experience and knowledge
(D) ordinary happenings in one’s life

50. 빈 칸 ②에 알맞은 것은?

(A) over (B) in
(C) by (D) under


If our educational system were fashioned after its bookless past we would have
the most democratic form of ‘college’ imaginable. Among the people whom we like
to call savages all knowledge inherited by tradition is shared by all. It is taught
to every member of the tribe so that in this respect everybody is equally equipped
for life.
Education in the wilderness is not a matter of monetary means. All are entitled
to an equal start. There is none of the hurry which, in our society, often hampers

the full development of a growing personality. There, a child grows up under the
ever-present attention of his/her parents: Therefore the jungle and the savannah
know of no ‘juvenile delinquency.’ No necessity of making a living away from home
results in neglect of children, and no father is confronted with his inability to _______
an education for his child.

51. Which one is most appropriate in the blank?

(A) share (B) equip
(C) buy (D) bind

52. Which one of the followings is NOT the reason that education in the past is better?
(A) It costs less.
(B) Parents are always involved in children’s learning.
(C) Everybody has equal access to knowledge.
(D) All knowledge inherited by tradition is taught in a hurry.


The great naturalist Buffon was a man of wide interests. His interest in the
laws of chance prompted him to ask an interesting question. If a needle is thrown
at random on a sheet of paper ruled with lines whose distance apart is exactly
equal to the length of the needle, how often can it be expected to fall on a line
and how often into a blank space? The answer is rather odd: it should fall on
a line a little less than two times out of three ― precisely, it should fall on a line
two times out of pi where pi is the familiar ratio of the circumference of a circle
to its diameter, which has the value of 3.14159265…. How near can we get to
this answer in actual trials? This depends of course on the care with which we
rule the lines and do the throwing; but, after that, it depends only on our patience.
In 1901, an Italian mathematician, having taken due care, demonstrated his
patience by making well over 3,000 throws. The value he got for pi was right
to the sixth place of decimals, which is an error of only a hundred thousandth
part of one percent.
This is the method to which modern science is moving. It uses no principle
but that of forecasting with as much assurance as possible, but with no more
than is possible. That is, it idealizes the future from the outset, not as completely
determined, but as determined within a defined area of uncertainty.

53. Buffon’s question and the experiment described in the passage are concerned with
(A) science as principles (B) science as facts
(C) futility of modern science (D) chance or probability

54. Which one is NOT true according to the passage?

(A) It takes much endurance to draw out certain results in scientific experiments.
(B) Science starts with assumptions to find out repetitive patterns or tendency
in nature rather than principles.
(C) Scientists can only predict physical phenomena or actions with some degree
of assurance.
(D) Modern science is no longer trustworthy since it is based on uncertainty and
careless experiments.


Observation, in fact, depends on interest and knowledge. If three friends travel

abroad, one an architect, another a botanist, and the third a stockbroker, then
the architect is likely to notice the style of houses and other buildings more than
his friends do, because he is specially interested in them. The botanist will observe
especially the flowers and trees of the country more than his friends; and s/he
will actually see more details because s/he knows what to look for. Observation
is guided by ① _______ and prompted by ② _______. We have, however, no reason
to suppose that the botanist, trained in such observation, or the architect, keenly
observant of the buildings, will be more observant than the stockbroker of the
faces of the foreign people they meet, or the dress of the women. Indeed, they
are more likely to have their attention diverted by the objects of their special
interests. So training in the careful observation of the varied endings of Latin
words, or of the changes in chemical substances in experiments, will ③ _______
the observation of pictures or the movement of stars.

55. Among the words used in the passage, which pair of words is most appropriate
for ① and ②?
(A) attention ― experiment (B) knowledge ― interest
(C) training ― experience (D) reason ― truth

56. Which one is most appropriate for ③?

(A) have no effect on (B) put a great emphasis on
(C) have a greater effect on (D) have less focus on

57. Which one is true according to the passage?
(A) The ability to observe things is naturally given.
(B) Mental abilities are key elements for professionals to develop their observation
(C) It is the result of training which makes a difference in one’s ability of observation.
(D) Observation is more required for those who are in the field of science.


The fact is that recent economic numbers have been terrifying, not just in the
U.S., but around the world. Manufacturing, in particular, is plunging everywhere.
Banks aren’t lending; businesses and consumers aren’t spending. Let’s not mince
words: This looks an awful lot like the beginning of a second Great Depression.
We weren’t supposed to find ourselves in this situation. For many years most
economists believed that preventing another Great Depression would be easy. In
2003, Robert Lucas of the University of Chicago, in his presidential address to
the American Economic Association, declared that the “central problem of
depression-prevention has been solved, for all practical purposes, and has in fact
been solved for many decades.”
Milton Friedman, in particular, persuaded many economists that the Federal
Reserve could have stopped the Depression in its tracks simply by providing banks
with more liquidity, which would have prevented a sharp fall in the money supply.
Ben Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, famously apologized to Friedman
on his institution’s behalf: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. But thanks
to you, we won’t do it again.”
It turns out, however, that preventing depressions isn’t that easy after all. Under
Mr. Bernanke’s leadership, the Fed has been supplying liquidity like an engine
crew trying to put out a five-alarm fire, and the money supply has been rising
rapidly. Yet credit remains scarce, and the economy is still in free fall.
Friedman’s claim that monetary policy could have prevented the Great Depression
was an attempt to refute the analysis of John Maynard Keynes, who argued that
monetary policy is ineffective under depression conditions and that fiscal policy
― large-scale deficit spending by the government ― is needed to fight mass
unemployment. The failure of monetary policy in the current crisis shows that
Keynes had it right the first time.

58. According to the passage, many economists in favor of Friedman’s theory _______.
(A) developed effective preventive measures for economic depressions
(B) preferred monetary policy to curtail the economic crisis
(C) were successful in predicting causes of the Great Depression
(D) provided a large fiscal spending plan to stop economic depressions

59. The underlined part indicates that the Federal Reserve chairman, Bernanke, _______.
(A) trusts current economic policy and will not change its direction
(B) agrees that spending should not be encouraged for more employment
(C) acknowledges the problems in Friedman’s market-oriented economic policy
(D) disagrees with Friedman who believed in lending more money to the poor than
to the rich

60. Which one is true about Keynesian economists?

(A) They demand less control of the government for free market.
(B) They believe that government intervention is more effective during the economic
(C) They want unlimited bank loans and other monetary support to prevent credit
(D) They argue against a small government which provides fiscal policy for the