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COSC2810S YSTEMS A NALYSIS &D ESIGN , F ALL II


2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. PROJECT DEFINITION....................................................................................................................................2
PROJECT TEAM..............................................................................................................................................2
STATEMENT OF WORK..................................................................................................................................2
PROBLEM STATEMENT..................................................................................................................................3
BACKGROUND................................................................................................................................................3
PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES, DIRECTIVES...............................................................................................4
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS...................................................................................................................................4
2. PROBLEM ANALYSIS REPORT.....................................................................................................................5
CURRENT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION...............................................................................................................5
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM....................................................................................................................6
3. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS REPORT.............................................................................................................7
USER REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO THE PIECES METHOD...............................................................8
USE CASE MODELS - JAMBA JUICE.............................................................................................................9
SYSTEM FEATURES TO MEET REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................12
4. DATA ANALYSIS REPORT...........................................................................................................................13
DATA STRUCTURES & ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM.......................................................................13
5. PROCESS ANALYSIS REPORT....................................................................................................................14
CONTEXT DIAGRAM.....................................................................................................................................14
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM.................................................................................................................................15
6. DECISION ANALYSIS REPORT....................................................................................................................16
IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS.......................................................................................16
ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS.................................................................................................16
INPUT, OUTPUT AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS............................................................................16
FEASIBILITY STUDY ON ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS............................................................................17
ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS – BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS................................................................18
RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................................................................................18
7. LOGICAL SYSTEM DESIGN REPORT..........................................................................................................19
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM...........................................................................................................19
COMMUNICATIONS DIAGRAM.....................................................................................................................20
8. SYSTEM PROPOSAL....................................................................................................................................21
SAMPLE INPUT FORMS/SCREENS..............................................................................................................21
SAMPLE USER INTERFACES.......................................................................................................................22
SAMPLE O/P REPORTS/SCREENS..............................................................................................................23

Instructor’s Note:
This project was carried out by students taking Systems Analysis and Design, an
eight week course, in the the Fall II term of 2003 at Webster University, Vienna,
Austria. It is an excellent example of how much non-computer science majors with
little prerequisite knowledge of IT can learn about the development of information
systems and subsequently apply this knowledge to a practical situation.
This report was graded as “A” and the students were highly commended.
Brian Lewis, 2004-10-28
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1. PROJECT DEFINITION
PROJECT TEAM
The Team Members, hereafter referred to as the Health Angels, are:
Marja Znidar
Adam Vissing
Rüdiger Struck
Maciej Szturmowicz

PROJECT NAME
JAMBA JUICE

STATEMENT OF WORK
The goal of our project is to make the information currently possessed by Jamba Juice more
transparent and accessible to the customers.
The information about
1.) The origin of juice ingredients
2.) The delivery date to the shop
3.) The storage time
will be put into the corporate database of Jamba Juice company and made accessible online
to the customer.
Customers will be later able to enter the corporate database after inputting the bar code
printed on the receipt into the special section of Jamba Juice main web page.
All in all, the goal of our project is to transfom currently manually performed system of
providing the customer with product information into an automatic one. Also, such a new way
of handling customer requests will provide tangible benefits to Jamba Juice Company in
terms of reduced salary expense and quicker response time.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

BACKGROUND1
Jamba Juice was founded in 1990 by four health conscious graduate entrepreneurs in San
Luis Obispo, California. Soon after establishment of their business they started expanding
throughout 23 states and settled there with 370 stores by now.
Jamba Juice stands for state of the art health drinks, rich in vitamins that are taken right from
nature into the consumers bottle.
Currently, the only way a customer can obtain the information about the origin and storage
time of the ingredients (which is important to health conscious customers) used in juice
production is to write an e-mail enquiry to Jamba Juice. Since the response time is up to
three days and the whole process is inconvenient for both the customer and the employee
who searches for the required data, we believe that this process could be improved.
The improvements suggested by us should both contribute to greater efficiency in providing
the information and make the product information more reliable to the customer.

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Jamba Juice web site. www.jambajuice.com. Last entered on December 13,2003

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PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES, DIRECTIVES
As we already mentioned, the main problem for Jamba Juice these days is too long response
time to customer requests for product information and no proved quality of provided product
information in the eyes of consumers. Currently, all health conscious customers have to
enquiry Jamba Juice by e-mail and wait for the response up to 3 days. The employees of
Jamba Juice must, in turn, not only query the corporate database to find requested
information but also spend a lot of time on providing the separate customers with these data.
As the quality rating of fruits and vegetables as well as shipment date, origin and storage
time information are already stored in the Jamba Juice corporate database for accounting
purposes, there is a big opportunity for the company to use these already available
resources and make them transparent to the health conscious customers. The possible
outcomes of implementing such a solution would be: (1) increased Jamba Juice web site
awareness, (2) increased sales of juice and (3) increased brand loyalty, since the product
information provided to the customer will be more reliable.
In order to implement the above-mentioned, the following directives have to be obeyed.
Initially, new links between currently existing databases should be made and the new
corporate database view directly accessible for the customers should be created.
Furthermore, a new web site application has to be created through which the customer will
be able to request and receive information online. This process will be triggered by
submission of the bar code printed on the juice purchase receipt and will result in the direct
online access to the corporate database view described above.

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
During the problem analysis phase of our project we defined the following three possible
solutions which Jamba Juice could implement.
Firstly, the company could leave everything as it is now. However, in such a case the
credibility of product information provided to the customer would still be questionable. Like
the student needs to cite the sources in a term paper to the reader, Jamba Juice has to
provide proved product information to the consumer who will be able to verify these data and,
thus, rely on them.
Secondly, Jamba Juice could print more product information on the purchase receipts
given to the customers. However, the customer would not consider such information as
reliable and would certainly not be encouraged to visit the company’s web site. Moreover, the
cost of reprogramming cash registers would be very high.
Thirdly, the company could make currently stored but insufficiently used data
accessible to the customer online. This solution would not only provide the customer with
credible, easily obtainable information, but would also attract more customers to the
corporate web site and, thus, contribute to the increased company awareness. Also, such a
solution would be not only relatively cheap to implement, but also would actually decrease
some of the company’s costs by saving the employees’ time.

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2. PROBLEM ANALYSIS REPORT

CURRENT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION2


At Jamba Juice the Information System in use can be separated into three categories:
1: Store Systems
2: Enterprise systems
3: Office Automation systems

Ad 1: Store systems:
This includes an Aloha points of sale system (POS) that is used to ring each item at the
store. Receipts are printed twice: one for the customer, one for the JambaJuice team.
Furthermore, the back house system, a subpart of store system takes care of employee’s
time and attendance, labour scheduling and food cost system (inventory control).
The inventory control does not only reorder automatically stock which decreased to a certain
level but additionally monitors the quality ordered.
Ad 2: Enterprise systems:
This system is connected to the internet and allows the Jamba Juice headquarter in San
Francisco to capture sales information and other store activities from its remote stores every
day .
This information then is used to study store activities and additionally connects to other
systems like accounting.
Ad 3: Office Automation systems:
All other systems like e-mail, accounting, sales forecasting, CAD, CRM and data
warehousing are included in the office automation system. This kind of system is managed
by the IT department and the user department together

Summary:
Like all businesses nowadays, JambaJuice has implemented a workable information system
based on the latest expertise. As quality is a CSF (Critical success factor) a web application
that allows the customer to track back his juice origins to the “roots” would help to further
improve Jamba Juice high efforts to provide healthy drinks.

A Cause and Effect Diagram showing an analysis of the problems is shown on the next
page.

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Hirschel, Henry. Head of IT at Jamba Juice. E-mail enquiry done from customerexperience@jambajuice.com
Request reference number: #17662

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CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM

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3. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS REPORT
USER REQUIREMENTS

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Functional Requirements
- Customers want proved quality of fruits and vegetables
- Customers want quickly obtainable information about the product
- Customers want true, proved information about the product
Non- functional Requirements
- Customers want to know the origin of fruits and vegetables (where they were grown)
- Customers want to be informed about potential benefits/ dangers of a product

JAMBA JUICE STAFF REQUIREMENTS


Functional Requirements
- Staff members want to track the deliveries of fruits and vegetables in order to ensure
high quality
- Staff members want the information about materials to be quickly and easily available
- Staff members want to control the storage time of fruits and vegetables
Non- functional Requirement
- Staff members want to know about potential benefits/ dangers for juice- drinkers

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USER REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO THE PIECES METHOD
PERFORMANCE:
- Fast or immediate response to product information request.
INFORMATION:
- Proved, up-to-date information about the origin and storage time of the ingredients.
- The required inputs:
o Bar code reading when the products arrive to the store
o Automatic input (of inventory info.) into Jamba Juice Database
- The required outputs:
o Receipt with unique code that can be used by the customers to access
o the Jamba Juice database
- The required storage:
o Jamba Juice databases
o (Enterprise and Sales information to record daily sales)

ECONOMY:
- Would save the cost of employee’s salary for the person who
currently responds to the emails.
CONTROL:
- Only receipt bar code holders can access the database
- Only partial access of the database possible (allowing the
customers to view information about storage time, origin of the ingredients and delivery
date)
EFFICIENCY:
- There will be increased efficiency due to the automation of product
information accessibility.
- The current manual e-mail responses will be replaced by making
information available online.
SERVICE:
- The system is for Jamba Juice customers to provide them
information about storage time, origin of the ingredients and delivery date.
- The information about the possibility of online inquiry will be on the
main wall of every shop and on the receipt.

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USE CASE MODELS - JAMBA JUICE

USE CASE #1 SHIPMENT DATA ACQUISITION

ACTOR JJ STORE CLERK

DESCRIPTION When a shipment of fruits arrives at the store, the Clerk is


responsible for feeding the database with the quality, origin &
nutritional data.

NORMAL COURSE OF EVENTS 1. Shipment of fruit arrives at the JJ Store


2. The JJ Clerk does evaluates the shipment’s quality and
determines that it fits JJ standards.
3. The JJ Clerk uses a barcode scanner to read the shipment’s data
off the its labeling.
4. If any fruit is frozen, the date of freezing is recorded.
5. All data is written to the Enterprise DB.

ALTERNATE COURSE OF 2. The JJ Clerk determines that the shipment does not meet JJ
EVENTS quality criteria.
3. The shipment is returned to the producer

PRECONDITION N/A

POST-CONDITION All recorded data is written to the DB

ASSUMPTIONS N/A

USE CASE #2 PRODUCT SALE

ACTORS CUSTOMER, JJ SALESPERSON

DESCRIPTION A customer buys a drink at a JJ Store and receives a sales receipt


with a barcode, which can be used to retrieve quality, origin &
nutritional data from the JJ web page.

NORMAL COURSE OF EVENTS 1. Customer orders a drink at a JJ store


2. The chosen drink is produced
3. The sales receipt is generated. The type of drink ordered is used
to query the database for the shipment of fruit used in the
production of the drink, by organizing the shipments in a FIFO
fashion.
4. Payment is accepted and the customer gets the receipt.

ALTERNATE COURSE OF 1. Customer orders a drink at a JJ store.


EVENTS 2. Customer pulls out a gun and proceeds to rob the store

PRECONDITION USE CASE #3 has been completed

POST-CONDITION USE CASE #1 can now be processed

ASSUMPTIONS

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USE CASE #3 USER FEEDBACK REQUEST

ACTORS JJ CUSTOMER SERVICE

DESCRIPTION JJ Customer service updates, adds and deletes entries in the static
tables of the database (i.e. products, suppliers, fruits, shops,
ingredients)

NORMAL COURSE OF EVENTS 1. Customer Service makes appropriate modifications/additions


to the database using MS Access.
2. Changes are mirrored to the individual branch databases

ALTERNATE COURSE OF N/A


EVENTS

PRECONDITION N/A

POST-CONDITION N/A

ASSUMPTIONS

USE CASE #4 PRODUCT INFORMATION REQUEST

ACTOR CUSTOMER

DESCRIPTION A Customer requests information about a product he/she consumed


through the web application.

NORMAL COURSE OF EVENTS 1. Customer enters the barcode # in a form on the web page.
2. The application queries the enterprise DB through a view and
retrieves quality, origin & nutritional data for the shipment
identified through the barcode.
3. The data is presented to the Customer on the web page.

ALTERNATE COURSE OF 2. The application cannot match the entered barcode # with a
EVENTS shipment in the database.
3. A friendly error message is presented to the user

PRECONDITION USA CASE #4 has been processed

POST-CONDITION N/A

ASSUMPTIONS

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SYSTEM FEATURES TO MEET REQUIREMENTS

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS – FUNCTIONAL FEATURES


1. Inventory tracking system (in Jamba Juice called: Food Cost Control
System) already exists and is used for storing information about quality and origin of fruits
and vegetables in the Jamba Juice database.
2. E-mail inquiry system already allows the customers to obtain
information about the ingredients of Jamba juices

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS – NONFUNCTIONAL FEATURES


1. The information about potential health benefits and dangers of drinking
Jamba juices are already posted on the company’s web site.

STAFF REQUIREMENTS – FUNCTIONAL FEATURES


1. Inventory tracking system is already implemented, so the origin of
fruits and vegetables used for juice production can be tracked.
2. Inventory control system already exists, allowing automated reordering
when the inventory level gets low

STAFF REQUIREMENTS – NONFUNCTIONAL FEATURES


None

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4. DATA ANALYSIS REPORT

DATA STRUCTURES & ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM

Instructor’s Note:
There is probably more than one supplier – many-to-many?
and the relationships should have names – not just cardinalities

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5. PROCESS ANALYSIS REPORT
CONTEXT DIAGRAM

Instructor’s Note:
These symbols used are different to the ones we adopted on the course.
Also, naming dataflows with verbs is a common mistake.
Remember, Actions should be in the Processes, into which Data (not actions) flow.

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DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

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6. DECISION ANALYSIS REPORT

IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

1. Make inventory tracking information (origin, quality, storage time) available to


customers by :
a. Implementing a Web application allowing users to query the Enterprise
database for product information over the internet and thus increasing
customer binding. The product/sales information is already now stored for
accounting purposes.
b. Re-engineering of the POS system to gather, format and print this information
on the sales receipt.
c. Sticking to the currently used system of manual e-mail response

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

INPUT, OUTPUT AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Alternative Platform Software Data Entry Data Output


1. Cash Register Setup of a Bar code Cash Register
(Receipt), Internet Database View, scanner Printer, Web
(Info retrieval), Custom web (Inventory Data), Application (HTML
Inventory application, Web formulary output)
Database (Info adaptation of the (Info retrieval)
storage) POS system.
2. Cash Register Custom Bar Code Cash Register
(Receipt), adaptation of the Scanner Printer
Inventory POS system. (Inventory Data)
Database (Info
Storage)
3. Internet E-mail E-mail Client Manual E-mail
(Keyboard)

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FEASIBILITY STUDY ON ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

Feasibility Criteria Alternative #1 Alternative #2 Alternative #3 Weight


Operational Meets all customer / Partially meets Does not meet 30%
user requirements. customer/user customer/user
User friendly for both requirements; quick requirements. Prone
employees & information & user to delays and
customers. friendly. inaccuracies. Score:
60
100 95
Technical Requires: Requires: No changes required. 30%
-Database -POS Application
Administrator / 2D Programmer / 4D
-Webdesigner / 1D -Database
-Web application Administrator / 2D
programmer / 3D -Rollout / 2W
-Rollout / 1D
100
90 80
Economic Reduction in salary Reduction in salary No reductions in 30%
expense for the clerk expense for the clerk salary expenses.
currently handling e- currently handling e- Stagnant or sinking
mail enquiries (25K$/Y) mail enquiries customer numbers
(25K$/Y) due to slow handling
Reduction in online- of requests. Stored
advertising costs . Increase in materials data not used at its
cost. fullest potential.
Increased returns due
to customer confidence No reduction in online
TC: 7000$ advertising costs
Lifetime ROI = 1600% TC: 16000$ TC: 25.000$/yr
Lifetime ROI =681% Lifetime ROI =0%
100 90 60
Schedule < 2 weeks. 90 < 1 Month. 80 N/a . 100 5%
Organizational No objections No objections Work overload for the 5%
expected. Only minimal expected. No employee.
Workflow changes. workflow change.
Reduction in
workload/backlog. 90 95 70
OVERALL 30+27+30+4+4,75= 28,5+24+27+4,5+4,7 18+30+18+5+3,5 = 100%
RATING 95,75 = 88,7 74,5
Assumptions
• The cost for an IT worker has been averaged at 1000$ / Day in our calculation.
• A day of rollout operations is also considered to cost 1000$ (a low estimate)
• The TC for solution is 25.000$ as this is the yearly salary of the employee answering
e-mail requests for product information.
• Lifespan :
o Solution 1,2: 5-year lifespan (system will probably be obsolete by then
o Solution 3: Infinite (system is already obsolete)

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ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS – BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS

Alternative 1
Benefits:
• Meets user & customer requirements fully
• Greatest level of credibility toward the customer
• Good for CRM & Marketing purposes.
• Tangible economic benefits
Limits:
• Relatively sensitive DB-related tasks (in terms of security & performance)

Alternative 2
Benefits:
• Information quickly made available to customers
Limits
• Costly re-programming of the Cash Register software needed
• Credibility problem = information presented not as convincing

Alternative 3
Benefits:
• Already implemented and working solutions
• Employees need no retraining
Limits:
• Takes long to provide the customer with information
• Possible work overload for employees responding to customer enquiries
• Costly to perform

RECOMMENDATIONS
From the three above stated alternatives we choose the 1st one, because it is the most
convenient for our system improvement. It has the highest overall rating and the highest
score in operational and economic feasibility, which are both areas of high importance to the
company. Since the goal of this project was to make the information currently possessed by
Jamba Juice more transparent and accessible to the customers it is very important that the
newly implemented system meets all customer and user requirements and is user friendly for
both the employees and the customers. The 1st option meets all those requirements best.
Furthermore, it provides the most optimal economic feasibility approach, since there
will be reduction in salary expense for the clerk currently responding to the e-mails enquiries,
possible sales increase because the credibility of the healthy products will increase and
linking the customer to our web page will be good advertisement for the company. In the
technical feasibility study the 1st alternative scores only 2nd best out of the three alternatives,
however the benefits provided through the operational and economic study outweigh the
drawbacks of the technical study
.
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7. LOGICAL SYSTEM DESIGN REPORT
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM

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COMMUNICATIONS DIAGRAM

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8. SYSTEM PROPOSAL
SAMPLE INPUT FORMS/SCREENS

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SAMPLE USER INTERFACES

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SAMPLE O/P REPORTS/SCREENS

All information about Jamba Juice company obtained from the Director of Information
Technology, Mr. Henry Hirschel. The number of our e-mail enquiry answered by Mr. Hirschel
was #17662.

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