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Effective Human Resource


Finding & Managing

Quality Seasonal Staff/Volunteers
„ Importance of job descriptions & employee
and employer evaluations
„ Pros and Cons of hiring through friends vs
hiring through employment ads and
„ How to determine quality staff
„ How to work with lesser quality staff
Agenda ctn’d
„ Tips & tools to help determine your pay
scale and pay raise system
„ Job perks (discounts, benefits, freebies,
training, bonuses) How and when?
„ How to deal with problem staff. How to
effectively let a staff member go.
Objectives of Human Resources in

Outputs (goods/services) /
Inputs (people, capital, material, energy, etc.)

Produce more with a few people

HRM aims to improve the

production contribution of
individuals while simultaneously
attempting to attain other societal
and individual employee objectives
Human Resources Strategies

1. Planning
2. Attracting
3. Placing, Developing & Evaluating
4. Motivating & Rewarding Employees
5. Maintaing High Performance
Planning Human Resources

Importance of Job Descriptions

Some Definitions

« A recognized list of functions, tasks,

accountabilities, working conditions, and
competencies for a particular occupation or job. »
- reference
« It is, primarily, a statement of what functions
(duties and responsibilities) the employee is
expected to accomplish . »
-Philip C. Grant
Key parts of a Job Description
Job identity
- position title, location, status, reporting relationships

Job summary
-job in a few sentences, telling what the job is, how it is done, and why

Job duties
-A very detailed statement of tasks and activities, desired performance
outcomes, generals means for achieving the outcomes, responsibilities

Working conditions
-physical environment, hours, hazards, travel requirements, and so on.

ƒ Job specification (what the job demands)

ƒ Basis for Writing Recruitment Ads
ƒ Helps Identify core competencies for
performance assessment
ƒ Human resource planning
ƒ Training and development
ƒ Reward systems and pay scales
Inacurate job descriptions will create…

„ Recruitment and hiring of unqualified or

overqualified staff
„ Possible high turnover rate (unrealistic job
preview = job dissatisfaction)
„ Increase the need for training
„ Inacurate performance evaluations + low
Paid vs volunteer staff
Some differences in the job description of volunteers
might include

„ voting privileges, if any (board, committee)

„ budget (who prepares, guidelines for expenses,
„ term of office, options for reappointment or re-
„ Goals
Job description - Important tips

„ Always include approvals from the supervisor and the

„ The focus is on what the employee does, not on how- and
not on how accomplishments will be measured
Importance of Performance

« The process by which organizations

evaluate employee job performance »
Set performance standards

Two functions
1. Objectives or targets for employee efforts
2. Criteria against which job success is
Performance standards features

„ Performance is quantified
„ Performance is easily measurable
„ Performance standards are understood by
workers and supervisors; and
„ Performance requires little interpretation
Performance of volunteers

„ Set goals
- Increases employee commitment, morale,
satisfaction and motivation

*** Is also effective with paid staff

(participative goal setting)
Uses of employee performance
„ Performance improvement
„ Compensation adjustments
„ Placement decisions
„ Training and development needs
„ Career planning and development
„ Deficiencies in staffing process
„ Informational inaccuracies
„ Job design errors
„ Avoidance of discrimination
„ External challenges
Employee Opinion Surveys

„ Way of determining what employees think

of their organization:
-working conditions, supervision , how managers are
perceived, etc.
„ Evaluate specific concerns
„ Provide feedback
„ Take action
Recruitment of staff & volunteers
„ Identify the job openings
„ Review job descriptions, job specifications
„ Determine your recruitment methods
- school, college, university campus visits,
advertisements, contact with profesional
and labour associations, use of government
agencies, etc.
Recruitment Adds & Programs

„ Target specialized „ More expensive

labour „ Recruits may already be
employed (don’t read ads)
„ Reaches a wider
„ May receive thousands of
„ Insufficient when labour
markets are tight
Hiring through Friends

„ Less costly „ Can create

„ Knowledge of discrimination
„ Similar interest to
„ Similar work habits
and attitudes
Selection of employees
How to determine quality staff

1. Experience
2. Background
3. Attitude
4. Reliability
5. References
How to Get the Truth out of References

„ Use the phone

„ Seek information on job-related behaviour (tardiness, absenteeism)
„ Ask direct questions (« Would you rehire this employee now? Or
« How is this person’s behaviour in a group setting? »)
„ Combine reference with other predictors
„ Use credible sources (Former work supervisor are the most useful.
Letters from friends or acquaitances are worthless for predicting future
job success)
„ Note frequency of job changes
„ Watch out for phrases with hidden meanings
Motivating and Rewarding

Pay scales, pay raises and job perks

Steps to determining
your pay scale
Phase 1 - Job Analysis

a) Position descriptions
b) Job descriptions
c) Job standards
Phase 2 - Job Evaluation

What is Job Evaluation?

A systematic process of determining
the value of jobs in relation to other
jobs within the organization.
Principle of a job evaluation

„ focuson the work done not on the

individual doing the work
concerned with what is done, how it’s done
and why - not with how well
job worth is measured using factors (e.g.
safety of others, product/service quality)
Phase 2 - Job Evaluation

Refers to Internal Equity

Perceived equity of a pay system in an
organization (job worth more are paid more)

Methods to determine job worth

a) job ranking
b) job grading
c) point system
Phase 3-
Wage and salary surveys
„ Refersto External Equity
Perceived fairness in pay relative to what
other employers are paying for the same
type of work
How to find the information

Labour Canada
HRDC offices
Employer Associations
Professional Associations
Self-conducted surveys
Phase 4 - Pricing job

„ Establish appropriate pay level

-Reflects its relative and absolute worth
- Relative: ranking in job evaluation
- Absolute: influenced by labour market

„ Group pay levels in a structure

Phase 5 - Pay structure

„ Basedon your job rank, job grading or point

system, are grouped in categories.

„ Each category offers a different wage

Pay raises System

„ Pay range for each job class

Ex: Average wage 10$/ hour for a particular
Wage range is 2$
Marginal performer is paid 9$/hour
Average performer is paid 10$/hour
Above average performance is given a merit
raise of .50$ per hour until 11$ per hour is
Indirect incentives

„ Employee benefits
„ Training
„ Discounts
„ Freebies
Managing difficult employees &
employee dismissal
Identify the problem

Look at yourself first!

„ Is it emotionally based
„ Is it performance based
„ Take appropriate action
Employee discipline

„ Preventive discipline
– Communicate standards to ensure compliance
– Build a positive spirit of self-discipline
„ Corrective discipline
Seeks to:
reform the offender
to deter others from similar actions
maintain consistent, effective group standards
Ex: warning or suspension without pay
Progressive discipline
„ stronger penalties for repeated offences
„ Usually used when offences are minor

Progessive discipline system

1. Verbal reprimand by supervisor
2. Written reprimand, with a record on file
3. One - to three day suspension from work
4. Suspension for one week or longer
5. Discharge for cause
Positive discipline

„ Acknowledgement from employee that a

problem exists and that he or she must
assume responsibility for the behaviour, and
the use of a problem-solving approach to
resolving the problem.
Positive discipline - key steps
1. Focus on the specific problem rather then the
employee’s attitude or personality
2. Gain agreement with the employee that a
performance problem exists and that the
employee is responsible for changing his or her
3. Approach discipline as a problem solving
4. Document suggested changes or commitments
by the employee
5. Follow up to ensure that the employee is living
up to his or her commitments and to reduce the

„ Justcause
„ Reasonable notice
Managing dismissal

„ Prepare for the interview and conduct

„ Consider the dismissal process from the
employee’s perspective and ask « how
would I like to be treated in such a situation
„ Get to the point. Some experts suggest that
you convey the message of termination
within the first few sentences
„ Select the time and place. Experts often suggest a
meeting in the morning and during the middle of
the week
„ Have any necessary information ready
„ Notify others in the organization and ensure that
the individual’s duties are covered
„ In some instances, special security arrangements
may be necessary
„ Discuss the process with other colleagues who
have had to terminate employees.