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Voltages, Phasing and Calculations; Efficiency; Cooling; International Connector Standards

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Voltages, Phasing and Calculations Efficiency Cooling

Voltage potential between the hot (live) wire and the Increase Server Effeciency Using High Voltage (Eaton) Calculating Datacenter Cooling Requirements (APC)

Calculations & Ohm’s Law Chart neutral wire alternates between +120 volts, 0 volts, White Papers: Efficiency and Other Benefits of 208v over 120v (APC) White Papers:

Datacenter Power and Cooling (Cisco)

The formulas on Ohm’s Law Chart can be used to calculate any and -120 volts. High Efficiency AC Power Distribution for Datacenters (APC)

measurement of an electrical circuit if two of the other

measurements are known. Calculating Cooling

Legend

+120 120v Input Voltage, Efficiency, and Density An optimal datacenter environment resides at 65°f (18°C) - 80°f (27°C)

Calculating Watts (P) I=Amps (Current) VAC Modern switching power-supplies are built to operate at different input with a relative humidity of 40% - 60%

Single Phase Three Phase E=Volts (Potential) Single Phase voltages (usually 100v – 250v). They are built this way to allow universal

P=E × I P=(E × I)(√3) P=Watts (Power) operation in any power system around the world. Effectively, all power consumed by IT equipment is turned into heat

R=Ohms (Resistance) and is dissipated into the air in the datacenter. So once the total

0 VAC During the conversion of AC to DC, these power supply units (PSUs) lose Wattage draw of the IT equipment in the datacenter is known, cooling

some of the input power to heat. The amount of energy lost to heat capacity for that equipment is known.

depends on the current load on the PSU, the voltage of the input, and the

particular PSU model. NOTE: You can exclude any power drawn as POE if the POE devices

-120

using the power are outside the scope of the cooling system being

VAC As seen in the graph below: a PSU operates at higher efficiencies when it sized.

is:

(1). Supplied with a higher input voltage You will also want to consider other sources of heat in your

+120 120v/240v (2). Under high load conditions relative to its maximum supported load calculations. In these calculations, I will use “ITP” to represent the

VAC

Split-Phase total Wattage consumed by the IT equipment. Since Watts are also

Using higher voltages in power distribution leads to both higher usable as a measurement of heat, we will use them to calculate heat

efficiencies and increased power density. For example: generated by these other sources:

0 VAC --A 30 amp circuit provided at 120v uses 10AWG wire size and can supply

up to 3600 watts of power. (1) UPS Inefficiencies (.04 x UPS Watt Rating) + (.05 x ITP)

--A 30 amp circuit provided at 240v uses the same 10AWG wire size (since (2) Power Distribution (.01 x UPS Watt Rating) + (.02 x ITP)

wire sizing is dependent on current, not voltage) but can supply up to (3) Lighting (22 Watts x Floor Area in m²) (2 Watts x Floor Area in ft²)

-120 7200 watts of power. (4) People (100 Watts x max number of people)

VAC

Once these calculations have been made, you will need to determine

Voltage potential between the two different hot (line) wires alternates if this environment will be affected by external sources of heat

between 240 volts and 0 volts. At its peak, the potential is always 240

+120 208v (sunlight through windows, heat from roof, etc). This heat will also

VAC

volts, but the direction of current flow reverses after each peak. Voltage Three Phase need to be factored into the cooling of the room. If this data room is

between a hot wire and the neutral wire alternate between +120v, 0v, within an already controlled environment (ie: a data closet in an

and -120v. So this system provides two voltage options: 120v and 240v. office), these external factors can likely be ignored.

0 VAC Legacy Unit Formula Example

Voltage potential between any two of the three hot wires alternates British Thermal

between 208 volts and 0 volts. Even through all three of the waves peak W=3.41 BTU/hr 1200 Watts = 4092 BTU/hr

Units (BTU)

at +-120v, the peak voltage potential is never greater than 208v because

the phases are offset from each other by 120° of a full cycle. They never -120 Tons (Cooling) W=.000283 Tons 1 Ton = 3533 Watts

peak at the same time. VAC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60309

Appliances (IEC 60320) More Info:

IEC 60320 Reference Chart Supply and Distribution (IEC 60309) More Info:

Industrial and Multiphase Power Plugs

3 Wires 4 Wires 5 Wires IEC 60309 receptacles can be read

(Receptacle)

P+N+E or 2P+E 3P+E 3P+N+E using three pieces of information:

Female

180° | 6h 200-250V AC 380-415V AC 200-240/346-415V AC 2. Position of “Earth” (ground) pin

270° | 9h 380-415V AC 200-250V AC 120-144/208-250V AC in relation to the “keyway” (notch).

3. Color of housing

IEC 320 C5 IEC 320 C7 IEC 320 C13 IEC 320 C15 IEC 320 C19

“Cloverleaf” (2.5A) “Figure 8” (2.5A) Common Appliance (10A) High Temp Appliance (10A) High Draw Appliance (16A) The IEC standard allows for 12

Commonly Used positions of the Earth pin relative

to the keyway, so the position is

named in hours as it would be seen

(Plug or Appliance)

keyway is always facing down, and

the receptacle (female) side of the

connector is the one referenced

Male

IEC 320 C6 IEC 320 C8 IEC 320 C14 IEC 320 C16 IEC 320 C20 P+N+E 4h 3P+N+E 9h 2P+E 6h 3P+N+E 6h as [<line or pole count>P+<N for

“Cloverleaf” (2.5A) “Figure 8” (2.5A) Common Appliance (10A) High Temp Appliance (10A) High Draw Appliance (16A) (100-130V) (120/208V – 144/250V) (200-250V) (200/346V – 240/415V) neutral if existent>+E<Earth pin>

Earth at 4 o’clock Earth at 9 o’clock Earth at 6 o’clock Earth at 6 o’clock <Earth pin position as hour or

16A & 32A Versions 16A & 32A Versions 16A & 32A Versions 32A Version degree>

Nomenclature

Code Voltage(s) Phases, Conductors Code Current

5 125V 1Ø, 2 Pole, 3 Wire 15 Amps

6 250V 1Ø, 2 Pole, 3 Wire Code Meaning 20 Amps

Code Meaning

14 125V & 250V 1Ø, 3 Pole, 4 Wire P Plug (Male) 30 Amps

<none> Non-locking, straight-blades

15

21

250V

120V & 208V

3Ø, 3 Pole, 4 Wire

3Ø, 4 Pole, 5 Wire

L Twist-Lock Blades N E M A X 5 15 P R Receptacle (Female) 50

60

Amps

Amps

Female (Receptacle)

Common Household

NEMA 1-15R

Phased Out (Type A)

NEMA 5-15R NEMA 5-20R NEMA L5-20R NEMA L5-30R NEMA L14-20R NEMA L14-30R NEMA L21-20R NEMA L21-30R CS8364 & CS8369 NEMA L6-20R NEMA L6-30R

Household Household 1Ø (2.4kW) 1Ø (3.6kW) 1Ø (4.1kW) 1Ø (6.2kW) 3Ø (7.2kW) 3Ø (10.8kW) “California Plug” 1Ø (4.1kW) 1Ø (6.2kW)

(Type B) High Draw 3Ø (50A) 18kW

3 Phase

Male (Plug)

NEMA 1-15P

Phased Out (Type A)

NEMA 5-15P NEMA 5-20P NEMA L5-20P NEMA L5-30P NEMA L14-20P NEMA L14-30P NEMA L21-20P NEMA L21-30P CS8365 NEMA L6-20P NEMA L6-30P

Household Household 1Ø (2.4kW) 1Ø (3.6kW) 1Ø (4.1kW) 1Ø (6.2kW) 3Ø (7.2kW) 3Ø (10.8kW) “California Plug” 1Ø (4.1kW) 1Ø (6.2kW)

(Type B) High Draw 3Ø (50A) 18kW

United Kingdom India & South Africa Switzerland

IRAM 2073 (BS 1363) (BS 546) (SEV 1011)

(Receptable)

Female

AS/NZS 3112

Australia, New Zealand (10A)

(Type I) SEV 1011 Typ 13

(10A) (Type L)

CPCS-CCC

China (10A) (Type I)

CEE7/1 CEE7/3 CEE7/5

Phased Out “Schuko” (16A) (Type F) French (16A) (Type E)

BS 1363 (13A) BS 546 (15A) BS 546 (5A)

Britan (Type G) (Type D) (Type M)

Male (Plug)

Italy Legend

(CEI 23-50) Neutral Conductor

CEI 23-50 (10A) CEI 23-50 (16A)

(Type L) (Type L) Grounding Conductor (Earth)

CEE7/2 CEE7/3 CEE7/6 CEE7/7 CEE7/16

Phased Out “Schuko” (16A) (Type F) French (16A) (Type E) Schuko & French (16A) “Europlug” (2.5A) (Type C)

Hot or Neutral (usually reversable)

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