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The English Language of Marketing
Варенина Л.П. The English Language of Marketing / Московская финансово-промышленная академия, М., 2005 г., 110 с.
© Варенина Л.П., 2005 © Московская финансово-промышленная академия, 2005
Содержание Предисловие..................................................................................................... 4 UNIT ONE. THE SCOPE OF MARKETING.................................................. 5 UNIT TWO. PRODUCT PLANNING ........................................................... 12 UNIT THREE. PRODUCT POLICY: WHAT SELLS .................................. 20 UNIT FOUR. CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION ......................................... 29 UNIT FIVE. PRICING ................................................................................... 39 UNIT SIX. COMMUNICATION: PROMOTION & SELLING ................... 49 UNIT SEVEN. FROM MAKER TO USER................................................... 60 UNIT EIGHT. RESEARCH ........................................................................... 70 UNIT NINE. THE FUTURE OF MARKETING ........................................... 82 GRAMMAR REFERENCE............................................................................ 93
Предисловие Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса специализирующихся в области маркетинга. Целью данного пособия является отработка навыков чтения и понимания специального текста, усвоение терминологической лексики данной области специализации и грамматической структуры текста. Пособие содержит оригинальные тексты по маркетингу, отражающие специфику лексики данного подъязыка и грамматические структуры типичные для специального текста. Пособие содержит 9 разделов, грамматический справочник, руководство по изучению данного материала, рабочую программу. В каждый раздел (Unit) включены упражнения на закрепление лексического и грамматического материала, вопросы для дискуссии. В уроках также предлагаются темы для сочинений и устных докладов, ролевые игры, case study. Разнообразие упражнений позволяет использовать их выборочно по каждому тексту с учетом уровня подготовки студентов.
UNIT ONE. THE SCOPE OF MARKETING Special Terms Advertising Consumerism Costs Distribution Goods and services Merchandising Promotion Retail Surplus Wholesale рекламная кампания защита прав потребителя издержки сбыт товары и услуги политика сбыта; искусство торговли продвижение розничная торговля излишки оптовая торговля Working on the text Read and translate the text The Scope of Marketing It is common knowledge that marketing has lately developed into a separate discipline that is being taught at universities now. When did it really come into existence? This century, last century, or in the Middle Ages? – Wrong on all three counts. The transfer of goods from one person to another was probably one of our earliest social acts. Whether through violence or barter, this transfer established that few people can satisfy all their desires alone. The inability to produce everything desired creates reliance on others for both necessities and luxuries. As societies grow more complex, so does the transfer of goods. The basic motive for trading is that someone has something you want more than what you already have. When that someone is willing to exchange what you want for what you have, a mutually satisfactory transaction can be arranged. Generally speaking, then, trade is the exchange of surplus items for shortages of items. The reasons for having surplus items range from geographic and resource variations to division and amount of labor, skill variation, and differences in taste. One group or person may create a surplus of some product in the hope of profitably exchanging it for other products. As society and production expanded, so did the limits of trade, the range of goods, and the distance between the traders. It became increasingly difficult for the producers to locate each other and arrange mutually satisfactory exchanges without the help of intermediaries or "middlemen." These intermediaries, in the role of bringing together interested parties, must perform a variety of tasks which can be called marketing. As defined by the American Marketing Association, marketing is "the performance of business activities directed toward, and incident to, the flow 5
of goods and services from producer to consumer or user " Marketing, therefore, is made up of such physical activities as transporting, distributing, storing, and selling goods, and of the decisions which must be reached by individuals or groups who want to move goods from production to use. Of course, not all producers engage in every marketing activity. The local carpenter in Guatemala or the supermarket manager in Japan does not do product planning; most retail stores around the world have few or no storage facilities. However, most products are repeatedly subjected to all marketing operations. In addition to an analysis of these activities, marketing involves understanding the consumer circumstances and attitudes that determine why certain people want certain products. Marketing trends, activities, and organizations are constantly changing and developing. In the role of bringing together interested parties, the intermediary may also be involved in grading, financing, assembling, packaging, refining, or altering the form of the goods Indeed, a large portion of the working population in many countries is involved in some form of marketing. In West Germany today, for example, manufacturing and the marketing activities of retail and wholesale trade account for one-third of the national income, while twenty-five percent of the work force is engaged in full-time marketing activities. The contribution of marketing to society is a subject of controversy among economists. Contributions such as refining, transporting, assembling, and packaging are considered productive; speculating, storing, accepting commissions, and merchandising activities such as advertising are considered parasitic and of little value to society The general belief is that prime costs of distribution should be eliminated and supplemental cost excesses should be reduced. Supplementary costs of distribution such as packaging, storing, and selling are generally considered to be continuations of the production process, and are thus acceptable as an added value to the product. In the free enterprise system, the full range of marketing activities operates with little control. Other more controlled economies regulate and limit some of these functions. Capitalist economies do acknowledge that marketing has its excesses, as in cases where a product is stored for an undue period of time merely to raise the price. Consumerism has arisen out of a belief that consumers have rights which are often abused. People like consumer advocate Ralph Nader have fought to have laws enacted which would protect these rights. On the whole, however, functions can continue only if they perform a service and fulfill a need. If unnecessary marketing activities raise the cost of goods above that of the competition, the product will be priced out of the market. The corollary to this is that marketing functions will only produce a profit—the basic motive for doing business—if they provide a service worth the money. It is argued that almost all marketing activities thus contribute to the real value of a product. Whether or not this is true, the aim of this text is to 6
Marketing research has developed into a highly specialized activity employing tens of thousands of people around the world. Supplementary costs of distribution are costs or expenses which add to the value of a product because they are a continuation of the production process. and many other services must also be marketed to be used. B.explore those marketing activities and functions which do exist and which are practiced. Vocabulary notes Prime costs of distribution: Costs or expenses that arise because of the process of buying and selling or a conversion of the form of the product. how much and what kinds? What prices should be set? Will it sell. those engaged in marketing activities outnumber those engaged in manufacturing or production. and to whom? Although marketing activities have expanded tremendously in the past hundred years. We have noted that. Comprehension Tick the correct answer A. libraries. To perform a variety of tasks. 2. B. The transfer of goods took place because: A. To match Sellers and Buyers. Indeed. C. there was little formal study of them until the past few decades. marketing directs the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers or users. C. goods in all but the most primitive societies must be marketed. People were violent. marketing activities account for more than half the cost of the product to the consumer. In many countries. A mutually satisfactory transaction was desirable. in general. Today. a broader concept of marketing does not limit its application to business enterprises. B or C for 1 –6 below 1. The following questions face those involved in marketing: How should the product be designed? How should it be packaged? What retail and/or wholesale channels should be used? Is advertising advisable? If so. People were unable to produce everything themselves. What is the role of an intermediary? To make interested parties produce some product together. A. there are many publications on the various aspects of marketing and colleges give courses and degrees in this field. There is general agreement among marketing people that. 7 . hospitals. in many cases and countries. Schools. Marketing is not confined to one particular type of economy.
Buyers must be found. a) promoted.___5___ and distributed. e) products.3. The same. c) markets. C. Marketing is: A. Less than those involved in production. Uncontrollable factors such as differing economic and___6_____ conditions must be taken into account in ___7_____ buyers and products____8_____. More than those involved in production. зависимость. In many countries the number of people involved in marketing activities is: A. производство. the basic marketing process will be the same. Change the form of the words where necessary. сделка. Nothing is mentioned about it. очистка. посредник. Understanding consumer circumstances. сборка. To both. разделение труда. Storing and selling goods.___4_____ must be conceived. 5. нехватка. B. предметы роскоши. общее мнение.____1_____ a tangible or intangible product. устраивать. C. B. 6. d) non-profit. B. A. излишки. C. A. How expensive are marketing activities to the ultimate consumer: They don’t cost much. торговля. предметы первой необходимости. g) bringing together Whether a firm is large or small. нарушать права потребителя. Only to non-profit organizations. or sells in______3____ or international markets. f) competitive. 4. прибыль. They double the price of the product. We can apply the term “marketing”: Only to business enterprises. 8 . priced. неспособность. b) domestic. C. Promoting goods and services from producer to user. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Насилие. B. aspires to profit or ____2____objectives. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the list below. сортировка.
An intermediary may (to involve) in grading . If unnecessary activities raise the cost of the goods above the competition level the product (to price out) of the market. 3. 7. чтобы свести вместе заинтересованные стороны – покупателя и продавца. Маркетинг – это вид коммерческой деятельности. Consumers’ rights often (to abuse). 8. Last century in West Germany twenty five per cent of the work force (to engage) in full-time marketing activities. 9 . 4. We also use passive when describing a process or procedure or writing in formal style. Роль посредника заключается в том. Green-marketing strategies (to develop) by many companies now to attract customers. Мы постоянно совершенствуем политику сбыта. Their new telephone equipment (to market) more imaginatively this season. Права иностранных граждан в этой стране всегда ущемляли. 2. Exercise 3 Open the brackets using the correct tense 1. которые часто нарушают. Exercise 4 Translate from Russian into English. Десятки тысяч людей по всему миру заняты в маркетинговых исследованиях. 6. The price for this product ( not to set) yet. assembling or packaging. 2. Most goods repeatedly ( to subject) to all marketing operations. 7. что потребители имеют свои права. 5. Движение в защиту прав потребителя возникло из убеждения.Grammar Revision : The Passive Voice We form the passive by using the appropriate tense of to be + a past participle. а дополнительные издержки сокращены. 6. 9. направляющий поток товаров и услуг от производителя к потребителю или пользователю. The new marketing plan (to approve) already by the top managers. Общее мнение маркетологов заключается в том. A passive construction is used when the action itself is more important than the doer of the action or when we focus on information. 4. 3. Эта компания готова заключить взаимовыгодную сделку. financing. making use of the vocabulary of the lesson 1. 8. что основные издержки сбыта должны быть устранены. 5.
9. F The planning and promotion of sales through attractive publicity G A fee. frequently based on a percentage of the sales price. Speculating 10. The work provided for others as an occupation or business C. Barter 3. A social movement which seeks to protect the rights and powers of consumers D The sale of goods to ultimate consumers. Merchandising 9. paid to agents H The sale of goods in large amounts to jobbers or retailers I Trade or exchange of goods or services without the use of money J Buying and selling with the expectation of profiting from anticipated price changes K Articles of trade and commerce. What is the role of an intermediary or "middleman" in the process of trade? 4. Очистка. 10 .Commission 11. 10. Существует мнение. merchandise. а средство первой необходимости для современного делового человека. Services 6. products Discussion 1. упаковка – эти виды деятельности считаются продуктивными. The amount which is greater than what is used or needed B. What are some reasons for the existence of surplus items? 3. 12. сборка. How did the practice of trade begin? What was the motive for trading? 2. usually in small quantities E Different activities to make and attract a profitable demand for a product. Goods 2.Retail 7. что оптовая торговля приносит больше прибыли. wares. List some of the major marketing operations. Wholesale 8. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. В системе свободного предпринимательства маркетинговая деятельность слабо контролируется. Автомобиль не роскошь. Surplus 4. чем розничная. 11. Marketing 5.Consumerism A. транспортировка.
Vocabulary violence to transfer насилие перемещать. Give examples of wholesale operations. присущий product planning планирование и разработка товара to account for объяснять ч-л. Why are certain marketing functions subjects of controversy among some economists? 7. 8. Give an example of an "excess" in marketing. What is consumerism? 9. строго придерживаться 11 . broker) incident to свойственный. free enterprise system система свободного предпринимательства. распространяться. простираться intermediary посредник (син.контролем to acknowledge признавать to abuse плохо обращаться. 14. Give examples of retail stores in your community. радиус действия. 10. Do all producers engage in all marketing activities? Why? 6. зд. классифицировать. изучать to set a price устанавливать цену to confine ограничивать. заключение. – нарушать (права) to price out вытеснять с рынка из-за (неконкурентноспособной цены) corollary вывод. круг гл. ant. область. результат to explore исследовать. отвечать за ч-л. controlled economy ант. Is use of the term "marketing" limited to business enterprises? 12. страны с жестким гос.5. право) necessity предмет первой необходимости luxury предмет роскоши division of labor разделение труда range сущ диапазон. How important are marketing activities to the cost of goods to the consumer? 11. What is the difference between retail and wholesale? 13. сфера. передавать (имущество. – jobber. Summarize the major questions that marketing people around the world ask with regard to the goods their firms or organizations produce.
PRODUCT PLANNING Special Terms Marketing research Competition New product issues Маркетинговые исследования Конкуренция Вопросы производства новых товаров Product planners Плановики производства. The marketers must determine the number of buyers.UNIT TWO. where individuals or organized groups who want to buy goods or services meet people who want to sell them. The techniques of marketing research have now given marketers new ways to learn and analyze the needs and wants of consumers. Historically. what they want to buy. and where they want to buy it. marketing determines what products and services are to be offered. when. or it may be a response to identifying need. marketing experts were supposed to sell any product in any way possible. at what price and what they expect from it. In part. Of course. marketers have to decide which needs they want to meet. The sellers must have what the buyers want. They can now play a critical role in determining what—as well as how—to 12 . at least. разработчики товара Merger Слияние Product line Ассортимент. or a product or service they themselves are willing to trade. Elaborate techniques of research have been developed to supply this information. The first step in marketing is to understand these groups. A concept for a product or service may develop long before any marketing research is done. товарный ряд Sales pitch Направленная реклама (навязчивое предложение товара) Sales force Торговый персонал Research and development (R &D) Отдел научных исследований и разработок Input Исходная информация Style Стиль Fashion Мода Working on the text Read and translate the text Product Planning Marketing starts in a market. The buyers must have money to spend and a willingness to spend it. how.
greater convenience. They make whatever changes are necessary 13 . but contracts or even mergers with other firms may be necessary. form. Not only may substantial investments be required to develop and market new products. paintings. There are many motivations for constant surveillance of the product line. and resources? How strong is the competition? The commitment of a company's energies and funds may be farreaching. how much. Additional products added to the line may reduce certain costs by more fully utilizing the firm's production or marketing capabilities. Prime considerations are the similarity of the proposed product to the existing product line of the company. They ask if the regular sales methods are appropriate and if the new products can be linked to others in the line. Does the firm possess the capacity and the funds to enter into the new product area? What are the existing marketing strengths. deciding on the size. Marketing managers then. Scrutiny may reveal opportunities to increase sales by offering customers more functional products. and "having the right goods at the right place at the right time at the right price. for example. For the manufacturer. All products were new at one time. Professional marketing managers know that appraising new products and changing an existing product line are ongoing processes. skills. and the resources of the firm. and libraries seem to lend more books when they also offer records. greater value. the existing sales pitch is easily integrated. more prestige. and films to the community. Volkswagen of Germany. marketing managers must consider the full range of effects the products will have on the business. or some combination of these qualities. the similarity to the competition's products. At the same time." The product planners try to determine whether there will be a demand for a given product.market. Most large companies now produce only what their market researchers tell them will profitably sell. appearance. working closely with top management. Lipstick and nail polish sales rise when their manufacturers add perfume to the line. and if so. The airline which gets into the business of car rental for its passengers requires minimal extra cost while making fuller use of its personnel and company resources. Marketing people determine if the products are suitable for distribution through normal or existing channels. Today. Sometimes a new product will enhance those already in the line. Regardless of the motivation for new or additional products. introduced three entirely new models in a few years in an attempt to fill the needs of a more affluent market seeking different qualities in an automobile. a product is new if it is unique—a "first"—or if it is new for the manufacturer who is entering the market to challenge the existing competition. merchandising includes selecting the products to be produced. integrate these predictions with an analysis of all the areas of the business which will be affected. or if it has had enough substantial design modifications to make it a new product issue. and packaging.
new sales were generated without detriment to the existing line. The willingness to spend money. In contrast. the planners carefully weigh all of the input. while carefully thinking out the costs of production and the final pricing. but information and planning greatly reduce the risk of failure. a new product will be sold to current customers by the existing sales force. But when the major soft drink manufacturers added low-calorie diet sodas to their line. using the distribution channels previously developed and the same price and advertising appeals. Marketing a new product is always a gamble. After deciding to produce a product. In a less expensive way. the firm's marketers were presented with new and complex problems. 2. as leaders in a field. Cooperation with other companies. relying on price as its only important sales advantage. This kind of business has low overhead and usually manufactures large volumes at low cost. some firms monitor the product development of others to see if an item is demonstrably salable.in the promotion or advertising policies. C. a specialized sales force was required and unfamiliar promotion and pricing problems arose. The marketers must determine: A. While pioneering is risky. some new products appeal to previously untapped markets. and complexity of the product. B or C for 1 – 5 below: 1. The capacity and the funds of the company. they will reap rewards for being first. saw their products' sales rise with a proportionate dip in sales of their canned produce. some firms invest large sums on new product research and development. 14 . fashion. It is between these two extremes that most marketers find themselves. In this case. The number of buyers. so not all companies have such inclinations. for example. The decision to produce a new product may sometimes result in: A. What products and services to offer. An analysis of all the areas. When Pierre Cardin introduced its first products for women. Similar to this approach is the strategy wherein firms spend nothing on research and development and introduce products only into mature markets. some firms seek to develop and market radically new products. taking into account the style. B. C. Settling on a final design involves many processes. Trusting that. the only major question is whether or not the product will result in additional sales or merely siphon off sales from existing company products. Distribution channels were different. At one extreme. quality. packaging. B. The failure rate for this approach is high. Frozen vegetable marketers. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A.
B. g) motivated. тщательно взвесить исходную информацию. C. More fully utilizing the firm’s capabilities means: Only enlarging the product line. If your___6_____ are not the lowest in the industry. издержки производства. A. Only introducing a unique product. It is your choice. пожинать лавры первенства. why should your product be the one he or she___3____? Answering that question focuses your___4____ on where you make contact with your customers. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. определять. Fuller use of the personnel and company resources. They believe they will reap rewards for being first . h) organization. B. Change the form of the words where necessary. They want to sell a lot of cheap products. искусство торговли. so you pick a spot that is inherently___5_____ to your company. 5. тщательно разработанные методики исследования. d) efforts. don’t pick low prices. If your people are not the best and most___7_____. f) advantageous. A. удовлетворять потребности более богатого рынка. If you can find nothing 15 . Neither. don’t pick customer service. a) distinguish. To reduce the sales of the major product line. B. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Желание. As the customer considers acting on that need. b) need. They hope to find a lucrative nich. C. e) selects. i) buying The act of___1_____ starts with a customer___2____. C. The reason that some firms invest large sums on new product research and development is: A. c) costs. To siphon off sales means: To generate additional sales.3. бросать вызов существующей конкуренции. 4. финансовые и моральные затраты компании.
For more information see § 3 of the Grammar Reference. If we outsourced more we _______ save a lot of money. Grammar Revision: Modal Verbs Modal verbs must. 4. a) must b) may c) can 4. Exercise 4 Use the correct modal verb: 1. They must have sold everything. 2. Sometimes customs clearance______ be difficult to obtain. a) must b) may c) could 3. can. All modals can express probability or possibility as well as obligation or willingness. or it may be a response to identifying need. Their product ________ be selling very well. should. A concept for a product or service may develop long before any marketing research is done. They could have launched their new product 3 months ago. otherwise the company would not have increased the production. pick something and make yourself better at that “something” than anyone else. a) may b) must c) is 2. 3. a) mustn’t b) may not c) couldn’t 16 . There will be a delay in solving this problem.that___8_____ you from the competition. ought. a) must b) may c) should 5. 5. The buyers must have money to spend and the willingness to spend it. may. The company _______ have launched the entirely new product. Exercise 3 Explain the meaning of the modal verbs in the sentences given below: 1. will are auxiliary verbs that express the speakers’ judgement about the likelihood or desirability of a situation. Scrutiny _______ reveal opportunities to increase sales.
Бросить вызов существующей конкуренции может только уникальный товар или товар. 3.A group of products that are closely related because they function in a similar manner. D. Определенные затраты могут быть снижены путем более полного использования производственных возможностей. Чтобы получить необходимую информацию касательно потребностей покупателей. Those questions surrounding a decision to produce a new product. они функционируют сходным образом и продаются тем же группам покупателей. Merger 3. recording. Группа товаров тесно связанных между собой. чтобы разработать и продать новый товар. плановики производства должны тщательно взвесить всю исходную информацию. 2. intended to persuade people to buy a certain product or service F. Изменение ассортимента товара . необходимы не только значительные инвестиции. delivered personally or through advertising and promotion. Sales pitch 2. но и слияние с другими компаниями. The rivalry between businesses for the same customers or market E. называется ассортиментом. его упаковки и т. Sales force 4.Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the active vocabulary. or fall within given price ranges. В попытке удовлетворить потребности более богатого рынка производители пытаются предложить своим покупателям больше удобства. The people engaged in selling the products of a particular organization 17 5. Вопросы производства новых товаров охватывают такие области как создание стиля. т. 6. B. Некоторые новые товары нацелены на ранее не использованные рынки. имеющий значительные модификации в своей конструкции. Fashion 6.к.это постоянно продолжающийся процесс. 4. Input . 5. Чтобы решить вопрос об окончательной модели будущего товара. The line of reasoning. Style A. больше престижа и более высокое качество. The systematic gathering. улучшение качества товара. and analyzing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services. 10. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. надо тщательно разработать методику исследования.Иногда. 1. C. 7.д. 9. 8.
The legal combining of two or more business enterprises into a single entity 8. Marketing J. Why do some firms develop and market radically new products? 12. and promotion policies of a company? 9. What type of business would tend to avoid spending money on product research? 14. 10. Describe two approaches to introducing a new product. What questions should you ask? What kinds of input do you need in order to fulfill your task? 18 . How might the introduction of a new product affect the distribution. The president asks you to develop a program to merchandise curtains and drapes. 13. Give an example. The design of a product. sales force. Marketers must consider the effects of a new product on the company's business. What must product planners try to determine while considering the introduction of a new product? 6. How does marketing affect product planning? What was marketing's historic role? 3. New product I. What are the major decisions which must be made after the decision to introduce a new product? Role play 1.G. Give some reasons or motivations to alter or add to a product line. The currently accepted style or the custom of the moment issues 9. 7. Product line K. What does merchandising mean to the manufacturer? 5. List the prime considerations in this process. The usable information bearing on understanding an issue or solving a problem research 7. Do sales of one product ever siphon off sales from the company's other line. Competition 10. Describe the role of marketing in relation to those who buy or use goods or services. What makes a product "new"? 4. 8. created to appeal to more or less permanent criteria of what is acceptable Discussion 1. What are some of the major problems for a firm entering a previously untried market? 11. You are a marketing manager for a firm that makes home carpets. 2.
изобильный возможности отдел научных исследований и разработок 19 . обнаруживать богатый. идентифицировать. разоблачать. узнавать ответ. b) A product or service which enhances the value of other products or services in a company's line. Give examples of goods or services from your country which describe the following: a) A product or service redesigned frequently for reasons of fashion. Vocabulary Willingness to determine elaborate techniques identify response challenge integrate commitment appraise scrutiny reveal affluent capabilities research and development department желание определять тщательно разработанный методика отождествлять. c) A product or service introduced to offer greater convenience and value to its users. реакция вызов интегрировать. включать обязательства оценивать внимательный осмотр.2. исследование открывать.
Whether designing new products. there are certain basic objectives. отличающая товар к-л производителя или продавца) наименование. this may not be evident for a variety of reasons. they compete for customers in a world which is growing not only in size but in sophistication and complexity. such as more jewels or special bands. знак или символика.UNIT THREE. as well as the producer. The product should be designed to function as efficiently as possible in relation to its price and use. and must respond accordingly. From refrigerators to religions. размещение товара на рынке сбыта повышение цены за счет улучшения качества брэнд (название. PRODUCT POLICY: WHAT SELLS Special Terms Sales appeal Trend Taste Quality Feedback Quality control Consumer goods Target market Positioning Trading up Brand Brand name Trademark товарный вид тенденция вкус качество обратная связь контроль качества потребительские товары целевой рынок позиционирование. Product Policy: What Sells Few products or services offered today are simple to market. название товара торговая марка Working on the text Read and translate the text below. paying special attention to the use of the Infinitive. Marketers must know what attracts customers and keeps them. may add nothing to the basic utility of the 20 . Think of the variety of styles and features offered consumers. Take watches. Additional uses and styles should be incorporated to supplement the basic value. redesigning old ones. This element of variation increases the functions of the product as well as attracting particular segments of the market. One of the goals should be to benefit the consumer. Even if one product is clearly superior to another. or improving established ones. Some design elements. for example.
quality control is important to the entire merchandising process. In products like table salt. a producer is able to reach for parts of the market that would be unavailable if the pattern or product were single or limited. They use these results to produce products that they hope will sell. By selecting smaller. Questions of quality are thus carefully considered in the process of deciding what to buy and what to sell. Fashion is a manifestation of group psychology and is. Determining where to position particular products is an important marketing decision. Cars. naturally. add to sales appeal at the point of purchase and further expand the potential market. more profitable marketing practices are developed. on the other hand. from clothing to entertainment. image is unimportant to the consumer. By designing consumer goods in various models. This is called industrial marketing. When deciding questions of diversification and simplification. at some point. sizes. A style may or may not be a fashion at any given time: it becomes a fashion only when widely accepted. consider the breadth of their product line—how many different items to offer. it is important to focus a marketing strategy on target customers. While marketers are not directly involved in production activities. They will. For this reason. Sometimes the marketer's job is almost entirely to gauge fashion trends. Many businesses have developed methods for scrutinizing the trends of sales in their special fields. and declines when it is abandoned by its following. businesses also market industrial goods and services to other businesses. try to influence public taste. Maintaining quality in a product adds to the cost of production and to final price. Educated consumers consider more than comparative prices. In the United States. more homogeneous segments. Marketing managers must. More dollars are actually involved in sales to industrial buyers than to consumers.watch. marketers must also look at the potential size of a market. are highly visible prestige items. at best. A fashion has its beginning when a few people are influenced by it. All these elements influence the breadth of the product line. One of the vital factors in merchandising is the ability to cope with fashion. and at the resources available. at the financial position and practices of their firm. Target marketers believe that in most product areas the market is composed of widely dissimilar submarkets. so salt comes in limited types and packages. This element is basic to all kinds of products and services. they do receive the feedback on product acceptance. Regardless of the type of good. more than $1 trillion of such income is generated annually. In addition to marketing "finished" goods to consumers. better oriented. most automobile manufacturers offer a wide choice of models and options. difficult to predict. Quality is a judgment made by both manufacturers and customers. culminates when large numbers follow it. Fashion designers. 21 . however. and classes.
toilet paper— under one recognizable brand name. The opposite policy is that of family branding. A magazine publisher may wish to position a publication so as to challenge the leader in a given market. Changes in format. the result is also to appeal to a market which is more affluent and more qualityconscious. is such an example. marketing managers position their products with respect to the competition. so that elegant department stores such as Bloomingdales do it as well as supermarkets like the A&P. the price will be raised. Ideally. A paper products company may market all its products—tissues. emphasis. Branding is commonly used by marketers to influence consumers' perceptions and is closely related to the issue of positioning. this occurs when consumers are so satisfied with the merchandise that they note and remember the brand. The marketer hopes for sales stability due to consumer loyalty to the brand. These dealers don't actually produce the goods. dish detergent. and scouring powder will all be labeled with different brand names. In addition to positioning with respect to consumer segments.An item such as deodorant may be introduced specifically as a men's or women's product. have been branding products. while others carry a combination of manufacturer's brands and their own. are trademarks. and their legal protection to assure exclusivity. they arrange to sell manufacturers' products under their private brand. in this example. Through constant use on packages and in advertising. napkins. Inc. or editorial policy can appeal to the same consumer interests that buy the leader If. When a manufacturer sells more than one product. but later may be repositioned as a family product. Another aspect of product policy. In recent years distributors. many trademarks have almost eclipsed the name of the manufacturer. wellestablished trademarks have a large cash value. like department stores and supermarkets. there is a brand choice issue.. deals with brands. Vaseline. A firm which merchandises many types of soap may choose individual brands for each of its products. This practice has grown tremendously." 22 . The hand soap. particularly relevant to consumer goods marketers. clothes detergent. towels. Many people refer to any petroleum jelly as "Vaseline. Because of their importance as short cuts to the customer's memory. and sometimes considered more important. some well-known trademarks have been valued at millions of dollars. It identifies merchandise and differentiates it from competing products. In mergers. the trademark for the petroleum jelly produced by Chese-brough-Ponds. This process is known as trading up. Closely related to brand identification. particularly large ones. Some carry manufacturer's brands only.
What is the purpose of branding? A. B. 5. offering high-quality. The breadth of the product line of a company depends on: A. expensive goods to affluent markets. deciding questions on diversification and simplification. the entire merchandising process. What is trading up? A. 4. C. B. 6. the financial position only. B. The feedback on product acceptance is important for: A. to benefit both the manufacturer and the consumer. C. to satisfy consumers with attractive brand names. to make the company famous. the target market and the resources available. because they must offer their customers а variety of styles. to identify merchandize and differentiate it from other products. to function efficiently. the quality control. challenging the leader. The product is to be designed: A. 23 . positioning products with respect to the competition. C. Why is it the marketer’s job to gauge fashion trends? A. consumers to consider comparative prices B. because fashion is difficult to predict. 2. C. 3. B. to meet the requirements of the producers. C. C. B.B or C for 1 – 6 below 1.Comprehension Tick the correct answer A. because they have to cope with fashion.
моющее средство. готовый товар. e) to expand. d) recession. hard-pressed marketing directors in the food industry offered consumers more choice by adding new flavours. b) extension. модельеры. But some companies have___4___ into new and unexpected areas. During the__2_____. The indefinite infinitive (active and passive) expresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb. Its nominal character is manifested in the syntactic functions. затмевать. or moving from one____3____ and tested category to an allied one. отказываться от ч-л. Dunhill was the first___6____ the power of its brand name and has___7____ successfully a luxury goods empire. voice and aspect distinctions. the elastic can snap and the____8____ of the name becomes devalued as some companies have found to their cost. h) to build up Brand ___1____has become valuable in the past five years. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Grammar Revision: The Infinitive The Infinitive is a non-finite form of the verb that has a double nature. однородный. f)core value. For more info see § 4 of the Grammar Reference. пополнять.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Реагировать. c) tried. требовательный к качеству. характеристики. The Continuous Infinitive denotes a simultaneous action in progress. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb. a) to recognize. But if you stretch a brand too far. отождествление. Among them are tobacco companies – which by moving into sectors like luxury goods and closing keep their____5___ in the mind of the public despite stringent regulations on advertising. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive include tense. 24 . nominal and verbal. taking out fat or sugar. Change the form of the words where necessary. в отношении. оценивать. g) brand names. раскрученная торговая марка.
Вы думаете. Ваша фирма способна правильно оценить тенденции в моде? 2. Обратная связь – это информация. 2. Стратегия маркетинга часто сфокусирована на целевом покупателе. 7. 4. 6. To market a new product is not as easy as it may seem. идентифицирующий товар или услугу. 25 . They use the results to produce product that they hope will sell. 3. Модельеры часто стараются повлиять на вкус потребителя. отвечающих потребностям рынка. получаемая от потребителей через мониторинг данного товара. 8. создаваемого рекламой. 6. The product (to design) is to function efficiently. They happened at the moment to be packing the goods. либо посредством его основных характеристик. 3. The advertising campaign to be launched is under discussion now. Плановики производства пытаются определить будет ли спрос на новый товар и какие затраты энергии и средств потребуются компании. Размещение товара на рынке может происходить либо посредством имиджа. Исследование и разработка новых товаров требует больших вложений. 5. Questions of quality are carefully considered in the process of deciding what to buy and what to sell. 3. If a product is (to position) against a competitor. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the infinitive: 1. 5. Think of supplemental features which might be added to help a product appeal to a new market. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. символ или знак. 2. We intended to have signed the contract. 5. Жизненно важный фактор маркетинга – идти в ногу с модой. 4. 9. As we understood our competitors meant (to introduce) a new style but I don’t think they succeeded. They couldn’t (to launch) an entirely new model within such a short period of time. (To gauge) fashion trends correctly the marketer has to do a lot of market research. Торговая марка – это официально зарегистрированное название. 6. a lot of things should (to take) into consideration. 4. They were happy (to run) the company for 10 years so effectively.Exercise 3 Explain the functions of the infinitive in the following sentences: 1. 7.
use of proper equipment. letter. target market I. Если потребители данного рынка более требовательны к качеству товара. sales appeal C. то здесь возможно повышение цены за счет улучшения качества. or mark identifying a product or service 3. harmonious. quality B. or beautiful. 10. either through its basic characteristics or through the image created by its promotion 6. 13. and corrective action where required. маркетологи должны учитывать ряд проблем. A general course or prevailing tendency. feedback D. A name. shared by homogenous groups. term. The sense. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. word. 11. 12. the recognized direction of a style. 11. Those goods meant for use in producing other products 9.10. that which we deem to be tasteful or in good taste is perceived as superior. 26 . of what is fitting. trend H. consumer goods J. The population of customers to whom an organization directs its marketing strategy 5. Those qualities in a product or its presentation which interest potential customers and stimulate them to buy 8. The strategy of raising a product's price by improving its quality or image 4. он может присвоить индивидуальное наименование каждому из своих товаров или единое название для всей совокупности товаров. symbol. насыщенном рынке. Очень трудно быть конкурентноспособным на богатом. figure. Если производитель производит более одного вида товаров. sign. trading up F. quality control K. Items such as food and clothing produced for the final consumer. Чтобы принять решение по производству новых товаров. taste G. symbol. включая финансовое положение фирмы и наличие ресурсов. The manner in which a product is aimed at specific consumer segments or needs. The system of maintaining a desired level of quality in each item by careful planning. continuous inspection. or a combination of them which identifies the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers. Industrial goods A. 7. trademark E. The officially registered name. or design. 2.
18. 15. Give some other examples of this. 3. How does consumer perception of importance influence the extension of the product line? 12. it usually refers to superior attributes or excellence in a product or service. Name some types of goods and services which are affected by fashion trends. brand 13. Are they cheaper than manufacturer's brands of the same kind of product? Are they usually as well made? As well publicized? As tastefully packaged? 19. Give an example of this role. Give some examples of distributor's brands. in advertising. What is the relationship between manufacturers and consumers with regard to a product's quality. What is the role of marketing in relation to the utility. What uses do marketers make of the feedback they receive on a product's acceptance? 9. Give a specific example of a family brand and of individual brands. What are the advantages of broadening a product line? 11. Some marketers attempt to introduce a fashion or style. positioning L. Continuous data about a particular item or event for purposes of monitoring. Give an example of an auto or auto rental product which has been positioned against a competitor. What further additions might add sales appeal to the example you just chose? 4. What are the trademarks of some products marketed in your country? 21. What role does taste play in response to these attempts? Give some examples from your country 7. The character or nature of a particular thing. Discussion 1. Why is industrial marketing important? 13.12. think of supplemental features which might be added to help a product appeal to a wider market. What is the theory of target marketing? 10. 5. of a product? 2. 8. What is the major role of a product's trademark? 20. Why might a product be repositioned after it has been introduced onto the market? 16. What is the role of branding in marketing? 17. M. What questions do marketers ask when considering diversification and simplification? 14. 27 . or correcting errors. or usefulness. controlling. Vaseline is given as an example of a product whose trademark has almost eclipsed the name of its manufacturer. How does a new fashion come about? How does a particular fashion rise and fall in popularity? 6.
Think of your favorite restaurant. утонченность. list as many brands as you can think of. зд. candy. jewelry. стоимость справиться. gasoline. Why did you do both of these? C. Think of the packaging of the last kitchen product you purchased. then rejected. Does it offer a wide variety of meals or a limited menu? Why? Is it positioned against any other restaurants in the same neighborhood? Has it changed its image since it opened? Has the clientele remained the same? D. records). идти в ногу оценивать мода однородный разнообразие вызов богатый. List ten consumer goods which you regularly purchase (cigarettes. совладать. What was it about this item which most attracted you—which aspects of its sales appeal caused you to purchase it? B. Vocabulary sophistication to benefit to incorporate to supplement value to cope to gauge fashion homogeneous diversification challenge affluent quality-conscious differentiate detergent merger to eclipse 28 сложность. E. do you think it was adequate? How might it be improved. искушенность получать выгоду включать. Focus on a product which you yourself wear. entertainment. добавлять ценность. After each type of product. Think of a trend you once accepted. coffee. Was it functional? In what ways do you think it helped preserve and protect the product? Assuming that a lot of thought went into the package design. recreation. What is its basic utility? Does it have any supplemental features which persuaded you to buy it? Name them. You probably know many more brand names than you realize. изобильный требовательные к качеству отличаться моющее средство слияние затмевать .Review A. or means of transportation? How do fashion trends in these areas affect you? Think of a fashion trend in one of these areas which you consciously rejected. eat. соединять дополнять. What are some of the most widely known trademarks in your country? F. Do you usually adhere to a particular style of clothes. or use regularly. food.
and distribution of grain. CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION Special Terms Consumer outlet Channels of distribution Sales representatives Broker Sales territory Marketing mix Franchise Direct mail Discount house Patronage dividend Overhead торговая точка каналы сбыта торговые представители брокер торговая территория «маркетинг микс». By the second century. From the time of the Roman mercatus (Latin. совокупность затрат на маркетинг франшиза (право на торговлю под известной торговой маркой) почтовая рассылка рекламы магазин. for a public place where sellers and buyers meet). Ostia. the town market square has been an important center of commerce where direct transactions between producers and consumers take place. Today the trend in marketing food and other commodities is such that most of the preparation is handled in bulk by specialized agencies. one of Rome's ports. The opening of the sea routes between Europe and the East Indies stimulated marketing channels for sugar and other tropical goods. A growing proportion of the food consumers purchase today is ready to eat or has only to be heated. And by the fourteenth century. already had large consumer warehouses. In this type of locale. Longdistance marketing of textiles and other wares took place along the so-called silk road from China to the Middle East at centers like Samarkand. in the Upper Niger region. торгующий со скидкой патронажный дивиденд (выплачивается акционерам) накладные расходы Working on the text Read and translate the text Channels of Distribution As we have noted. was one of the world's busiest inland markets with its trans-Saharan caravan trade. oil. finding customers. and fish were common. Overseas purchases.UNIT FOUR. each producer accepts major responsibility for advertising. Timbuktu. and setting a price. bringing together the buyer and seller and facilitating their exchange is the essence of marketing. With the spread of trade. more and more specialized artisans were able to live without growing their own food. 29 . shipments.
so sellers frequently maintain more direct channels to those users than to the household consumer. Distribution channels are an integral part of a complex system that has evolved from cultural and social patterns in order to facilitate exchange transactions. the interaction of the component parts of the marketing mix is considered in selecting channels. or state of the economy. Just as the supplies or goods themselves differ in type. At one extreme is the policy of exclusive distribution. is that goods go from producers to intermediaries before they get to us. quantity. whether a wholesaler or a retailer. service is usually more important to the industrial product. Marketers must decide what methods are best for distributing their particular products. Policies are formulated not only as to the types of intermediaries. The product itself most often determines the places for and methods of distribution. The producers of industrial goods face similar decisions. There are three types of agents employed in marketing channels: 30 . climate.What this means in practical terms is that many foodstuffs. They are governed not only by economic and social restraints. Industrial marketing channels feature a large proportion of raw materials. Today. local customs. and agents who may supplement or benefit the other two. where one wholesale or retail intermediary is the sole outlet for the product or service in a given territory. there are fundamentally just three categories of channels: wholesalers. as well as other products. to jobbers. or to retailers through sales representatives. they may also choose intermediaries such as brokers or manufacturers' agents. the "rule-of-thumb. to the customers through sales agents. At the other extreme. sell to retailers. Consumer channels sell finished products. To the supplier of these goods. Distribution systems develop in such a way as to match the available supplies to the consumers' demands. They may sell directly to customers. directly to retailers. so do consumer demands. but frequently by legal and political ones as well. semi-finished products." or normal method. ball-point pen manufacturers use a policy of extensive distribution for the maximum number of outlets. finding the best channels of distribution is a key problem. If they decide to sell to the ultimate consumer through wholesalers who. fashion. Piano manufacturers typically issue franchises to one dealer in a specific region. retailers. Distributors must adapt the flow of their supplies to such variations. and quality. and component parts. Thus. Variations may occur according to season. They may even be marketed all over the world. pass through numerous channels before being sold at countless consumer outlets. To the merchant. in turn. Between these extremes are manufacturers who are variously selective in their channel choices While the entire complex of getting products to users may be complicated for some products or geographic areas. the decision as to what goods to select for resale is the key element of merchandising. Larger firms frequently use their own sales force working out of the main offices or branch offices located throughout the sales territory. but also as to their numbers.
or for firms entering a new geographic market. 31 . Regional considerations. for firms carrying products unrelated to their normal line. and home furnishings to ice cream. are actually consolidations of many specialty shops under one roof. metals. Should a manufacturer of skis sell through retail stores. coal. They call on grocery wholesalers for the manufacturers who are their clients and help them make inroads into broader markets. or a limited number of closely related lines. of merchandise. by direct mail. but may stock items in their own warehouses. They represent the entire line of a manufacturer and may render financial assistance to their principals. of course. what level or type of store: specialty shops. Brokers are essentially used to sell food products. These agents usually have no authority to set prices. 3. Manufacturers' agents may work for several different manufacturers and sell part or all of the producers' product line within a sales territory.1. This type of agent sells products like textiles. because of the many lines of goods they carry. The first decision in determining channels of distribution is the form it should take. books. department stores. and clothing. Skis will sell better in regions near the slopes than in those far away. Other considerations for specific products might include taste characteristics of the product. baked goods. These are the major types of retailing found. They generally work for small firms with no sales staff. questions of reliable or prestigious reputations and sufficient financial standing may enter into the decisions. play a role as well. around the world: Specialty stores usually sell a complete assortment of one line. they can usually fulfill any demand for their type of product. Department stores. proximity to associated types of goods and services. 2. in one form or another. Ranging from jewelry. discount houses. and electrical appliances. or both? If retail stores are chosen. lumber. sporting goods stores. Selling agents have the authority to negotiate prices and usually work without territorial limits. or a combination of these? Even within these types.
populardemand. They may carry specialized or diverse lines of products. marketing such items as groceries. Usually. and clothing. soft drinks. For the most part. and makes deliveries later. wholesalers buy from manufacturers and suppliers and resell to retailers. Direct retailing. and food preparation services. The overhead is small. Usually the sales representative carries a small stock or shows samples. and the consumer has the convenience of home shopping. standard-quality goods. five chain supermarkets sell 40 percent of all the food in the country. They are popular in rural areas. and books are vended in high-traffic areas. parcel post. gasoline. they dominate the market. The major types of chains specialize in groceries. in Canada. or house-to-house selling. Candy.Mail order houses are large operations selling a great range of merchandise directly to consumers by mail. cigarettes. Vending machines sell many types of small-sized. based on volume of purchases over a given period. They are practical where catalog printing. These mass distribution organizations save money for themselves and the consumer by buying and selling in large quantities. so the manufacturer does not need extensive storage 32 . and freight services are reliable and economical. notably household items and makeup. they extend credit and make deliveries. Consumers' cooperatives. In some product areas. owned and operated by local groups of farmers or other consumers. Chain stores are a group of stores under the same management. makes up a large part of the retail business in certain products. are also called "co-ops”. takes orders. without a personal sales force. drugs. Merchant wholesalers maintain warehouses. low-cost. auto supplies. animal food. Their chief attraction to consumers is the patronage dividend.
who never takes possession of merchandise. Some have a limited geographic range or sell to a few large customers. In addition to maintaining a sales force. or to final industrial or household consumers. To find the best channels of distribution. C. What is the trend in marketing commodities today? A. C. A drop-shipper is: A. They are able to sell to other wholesalers. They operate entirely from the factory or central office. C. The products are sold directly by manufacturers through numerous consumer outlets. The commodities are marketed all over the world by producers themselves. An intermediary who doesn’t invest in goods. C. B. Manufacturers' branch offices also function as wholesalers. Wholesale business. The entire complex of getting products to users. to retailers. A company who ship the goods. Using a sole outlet in a given territory. A house-to-house selling is a kind of: A. What goods to select for resale. but merely takes orders which the producer or supplier fills directly to the customer. C. B or C for 1-5 below 1. A wholesaler who buys merchandise. Retail business. Business-to-business selling. To the supplier the main problem to be solved is: A. To supply the market by all means.facilities. B. B. B. 33 . Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. 5. they are able to regroup different types of goods into acceptable lots and screen the goods presented by the manufacturers. Selling product in a maximum number of outlets. 2. 3. Cash-and-carry wholesalers require customers to transport their own goods and to pay for them in cash. Another type of wholesaler is the drop shipper. The goods are marketed through intermediaries. The policy of extensive distribution means: A. 4. B.
накладные расходы. близость. закупка. e)marketing mix. object. крайность. d)promotion. when. price and ___4_____ . and to whom it is to be sold: for example on its design. It can be rendered into Russian either by noun or by verb. торговый автомат.____7____. j)wholesalers. The verbal characteristics of the gerund include tense and voice distinctions. Having nominal characteristics. For more info see § 5 of the Grammar Reference. сеть магазинов. include personal selling. i)purchase. h)warehousing. 34 . b)advertising. полуфабрикат. The ____5_____ that customers pay for products influences the product’s image and the likelihood of ___6______. полномочие. People and organizations make___3______ as to how.___8_____ refers to where the product is made available to market members. оказывать финансовую помощь. g)place. неотъемлемая часть. специализированные магазины. the gerund can perform the function of subject. publicity. прямые продажи. designed to persuade the customers to buy the product. поставщик. Promotion programs.___2____. place. ограничение. price. f)channels of distribution. каналы сбыта. what to sell. The_____1____ is often summarized as the so called four Ps: product. It covers two areas: channels of distribution such as ____9_____ or retailers and physical distribution such as transportation. морские пути. to whom. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Change the form of the words where necessary. товары – почтой.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Cуть. where. конечный потребитель. Grammar Revision: the Gerund The Gerund (verb + ing ) is a non-finite form of the verb that combines nominal and verbal properties. склад. and sales promotion. a)price. обрабатывать в больших объемах. and with what support. and predicative. ____10______and inventory control facilities. c)decisions .
It’s no use (to advertise) these wares: their life cycle is coming to the end. а также путем рассылки рекламы по почте. 3. Brokers help manufacturers (to make) inroads into broader markets. амортизация. 7. 2. 2. 5. 3. Существует пять основных каналов сбыта: от производителя к потребителю (от двери до двери). электричество и др. and setting a price. Finding the best channels of distribution is a key problem. Совокупность затрат на маркетинг включает в себя стоимость всей программы стимулирования продаж. They launched the product without (to do) the necessary research. Their company had difficulty in (to find) a ship dropper. 6. 4. 4. The essential job of a marketer is looking for target customers.это оперативные издержки ведения бизнеса. 8. 5. Магазины.Exercise 3 Explain the functions of the gerund in the following sentences: 1. такие как: арендная плата. 9. The clients threatened (to go) to a different company. через оптовика и розничного торговца или при помощи дистрибьютера. The warehouses need (to attend to) no doubt. Each producer accepts major responsibility for advertising. They refused (to reduce) the share of semi-finished goods in their export. 3. 4. finding customers. Before being sold at countless consumer outlets many goods pass through numerous channels. The problem of selecting channels is considered in relation to the interaction of the components of the marketing mix. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. 6. This job involves analyzing our sales figures. налоги. The chain stores you are talking about are not worth (to buy). Vending machines are good for ( to sell) small inexpensive standard quality items. 2. 35 . Exercise 4 Use either the Gerund or the Infinitive in the following sentences: 1. Накладные расходы . продающие товары со скидкой пользуются большой популярностью.
position. such as a store. 36 . services. or an open-air stall 2) Franchise B. including rent. Если Вы не любите ходить по магазинам. a merchant. Ваша фирма пользуется адресной рекламой? 8. 7) Sales territory G. The structure of internal and external agents. and brokers. taxes. The permission granted by a manufacturer to a distributor or retailer to sell its products. on a commission or fee basis. 5) Channels of E. 7. without owning the goods. wholesale and retail. The value of all of a firm's input into a program for stimulating sales: products. Для оптовика или розничного торговца ключевым моментом торговли является решение.5. Торговой точкой называется любой рынок. An agent who buys or sells for someone else. какой товар выбрать для перепродажи. продающими товары почтой. insurance. Франшиза – это право продавать товар или вести бизнес по установленному образцу на определенной торговой территории. 8) Consumer outlet H. direct selling. Those people who represent a company and sell to retailers 4) Overhead D. usually confined to a specific sales territory. The operating expenses of running a business. electricity. где покупатель может приобрести товар. Услугами брокеров обычно пользуются для продажи продуктов питания. Any specific market where consumers buy goods. and all the channels of distribution. an agency. 9) Discount house I. A sum of money paid to shareholders or members of a cooperative enterprise out of its earnings. The advertising matter mailed to large numbers of potential customers. prices. sales promotion. A defined region in which a representative or distribution agent can sell a product or service 6) Patronage dividend F. A retail store that cuts prices for customers. то Вы можете воспользоваться магазинами. 11) Direct mail K. 6. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1) Marketing mix A. 10. who in representative turn pay cash and take care of any servicing or repair problems themselves. 9. and depreciation but excluding labor and materials. dealers. through which a commodity product or service is marketed 3) Direct mail C. 10) Sales J. advertising.
How might variations in consumer demands affect distribution of goods? 6. Name some of the earliest large marketing centers of times past. Where are vending machines found? What do they sell? 18. What are cash-and-carry wholesalers? Writing a composition Describe the roles of the various types of agents employed in marketing channels. What are some considerations in determining channels of distribution? 12. How is a selling agent different from a manufacturer's agent in terms of price negotiations? In what areas are selling agents prominent? 11. 4. or door-to-door selling? 17. What is the difference between a merchant wholesaler and a drop shipper? What are some ways in which the former helps manufacturers? 19. What are the major methods or channels of distribution open to producers. In what areas do brokers usually work? How do they do their jobs? 10. What use might munitions manufacturers make of agents? 37 . 8. give examples. Are there any advantages of house-to-house. How do mail order houses operate? Where are they practical? 15. Why are certain establishments known as specialty stores? 13. What is the difference between the policy of exclusive distribution and the policy of extensive distribution. and point out differences in the channels of distribution.Discussion 1. How does a department store resemble a specialty shop? 14. 2. What are co-ops? What types of products do they generally merchandise? 16. Why must the marketing mix be considered in the process of selecting channels of distribution? 7. What is the job of a manufacturer's agent? What types of businesses do these agents represent? 9. What is the most important element of merchandising to the merchant? To the supplier? 5. 3. Use your imagination to briefly trace the route of a bolt of cotton print from the textile factory to your closet. Refer to the chart diagramming the flow of goods to consumers.
Vocabulary channels of distribution locale to set a price spread to handle in bulk rule-of-thumb ultimate extreme extensive supplement to render assistance proximity specialty mail order houses chain stores vending machines munitions каналы сбыта место действия устанавливать цену распространение. разница между себестоимостью и продажной ценой обрабатывать большими объемами. продающие товары почтой сеть однотипных магазинов торговый автомат военное снаряжение ) 38 . протяжение. основное правило конечный крайность обширный. большой. кустарный способ. в большом количестве приближенный подсчет. экстенсивный дополнять оказывать помощь близость специализированный магазины.
Even before goods reach the market. buyers and sellers are generally not too far apart in their ideas of what prices should be. In any particular region at a particular time. If sellers cannot find buyers. or normal price. similar goods tend to have the same market price because the costs of producing and marketing them tend to be similar. в убыток) ценовая война Working on the text Read and translate the text Pricing What is given in exchange for a product or service is its price. they will cut prices. According to the law of supply and demand. This awareness produces a "normal price" with little variation. PRICING Special Terms Equilibrium Price control Oligopoly Monopoly Maximization of profits Price fixing Target return Elastic Boycott Fixed cost Break-even point Mark-up Turnover Loss leader Price war равновесие контроль за ценами олигополия монополия максимизация прибыли фиксирование цены запланированная прибыль эластичный бойкот фиксированные издержки точка самоокупаемости наценка товарооборот приманка (товар.UNIT FIVE. They are aware of the range of prices in the past and have a notion of what they will be in the future. Malthus. The meeting of those who supply or sell with those who demand or buy is how market prices are determined. In the process of this exchange. based on producers’ costs sad consumers’ needs. Thus any variation from the equilibrium 39 . In other words. the seller or producer and the buyer or user agree on the price. the willingness of buyers to buy and of sellers to sell generally reveals some price at which the two activities intersect to create the equilibrium. for each commodity some price must exist that will cause its supply and demand to be equal. formulated by the British economist Thomas R. This average norm is the price toward which market prices theoretically move. Buyers who are looking for sellers will offer to pay higher prices. продающийся по заниженной цене.
A less-than-perfect competitive market occurs when the number of producers is so small that the output of any one of them can cause a change in price. However. quite common. These price maintenance procedures are regulated by law in most countries. In an abnormal atmosphere. the amount offered by any one of them has little or no effect on the market price. This competition. so prices cannot be too high unless there is a unique feature or quality. Even though price fixing is illegal. The effect of supply on price depends on the number and size of the suppliers. it is relatively easy to do and. producers or distributors of certain goods want to protect the retail sales of their products against price cutting. Usually these measures involve well-known brands or trademarked goods. This increases profitability." The only differences permitted must be based on cost differences or the need to meet competition. 40 . price policy has no role and individuals do not put prices on their products. the Robinson-Patman Act of 1936 makes any price discrimination illegal. the noticeably large profit will encourage others to enter the market. the equilibrium will still be reached. but in an altered. with the complex issues of unemployment. Speculation and price controls are inhibiting factors to this natural process. At least. by printing the price on the package or announcing the price through advertising. in extreme cases. This condition allows for a stable. If they establish a fixed price among themselves. They set a price below which their product cannot be sold.price seems to automatically correct itself by market forces which push toward the norm. the international balance of trade. such as war or famine. In the strict theory of competition. they can be fined or. If it goes too high. or oligopoly. this is the theory. prices may vary widely in spite of the number of producers. Prices are assumed to be determined by that automatic mechanism which adjusts prices to bring supply and demand into equilibrium. When a few large producers furnish the entire supply of a given product monopoly exists. Monopolists often set different prices for markets separated by distance and in those markets which are least responsive to price change. The price is kept stable— and usually low—by the availability of the product. that is selling the same goods to different buyers at different prices. Where a single producer has the entire market. When there are many suppliers of a standard product. closed down. controlled form. Price policy is therefore associated with imperfect competition since marketing-conscious producers will set prices at the lowest unit cost of the most efficient production method to insure the widest market. therefore. There must be "like price for like quality and quantity. and national priorities. In some cases. allows producers to set prices higher than they could in a more competitive market. the price of a product can be high. The producers must still contend with some competition. competitive market. When goods are considered in the aggregate. however.
The marketing manager has to decide whether to maximize profits or establish a target return. The marketing manager knows that the costs of the separate elements of the marketing mix can be recovered by proper pricing. The marketing manager must analyze and reconcile the various elements of those variables which influence price. Disposing of goods at reduced prices draws attention to the specific brand. On the other hand.Price. and marketers have little discretionary power to influence prices. Where there are many competitors offering the same type of product. A particular target might be a certain percentage return on sales or a certain percentage return on investment or. there are many areas which are not so important. the distribution expenses. and promotion. the demand is said to be highly elastic. influences may cause fluctuation. so that elasticity of demand for a product may be greater over a longer time period. With any objective. and profit — are all directly related to price. profit objectives will guide pricing decisions. or no expansion of demand? When demand increases significantly as prices are lowered. in the hope that customers will continue to buy when prices return to "normal. This price sensitivity or insensitivity is influenced by various factors. The cost of the product itself—the promotion and selling associated with it.i e. the time factor is crucial. it is said to be inelastic. rice to the Japanese cook or gas to the taxi driver Where this is true. Even in service areas such as passenger fares and freight rates." Another key input variable in making pricing decisions is industry demand. the return might be a fixed dollar amount of profit to cover overhead and living expenses. such as an extended vacation at the beach or a night at the 41 . if demand is little affected by price. as prices rise. Thus price knits together the elements of the marketing mix and pays for their respective contributions. are the variables that the marketing manager controls. the industry demand will be insensitive. What is an appropriate objective for the short-term may not be for the long-term and vice-versa. If the average price of a product is reduced. Naturally. price competition will be active. modest. Marketers are concerned with all the factors affecting price. consumers will be forced to pay more. will there be large. It is in this circumstance that marketers and merchants alike look to sales techniques. The most fundamental part of any marketing analysis is the recognition of the competitive structure of the industry. Then differentiation becomes difficult. where detailed prices are printed and distributed. place. making precise forecasting of the impact of price changes difficult Occasionally. When there are great numbers of similar offerings. along with product. and must then decide on an optimal price policy. for a small family operation. consumer response occurs after a time lag. products tend to lose their individuality. Certain products are important to consumers because they are necessities. Pricing is extremely important since it so directly affects an organization's sales and profits. in order to keep their products from faring poorly in a widely variable atmosphere.
to stay in business. marketing managers must take into account the goals. no matter why they had risen originally. Smaller firms may decide that the best pricing strategy is to stay close to the big competition. the "average" cost. Therefore. so a price rise or dip may not affect sales as much as a similar rise or dip in the cost of a color television set. is typical in business. may vary with the quantity purchased. For the producer. Marketers separate these costs into those which are fixed and those which are variable. Cost of production is one of the several inputs into the pricing decision. Retailers mark-up their prices enough to cover their buying prices and overhead and make a profit at the same time. they must ultimately become part of the total marketing mix. or even leadership.opera. it is unlikely that the beef industry will stimulate demand further by lowering the price. The income level of the current customer is also a factor. There have been rare cases where consumers boycotted items in such numbers that they forced prices down. This is why large scale production and distribution are potentially more profitable. Whether the pricing policies involve active or passive roles. Ultimately. Average-cost pricing. and subsequently the price. and price reductions would reasonably accelerate sales. The data is then used to compute various break-even points at various price assumptions. The same type of projection may be used to compute projected earnings at given sales levels. hoping not to suffer a price war retaliation. These less important items may be highly sensitive to price. which consists or adding a "reasonable" mark-up to the average cost of an item. what to discount. short-range tactics or long-range strategy. retailers must continually decide when to cut prices. A particular level of profit may be built into the calculation as another fixed cost to be recovered. Some products have a derived demand. profits must keep pace with sales. Break-even calculations provide a measure of the minimum sales required to avoid losing money. If Argentinians are already eating all the beef they want. positions. industries which use it may substitute a plastic substance. in the market. If the cost of zinc rises. On the other hand. Finally. and which items to market as loss leaders. Large companies with large financial resources may absorb short-term losses in order to ultimately gain a secure position. In an effort to keep goods moving and insure profits. the demand for coffee in many countries seems far from satiated. 42 . there is danger of losing customers if prices rise too much. Other factors affect industry demand and elasticity. Finally. such as the need for tourist hotels only where there are sufficient numbers of tourists to warrant them. Private planes are affordable only by the very rich. but not so high as to prevent sales and a turnover of merchandise. there is the perceived saturation of need for a product. and resources of their own firms. Whenever substitute products are available. costs do drop steadily as the quantity produced increases.
C. C. C. When they dispose of the goods at reduced prices. C. A large number of potential buyers. The inability of sellers to find buyers. Because it wants to protect the price from reduction. 3. vary. 4. B. Mathematically. The maximum costs of production. 43 . The equilibrium price is created by: A. B. 5. The supply that corresponds to the demand. The minimum costs of production. plus other factors are all dynamic. It makes people pay different price for the same product. Pricing is not a one time decision. C. The minimum profit required not to lose money. When the demand is elastic. Why is price discrimination illegal? A. the pressures of inflation—these and many other factors demand continuing attention to pricing. The cost of raw materials and labor. When products lose their individuality and differentiation becomes difficult. B or C for 1-6 below 1. C. When consumers are forced to pay more. It sets like price for like quality and quantity. changes in a product's cost structure. and unstable. 2. There is only one producer who supplies the entire market. When it fails to respond to price changes. B. B. B. ever-changing. The number of producers is small. consumer demand.How can the best prices for a company's products be established? There is no current technique available for setting prices at an optimal level. B. it would be possible to choose the best price for a single product if all the variable factors were known. When do marketers start looking for new selling techniques? A. When demand decreases as prices are raised. But that wishful thought is a contradiction in terms: variable factors. by definition. Break-even point is calculated to show: A. 6. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. Changes in the competitive environment. A stable and competitive market exists when: A. When is the demand said to be highly elastic? A. There are many suppliers of a standard product.
средняя стоимость.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Спрос и предложение. be persuaded to buy profitable ones. d) price maintenance. 8. диапазон цен. One of the purposes of a __10______ is to force prices down. f)discount. Grammar Revision: Complex Subject Complex Subject is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. Technically. A retailer who buys an item for $10 and sells it for $15 has a 33% ____7___. с другой стороны. a ___1_____ is a profitable product or business with high market share in a low-growth market. насыщение потребности. в крайнем случае. рассматривать в совокупности. i)cash cow. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. реагирующий на изменение цены. c) boycott. It is usually used after a limited number of words denoting sense perception. mental activity. пересекаться. e) breaks even. ценовая политика. 3. 1. it is hoped. A firm that ____9___ neither earns nor loses money. привести в равновесие. All of the contributions to the ____5_____ can be recovered by proper pricing. A ___8____ is frequently given to quantity purchasers. 9.A ____6_____ is a product sold unprofitably in order to attract customers who will then. 6. and some others in the Passive Voice. 2. h)loss leader. j)sales revenues. 5. b) inelastic.7. Some producers protect their goods from undercutting prices by ____4_____procedures. g)marketing mix. For more info see §6 of the Grammar Reference. Change the form of the words where necessary. 44 . a)Mark-up. процедуры поддержания цен. Price policy is usually associated with ___3_____ competition. вызывать колебания. but it is also used to mean any profitable product or business generating a steady flow of _____2_____. 4.
Цены регулируются автоматически и приводят спрос и предложение в равновесие. 8. They are certain. Необходимо рассматривать все условия в совокупности.к. 3. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. их могут оштрафовать или даже закрыть. 2. 7. 3. 3. Prices are assumed to be determined by that automatic mechanism which adjusts prices to bring demand and supply into equilibrium. It turned out that some boxes were damaged. 5. когда несколько крупных производителей полностью обеспечивают рынок данным товаром. Монополия существует.Exercise 3 Find the Complex Subject in the following sentences and translate them into Russian: 1. ни убытков. 4. 2. Во время войны или голода цены могут сильно варьироваться. They are sure to start price war. Если несколько производителей устанавливают между собой фиксированные цены. Any variation from equilibrium price seems to automatically correct itself. 4. We expect that their company will sign the contract tomorrow. это считается незаконным. 6. 2. They are reported to be priced out of the market. 45 . The manager believes that a new price list has already been made. They say the demand for this merchandise is inelastic. It seems to us that the goods were not in proper condition. Если у покупателя есть желание купить какой-то товар. that he will enter their market. Exercise 4 Rewrite the sentences using the Complex Subject: 1. 6. The idea of a good public image seems to be growing in importance. 5. Точка самоокупаемости – это такая точка. несмотря на число производителей. 5. especially for large companies. то он готов заплатить любую цену. The demand is said to be highly elastic. Маркетологам необходимо решить максимизировать ли прибыль или установить запланированный доход. на которой после уплаты всех налогов нет ни прибыли. 4. т. 6.
The market condition that exists when there are few sellers. change in direct proportion to changes in output and demand. 9. Equilibrium F. to charge prices as high as the market will bear. Target return B. 8. 2. The intensive competition. particularly among retailers in which prices are repeatedly cut to undersell competitors or force them out of business 46 . Fixed cost 12. Розничные торговцы делают наценку. such as an increase in demand as a result of a decrease in price L. or dealing with. Break-even E. This creates a high degree of interdependence among the existing firms. Responsive to change. Failure to respond to change 11. or at least a control broad enough so that price manipulation is possible. Costs such as labor and supplies. A pricing objective which seeks to make as much profit as possible. using. Vocabulary test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Loss leader J. чтобы покрыть накладные расходы и получить прибыль. A pricing objective which sets a specific financial yield goal. 10.9. To abstain from buying. Boycott G. 6. Price fixing: H. as a means of coercion or protest. 7. Mark-up 14. Elastic D. An article sold at cost or at a loss for the purpose of attracting trade. 5. На этом рынке существует ощутимое насыщение потребности в данном товаре. Maximization A. Competitors establishing the same prices at above market prices M. Oligopoly K. The amount added to the costs of goods by a seller when figuring the selling price. 3. 10. The state of balance due to the equal weight of of profits opposing forces or influences. The establishment of prices at a determined level by a government or by mutual consent among producers products. 4. N. Cash cow 13. Monopoly C. The exclusive control of a commodity or service in point a particular market. Price control I.
What is the Robinson-Patman Act? 8. 4. Define price. Why is large scale production and distribution potentially more profitable than small scale? 17. The cost of gasoline doubles in one month. What does the consideration of industry demand involve? Why do producers look to potential elasticity of demand? 13. In an oligopolistic situation. A profitable product or business Discussion 1. Price war 18. Inelastic 16. A cost which remains relatively unaffected by changes in the quantity or volume of sales. Variable costs 17. How does the income level of a market reflect its probable reaction to price change in a certain product area? 15. 47 . Briefly analyze and describe what you think might result from the following situations. In business. How is it determined? 2. The price of a luxury yacht rises 5 percent. A large wealthy firm cuts its prices so low that smaller firms cannot meet them. 3. Why do variations from the equilibrium tend to automatically correct themselves? What are some possible inhibiting factors to this theory? 5. Severe weather disrupts half the world's tea production. Why are break-even calculations used by pricing policymakers? How are they used? 16. Explain why marketing managers must take into account the goals and resources of their own organization. In what situation is price competition most fierce? 12. such as rent and insurance S. how is the optimal price of a product or service set? 11. Turnover O. What is the Malthusian theory of supply and demand as it relates to price? 4. Generally.15. An optician opens a shop next door to an eye clinic. How does the marketing mix figure into pricing policy decisions? 10. The rate at which goods are sold and restocked Q. How does consumer perception of a product's importance affect its demand and price sensitivity? 14. Why will a standard product in a competitive market situation usually maintain a stable price? 6. after expenses are paid. the point at which. how can prices be changed or controlled? 7. there is neither profit nor loss P. 5. 2. 1. Why do similar goods tend to have similar prices at a given time and place? 3. What are the variables the marketing manager controls? 9.
to reconcile 13. присвоение. пресыщенный идти в ногу возмездие. to keep pace with 18. осознавать. отплата. Supply 2. принятие на себя снабжать быть. average 5. saturation 16. contend (with) 9. famine 8. inhibiting inhibition 6.Vocabulary 1. derived 14. торможение в совокупности голод соперничать предполагать. to be aware awareness 4. сознание средний сдерживающий сдерживание. assume assumption 10. retaliation предложение спрос знать. принимать на себя. притворяться предположение. demand 3. случаться примирять. to warrant 15. существовать. воздаяние 48 . in the aggregate 7. furnish 11. satiated 17. улаживать производный гарантировать насыщение насыщенный. сознавать осознание. to fare 12.
habits. the communicators shape tastes. In many cases. methods. marketers carefully analyze the means. расклад товара известность. and customs. and information to be disseminated. it may describe the new features. and how large should the overall communications budget be? How much of the communications burden should 49 . в разнос рекламирование средства массовой информации лозунг. uses.UNIT SIX. девиз навязчиво рекламировать товар рекламная заставка рекомендация. It may take the form of the simple announcement of what is on the market and how it may be obtained. At which consumer groups should the communication be directed? What kinds of information do these groups seek? What are the specific objectives of the communication? How much will it cost. it may announce new products. Since the goal of this communication is to stimulate sales. there must be communication. свидетельство витрина. реклама связи с общественностью образец премия сделанный на заказ презентация взятка «откат» ( взятка в виде доли от предполагаемой прибыли) попытка продать товар или услугу незаинтересованному покупателю потенциальный покупатель подробное предложение итог Working on the text Read and translate the text Communication: Promotion and Selling If marketers are to persuade consumers to buy their products. COMMUNICATION: PROMOTION & SELLING Special Terms Promotion Hawk Advertising Media Slogan Hype Spot Testimonial Display Publicity Public relations Sample Premium Custom-made Detail sales Bribe kickback Cold call: Lead Bid Bottom line продвижение торговать на улице. or improvements of familiar goods.
1704. Lately.be assumed by the manufacturer and how much by the channels of distribution? Promotion. When a product or service is infrequently used by consumers. in telling the target market about the "right" product. stirs up interest. shouters or "criers" have walked through villages. not a house in the mountains. and 3) short-term sales promotion. hawking their wares. but "the good life". a telephone directory ad can be highly 50 . Prehistoric traders must have "marketed" their goods by announcing publicly that they had surplus skins or food to trade. Whether they are on film. They frequently sell the benefits of products instead of the products themselves. These specialists have become invaluable to manufacturers for preparing and placing ads in the media. all advertisements have some features in common. Marketing managers must blend the methods of 1) face-to-face personal selling. have been used at least since the Babylonian era. To be effective. five thousand years ago. not fire insurance. The first advertising agency was founded in Philadelphia. and impels action. in the United States. or spoken. they must appeal to the consumers' self-interests. creates desire. or trademark is repeated again and again until it becomes part of our awareness and even of our vocabulary. a new type of marketing intermediary has evolved: the advertising agent. like pricing mentioned in the previous chapter. The first newspaper ad appeared in Germany in 1525. Highway and street billboards and cards in public conveyances reach commuters and travelers. Throughout history. but "knowledge". or outdoor advertising. the more we will remember it and the more of it we will buy. in print. announcing medicines for sale. The idea here is that if the public respects the institution or company. in 1841. or "your child's future". An ad does not sell encyclopedias. arouse their curiosity. During the 19th century. and catalogs. it will buy its products. oil companies have tried to improve their image by advertising the good they are doing for their community or nation. Handbills or fliers are often distributed in public places or door-to-door in selected neighborhoods. their standard rate is 15 percent of the cost billed by the medium to the advertiser. The first known paid ad in an American newspaper appeared in the Boston News Letter on May 8. Specialized products and services may be advertised in the so-called trade magazines which are editorially devoted to the interests of particular trades. professions. Most advertising is for branded products. Some advertisers believe that the more a product is hyped. and offer them news." A good ad attracts attention. The name. Specific markets can be reached by advertising in selected magazines and journals aimed at special-interest readers. is one of the strategic decision areas of marketing. slogan. in pictures. assures belief. Pictorial signs. newspapers. Many firms also advertise so as to establish a good reputation with the public. 2) mass selling to large numbers of customers at the same time. direct mail. Printed advertising may be found in magazines. The agencies earn most of their income from commissions. and businesses. but "protection for your family.
storage. In many countries. In addition to advertising the product. Public relations. short dramatized stories. Their other advantage is that people can be doing something else—like driving or ironing—while listening. In recent years. The display concept is also widely used in store windows to attract passing shoppers. and transportation. The idea of a good public image seems to be growing in importance. Packaging is another advertising tool. marketers always hope to get favorable publicity for their firms or products. or floor displays at the point of sale encourage shoppers to buy on the spur of the moment—to buy on impulse. such as conventions or trade shows. They should protect goods from spoilage or contamination. however. and testimonials. these short films are also shown in most houses before the main feature. They are especially valuable for items like heavy equipment. too. musical ads. packages have many purposes and goals. By putting forth a positive public image. At one time. Containers are often designed to make theft. These lists are rented or purchased from companies which compile them according to occupation. Frequently. animation. 51 . Radio ads cost less than TV ads. just as small merchants sponsor local civic events. or substitution difficult. especially for large companies. Industrial films are used at large gatherings of prospective buyers. shelf. spots use live action. the subject of packaging was treated as an incidental side issue of product policy and design. adulteration. The success of direct mail campaigns depends largely on the quality of the mailing list. An important factor for items sold through self-service stores is the package designed for point-of-purchase eye appeal. their disadvantage is that words have less impact than pictures. people will make positive comments to each other in their everyday conversations and thus publicize a service or product by word-of-mouth. and to ensure cleanliness. interest. or neighborhood. the potential for greater realization of profits exists. In addition to advertising. Counter. which cannot be easily displayed. or stop-motion techniques. income. manufacturers or wholesalers will supply retailers with window-display materials. Radio commercials include straight announcements. Some large firms sponsor cultural and humanitarian activities. Ranging in length from a few seconds to a full minute. National and international trade shows are excellent opportunities for identifying new product ideas and marketing trends. Ideally. They should be shaped to facilitate dispensing. Television ads or commercials are the most expensive because they reach the most people.effective. Displays at these shows are designed to attract customers by pleasing the eye. A popular example is the cereal box designed around cut-outs to attract children. age. handling. plays a role in bringing firms and their products to the attention of the customer. packaging has become an important factor in the marketing success of a product.
The Japanese. One form of this corrupt activity is the kickback. Japanese. and key rings may be given to customers to remind them of the advertisers' names. in which a portion of the sale price is given to the one who influenced the sale. This approach recognizes that business in that part of the world is highly personalized. Nevertheless. Keeping and managing a sales force is usually the most expensive persale form of communication. soaps and detergents. major British. Other techniques include distributing samples. and keeping merchants informed of promotional tactics and strategies. and cosmetics which are used by many different kinds of consumers. and American manufacturers are competing for a share of the expanding market. relying more on cultivation of individual customers and government officials than on media advertising and other sales techniques. effective. for example. Some salespeople use the cold call. cigarettes. owe recent marketing gains to their prompt. providing materials for window or counter displays. In this way. In the dental supplies and pharmaceutical industries. The key here is the personal touch. The most effective advertising reaches for particular market segments but it seldom tries to deal with the individual needs of particular consumers Personal selling is more appropriate for technically complex products—those available in a wide variety of styles and colors or custom-made. holding contests to stimulate interest in a product. after-sales services on vehicles and industrial products. such as a cup of coffee in Turkey. such as calendars. Demonstrations are also important in dealing with retailers. Certain products demand conventions which are separate from actual sales. match books. their own energy and ingenuity can supplement their incomes. Dealer or trade promotion includes instructing retailers in effective means of selling products. Sales promotions are built on a solid foundation of strong local representation and regular tours by home office executives. For this reason. while others rely on leads 52 . giving premiums tied to consumer purchases. for example. cars. Useful novelties. Generally. In the Middle East. and conducting point-of-sale demonstrations to help consumers select and use a product effectively. Some firms use bribes to make sales. non-prescription medicines.The concept of sales promotion covers various activities which link advertising and publicity with selling. Cultural patterns and customs may dictate that sales are to be accompanied by certain non-business activities. personal sales activities are necessary in many product and geographic areas. Many salespeople earn a commission or percentage of money on the amount they sell. in particular. some industrial goods manufacturers rely on catalog sales rather than on selling teams. and products. although the practice is unethical and usually illegal. advertising seems to be most effective for uncomplicated items such as alcoholic beverages. French. manufacturers rely on missionary or detail sales representatives to stimulate their products' sales. German. services.
B. to make people buy at least a sample. B or C for 1-5 below 1. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Простое объявление. they must be nice and pleasant. Clearly. method. technique. in 1525 in Germany. 2. B. for heavy equipments that is difficult to show in operation. or kind of material that can guarantee sales. they must arouse consumers’ curiosity. C. a lead will come in the form of a request for a bid so that prices and services can be compared by the prospective consumer. C. вызывать 53 . the seller-buyer relationship becomes social and personal. C. For those that are rarely used. Frequently. рекламное агентство. because the product itself is not available. формировать вкус. 5. B. in 1704 in America. What must all advertisement do if they are to be effective? A. продвижение продаж. to show the quality of a product.from the kinds of promotional activities described earlier. Where are films especially valuable for promotion? A. B. at large gatherings. C. выставлять счет. 4. B. for any type of goods. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. there is no formula. For the goods that are frequently used. 5000 years ago. What is the purpose of distributing samples of a product? A. 3. Often. Salespeople often stay closely in touch with their customers in order to service products and secure repeat sales. The bottom line measures the success or failure of promotion and selling efforts. наружная реклама. For what goods or services an ad in a telephone directory could be effective? A. they must be aggressive. When did advertising really start? A. in store windows. C.
2. d)advertising. 4.____7___ . 54 . f)samples. _____5____includes short-term. offer marketers many more___9_____ to achieve promotional goals in foreign than in domestic markets. ____8____. обеспечить повторные продажи. g)trade shows. листовки. e)publicity. They watched the commercial being shown on TV. 3. in particular. Participle I (verb + ing) and Participle II (verb+ed or the 3d form of irregular verbs) for more info see §7 of the Grammar Reference. contests. Significant opportunities for publicity involve portraying global firms as good citizens in host countries. permits individuals to obtain goods for which they pay over a period of time. несущественный. _____1____is short-term non-paid. фальсификация. список адресов. one-time incentives to distributors or customers designed to reinforce other components of the promotion and marketing mixes and ___6___ sales (coupons. Exercise 3 Find the Participle in the following sentences and determine its function. мгновенно. There are two participles in the English language. рекламный щит. animation. постоянный пассажир. non-personal ___2______about products and people in print or electronic media. Change the form of the words where necessary. In the Middle East major German. Japanese. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. общественный транспорт. 5. Grammar Revision: the Participle The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb that combines properties of a noun. Ranging in length from a few seconds to a full minute. in___4_____ new products. and in anticipating and countering criticism. проведение конкурсов. involving charge accounts and credit cards. spots use live action. b)sales promotion. British and American manufacturers are competing for a share of the expanding market. i)opportunities. h)stimulate. French. a)Introducing.любопытство. an adjective and an adverb. подмена. спонсировать местные городские мероприятия. games). Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. Throughout history shouters have walked through villages hawking their wares. Because it is presented in an editorial format. or stop-motion techniques. readers tend to perceive it as more believable than____3____. c)communication. Consumer credit.
Реклама. 4. 2. Наиболее эффективна реклама алкогольных напитков. вызывать его любопытство.6. Рекламные заставки. использующие мультипликацию. а рекламные щиты на дорогах привлекают внимание путешествующих. 55 . Чтобы реклама была эффективной она должна быть обращена к интересам потребителя. 6. 6. (To realize) what happened. The goods (to produce) by your company are in great demand. 5. 5. 3. направлена на постоянных пассажиров данного маршрута. мыла. громко предлагая свой товар. она должна предохранять товар от порчи и загрязнения. 4. Многие маркетологи полагают. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the Participle: 1. живое действие или стоп-кадр обычно показывают перед основным художественным фильмом. The car (to buy) by my friend is being largely advertised now. Итоговые цифры финансового отчета показывают количество прибыли и убытков. косметики т. эти товары используются разнообразными потребителями. 10. 9. Помимо того. 3. the firm decided to start a price war. что упаковка является еще одним средством рекламы. (To reach) specific markets by advertising. 7. Рекламные листовки часто раздают в общественных местах. While (to make) positive comments on the product people publicize it thus (to generate) favorable publicity. they decided to change their strategy.к. размещенная в общественном транспорте. что навязчивая реклама помогает лучше запомнить название товара и побуждает потребителя купить его. фальсификацию и подмену невозможными используются контейнеры. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. стиральных порошков. В давние времена зазывалы ходили по деревням. 8. The taste (to shape) now is the result of our hyping. 2. We saw the workmen scraping off billboard advertisements across the town. We’ve never heard them (to sell) anything on credit. Чтобы сделать кражу. 7.
those figures appearing in a company's financial statements which show the amount of profit or loss. Detail sales F) The aggregate of all mass communications: newspapers. Выслав нам образцы своих товаров. Bribe G) An attempt to sell a product or service to someone who has shown no intent to buy 8. and publicity. and supervise ads or ad campaigns E) The practice of calling public attention to a 5. An advertising H) A brief catch-phrase or motto adopted for agency advertising a product. 12. TV. 2. Media A) Any communication for purposes of selling a product or service. Потенциальный покупатель отличается от случайного тем. что он проявил заинтересованность в вашем товаре. 13. place. etc. design. Известность приобретается путем упоминания о компании в средствах массовой информации. что мы непременно разместим у них свой заказ. 3. Spot D) A company employed to plan. direct mail. а вознаграждение. как часть дохода от сделки. Publicity product or service by paid announcements. billboards.11. 56 . они ждут. Вы когда-нибудь давали взятку? – Не совсем взятку. magazines. including advertising. Hype B) The end result. or company. service. personal selling. usually in newspapers and magazines or on television or radio. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. radio. на благоприятный исход которой этот человек повлиял. а также посредством общения между людьми. 14. 9. 7. 6. Public relations I) A derogatory slang word meaning the overly persistent promotion of a product. Testimonial C) To peddle or offer for sale by calling aloud or going from door to door 4.
Where fliers can be used? 6. Bottom line 17. Give some examples of selling the benefits of a product or service rather than the products or services themselves. What are trade magazines? What is the special value of advertising in them? 57 . Lead 21. M) an expression of interest or intent from a prospective buyer N) Designed to specification for an individual customer O) Anything given or promised to induce someone to act dishonestly or to influence behavior. Promotion 22. and nature of the whole. Advertising 18. or a product L) Promotional presentation of drugs or medical supplies. What must all advertisements do if they are to be effective? 3. Display J) A brief announcement. How do your examples appeal to the emotions of the potential customers? 4. in store windows. Custom-made 14. V) A prize or bonus given as an inducement to purchase products or to use services. and at point-of-purchase counters. K) A written or spoken declaration from an individual certifying the value. Kickback 19.10. usually including specific details of a product or service. usually a radio or television advertisement or commercial during or after a program. or qualities of a person. intended to secure a sale Q) A portion of income given to a person who secretly influenced a financial transaction. T) The promotion of a good reputation with the public U) A specimen or part of a product used to show the quality. Bid 16. R) An arrangement of merchandise designed to induce sales. Sample 15. Slogan 12. Why do some firms try to advertise their reputations? 5. Hawk 20. excellence. P) An offer. What is the history of advertising? 2. an organization. Premium 13. usually seen at trade conventions. S) Public notice resulting from mention in the media and verbal communication among people. style. Discussion 1. Cold call 11.
Describe some ways in which package designs are used as advertising tools. You are working for an advertising agency which promotes a multivitamin for children. For what type of ad campaigns are mailing lists rented or purchased? How are the lists organized? 8. safer model of motorcycle. costly items (such as elevators or diamond-cutting tools) promote their wares? What are the limitations on advertising imposed by the nature of these products? C.7. How and where are demonstrations employed as sales promotional techniques? 15. samples. You have been assigned the task of designing a sales promotion campaign for a newer. In what way are TV ads more effective than printed ads? 9. Would you suggest TV or radio spots? Would you use novelties. With what type of product does general advertising seem to be most effective? With what type is personal selling more important? 16. Is there any advantage of radio commercials over TV ads? Name some kinds of radio ads. What kinds of communication might you choose? Where would you advertise? What part might salespeople play in your overall strategy? 58 . When might a sale be made on the basis of a bid? Is this method usually a competitive approach to trade? 17. 10. What type of printed advertising is most prevalent in our country? Which do you rely on most for commercial messages and communications? Write a composition on one of the following topics: A. List some sales promotional activities typically used by firms attempting to call attention to their products. Have you ever taken a course from a commercial language school? Why did you choose that particular school? What type of promotion does it rely on for the bulk of its enrollment? Were there any personal sales activities? D. or contests? How would you integrate advertising into the package design? B. How do manufacturers of highly specialized. 14. What is the importance of the bottom line? 19. 12. Why do marketers try to get favorable publicity for their products? 13. Where are films especially valuable for promotion? 11. What are repeat sales? How do salespeople go after them? 18.
раздача кража фальсификация. продвигать выставлять счет любопытство вызывать любопытство рекламный листок листовка рекламный щит соседство. рассеивать смешивать. добавлять 59 . присущий порча загрязнение. порча отправка. съезд. свойственный. развертываться побуждать. конвенция прилавок под влиянием момента случайный. район. подделка подмена. искусство пополнять. сборище. скопление собрание. замена городские мероприятия изобретательность. сочетать эволюционировать. соглашение. окрестности общественный транспорт постоянный пассажир список адресов арендовать стоп-кадр художественный фильм рекламная передача (на радио или телевидении) собрание. развиваться. несущественный. заражение.Vocabulary To disseminate To blend To evolve To impel To bill Curiosity To arouse curiosity Handbill Flier Billboard Neighborhood Public conveyances Commuter Mailing list To rent Stop-motion Main feature Commercial Gathering Convention Counter On the spur Incidental Spoilage Contamination Dispensing Theft Adulteration Substitution Civic events Ingenuity To supplement распространять.
In fact these beans have actually been "marketed" twice. planted them. Each marketer has financial dealings with suppliers and customers. tended the crop. it has passed through dozens of hands and machines. the canner is the new "maker" and the process starts all over again. Marketing encompassed all the activities that occurred in getting the green beans from the farmer to the cannery. инвентарная опись оборотный капитал распродажа остатков репутация. overor under-stocking costs money. престиж. cooked. Even the 60 . Government or industry regulations. The number of units produced. guarantee ) Working on the text Read and translate the text From Maker to User There are many stages in the marketing process.UNIT SEVEN. Now a new set of marketing activities exists—getting the can of beans from the maker to you. influence the finished product. «гудвил». stocked. gross profit) Charge account Сredit card Mortgage Warranty (син. and eaten. or generally accepted public standards. условная стоимость деловых контактов фирмы маржа. and sold affects each dealer along the way. FROM MAKER TO USER Special Terms Stock Streamline Assembly line Synthetic Analytic Lot Inventory Working capital Leftover sale Goodwill запас совершенствовать линия сборки синтетический аналитический партия опись. However. The farmer chose the seeds. Each marketer takes some risk with some degree of profit or loss. Before a can of green beans is opened. and had it graded. прибыль валовая прибыль кредитный счет кредитная карта ипотека гарантия Margin Gross margin (син. harvested and transported it. once additional processing of a product takes place—in this case the packaging of the fresh beans into canned beans—a new product is created.
Most retailers stock goods when they run low or when they feel confident enough to buy for the future. but have some degree of choice. All levels of buying new items depend on the initiative of a sales force. peanut butter. Grading makes the marketing system more efficient and. and ingredients for paint. changes the form of the raw materials. In some cases. Since the makers of most goods are separated from the users by long distances. Ore from mines becomes steel which becomes part of a telephone cable. Peanuts go through analytic processes to become cooking oil. the analytic process. Industrial supplies are often bought according to exact specifications.Large assembly operations usually have advantages over small or separate ones. as a result. Savings in cost and advantages in merchandising accrue to those enterprises which streamline their activities. Usually no one person participates in each of these activities or steps. mixes ingredients or assembles parts. Wholesalers and retailers have more latitude in buying their goods for resale. increases customer satisfaction by insuring standard quality. the synthetic process. Plastics are produced by mixing chemicals and typewriters are made by assembling ready-made parts. Another. How large an inventory to stock is a continuing problem. there are trade association agreements and government regulations to enforce quality standards and specifications. but there is usually an automatic reordering procedure for staples or repeat items. the intermediaries try to stay alert to trends in the public's buying habits and modify their own buying accordingly. The questions of when and how much to buy are linked to questions of storage. All businesses— even service-type establishments like shoe repair shops and veterinarians— buy supplies of one sort or another. Because consumers' tastes and needs change. Oil refineries separate the elements of crude oil to produce gasoline and petrochemicals. influences the wholesale and retail buyers. breaks down raw materials to produce an end result. these agencies are empowered to force changes in production operations or to recall goods from the market when tests show that they are below acceptable standards. but the final user is affected by all of them.consumer has a part in the overall process by judging the quality of the product. Some purchasing activities are so large or complex that they require specialists known as purchasing agents. Making products involves three types of processes. One. ideally. Each juncture in the marketing process involves some purchasing experience. A third process. They must stay within basic price and product lines. Most products undergo substantial changes before they are ready for the final user . The consumer has the broadest discretion in purchasing and. leaving little discretion as to what should be bought. it is impractical to think that every item or lot purchased can be individually inspected. Frequently government agencies "spot check" products at random to insure that standards are met. One of the most important streamlining activities for manufacturers is the assembly line. For this reason. 61 . conditioning.
But whether the means are horse and cart. On the other hand this ties up working capital. damaged by careless handling. Credit. is common at all levels of marketing. This question becomes particularly acute in product areas where the goods are perishable or short-lived due to fashion or season. Manufacturers need capital or credit while awaiting sale and payment. If goods are delivered late. most businesses and individuals rely on one or more of the forms of credit practiced throughout the world. or spoiled. Wholesalers and merchants try to keep an inventory large enough to satisfy normal customer needs promptly. Industrial and commercial products are moved on every kind of vehicle. But how much is enough? Since large orders usually involve quantity discounts and freight savings. Many traders keep extensive storage facilities so that they can control their sales flow. a motor freight carrier. Except in retail sales of portable goods. the seller has the responsibility for delivery. or a supersonic jet aircraft. Effective inventory control is needed in most phases of marketing to keep goods flowing at a rate appropriate to sales. All forms of credit are risky. Large-scale buyers frequently use many sources to avoid dependence on a single one. The reliability of the supplier may be more important than differences in price. In expectation of increased sales during an upcoming season. Financial hardships may befall businesses that operate on too much credit. The owner of the goods or service sacrifices the opportunity to use the invested capital for other purposes. The movement of products is an important problem to solve. shelves. Goodwill is invaluable in every phase of marketing.Processing plants hold reserve stocks of raw materials so that their machines and workers are not idled by delays in the arrival of new supplies. Understocking may mean lost sales opportunities. since all of the component parts require financing. the kind of transportation must be appropriate to protect the goods. hoping to repay it from sales. Whether the shipping or freight costs are charged to the buyer or absorbed by the seller. When goods are stored on counters. a ship. A public storage facility or warehouse is one which rents space for various kinds of goods. price fluctuations may result in a lower margin than expected. specialized transportation such as refrigerated vans is essential. or in the stockrooms of manufacturers. Wholesalers and retailers often borrow money to build up stock for a specific season. while overstocking forces leftover sales. who has the biggest interest in keeping costs down. a store owner may 62 . usually taken with an expectation of profit. Many small manufacturers and stores concentrate their purchases with a single supplier so as to take advantage of quantity discounts and personal service. it is the latter. All types of credit involve some degree of risk. In some cases. they are said to be in private storage. Nonetheless. which may result in loss of profit. Commercial credit is money used to carry on business or trade. and keeping large storage areas can be expensive. or deferred payment. there is an advantage in quantity buying. everyone involved loses money.
When business increases the money is repaid. When those with extra money do not care how much they pay for an item. is the black market. group. Through observation. Service is still an important part of marketing. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual. but of social significance in some areas. If a machine manufacturer wants to expand by building another factory. Investment credit allows a business to borrow money for capital goods. There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation. socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income). purchasing power. however. permits individuals to obtain goods for which they pay over a period of time. their stops at counters or shelves. or family about a purchase. size of market. This is a short-term loan. industrial activity. usually repaid in two to six months. a long-term loan may be necessary – a large sum to be repaid over several years. black markets spring up to serve them. governments set up systems of rationing so that everyone may receive a fair share of scarce goods at a legally stated price. and census data. frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers. A subject only peripherally related to marketing. Self-service sales methods for food and other consumer goods are increasing because of rising labor costs. these dealings are secretive. although it is diminishing in importance in some product areas. Anyone who sells or distributes goods or currency through illegal channels or in violation of ceiling prices is dealing in the black market. often involving charge accounts and credit cards. where available. customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket. Some products offer warranties or money-back guarantees to prove that the manufacturers stand behind their products. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region. In those rare instances when a single enterprise carries out all of the activities described. The special type of consumer credit used in buying buildings is a mortgage. intensive analysis. and many other details. it is said to have integrated all the marketing functions.) 63 . Those products which are perceived to be of higher importance. In times of crisis or as a necessary economic practice. Needless to say. etc. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like or dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government’s statistical analyses. The problems with total integration are so complex that even the most adventurous of firms usually achieve only partial integration. the service factor is all-important for effective functioning of the products and for future sales. and they frequently attract organized crime. still require sales and after sales attention and servicing. Consumer credit. In product areas such as farm equipment and sophisticated medical equipment. the extent to which they read labels.borrow money to modernize and redecorate the premises.
To analyze the traffic pattern of customers. What kind of credit is not risky? A. Because they keep extensive storage facilities. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves. Because industrial goods are often ordered according to exact specifications. When there exists scarcity of goods. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process it the input is to be useful to them. Because they must stay within basic price and product lines. 5. B. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it. since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research and how much to invest in it. When the demand for a certain product is low. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan’s feasibility. they are involved and concerned with it. 4. B. What does synthetic process involve? A. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates. C. 3. To provide marketers with the analyses of in-depth interviews. В. Mixing ingredients and combining parts. С. To determine purchasing power of the target market. C. When people don’t care how much to pay. C. Separating elements of some substance. Conditioning the material. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. B. 2. Neither. B or C for 1-5 below 1. When does the black market emerge? A. C. What for are the census data used? А. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. Why do wholesalers and retailers have more discretion in purchasing than industrial suppliers? A.Market research is not an element in the marketing mix but a tool used for decision-making about the mix’s elements. Long-term credit. Short-term credit. 64 . B.
The production of bacon from a hog is an example of _________ processing. основные средства.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Пройти через десятки рук. финансовые трудности. затаривание. Mixing ingredients or assembling parts is called a ________ type of process. нехватка товара. 8. 10. b)overstocking. to believe. k) grade. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. c)under-stocking. неосторожное обращение. Poultry inspectors examine chickens in order to __________ their quality. to think. to watch. a)Commercial. declaring: to declare. 2. to observe. to feel. per capita income of a target market is usually taken into account. колебания цен. Goodwill is usually a result of _________. покупательная способность. h)streamline. A closeout or leftover sale may be necessary due to __________. 3.When the price for _______goods is calculated. etc. f)synthetic. to see. 3. e)consumer. to expect. A department store owner preparing for a holiday season may require _______ credit.________ may result in lost opportunities. выборочно. to report. 9. Change the form of the words where necessary. перерабатывающий завод. данные переписи населения. собрать урожай. отсроченный платеж. A process called ________ changes the form of the raw materials. 65 . etc.5. дефицитный товар. d)good service and customer care. to notice. g)analytic. It is used after verbs denoting: 1. to consider. 7. sense perception: to hear. претерпевать изменения. доход на душу населения. оставаться начеку. 4. 2. 1. Grammar Revision: Complex Object The Objective-with-the infinitive is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. i)conditioning. стоимость труда. to pronounce. отзывать товар с рынка. mental activity: to know. организованная преступность. to find. 6. склад. взять деньги в долг. They are constantly ________ their advertising. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object.
в котором сам дом и является залогом под данный заем. Exercise 3 Find the Complex object in the following sentences. заботы о покупателе и конечно высокого качества товара. We would like to allow your company to pay back by installments. 5. We expected that our suppliers would give us a discount. to hate. The CEO ordered the goods to be ready for dispatch first thing in the morning. 4. 5. Хорошая репутация обычно является результатом хорошего обслуживания. Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. etc. to dislike. результатом которой может оказаться потеря прибыли. 7. 3. etc. Затоваривание на складе может привести к распродаже остатков. 5. to desire. I cannot get him sign the contract. I didn’t think that goodwill belonged to intangible assets. Exercise 4 Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Object: 1.4. to get. 3. 6. etc. to suffer. 2. The firm declared their goods to be environmentally friendly. 2. to mean. to intend. to cause. 2. They don’t know that our company gives life long guarantee. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. feeling and emotion: to like. 6. I haven’t heard their company penetrate foreign markets. 7. I haven’t heard the news that our competitors streamlined their assembly line. compulsion: to make. My boss intended me to go to India to expand our business there. The intention of the top management of our company is to penetrate new markets. 6. wish and intention: to want. to have. 4. I cannot bear them to take over our company. cannot bear. I saw that the secretary had brought the morning mail into the office. order and permission: to order. 66 . to allow. For more info see§8 of the Grammar Reference. Ипотека представляет собой особый вид кредита на покупку дома. to have. 3. We didn’t expect them to merge so soon. to wish. 7.
Если фирма желает взять деньги в долг на средства производства – мы имеем дело с инвестиционным кредитом. Margin 9. Synthetic 3. usually plastic. frequently held at the end of a fashion season or before spoilage. 7. machines. manmade E) a small. чтобы сделать запасы в ожидании грядущего сезона. piece of identification authorizing the holder to buy on credit F) separation of material into its constituent elements G) an arrangement in which purchases are billed and paid for after a customer receives them. Goodwill 5.Charge account 12.Streamline A) accumulated supply of goods. Installments 2.Stock 11. 67 . and often at no profit to the Seller N) a special type of consumer credit to buy buildings over a period of time It is a pledge of property to a creditor as a security against a debt. 8. Working capital 8.Gross profit 10.Analytic 13. Lot 4. Гарантия – это письменное обещание заменить или починить неисправную деталь бесплатно. 5. to keep a supply of goods B) to improve in appearance or efficiency C) an arrangement of tools. Inventory 7. Розничные торговцы часто нуждаются в коммерческом кредите. Каждое предприятие старается усовершенствовать свою работу. 6.Assembly line 14. Guarantee 6. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Кредитный счет позволяет покупателю оплачивать товары после того как они уже получены.4. a form of credit H) a distinct portion of merchandise considered collectively I) a detailed list of the stock in possession at a given time J) a written promise that the dealer or manufacturer will repair or replace any defective parts free of charge for a certain period of time K)Current liquid assets minus current liabilities L) successive payments over a fixed period of time M) a sale of remaining products. and workers in which a product being put together passes through consecutive operations until completed D) artificial.
Mortgage 16. Describe the types of manufacturing processes. retailers and consumers? 5. Have you ever used some form of credit? What type? How does credit affect your business and personal life? 15. What are some of the potential problems arising from late shipping and poor delivery? 10. Why might a firm buy from several suppliers rather than one? 9. What are the differences in discretionary purchasing power among manufacturers. What is a purchasing agent? Why is this job necessary in some businesses? 6. wholesalers. Give your own examples of each one. How have grading and quality standards practices come about? How are they overseen and enforced? 4. Is there any difference between private and public storage? 8. What are the possible stages in the marketing process? 2. What types of credit do you know? Give an example of each type. What does the integration of all marketing functions involve? 14. 12. What role does service play in marketing? 13. Contrast the synthetic process of manufacturing with the analytic one.Leftover sale O) an intangible asset due to the good reputation of a business P) The difference between the cost and the selling price Q) that is the money that remains after subtracting the cost of the goods sold from net sales Discussion 1. What is credit? Why is its practice so widespread throughout the business world? 11.15. 3. What is a mortgage used for? 68 . Is it necessary for processors and manufacturers to hold reserve stock of their raw materials? 7. How does goodwill accrue to a company? 16. What synthetics are used in the clothing industry? 17.A credit card 17.
приключаться колебания тем не менее помещения основные средства уменьшать постигать. оценки отсроченный платеж 69 To run low Staple Idle Acute Perishable Borrow Hardships Befall Fluctuations Nonetheless Premises Capital goods Diminish Perceive Scarce Currency Violation Census Purchasing power Per capita income To call in Feasibility Estimates Deferred payment . занимать трудности случаться. широта действий. доставаться проверка на месте наугад. дефицитный валюта нарушение перепись населения покупательная способность доход на душу населения призывать выполнимость смета. работать вхолостую острый скоропортящийся (товар) брать в долг. воспринимать. окружать консервный комбинат накопляться. заканчиваться главный продукт. увеличиваться.на Ваше усмотрение) истощаться. наобум широта осторожность. основной предмет торговли простаивать. чувствовать редко встречающийся. усмотрение (I leave it to your discretion .Vocabulary Tend Harvest Grade Encompass Cannery Accrue Spot check At random Latitude Discretion ухаживать собирать урожай сортировать заключать.
приглашаемая на интервью (фокусная группа) концептуальный тест вскрытие причин прототип панель (группа людей. cosmetics. a pain-killing pill was developed to be taken without water. gathered by personal interviews. обзор анкета группа потребителей. and presented by sophisticated techniques designed to reveal what consumers will buy. RESEARCH Special Terms Survey Questionnaire Focus group Concept test Postmortem Prototype Panel Sales forecast Quota Saturation point Market testing Trajectory method Payoff обозрение. but it may not appeal to the public. the value of the 70 . Researchers may use a focus group or concept test to assess the need the product is supposed to fill. Often a questionnaire is used to obtain such feedback. clothing. correctly or not that water makes medicine more effective. Product research aims at adapting products to the desires of buyers. marketers depend on various kinds of information. telephone. why they will buy it.UNIT EIGHT. are used to reach conclusions about market preferences. and appliances are examples of products which are often use-tested. codified. отобранная по какому-либо признаку) прогноз продаж квота точка насыщения рыночное испытание метод траектории результат Working on the text Read and translate the text Research In order to make their frequent decisions. analyzed. tabulated. A product may look good on paper and make sense to those who design it. that feature was its main advantage over other analgesics. and how much they will pay for it. The idea was sound. This data is collected. The purposes of use-testing are to determine the specific qualities that are liked or disliked. but the product did not sell. The next step in product testing may be to design a prototype to determine a panel's reactions to the product as they use it. or mail. Consumer survey data. A postmortem revealed that people want to take tablets with water because they believe. In the case of one pharmaceutical firm. исследование. Food.
These groups may reveal insights into their attitudes and reactions to overall ad effectiveness. and colors. brand name. Comparisons in which a specific product is rated against another are known as paired comparison tests. Many decisions are based on detailed knowledge of sales opportunities and projected sales volume. is known as pre-testing. Market forecasts and commercial tests are frequently developed to precisely measure expected sales and to select the appropriate packaging. or seen. are market tested to see if customers unconsciously or openly identify strengths and qualities with certain names. (This type of research is highly specialized and is used by advertisers. Measuring the effectiveness of advertising material before it is published. Respondents are asked various types of questions to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness. and the media. Package research seeks to give a product’s package more “shelf appeal” through the use of designs. The sales forecast is usually the key to planning and controlling a company's operations. but specific copy effectiveness is usually measured by interviewing individuals. and budgeting. directing sales efforts. Communication research is usually divided into two main areas of inquiry: one measures the effectiveness of the ad itself and another measures the suitability and economy of the media carrying the message. The agencies must learn and demonstrate to their clients by solid research what is effective. Some of the most common methods for pre. and purchasing. a question like "What did you see advertised on TV last night?" Recall measurements seek a respondent's ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad. They are aids in setting quotas. Short-term forecasts are used to regulate production. The advertisers want assurances that their money is making money. materials. the test is called monadic. with no comparisons. and how it compares with existing products. Brand names. this can prevent costly mistakes.product to consumers. An aided recall test attempts 71 . broadcast. This research area of market potential is generally divided into two parts: the qualitative area identifies and diagnoses markets. listened to. advertising agencies. inventories. too. Some large firms forecast general business conditions in an attempt to predict the economic climate and its influence on their future activities. Attractive packaging may influence buyers to choose one product over another when both are similar in price or content. and communication appeal.and post-testing are: Consumer jury tests ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message's effects. Post-testing measures advertising that has been read. When a product is rated on its own merits. the various uses of the product. or telecast. Awareness measurements look for brand or advertising familiarity. The media must present themselves as productive vehicles for communication. Long-range sales forecasts are used most often in planning long-term financing and development and in supporting investment credit applications. the quantitative area forecasts future demand and estimates current potential.
This is the starting point for defining an audience. brand names. react. Attitude devices also analyze the degree of modification in attitudes as a result of specific advertising. It is of prime importance for the advertisers to have data concerning age. “seen / associated”. Magazines and newspapers measure their audiences by circulation readership. One of the aims is to determine the maximum volume of advertising a market can absorb before the saturation point is reached. but may in fact be impressed by the imagined status of its subscribers. 72 . another type of communications research.to discover those brand names or logos which are most deeply impressed on consumers minds: ''What brand of beer do you remember seeing or hearing advertised recently" Unaided recall tests are without clues: ''What ads have you seen recently that impressed you most?" Triple associate recall tests seek to learn the extent of consumers' associations with products. Motivational research relies on psychology and sociology to learn why people really behave. location. sex. Psychological measurements hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli. Such sophisticated measurement can tell advertisers what proportion of consumers reached are professionals. while TV and radio must rely only on surveys. Attitude and attitude change measurements seek first to understand the nature of opinions. Thanks to computers. Sales results in themselves measure the effectiveness of ads. and income level so that they can match the message and the medium to the audience. Media research. techniques for measuring consumer data are very refined. "What beer advertises that it is 'the one to have when you're having more than one'?" Recognition tests judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read. or “read” most. and copy themes. analyzed. or students. Advertising gets maximum results when it reaches the greatest number of prospective buyers at the lowest cost. This electronic device allegedly measures the intensity of a person's feelings. and manipulated by computer. and buy as they do. is conducted to determine the most effective. The first step in this process is to find out from each medium the number and kind of people it reaches. Very often in these tests respondents will go through the magazine page by page with an interviewer and answer general and specific questions such as: “Have you seen this ad before?” “Did you notice this part?” “Did you associate it with this advertiser?” Scores are compiled for ads that are “noticed”. using technology like that of the lie detector. laborers. Each medium does its own research for this purpose. Not a survey is done in which data are not tabulated. how often. occupation. Probing the subconscious reasons for buying requires trained interviewers or sophisticated machines like the galvanic skin response recorder. least expensive way to reach people. where. A respondent may claim to like a magazine because it is comprehensive. and at what cost. and to some extent on surveys. A product's image is an important clue to which segment of the market may buy it.
approaches. Sometimes the need for adjustments in the marketing effort becomes evident through sales or market share analyses. and how much to invest in it. marketers trace their goals by the trajectory method. All these techniques. since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. or family about a purchase. or market tests. Recently introduced products are watched carefully to see that they behave as predicted. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves. Products are tested under conditions designed to measure their sales in normal circumstances. where available. and in a repeat cycle. There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation. and reasons for research apply to existing. Through observation.) Market research is not an element in the marketing mix. controlled sales experiments. purchasing power. which utilizes the same principles as those which follow-rocket and missiles. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates. and census data. 73 . against competition. etc. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual. but a tool used for decision-making about the mix's elements.Since actual sales are the best proof that a product will sell. group. socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income). frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan's feasibility. Consumerattitude surveys and use tests are designed to keep up with the current state of the market. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process if the input is to be useful to them. they are involved and concerned with it. the extent to which they read labels. as well as new. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like and dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government's statistical analyses. intensive analysis. and many other details. They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research. their stops at counters or shelves. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. Since speed in assessing performance is vital. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region. Even well-tested products of long standing are closely monitored. industrial activity. products. size of market. customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket. in season. are a favorite of researchers. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it.
C. A monadic test is: A. товарный вид. when a product is estimated on it’s own advantages. 2. content. В. бессознательная реакция на рекламный стимул. отслеживать свою цель. B. 74 . the type of research. продуктивный вид рекламы. C. Consumer-attitude surveys and use tests are designed to: A. 3. when a product is compared with existing products. данные обзора потребителей. to understand the best qualities of a rival product. C. advertising. packaging. собирать информацию. calculate the payoff. использовать те же принципы. advertising agencies. 4. 5.“Shelf-appeal” deals with: A. B. предсказать экономический климат. апробация нового товара. грубая оценка. B or C for 1-5 below 1. Vehicles for communication are: А. B. to make a conclusion about market preferences. С. Why do marketers use questionnaires in their surveys? A. when a product is rated in monetary value. B. иметь смысл. learn about market preferences. to gather as complete data as possible.Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. тираж. collect census data. промышленные испытания. mass media. C. кодировать и сводить в таблицу. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Получать обратную связь.
___4____ to modify products or services to meet local market____5___ can have expensive consequences. ______6____ revealed that the key reason was misjudged_____ 7 ______. Grammar Revision: Conditionals If (unless. Interestingly. however. 4. d)economic climate. Change the form of the words where necessary. where more visitors traipsed through the theme park in 5 years than traipsed through the original Disneyland theme park in 35 years. 3. Speculating about the future (promising or threatening) If we try to forecast general business conditions we’ll be able to predict the influence of the economic climate on our future activities. the same values resoundingly_____8____ in France were resoundingly successful in Disney Japan. c) feasible. 2. For most products. There are also mixed types of conditional.Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. Forces like economic integration and the increased sophistication of _____1_ _____ are moving markets toward greater unification. Speculating about the past If the new product had been use-tested it would have helped to determine the specific qualities that are disliked by consumers. g)rejected. f) failure. Imagining If the postmortem revealed the reasons for failure they would never make similar mistakes. i) needs. and misjudged cultural environments. a)Postmortem . For more information see §9 of the Grammar Reference 75 . During the April-June 1993 the Euro-Disney theme park in France lost a disastrous 87 million while stock values plunged 20 per cent. e) a survey. It means that something may happen depending on the circumstances. standardized plans aren’t____2___ as evidenced by___3______ which showed that only one in ten consumer products was exported without significant modification. provided) introduces a condition. Stating a general rule If you rate a product against another it is paired comparison. There are four main types of conditional sentences: 1. b)communication technologies.
Чтобы определить специфические характеристики товара. If we (break into) the Indian market at that time our turnover (to increase) long ago. анкеты. If you do know your customer. Don’t promise anything unless you ( to be sure) completely. Если какой-то товар не продается. 3. If the company had used census data they would have positioned their products more accurately. необходим анализ. сравнения с другими товарами. we ( to sign) the agreement next week. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. We might be able to reduce the expenditure on advertising on condition our partners help us. 3. the two of you will be doing business for life. 4. If they (use) trained interviewers while conducting the survey. and if you do bring real value to that customer.Exercise 3 Define the type of conditionals in the following sentences. чтобы вскрыть причины неудачи. которые нравятся или не нравятся потребителю используются различные виды тестов. focus groups or concept tests if we (to know) a better way of assessing the need the product is supposed to fill. 76 . If we wanted to measure consumers’ interest in ads located in magazines we would use recognition tests. 6. Provided they ( not to go) on their offer. 5. We (not to use) questionnaires. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the Conditionals: 1. Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. If respondents (to ask) to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness it (to be) awareness measurements. If you tabulated the collected information if would be easier to analyze it. We won’t strike a deal with you unless you create favorable conditions. 4. 2. 2. 6. 2. If the company had taken into account the degree of cultural grounding they would have adapted their product. the advertising campaign (to be) such a failure. 5. 7.
3. Focus group 7. Trajectory method 4. Quota a) an original form of a product which serves as a model for its future production b) a statistically selected sampling of people representing a specific population c) seek a respondent’s ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad d) in marketing. доходах на душу населения. размещенную в журналах. 7. Тесты на узнаваемость оценивают рекламу. Concept test 9. Questionnaire 5. размерах рынка. Издательства журналов и газет оценивают аудиторию своих читателей по раскупаемому тиражу. Рыночные прогнозы часто используются с целью получить оценку ожидаемых продаж. Payoff 2. 5. 4. Survey 3. 8. solution. the product’s path is monitored closely on a graph i) the amount beyond which no more can be absorbed 77 . an examination to determine the reasons for failure in any part of the marketing plan e) an attempt to predict the future about product sales or market levels f) hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli g) the final choice. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. а также выбрать соответствующую упаковку. наименование и средство рекламы. Market testing 6. Saturation point 8. Данные переписи населения обеспечивают маркетологов информацией о покупательной способности потенциальных потребителей. 6. Оценка осведомленности направлена на поиск знакомых брэндов или рекламы. or result h) a way of setting goals according to research results and analyses. Тесты потребительского жюри направлены на выявление воздействия данной рекламы на возможного покупателя.
Why is each involved? 11. How do their goals differ from each other? 14. Recall measurements r) set of questions designed to yield usable information for marketing purposes Discussion 1. What does a consumer jury test measure? 13.10. Why are market forecasts and commercial tests developed? 6. How is product image measured? Why? 78 . How are market potential tests classified? What are the uses of these classifications? 9. What are the purposes of use-testing? What types of product is it good for? 4. Prototype 12. Compare short-term forecasts with long-range forecasts. Postmortem 11. What is the difference between paired comparison tests and monadic tests? 5. Sales forecast 14. Consumer jury test 15. What are the values of pre-testing? Of post-testing? 12. How do recall and recognition tests differ? 15.q) a sampling or partial collection of facts ments figures. or opinions and analysis of the data 18. What does a concept test show? 3. Panel 13. What are the main areas of concern for market researchers? 2. Describe the three recall types of measurement employed in marketing research. Why do some firms engage in general business forecasting? 8. What are the specific goals of which? 7. Awareness measure. Recognition test p) a group of five or six people that meets with an interviewer to discuss products and consumer needs 17. Which are the main areas of communication research? Identify those concerned with this research.Psychological measurement j) a research technique in which the product is sold at selected locations while its reception by consumers is observed k) ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message’s effects l) Judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read m) an assigned goal of the total volume of sales to be reached within a specific time period n) looking for brand or advertising familiarity o) market research technique used to see how prospective consumers react to a proposed new product 16. What is “shelf-appeal”? What do marketers hope for in the choice of brand names? 10.
000 to 15. technical 4} Divorced or separated b) clerical c) managerial proprietor d) military-. What is a product’s performance in a test market supposed to show? How are market tests conducted? 20. What are the goals of media research? How does it differ from advertising effectiveness research? 18. What is psychological or motivational testing aimed at? Describe some methods used.000 4) 810. Why are trajectory paths chartered specifically for newly introduced products? 21. official Education: I) none to 8 years of school e) skilled labor 2) 8 to 12 yean of school f) unskilled labor 3) some college or university g) farm 4) college or university 5) some postgraduate work Family annual income: 6) graduate degree I) under $5000 2) $5000 to 7500 3) $7500 to 10.16. What do consumer data tell advertisers about their audiences? 19.000 Family Size: I) 1 or 2 members 5) S 15. 17. What is the role of marketing manager in marketing research? Typical Breakdowns for Consumers Data or What Every Marketer Wants to Know Age: I) under 18 9} 18 to 24 3) 25 to 34 4) 35 to 49 5) 50 to 64 6) 65 and over Sex: 1) Female 2) Male Occupation: 1) Unemployed 2) Student 3) Retired 4) Not employed outside of Marital Status 1) Single home 2) Married 5) Employed 3) Widowed a) professional.000-to 25. What do researchers hope to learn from intensive analyses of individuals or groups of consumers ? What types of questions are asked? 23. How does observation help obtain information on consumer behavior? 22.000 and over 3} 5 or more members Other: Race Residence: 1) a) urban Religion b)suburban Length of employment c) rural Ages of children 2) a) own Reading or entertainment b) rent habits 79 .000 2) 3 or 4 members 6) $25.
Place a check mark in one space in each row to show the degree to which you think the idea fits the commercial. In the questionnaire below you can find a number of ideas about the jingle.Case Study a) Think of a memorable TV or radio commercial you have heard or seen. Choose one which includes a jingle – a repetition verse set to music. b) What conclusions might a researcher draw from the results of this type of questionnaire? How much those conclusions affect the marketing effort? What other categories and ideas could have been added for testing? Do you buy the product or use the service being advertised in your example? Sample Consumer Questionnaire (A survey of audience attitudes) Type of commercial: TV____ Radio______ Your age______ Type of product ___________________ Brand name ______________ Very Somewhat Neither Somewhat Very Different Exciting Up-to-date Interesting Fun Energetic With it Like me Professional Strong Easily understood Appealing Loved the performance Would like to hear it again 80 Ordinary Dull Behind-thetime Boring Work Relaxed A drag Not like me Amateurish Mild Difficult to comprehend Unappealing Hated the performance Would not like to hear it again .
неквалифицированный рабочий отслеживать свои цели использовать те же принципы 81 .Vocabulary Appliances Merits To rate Unconsciously Awareness measurements Consumer Jury Tests Recall measurements Unaided Recognition tests Attitude change measurements Probing Subconscious Allegedly Stimulus (stimuli) Circulation readership Laborer To trace their goals Utilize the same principle бытовая техника достоинства оценивать бессознательно оценка осведомленности тесты потребительского жюри оценка запоминаемости зд. без наводящих вопросов испытание на узнаваемость оценка изменения отношения зондирование подсознательный по утверждению. будто бы. якобы стимул тираж чернорабочий.
Failure to appreciate regional differences. 2. Failure to keep a product up-to-date. the A. 4. 3. 82 банкротство экспорт импорт фирменный бланк к-л организации патент транснациональная корпорация торговые палаты. Significant trends need time to develop. there is much to learn from history. Failure to develop the advertising budget fully. Products must be suited to the market. резерв субсидия. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently short-sighted. 7. управления по сбыту валовой национальный продукт картель запас. 6. Postmortems of marketing failures are important factors in making decisions about the future. THE FUTURE OF MARKETING Special Terms Bankruptcy Export Import Letterhead Patent Multinational corporation (MNC) Marketing boards Gross national product (GNP) Cartel Stockpile Subsidy Demographics статистика Working on the text Read and translate the text In marketing. Nielsen Company. Failure to estimate the market potential accurately. According to the largest marketing research company in the world.C. as in the rest of life. Failure to adhere to long-range goal policies. дотация демографическая . 5. This is important not only among nations and cultures. but within product areas. Enthusiasm should be tempered with realism. Adjustments in the marketing program must be made readily. The spectrum of marketing failures ranges from inadequate return on the original investment to corporate bankruptcy. Failure to appreciate seasonal differences in demand.UNIT NINE. Failure to gauge the trend of the market. Advertising and distribution efforts must reflect environmental and cultural limitations. these are the thirteen most common marketing errors: 1.
they appreciate the need for peace and stability. Marketers are accustomed to risk-taking. Conducting on-site tours to determine the best methods of distribution.8. The problems encountered there are significantly different from those encountered in domestic operations. It must have been embarrassing to General Motors when its "Body by Fisher" became "Corpse by Fisher" in Flemish. in the foreign country. even relatively small ones. Failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and long-range strategy. The tendency is to underestimate the resources and the ingenuity of the competition while overestimating one’s own position or reputation. Export marketing companies are another result of international marketing. 9. As people of different cultures become more dependent on each other for their living standards. Colgate-Palmolive made an expensive mistake when it introduced its Cue toothpaste into French-speaking countries. Exhibiting the products at overseas trade shows. the brand name and trademark turned out to be pornographic in French. instead of their own names. Failure to admit defeat. Failure to test-market new ideas. These independent businesses act as agents for firms that want to participate in worldwide trade. A realistic appraisal of errors is vital. Special promotional activities cannot substitute for advertising. One toothpaste manufacturer found that promising white teeth was inappropriate in many regions of Southeast Asia. Coordination is the key. slogans. Appointing commission representatives. Communication and transportation systems have created a small world. and concepts from one language and culture to another. Failure to appraise the competition objectively. Advertisements that do not conform to local lifestyles are wasted. 2. As production techniques and marketing systems become more sophisticated. but in international dealings the dimensions of these risks are often misjudged and misunderstood. 12. Every year more and more firms. One area of special interest is the literal translation of advertising names. they often use special letterheads showing their address as the manufacturer's "export department" or "international division. in a marketing sense. cross-cultural trading increases. Changes must be made before competitors force them. where chewing betelnut is an elite habit and black teeth are symbols of prestige. 83 . 4. Failure to try new ideas. 13. enter the international market. There is a difference between what people say and what they actually do. Failure to integrate all phases into the overall program. 3. Researching the foreign market. 11. 10. sometimes within an existing sales network." The services performed by the export company for its client include: 1.
and similar details. marketing boards. Meeting patent and trademark requirements. or commodity exchange. These may be made up of individual companies. The emergence of the multinational corporation (МNС) is of major significance in the future of marketing. for each country to duplicate advanced research. insurance. in global terms. and production. Competition will always stimulate cheaper and more effective distribution methods. The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources. Handling the paperwork of export and import declarations. They are involved in trading. More and more cooperatives will provide economical marketing facilities and a firm bargaining base for their members. In some countries. more economical production. The second is joint action by firms or individuals. urban and regional development. especially technological and managerial skills. control. Many marketing boards have developed to require producers and handlers of certain commodities to observe rules and procedures. and organization of the economic activities of several nations. Despite obstacles. handling commodities in much the same way as stock exchanges do for stocks and bonds. The first is the enterprise of private traders and corporations seeking profits. banking. There may be resistance to multinational activities for reasons of nationalism. trading companies. Probably the most 84 . It seems likely that those MNCs that can evolve effective accommodations with nationalism will flourish. Trading companies in Japan function similarly. is an organized market for agricultural goods. multinationals have expanded steadily because they reduce this duplication and contribute to the economy of their host nations. In the United States. shipping and customs documentation. resource development. Preparing and adapting appropriate sales literature. and the extraction of profits. instructions for special handling. Global approaches to economic decisions often differ with the aims of specific countries. a board of trade. 7. Adapting the goods to local conditions and legal and trade standards. It is enormously expensive. manufacturing. their influence. mining. and the reduction of profit margins. technology.5. One facet of the trend toward joint action in world marketing is the formation of cartels. either with its own staff or with private firms and cooperatives. such a board assumes full responsibility for marketing certain products. is substantial. 8. General improvements in marketing can be expected in three major areas. particularly on raw materials markets. their combined sales figures represent almost 30 percent of Japan's GNP. Many firms that entered the export business in a modest way eventually became fully committed to an international perspective. 6. or a combination. and a number of service industries.
Governments may influence prices. The third area in which marketing improvements are expected is governmental assistance. subsidies. 4. in industrial nations and regions. as will the new attitudes. price discrimination. patterns of a "one-world" mentality. In some cases. religious. Some laws are designed to define sales contracts and how they must be fulfilled. Facilitating aid provides market information and statistics. measures. 3. Laws prohibiting deceptive advertising. sets up training and extension services. increased participation of women in the work force. more varied subcultures and life styles. The following is an outline of the major forces in society which will affect marketing in the years ahead. and the establishment of minimum health standards. and finances research into ways of raising efficiency or reducing marketing costs. humanistic. Values: More secular. This can take three major forms: Regulatory aid includes the standardization of weights. and movement of goods. and increase competition. a rising average age in the United States as post-World War II babies move through their life cycle. Anti-trust laws prohibiting monopolies and assisting fair competition create a healthy market climate. the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Sociocultural 1. storage. and price-fixing protect consumers. less traditional. 85 . which has controlled the marketing of petroleum products in virtually every nation in the world. Direct intervention is government involvement in the purchase. Some governments practice such support activities as stockpiling. sale. mores. They also try to protect producers and consumers against emergency pressures or chronic weaknesses in a marketing system. Knowledge: increasing education and sophistication with less faith and acceptance. A. a government will be its own largest consumer and may be so involved in purchasing goods and services for defense and social welfare that it virtually defines the marketing process from start to finish. The trends noted in this unit will all affect the future of marketing. 2. and containers.renowned group of this sort is OPEC. and rational. Social Structure: More open and fluid societies. and economic systems. supplement existing market channels. customs. Quality inspection and grading is vital to everyone. Demographics: A slowing population growth with corresponding smaller family size. institutions. The main headings represent the four major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates. and a price equalization aid to farmers known as parity. patents and trademarks. Other laws deal with bankruptcy. and financial statements. and the regulation of transport and market facilities helps insure fair practices. and mystic.
Competition: More visible. but one thing is certain. 3. Limited resources. Governmental 1. closer government observation. to prepare appropriate sales literature. 3. it is a social process that fulfills a basic social need. Technology: Extremely important. More direct intervention in the economic system.B. 86 . 2. a usual market. The problems that firms encounter on the international market are: A. to understand the best channels of sales. Need to preserve the environment Marketing is more than business techniques and economic activities. quite different. 2. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. It is comprised of and affected by the diverse interrelationships of individuals. 3. More interaction with business. a commodity exchange. 2. 4. B. C. D. approximately the same as on the domestic market. not mentioned. and society. B or C for 1-5 below 1. C. 4. Ecological 1. Increased interdependence among nations. B.' 3. Economic 1. and more multinational trade. 2. What forms it will take in the future depend on political and economic changes. governments. to handle the paperwork. Increased complexity and size. a stock exchange. marketing will always be with us in an important way. larger companies. A board of trade is: A. Much of the world burdened by population growth. C. B. On-site tours are conducted by export marketing companies: A. accelerated. More restrictions on marketing with a struggle surrounding the regulatory role. C. organizations. Structure: More concentration.
87 . признать поражение.4. government involvement in the movement of goods. psychological. элитная привычка. Culture is a complex whole. 5. What is not mentioned among the major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates? A. As the globalization of business grows. ecological. Cultural incompetence can lead to …6… and calamitous customer relations. умерять энтузиазм. C. f) level of involvement. in that they …3… change and foster continuity. art.and cross-cultural variables. соблюдать правила. religion. Change the form of the words where necessary. b) cross-cultural. буквальный перевод. emergency pressure. education. economic. выезд на место. language. Culture provides…2… a sense of identity and well-being.…1…. law. В. e) members of society. MNC entering a local market. so does the need for intra – and …4… competence to deal with culturally diverse publics that influence the health and growth of the enterprise. корректировка маркетинговой программы. and capabilities. неумение отличить. становиться все более зависимым. Direct intervention is: А. learned and shared by members of society. values. it’s the job of the global marketing manager to identify significant intra. morals. A firm’s level of cultural competence can be the primary determinant of its …5…in a given market. соответствовать местному образу жизни. This information can then influence every aspect of the strategic marketing planning process from …8…the nature and needs of target markets to building marketing mixes that appeal to these markets. h) strategic planning process. B. С. In the context of crucial role of culture in the…7…. g) resist. торговать товаром. d) habits. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Точно оценить потенциал рынка. Cultures are inherently conservative. a) Defining. c) lost sales. encompassing beliefs. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. customs.
which was announced on Monday. nor did they offer to pay their debts. then. besides. yet. shared. 88 . whereas. and object clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause: What they learned of marketing in that month was much more than that he had learnt in all his life. transmitted. will take five years to complete. nor. 4) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members joined by the conjunction “but” and the correlative conjunction not only… but also: Not only may substantial investments be required to develop and market new products. 5) Coordinate clauses joined asyndetically or by the conjunctions nether. 2) A comma is used to separate several homogeneous members if the last is joined by the conjunction “and”: Among significant cultural variables that can help marketing managers define and develop international markets are values. but occasionally a comma is found: The company did not sell their assets. The new investment plan.Grammar Revision: Punctuation 1) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members used without any conjunction: A country’s culture is learned. language. 3) No comma is used if two homogeneous members are joined by the conjunction “and”: Approaches for identifying and measuring significant cultural variables include observational fieldwork. and religion. 8) Subject. 6) Defining relative clauses that add essential information to the sentence are not separated by a comma: I am speaking about the company that produces telephone equipment. but contracts or even mergers with other companies may be necessary. conjunctive adverbs moreover. predicative. 7) Non-defining relative clauses that add non-essential information are separated by commas. still are usually separated by the semicolon.
6. компании. 3. 7. Exercise 4 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson 1. занимающиеся экспортом.Exercise 3 Read the sentences below and explain the punctuation: 1. in global terms. произведенных в стране за год. 5. 4. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently shortsighted. 4. необходимо придерживаться политики долговременных целей. The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources. пожалуйста. предоставляют информацию. 3. What people say does not really mean they do it. 7. регулируют сбыт и помогают поддерживать репутацию отдельной страны. Маркетинговые советы проводят исследования. фирменные бланки Ваше 89 . проводят поездки на места. What they wanted to introduce on the world market was testmarketed three times in order to adhere to long-range goal policies. 2. Принесите мне. enter the international market. multinationals expanded steadily because they contribute to the economy of their host nation. причиной которой являются возможные прибыли. 2. Валовой национальный продукт представляет собой денежное выражение всех товаров и услуг. especially technological and managerial skills. and production. 6. Every year more and more firms. Despite obstacles. and organization of the economic activities of several nations. It is enormously expensive. Он примет на себя всю ответственность за продажу этого товара. for each country to duplicate advanced research. even relatively small ones. Чтобы избежать ошибок в маркетинге. 5. Транснациональные корпорации могут столкнуться с сопротивлением принимающей стороны. technology. Чтобы определить лучшие методы сбыта.
Multinational corpora. Stockpile K) The vital and social statistics of a population 12. Cartel I) To send or sell merchandise to a foreign country 10. granted by a government to a person or company for a stated time period. What is the trend in marketing with regard to international trade? Are domestic marketing problems similar to international ones? 90 1. production. especially for resale 6. Import B) The exclusive right to make.F) A business association formed to regulate tion (MNC) prices. Gross national product C) A company that has a manufacturing or investment base in at least two countries (GNP): outside the country of its origin 4. Direct intervention M) Financial aid of a government to a private industry Discussion 1. Marketing boards G) The state in which a person or company is unable to pay creditors 8. What is the value of studying marketing failures? 2. and marketing of the products of its members 7. Patent J) The total monetary value of all goods and services produced in a country during one year 11. Letterhead E) To bring in merchandise from a foreign country. Export D) Organizations which promote and facilitate the worldwide marketing of specific products. 3. 5. use.Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one A) Stationery containing the name and address of an organization 2. Subsidy L) Government involvement in the movement of goods 13. or sell a specific item. Bankruptcy . What is the difference between failure to adhere to long-range goal policies and failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and longrange strategy? 3.Demographics H) A reserve supply stored and maintained for future use 9.
What is the difference between regulatory government aid and facilitating government aid? 14. What has the effect of international trade been on your country? What are your most important exported raw materials and final products? Is the trend in your country toward more or less international marketing? C. Give an example of an error made because of the failure to reflect local values and life styles. 13. 5. 11. What effect have multinational firms had in your country? Is there any national resistance? What is the relationship of marketing boards to MNCs? Do you see a trend toward more or less cooperation between them? 91 . 8.4. 15. Describe those necessary activities which exporters must practice. Give an example of a cartel and its effect on other nations. Give some examples of translation errors made by marketers advertising abroad. What is an export marketing company? 7. Which of the 13 most common failures listed by Nielsen do you consider the most relevant to marketing practices in your country? Give examples to illustrate at least two of these failures. Can you think of any others which should be included in the list? B. What kinds of direct intervention and support activities do some governments engage in with regard to marketing. Describe the role of marketing boards. List all the kinds of government assistance offered to marketing in your country. Why do multinational firms meet resistance from individual nations? 10. 6. Will there be more of this in the future? How do you view governmental involvement in marketing practices? Write a composition on one of the following topics: A. What is a board of trade in the United States? A trading company in Japan? 12. What are the two basic roles of MNCs? 9.
стычка размеры. объем. столкновение. аспект известный. знаменитый. величина. соглашения грань. искусство неожиданная встреча. придерживаться замещать. сторона /медали/. огромного размаха нравы вековой. происходящий раз в сто лет. протяжение план огромной важности. удобства. подставлять оценивать изобретательность. прославленный помощь в выравнивании цен бессоюзно 92 .Vocabulary To adhere To substitute for To appraise Ingenuity Encounter Dimensions Scheme of vast dimensions Mores Secular Accommodations Facet Renowned Price equalization aid Asyndetically твердо держаться. светский приспособления.
The sun rises in the East. но не в момент речи: They are building a new office. Continuous To be + Participle I I am working / Am I working? He (she.No. Обычное. Ближайшее. 2. already. I have not (haven’t) worked Has he worked? – No. they) have been working He ( she. yet.GRAMMAR REFERENCE Simple I (you. for. Полученный жизненный опыт:He has done many jobs in his time 4. раздражение: We are always discussing it. we) work He (she.m.Действие. Повторяющееся действие. 5.Действие в процессе в момент речи: What are you doing?. Ряд глаголов в Continuous не употребляется Perfect To have + Participle II I (you. if. Характеристика человека: My sister sings very well. we. После: This is the first / second time: It’s only the second time I’ve driven a car. моменту и результат важен:It has broken down the barriers of geography and time. they. 4. it) is working / Is it working? We (they. которое началось в прошлом и продолжалось до настоящего момента и либо закончилось к настоящему моменту либо все еще продолжается.I’m trying to find a file. Завершенное действие в будущем в придаточных условия и времени ( после: when. for. it) has been working Have you been working? Has he been working? He has not been working. расписанию The train for London leaves at 9 p. as soon as etc)I can’t make a decision if I haven’t received all the data 5. Действие по графику. you) are working / Are you working? They are not working Употребляется: 1. повторяющеееся действие He plays golf every Sunday. it) works Do you work? I do not ( don’t) work Does he work? He does not (doesn’t) work Употребляется: 1. Констатация факта. запланированное будущее: She is leaving for Paris on Monday. Has he been waiting for me for a long time? (since. 4. 3. 3. how long) 93 .Действие совершилось к наст. Exports have been growing steadily over the past six months. Новость:Our fax number has changed. 2. утверждение истины: We sell our products into many markets. they) have worked He ( she. just. 2. but in vain. he has not (hasn’t) worked Употребляется: 1. since. 6. Показатели (ever.Изменяющаяся ситуация: The number of people using the Internet is growing. 3. lately.Действие в процессе в настоящее время. recently) Perfect Continuous To have been + Participle I I (you. it) has worked Have you worked?. never.Временнoе действие: They are staying at the Crill Hotel until May. we. Употребляется: 1.
гл.неправ. Употребляется: 1.V+ed или 2-я ф. had supper. We had been waiting for him for half an hour before he came 94 . she. (but he did) I ( he. watched TV and went to bed.которое происходило на протяжении какого-то времени. we) were working Were you working? – No. После выражений I wish. we had not worked Употребляется: 1. I( you.Действие. до какого-то момента в прошлом: She had to take a break because she had been working far too hard. 2. we. I was watching TV when my parents arrived. Повтор. Употребляется: 1. I ( he. he. At 5 o’clock I was cooking .they) had been working Had you been working? – No. we had not been working. Had the film already started when you came to the cinema? She had finished her work by 4 o’clock. She would come and see me every day. they. it. I’d rather выражает действие. They launched this project in 1980. 3. it) had worked Had you worked? – No. В отрицательной форме выражает сожаление по поводу содеянного) He wishes he had not left his previous job./he/she/it/ they) worked Did you work? He did not work.Действие. Действие в процессе в определенный момент времени в прошлом. действие в прошлом: He used to listen to music for hours. Употребляется: 1. Перечисление действий в прошлом: She came home.Действие. she. I was not watching TV. совершенное в прошлом и не связанное с настоящим: Radio was invented by Popov. If only I had bought those shares! I’d rather he had asked me before taking my car. If only. 2. it )was working They( you. she. которое произошло раньше другого действия в прошлом. либо закончилось к какому-то моменту в прошлом. которое не произошло: I wish I had been more interested in English at School. we were not working. we . While their mother was cooking dinner the children were playing in the garden. I (you.
Will you be passing a post-office. хотите попросить сделать чтоIt’s cold here. Ближайшее запланированное будущее (взаимозаменяемо с В вопросах с I. I believe. Употребляется: Действие. she. it. После выражений типа: I think. Will/shall have been + Participle I She will have been working at this problem for a month when you visit us a second time.in the sea. don’t Употребляется: worry. bring you the book tomorrow. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema. если I’ll go and shut the window. Обещание This time tomorrow I’ll be swimming I’ll pay you back in a week. Действие. we – shall Present Continuous) What time will Shall I go on? your friends be arriving? (What time are your friends arriving?) Will have + Participle II She match will have finished at 10. которое будет завершено в какой-то момент в будущем. At 9 o’clock we will have gone to work. то сделать (в момент речи) 2.30 Употребляется: 1. Will you be seeing her this evening? He will come on time. he. которое начнется в будущем и будет продолжаться до какого-то момента в будущем в течение некоторого времени. I suppose etc. 3. 95 . Действие которое точно будет Употребляется: происходить в определенный момент в будущем. they) will tomorrow. Действие совершиться к к-то моменту в будущем. 1. Спрашивая о планах. 1. 2. 2. либо для Вас. When you are out? I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. 3. Внезапное решение что.Will/shall + infinitive без ” Will/shall be +Participle I to” She will be working at 10 o’clock I ( you.
we have not been informed Has he (she. Was he (she. she. I’m not invited. it) had been informed Had you been informed? No. they) be invited No. it) been informed? No. I) been informed? No.СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ Simple P R E S E N T P A S T I am invited You (we. we) being watched? No. they weren’t being watched. Perfect I (you. 96 .No. we. he is not being watched I (he. she. it. they) have been informed He (she. she. I) being watched? No. I hadn’t been informed F U T U R E I (we) will (shall) have been informed They (you. it. they) being watched? No. they) are being watched He (she. they) are invited He (she. it) has been informed Have you (we. I am not being watched. it) was being watched You (we. it. they won’t have been informed. it) was invited You (we. it) is being watched Are you (we. it) will have been informed Shall I have been informed? No. they) were being watched Was she (he. they) will be invited Shall I (we) be invited? No. they. I shan’t have been informed Will they have been informed? No. she is not invited I(he. you. she wasn’t being watched Were they (you. I) invited? No. he was not invited. I (we) shall (will) be invited You (she. it) is invited Are you invited? – No. he. he will not (won’t) be invited ---------------------------Continuous I am being watched You (we. they. he. they were not invited. we shall not (shan’t) be invited Will he (you. it) being watched? No. Is he (she. he. it. they) were invited Were they (you. she. she. Is she invited? . we) invited? No. he hasn’t been informed We (I.
to award. to teach. to promise. страдательный залог образуется от переходных глаголов. некоторые глаголы допускают образование страдательного залога. 2. Так как в страдательном залоге действие производится не подлежащим. to tell. to advise. to order. 3. The contract was shown to me. Но в отличие от русского языка. а не на деятеле. Способы перевода страдательного залога на русский язык Существует несколько способов перевода страдательного залога с английского языка на русский язык. Каждый год в России строится много новых гостиниц. то деятель чаще всего опускается. а над подлежащим. to deny. Возвратными глаголами с окончанием на –ся A lot of new hotels are built in Russia every year. Неопределенно-личным предложением I was invited to the conference. 1) The company was founded in 1970 by my grandfather. Самим страдательным залогом: I was invited to the conference. to ask. Особенности употребления страдательного залога в английском языке В английском языке также как и в русском. Мне показали контракт. I was shown the contract. Я был приглашен на конференцию. и в основном. как с прямым. акцент делается на самом действии. 97 . to allow. так и с косвенным дополнением. К ним относятся: to accord. to give etc. Меня пригласили на конференцию. например: 1. Деятель может вводиться предлогом by (одушевленный предмет) with (неодушевленный предмет). 2) The letter is written with a pencil.Употребление страдательного залога Употребление времен в страдательном залоге полностью совпадает с употреблением времен в действительном залоге.
Past Simple) и сочетаются с инфинитивом без частицы “to”. Исключение составляют модальные глаголы ought (to). 98 . Возможность (зависящая от обстоятельств) Can I speak to Mr. understand. to be (to). недоверие. he is not available. Физическая или умственная способность (употребляется только с Indefinite Infinitive) He could understand 3 foreign languages when he was 5 years old. удивление. то употребляется эквивалент to be able. Недостающие видовременные формы восполняются их эквивалентами. but we were able to persuade him. He didn’t want to come. 1.Модальные глаголы (Modal verbs) Модальные глаголы выражают отношение говорящего к предполагаемому действию. 3. Недоверие. Мы используем модальный глагол Can только когда речь идет об общих физических способностях: see. feel. Когда же говорится о какой-то определенной ситуации. сомнение. taste. который по своему значению ближе к глаголу manage. сомнение. удивление (употребляется со всеми формами инфинитива в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях) But could he hate his job and still keep going there. smell. 2. Brown? Sorry. Они имеют одну или две грамматические формы (Present Simple. Present Simple Can May Must Should Ought (to) Am/ is/ are (to) Could might Was / were (to) Past Simple эквивалент Be able (to) To be allowed (to) to be permitted (to) To have (to) to be obliged (to) - CAN ( could) эквивалент – be able Can выражает способность. возможность. hear.
please. Might выражает большую степень неуверенности. Запрет может быть выражен несколькими способами: May I read the letter? . неуверенность. They said they might be interested in merging.Неужели она это сказала? 4. 3. (Используются все формы инфинитива). Вероятность. Упрек. Мы могли бы пообедать в ресторане.No.No. 4.Нет условий. 1. вероятность. You might have told me about it You might lend me your car. упрек. You may take these copies . Разрешение. You can take these copies . you must not (зависимость от обстоятельств) 2. Could (can) she have said that? . Could несет в себе понятие сослагательного наклонения: We could have dinner at a restaurant. They may or they may not agree to our terms of payment. Неуверенность. а также употребляется при согласовании времен. В этом значении возможно употребление can. (В этом значении употребляется только Indefinite infinitive). (Употребление Indefinite Infinitive выражает просьбу с оттенком упрека) 99 .Неужели он мог ненавидеть свою работу и продолжать ходить туда? Can she be waiting for us? .No. They might still be doing that business.Вам дают разрешение. возможность. предположение с оттенком сомнения.Может ли она нас ждать? She cannot be waiting for us. .Здесь также возможно употребление модального глагола Can. May употребляется только в утвердительных предложениях. MAY (might) эквиваленты . В данном значении употребляется только might с Perfect Infinitive. you may not .to be allowed / to be permitted May выражает разрешение. (Обычно используется Indefinite infinitive). которые помешали бы вам сделать это. . don’t . In these documents you may (can) find a lot of interesting things. чтобы она нас ждала.Не может быть.
необходимость. (Употребляются все формы инфинитива. Smith is. граничащее с уверенностью.MUST эквиваленты . TO BE (TO) Модальный глагол to be (to) выражает долженствование по плану. Вместо него используется модальное слово probably или выражение to be likely. Who is to go on business to London? – Mr. относящееся к будущему.Yes. и выражает настоятельную рекомендацию. 100 . You must not do it. (В отрицательных предложениях употребляется evidently) Предположение.No. запрет отрицательной форме). Обязанность. Глагол ought (to) по своему значению ближе к модальному глаголу must.to have (to) / to be obliged (to) Must выражает обязанность. Evidently. you must . You must leave the room at once. They will probably reroute the vessel. He must earn money. Употребление этих модальных глаголов с Perfect Infinitive выражает упрек. SHOULD. 1. He must work. запрет. почти убежденность. предположение. Must I go to the meeting? . не может быть выражено через модальный глагол must. Предположение. We were to meet at 5. по договоренности и переводится на русский язык – должен. 2. you needn’t (отсутствие необходимости) (в 2. she did not know my address. граничащее с уверенностью. You ought to use new methods in advertising. необходимость. but he didn’t come. Вероятность. Команда. предположение. You should have informed me beforehand. They are not likely to delay the cargo. но только в утвердительных предложениях). Они выражают совет. They must have been marketing their products for five years already on the world market. You should use new methods in advertising. OUGHT (TO) Модальные глаголы should и ought(to) часто взаимозаменяемы.
надежде. что помогая какое-то время Я рад.Инфинитив (the Infinitive) Инфинитив – это неличная (неизменяемая) форма глагола. may. что мне помогут Я рад. намерению: I meant to have done it . You should have signed the contract. что помог Я рад. My watch must have stopped. что мне помогли **Perfect Infinitive 1. После глаголов to expect. might. что помогаю Я рад. Tense Active Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to help To be helping To have helped To have been helping Voice Passive To be helped To have been helped - I am glad to help you I am glad to be helped I am glad to be helping I am glad to have helped I am glad to have been helping I am glad to have been helped Я рад помочь Вам Я рад. Предположение . to mean to hope. 3. 2. to intend (в Past Indefinite) выражает действие.в сочетании с модальными глаголами must. 101 . should. Сожаление или упрек по поводу невыполненного действия после модальных глаголов could. которое не совершилось вопреки ожиданию.Я предполагал сделать это. обладающая временными и залоговыми характеристиками.
Обстоятельство To do the job well you must work hard.Функции инфинитива в предложении 1. на русский язык может переводиться как глаголом. The Perfect Gerund обозначает действие. We’ll have to launch a new advertising campaign. 102 . Часть сказуемого (составного именного и составного глагольного) To see is to believe. предшествующее действию выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. Подлежащее To keep the unit in operation is not very easy. следовательно. который надо разрекламировать. (Глагольное) Нам придется запустить новую рекламную кампанию. Чтобы сделать работу хорошо вы должны усердно трудиться. очень важен для нашей компании. Определение The product to be advertised is of great importance to our company. сочетающая в себе признаки глагола и существительного. The Indefinite Gerund (active or passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием глагола сказуемого. 3. 4. Ему нравится. 5. Герундий (The Gerund) Герундий – это неличная форма глагола. когда его представляют знаменитостям. 2. No one could pass in or out without being seen. Поддерживать устройство в рабочем состоянии нелегко. Tense Indefinite Perfect Active Voice Writing Having written Passive Voice Being written Having been written 1. Товар. 2. Никто не мог войти и выйти незамеченным. так и существительным. (Именное) Увидеть – значит поверить. Дополнение He likes to be introduced to famous people. В нижеприведенной таблице представлены формы герундия.
She denies having spoken with him. Она отрицает, что разговаривала с ним. 3. Однако предшествующее действие не всегда выражается при помощи the Perfect Gerund. Иногда, после глаголов to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank, и после предлогов on, upon, after, without можно также употреблять и the Indefinite Gerund. I don’t remember discussing this problem with Mr. Brown before. 4. После глаголов to want, to need, to deserve, to require, to be worth употребляется герундий в действительном залоге, несмотря на то, что он несет страдательное значение: They were not worth saving. Их не стоило спасать. The advertising campaign wants attending to, no doubt. Несомненно, рекламной кампанией необходимо заняться. Функции герундия в предложении 1. Подлежащее Talking mends no holes. 2. Часть сказуемого (именная) The only remedy for my headache is going to bed. 3. Дополнение I love riding. 4. Определение He was born with the gift of winning hearts. 5.Обстоятельство (всегда с предлогом) After verifying all the documents the parties signed the contract. Употребление герундия 1. После следующих глаголов и идиоматических выражений: To avoid; to burst out; to deny; to enjoy; to excuse; to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise); to finish; to forgive; to give up; to go on; to keep on; to leave off; to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences only); to postpone; to put off; to suggest; cannot help and others. 2. После следующих глаголов с предлогами: To accuse of; to agree to; to approve of; to complain of; to depend on; to feel like; to insist on; to look like; to object to; to persist in; to prevent from; to rely on; to speak of; to succeed in; to suspect of; to thank for; to think of; to look forward to. 103
3. После следующих существительных с предлогом: Opportunity of; chance of; interest in; way of; possibility of; experience in; hope of; reason for; idea of. 4. После следующих выражений с глаголом to be: To be aware of ; to be busy in; to be capable of; to be fond of; to be guilty of; to be indignant at; to be pleased at; to be proud of; to be sure of; to be surprised at; to be worth (while). Сложный герундиальный оборот Сочетание герундия с предшествующим ему притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже называется сложным герундиальным оборотом. Этот оборот как самостоятельная единица может выполнять любые функции в предложении. В зависимости от выполняемой функции сложный герундиальный оборот переводится на русский язык соответствующим придаточным предложением. Например: Her being sent on business to London is quite unexpected to us. –( подлежащее) То, что ее посылают в командировку в Лондон – для нас полная неожиданность. I heard of your friend’s having accepted our offer. – (дополнение). Я слышал, что Ваш друг принял наше предложение. Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) Complex Subject состоит из существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, стоящего после сказуемого. Как правило, этот оборот переводится на русский язык вводным неопределенно-личным предложением. Например: The product is known to be selling well. Известно, что этот товар хорошо продается. She doesn’t appear to have heard the news. Похоже, она не слышала новость. Сложное подлежащее употребляется только после определенных глаголов: 1. To seem, to appear, to prove - в действительном залоге. 2. To think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to know, to mean, to expect, to say, to report, to find - в страдательном залоге. 3. to be sure, to be likely, to be certain.
Причастие ( the Participle) Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола, прилагательного, наречия. В английском языке существуют причастие настоящего времени (Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II). Participle I Participle Active Passive writing being written Indefinite having written having been written Perfect Indefinite Participle (active and passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым. Arranging a summit we faced many problems. Организовывая встречу на высшем уровне, мы столкнулись с множеством проблем. Perfect Participle (active and passive) выражает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом сказуемым. Having written a letter she decided not to post it. Написав письмо, она решила не отправлять его. Функции причастия в предложении В предложении причастие может выполнять следующие функции: 1. Определение: а) перед определяемым словом: The dancing girl was very beautiful. b) после существительных в причастных оборотах, соответствующих определительным придаточным предложениям: Who is that man speaking with my partner? 2. Обстоятельство (в функции обстоятельства соответствует русскому деепричастию): Knowing English well she translated the article without any difficulty. 3. Часть сказуемого: He is watching TV now. 4. Часть сложного дополнения: I heard him being invited to participate in the conference.
Однако замена придаточных предложений причастными оборотами в русском языке возможна только в том случае. When received the amount will be credited to your account. Слушая музыку. чаще всего с союзами when if. как часть сказуемого (в страдательном залоге). 106 . когда подлежащее главного и придаточного предложений совпадают. unless например: The cup broken by you belonged to my sister. От правильных глаголов совпадает с формой Past Simple (V+ed) 2. я работаю в хорошем настроении. I work in high spirits. От неправильных глаголов – 3-я форма (broken. Participle II от непереходных глаголов самостоятельно не употребляется и служит для образования времен группы Perfect. Независимый причастный оборот (the Absolute Participle Construction) Причастные обороты в функции определения и обстоятельства по своему значению эквивалентны придаточным предложениям. Listening to music I work in high spirits. written) Participle II (причастие прошедшего времени) от переходных глаголов соответствует русскому страдательному причастию настоящего или прошедшего времени (shown – показанный) и употребляется в функции определения перед или после существительных. а также в качестве обстоятельства. я работаю в хорошем настроении. Чашка разбитая вами принадлежала моей сестре They were asked to wait. Их попросили подождать. Сравните: Когда я слушаю музыку.Participle II 1. When I listen to music. Когда сумма будет получена ее переведут на Ваш счет.
действие не закончено ) I saw him cross the road. действие закончено) 107 . мы запустили рекламную кампанию. Например: As everything was ready we launched our advertising campaign. как они обсуждали бюджет маркетинга. Так как все было готово. Возможно также употребление причастия. Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) Cложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном и инфинитива. в английском языке есть обороты. (Полнота действия. выполняющего по отношению к ним предикативную функцию. Такие обороты называются независимыми и переводятся на русский язык придаточными обстоятельственными предложениями. Everything launched campaign. We heard them discussing marketing budget. Мы слышали. being our ready we advertising ------------------- Следовательно. что он придет вовремя. имеющие свое собственное независимое подлежащее. Например: We did not expect him to come on time. (Неполнота действия. В этой конструкции причастие выполняет предикативную функцию и служит как бы сказуемым к своему собственному подлежащему. подлежащее которых не совпадает с подлежащим в главном предложении. т.Но в английском языке в отличие от русского возможна замена причастным оборотом и таких придаточных предложений. После глаголов чувственного восприятия инфинитив употребляется без частицы “to”. Я видела как он перешел улицу. т.е. На русский язык переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением.е. Мы не ожидали.
особенно в американском варианте. 108 . The Present Subjunctive (синтетическая форма) Все глаголы в форме Present Subjunctive имеют форму инфинитива без частицы “to”. в современном английском языке. Например: I wish I were a banker! Эх. в научном тексте). наблюдается устойчивая тенденция употреблять также и форму was. Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения состоит из вспомогательных глаголов should. could + инфинитив смыслового глагола. в документах. это будет во благо нашего дела.to be – were – для всех лиц.Сослагательное наклонение (the Subjunctive Mood) Сослагательное наклонение выражает субъективное отношение говорящего к воображаемому или желаемому действию. would. В условном предложении эта форма обозначает нереальное условие. относящиеся к настоящему или будущему. был бы я банкиром! If I were you I should change the job. might. Whatever you may do I hope it‘ll do good to our business. Она также сохранилась в некоторых устойчивых выражениях: Be it so! God forbid! Да будет так! Боже упаси! The Past Subjunctive Форма Past Subjunctive сохранилась только у глагола . may. я надеюсь. Эта форма употребляется для выражения действия в настоящем или будущем (крайне редко в основном в поэзии. Однако. Если бы я был на твоем месте. Остальные глаголы употребляются в Past Simple. Что бы Вы ни сделали. я бы поменял работу.
то в условном предложении будет Past Simple. (Но он сделал) If he had bought those shares in 2000 he would have become a rich man long ago. а в главном предложении should /would + Simple (Indefinite) Infinitive смыслового глагола. 1. я бы не позволила ему ухлестывать за другими женщинами. you would be well now. а в главном предложении should / would + Perfect Infinitive. If they had an opportunity to penetrate other markets they would do it immediately. они бы сделали это немедленно. Если бы он купил те акции в 2000 году. а результат к настоящему или будущему. Если бы я руководствовался только своими интересами. то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect. то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect. If he were my husband I shouldn’t allow him to chase other women. If you had taken your medicine yesterday. 2. 109 . Если условие и результат относятся к прошлому. Если условие относится к прошлому. а в главном – should / would + Perfect Infinitive смыслового глагола. 3. где мы имеем только одну форму сослагательного наклонения. я бы никогда этого не сделал. Когда условие и результат относятся к настоящему или будущему. Если условие относится к настоящему или неопределенному времени.Сложные предложения В отличие от русского языка. If I had consulted my own interests I should have never done it.а в главном . он бы давно стал богатым человеком. а результат к прошлому. 4. к какому времени относится нереальное условие и нереальное следствие. то в условном – Past Simple (Past Subjunctive of “to be”). в английском языке эти формы варьируются в зависимости от того.should / would + Simple Infinitive. Если бы он был моим мужем. Если бы у них была возможность проникнуть на другие рынки.
order. desire. advise. aim. It is necessary that he should have a meeting with his partners. Would употребляется для всех лиц когда: Действие относится к настоящему или будущему и подлежащее главного предложения не совпадает с подлежащим придаточного предложения. idea etc. Подлежащее главного предложения выражено абстрактными существительными wish. propose. 110 . 2. be anxious. После главного предложения типа: it is necessary. it is important… etc. I wish you would stay with me for a while. She opened the window lest it should be stuffy in the room. to see to it. The company’s aim was that their goods should be sold everywhere. Should употребляется для всех лиц. Если придаточное предложение цели вводится союзом lest (чтобы не). После слов: suggest. он не спутал бы Вас с вашей сестрой. 3. suggestion. Если бы он не был таким рассеянным. The director orders that everything should be ready by Monday. когда: 1.If he were not so absent-minded he wouldn’t have mistaken you for your sister. 4. I wish we would wait for her.
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