Московская финансово-промышленная академия

Варенина Л.П.

The English Language of Marketing

Москва, 2005

Варенина Л.П. The English Language of Marketing / Московская финансово-промышленная академия, М., 2005 г., 110 с.

© Варенина Л.П., 2005 © Московская финансово-промышленная академия, 2005


Содержание Предисловие..................................................................................................... 4 UNIT ONE. THE SCOPE OF MARKETING.................................................. 5 UNIT TWO. PRODUCT PLANNING ........................................................... 12 UNIT THREE. PRODUCT POLICY: WHAT SELLS .................................. 20 UNIT FOUR. CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION ......................................... 29 UNIT FIVE. PRICING ................................................................................... 39 UNIT SIX. COMMUNICATION: PROMOTION & SELLING ................... 49 UNIT SEVEN. FROM MAKER TO USER................................................... 60 UNIT EIGHT. RESEARCH ........................................................................... 70 UNIT NINE. THE FUTURE OF MARKETING ........................................... 82 GRAMMAR REFERENCE............................................................................ 93


Предисловие Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса специализирующихся в области маркетинга. Целью данного пособия является отработка навыков чтения и понимания специального текста, усвоение терминологической лексики данной области специализации и грамматической структуры текста. Пособие содержит оригинальные тексты по маркетингу, отражающие специфику лексики данного подъязыка и грамматические структуры типичные для специального текста. Пособие содержит 9 разделов, грамматический справочник, руководство по изучению данного материала, рабочую программу. В каждый раздел (Unit) включены упражнения на закрепление лексического и грамматического материала, вопросы для дискуссии. В уроках также предлагаются темы для сочинений и устных докладов, ролевые игры, case study. Разнообразие упражнений позволяет использовать их выборочно по каждому тексту с учетом уровня подготовки студентов.


UNIT ONE. THE SCOPE OF MARKETING Special Terms Advertising Consumerism Costs Distribution Goods and services Merchandising Promotion Retail Surplus Wholesale рекламная кампания защита прав потребителя издержки сбыт товары и услуги политика сбыта; искусство торговли продвижение розничная торговля излишки оптовая торговля Working on the text Read and translate the text The Scope of Marketing It is common knowledge that marketing has lately developed into a separate discipline that is being taught at universities now. When did it really come into existence? This century, last century, or in the Middle Ages? – Wrong on all three counts. The transfer of goods from one person to another was probably one of our earliest social acts. Whether through violence or barter, this transfer established that few people can satisfy all their desires alone. The inability to produce everything desired creates reliance on others for both necessities and luxuries. As societies grow more complex, so does the transfer of goods. The basic motive for trading is that someone has something you want more than what you already have. When that someone is willing to exchange what you want for what you have, a mutually satisfactory transaction can be arranged. Generally speaking, then, trade is the exchange of surplus items for shortages of items. The reasons for having surplus items range from geographic and resource variations to division and amount of labor, skill variation, and differences in taste. One group or person may create a surplus of some product in the hope of profitably exchanging it for other products. As society and production expanded, so did the limits of trade, the range of goods, and the distance between the traders. It became increasingly difficult for the producers to locate each other and arrange mutually satisfactory exchanges without the help of intermediaries or "middlemen." These intermediaries, in the role of bringing together interested parties, must perform a variety of tasks which can be called marketing. As defined by the American Marketing Association, marketing is "the performance of business activities directed toward, and incident to, the flow 5

of goods and services from producer to consumer or user " Marketing, therefore, is made up of such physical activities as transporting, distributing, storing, and selling goods, and of the decisions which must be reached by individuals or groups who want to move goods from production to use. Of course, not all producers engage in every marketing activity. The local carpenter in Guatemala or the supermarket manager in Japan does not do product planning; most retail stores around the world have few or no storage facilities. However, most products are repeatedly subjected to all marketing operations. In addition to an analysis of these activities, marketing involves understanding the consumer circumstances and attitudes that determine why certain people want certain products. Marketing trends, activities, and organizations are constantly changing and developing. In the role of bringing together interested parties, the intermediary may also be involved in grading, financing, assembling, packaging, refining, or altering the form of the goods Indeed, a large portion of the working population in many countries is involved in some form of marketing. In West Germany today, for example, manufacturing and the marketing activities of retail and wholesale trade account for one-third of the national income, while twenty-five percent of the work force is engaged in full-time marketing activities. The contribution of marketing to society is a subject of controversy among economists. Contributions such as refining, transporting, assembling, and packaging are considered productive; speculating, storing, accepting commissions, and merchandising activities such as advertising are considered parasitic and of little value to society The general belief is that prime costs of distribution should be eliminated and supplemental cost excesses should be reduced. Supplementary costs of distribution such as packaging, storing, and selling are generally considered to be continuations of the production process, and are thus acceptable as an added value to the product. In the free enterprise system, the full range of marketing activities operates with little control. Other more controlled economies regulate and limit some of these functions. Capitalist economies do acknowledge that marketing has its excesses, as in cases where a product is stored for an undue period of time merely to raise the price. Consumerism has arisen out of a belief that consumers have rights which are often abused. People like consumer advocate Ralph Nader have fought to have laws enacted which would protect these rights. On the whole, however, functions can continue only if they perform a service and fulfill a need. If unnecessary marketing activities raise the cost of goods above that of the competition, the product will be priced out of the market. The corollary to this is that marketing functions will only produce a profit—the basic motive for doing business—if they provide a service worth the money. It is argued that almost all marketing activities thus contribute to the real value of a product. Whether or not this is true, the aim of this text is to 6

To perform a variety of tasks. and to whom? Although marketing activities have expanded tremendously in the past hundred years. To match Sellers and Buyers. there was little formal study of them until the past few decades. marketing directs the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers or users. and many other services must also be marketed to be used. marketing activities account for more than half the cost of the product to the consumer. Today. Vocabulary notes Prime costs of distribution: Costs or expenses that arise because of the process of buying and selling or a conversion of the form of the product. goods in all but the most primitive societies must be marketed. A mutually satisfactory transaction was desirable. What is the role of an intermediary? To make interested parties produce some product together. Indeed. B or C for 1 –6 below 1. In many countries. Supplementary costs of distribution are costs or expenses which add to the value of a product because they are a continuation of the production process. B. Marketing is not confined to one particular type of economy. 7 . A.explore those marketing activities and functions which do exist and which are practiced. in general. People were violent. there are many publications on the various aspects of marketing and colleges give courses and degrees in this field. We have noted that. There is general agreement among marketing people that. People were unable to produce everything themselves. 2. Schools. in many cases and countries. Comprehension Tick the correct answer A. libraries. Marketing research has developed into a highly specialized activity employing tens of thousands of people around the world. B. those engaged in marketing activities outnumber those engaged in manufacturing or production. a broader concept of marketing does not limit its application to business enterprises. The transfer of goods took place because: A. how much and what kinds? What prices should be set? Will it sell. C. The following questions face those involved in marketing: How should the product be designed? How should it be packaged? What retail and/or wholesale channels should be used? Is advertising advisable? If so. hospitals. C.

излишки. Storing and selling goods. B. e) products.___4_____ must be conceived. 5. общее мнение. d) non-profit. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Насилие. The same. Nothing is mentioned about it. 4. aspires to profit or ____2____objectives. Buyers must be found. priced. нарушать права потребителя.___5___ and distributed. сборка. How expensive are marketing activities to the ultimate consumer: They don’t cost much. C. неспособность. зависимость. производство. нехватка. Change the form of the words where necessary. сделка. Marketing is: A. Promoting goods and services from producer to user. предметы первой необходимости. More than those involved in production. the basic marketing process will be the same. A. g) bringing together Whether a firm is large or small. B. A. C. C. Less than those involved in production.____1_____ a tangible or intangible product. 8 . посредник. устраивать. To both. Uncontrollable factors such as differing economic and___6_____ conditions must be taken into account in ___7_____ buyers and products____8_____. a) promoted. Understanding consumer circumstances. очистка. разделение труда. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the list below. We can apply the term “marketing”: Only to business enterprises. Only to non-profit organizations. прибыль. сортировка. f) competitive. предметы роскоши. B. B. c) markets. торговля. b) domestic. In many countries the number of people involved in marketing activities is: A.3. 6. or sells in______3____ or international markets. C. They double the price of the product.

9 . Движение в защиту прав потребителя возникло из убеждения. Права иностранных граждан в этой стране всегда ущемляли. Consumers’ rights often (to abuse). If unnecessary activities raise the cost of the goods above the competition level the product (to price out) of the market. 7. Green-marketing strategies (to develop) by many companies now to attract customers. Exercise 3 Open the brackets using the correct tense 1. The price for this product ( not to set) yet. 5. A passive construction is used when the action itself is more important than the doer of the action or when we focus on information. 5. Last century in West Germany twenty five per cent of the work force (to engage) in full-time marketing activities. Маркетинг – это вид коммерческой деятельности. Десятки тысяч людей по всему миру заняты в маркетинговых исследованиях. Exercise 4 Translate from Russian into English. Роль посредника заключается в том. 3. что потребители имеют свои права.Grammar Revision : The Passive Voice We form the passive by using the appropriate tense of to be + a past participle. 4. а дополнительные издержки сокращены. Эта компания готова заключить взаимовыгодную сделку. financing. 3. Мы постоянно совершенствуем политику сбыта. assembling or packaging. 8. An intermediary may (to involve) in grading . Their new telephone equipment (to market) more imaginatively this season. Most goods repeatedly ( to subject) to all marketing operations. направляющий поток товаров и услуг от производителя к потребителю или пользователю. The new marketing plan (to approve) already by the top managers. 9. 6. которые часто нарушают. making use of the vocabulary of the lesson 1. 2. We also use passive when describing a process or procedure or writing in formal style. 2. 7. Общее мнение маркетологов заключается в том. 8. что основные издержки сбыта должны быть устранены. чтобы свести вместе заинтересованные стороны – покупателя и продавца. 6. 4.

merchandise. usually in small quantities E Different activities to make and attract a profitable demand for a product. 10 . Goods 2.9. чем розничная. What is the role of an intermediary or "middleman" in the process of trade? 4. F The planning and promotion of sales through attractive publicity G A fee. List some of the major marketing operations. Merchandising 9. В системе свободного предпринимательства маркетинговая деятельность слабо контролируется. Barter 3. The amount which is greater than what is used or needed B.Retail 7. упаковка – эти виды деятельности считаются продуктивными. products Discussion 1. wares. How did the practice of trade begin? What was the motive for trading? 2. Автомобиль не роскошь. Существует мнение. а средство первой необходимости для современного делового человека.Commission 11. транспортировка. Очистка. 11. что оптовая торговля приносит больше прибыли. 12. The work provided for others as an occupation or business C. Wholesale 8. Services 6. Marketing 5. frequently based on a percentage of the sales price. A social movement which seeks to protect the rights and powers of consumers D The sale of goods to ultimate consumers. What are some reasons for the existence of surplus items? 3. Surplus 4. paid to agents H The sale of goods in large amounts to jobbers or retailers I Trade or exchange of goods or services without the use of money J Buying and selling with the expectation of profiting from anticipated price changes K Articles of trade and commerce. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. сборка. Speculating 10. 10.Consumerism A.

8. право) necessity предмет первой необходимости luxury предмет роскоши division of labor разделение труда range сущ диапазон. Give an example of an "excess" in marketing. изучать to set a price устанавливать цену to confine ограничивать.5. Is use of the term "marketing" limited to business enterprises? 12. круг гл. строго придерживаться 11 . – нарушать (права) to price out вытеснять с рынка из-за (неконкурентноспособной цены) corollary вывод. сфера. 14. простираться intermediary посредник (син. 10. ant. free enterprise system система свободного предпринимательства. Vocabulary violence to transfer насилие перемещать. controlled economy ант. What is consumerism? 9.контролем to acknowledge признавать to abuse плохо обращаться. What is the difference between retail and wholesale? 13. область. классифицировать. Give examples of wholesale operations. Give examples of retail stores in your community. заключение. – jobber. передавать (имущество. broker) incident to свойственный. отвечать за ч-л. Summarize the major questions that marketing people around the world ask with regard to the goods their firms or organizations produce. Do all producers engage in all marketing activities? Why? 6. страны с жестким гос. радиус действия. результат to explore исследовать. распространяться. Why are certain marketing functions subjects of controversy among some economists? 7. How important are marketing activities to the cost of goods to the consumer? 11. зд. присущий product planning планирование и разработка товара to account for объяснять ч-л.

UNIT TWO. Historically. at least. what they want to buy. marketing determines what products and services are to be offered. marketers have to decide which needs they want to meet. when. marketing experts were supposed to sell any product in any way possible. Elaborate techniques of research have been developed to supply this information. and where they want to buy it. how. Of course. The buyers must have money to spend and a willingness to spend it. PRODUCT PLANNING Special Terms Marketing research Competition New product issues Маркетинговые исследования Конкуренция Вопросы производства новых товаров Product planners Плановики производства. The first step in marketing is to understand these groups. The techniques of marketing research have now given marketers new ways to learn and analyze the needs and wants of consumers. The marketers must determine the number of buyers. A concept for a product or service may develop long before any marketing research is done. In part. or a product or service they themselves are willing to trade. where individuals or organized groups who want to buy goods or services meet people who want to sell them. at what price and what they expect from it. The sellers must have what the buyers want. товарный ряд Sales pitch Направленная реклама (навязчивое предложение товара) Sales force Торговый персонал Research and development (R &D) Отдел научных исследований и разработок Input Исходная информация Style Стиль Fashion Мода Working on the text Read and translate the text Product Planning Marketing starts in a market. or it may be a response to identifying need. They can now play a critical role in determining what—as well as how—to 12 . разработчики товара Merger Слияние Product line Ассортимент.

Lipstick and nail polish sales rise when their manufacturers add perfume to the line." The product planners try to determine whether there will be a demand for a given product. greater value. Prime considerations are the similarity of the proposed product to the existing product line of the company. deciding on the size. Volkswagen of Germany. and packaging. for example. a product is new if it is unique—a "first"—or if it is new for the manufacturer who is entering the market to challenge the existing competition. marketing managers must consider the full range of effects the products will have on the business. and if so. and resources? How strong is the competition? The commitment of a company's energies and funds may be farreaching. and the resources of the firm. Regardless of the motivation for new or additional products. At the same time. All products were new at one time. Marketing managers then. skills. appearance. working closely with top management. integrate these predictions with an analysis of all the areas of the business which will be affected. They ask if the regular sales methods are appropriate and if the new products can be linked to others in the line. Marketing people determine if the products are suitable for distribution through normal or existing channels. how much. Does the firm possess the capacity and the funds to enter into the new product area? What are the existing marketing strengths. the existing sales pitch is easily integrated. and libraries seem to lend more books when they also offer records. or if it has had enough substantial design modifications to make it a new product issue. Scrutiny may reveal opportunities to increase sales by offering customers more functional products. Additional products added to the line may reduce certain costs by more fully utilizing the firm's production or marketing capabilities. merchandising includes selecting the products to be produced. form. Professional marketing managers know that appraising new products and changing an existing product line are ongoing processes. introduced three entirely new models in a few years in an attempt to fill the needs of a more affluent market seeking different qualities in an automobile. more prestige. greater convenience. or some combination of these qualities. and films to the community. There are many motivations for constant surveillance of the product line. paintings. Most large companies now produce only what their market researchers tell them will profitably sell. The airline which gets into the business of car rental for its passengers requires minimal extra cost while making fuller use of its personnel and company resources. Sometimes a new product will enhance those already in the line. They make whatever changes are necessary 13 . Today.market. the similarity to the competition's products. Not only may substantial investments be required to develop and market new products. and "having the right goods at the right place at the right time at the right price. For the manufacturer. but contracts or even mergers with other firms may be necessary.

some new products appeal to previously untapped markets. B. taking into account the style. the firm's marketers were presented with new and complex problems. Marketing a new product is always a gamble. some firms invest large sums on new product research and development. Cooperation with other companies. The failure rate for this approach is high. What products and services to offer. the only major question is whether or not the product will result in additional sales or merely siphon off sales from existing company products. After deciding to produce a product. The marketers must determine: A. as leaders in a field. At one extreme.in the promotion or advertising policies. 14 . When Pierre Cardin introduced its first products for women. so not all companies have such inclinations. for example. and complexity of the product. relying on price as its only important sales advantage. But when the major soft drink manufacturers added low-calorie diet sodas to their line. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. In a less expensive way. The number of buyers. fashion. It is between these two extremes that most marketers find themselves. This kind of business has low overhead and usually manufactures large volumes at low cost. While pioneering is risky. B or C for 1 – 5 below: 1. The capacity and the funds of the company. Trusting that. B. quality. a specialized sales force was required and unfamiliar promotion and pricing problems arose. saw their products' sales rise with a proportionate dip in sales of their canned produce. using the distribution channels previously developed and the same price and advertising appeals. the planners carefully weigh all of the input. C. a new product will be sold to current customers by the existing sales force. In contrast. while carefully thinking out the costs of production and the final pricing. The decision to produce a new product may sometimes result in: A. C. 2. some firms monitor the product development of others to see if an item is demonstrably salable. they will reap rewards for being first. Distribution channels were different. Similar to this approach is the strategy wherein firms spend nothing on research and development and introduce products only into mature markets. but information and planning greatly reduce the risk of failure. Frozen vegetable marketers. The willingness to spend money. packaging. Settling on a final design involves many processes. An analysis of all the areas. new sales were generated without detriment to the existing line. In this case. some firms seek to develop and market radically new products.

4. c) costs. A. If you can find nothing 15 . so you pick a spot that is inherently___5_____ to your company. They want to sell a lot of cheap products. More fully utilizing the firm’s capabilities means: Only enlarging the product line. определять. Fuller use of the personnel and company resources. удовлетворять потребности более богатого рынка. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. If your___6_____ are not the lowest in the industry. d) efforts. To reduce the sales of the major product line. g) motivated. B. B. тщательно разработанные методики исследования. финансовые и моральные затраты компании. They hope to find a lucrative nich. C. don’t pick low prices. Neither. The reason that some firms invest large sums on new product research and development is: A. b) need. Only introducing a unique product. h) organization. искусство торговли. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Желание. To siphon off sales means: To generate additional sales. why should your product be the one he or she___3____? Answering that question focuses your___4____ on where you make contact with your customers. don’t pick customer service. f) advantageous. Change the form of the words where necessary. e) selects. 5. As the customer considers acting on that need. i) buying The act of___1_____ starts with a customer___2____. тщательно взвесить исходную информацию. пожинать лавры первенства. C. B. They believe they will reap rewards for being first . издержки производства. If your people are not the best and most___7_____. A. a) distinguish. C. It is your choice.3. бросать вызов существующей конкуренции.

4. Sometimes customs clearance______ be difficult to obtain. pick something and make yourself better at that “something” than anyone else. There will be a delay in solving this problem. Exercise 4 Use the correct modal verb: 1. otherwise the company would not have increased the production. If we outsourced more we _______ save a lot of money. a) must b) may c) should 5. The company _______ have launched the entirely new product. a) must b) may c) could 3. They must have sold everything. will are auxiliary verbs that express the speakers’ judgement about the likelihood or desirability of a situation. 5. 2. Their product ________ be selling very well. a) must b) may c) can 4. The buyers must have money to spend and the willingness to spend it. Grammar Revision: Modal Verbs Modal verbs must. a) mustn’t b) may not c) couldn’t 16 . Scrutiny _______ reveal opportunities to increase sales. 3.that___8_____ you from the competition. Exercise 3 Explain the meaning of the modal verbs in the sentences given below: 1. may. They could have launched their new product 3 months ago. All modals can express probability or possibility as well as obligation or willingness. a) may b) must c) is 2. A concept for a product or service may develop long before any marketing research is done. ought. can. or it may be a response to identifying need. should. For more information see § 3 of the Grammar Reference.

Sales force 4. 4. чтобы разработать и продать новый товар. 3. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. intended to persuade people to buy a certain product or service F.Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the active vocabulary.A group of products that are closely related because they function in a similar manner. Чтобы получить необходимую информацию касательно потребностей покупателей. они функционируют сходным образом и продаются тем же группам покупателей. Изменение ассортимента товара . В попытке удовлетворить потребности более богатого рынка производители пытаются предложить своим покупателям больше удобства. 1. Определенные затраты могут быть снижены путем более полного использования производственных возможностей. плановики производства должны тщательно взвесить всю исходную информацию. Группа товаров тесно связанных между собой. больше престижа и более высокое качество. 2. and analyzing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.это постоянно продолжающийся процесс. Input . 9. 10. Вопросы производства новых товаров охватывают такие области как создание стиля. т. Fashion 6. 6. The people engaged in selling the products of a particular organization 17 5. Merger 3. Style A. Sales pitch 2. Некоторые новые товары нацелены на ранее не использованные рынки. Чтобы решить вопрос об окончательной модели будущего товара. delivered personally or through advertising and promotion.Иногда. Those questions surrounding a decision to produce a new product. The rivalry between businesses for the same customers or market E. его упаковки и т. 8. C. но и слияние с другими компаниями.д. The line of reasoning. необходимы не только значительные инвестиции. 5. надо тщательно разработать методику исследования. The systematic gathering. называется ассортиментом. имеющий значительные модификации в своей конструкции. улучшение качества товара. Бросить вызов существующей конкуренции может только уникальный товар или товар.к. recording. 7. B. or fall within given price ranges. D.

New product I. 7. Do sales of one product ever siphon off sales from the company's other line. 2.G. Product line K. sales force. 13. What are the major decisions which must be made after the decision to introduce a new product? Role play 1. What are some of the major problems for a firm entering a previously untried market? 11. Give an example. How does marketing affect product planning? What was marketing's historic role? 3. List the prime considerations in this process. and promotion policies of a company? 9. The usable information bearing on understanding an issue or solving a problem research 7. The legal combining of two or more business enterprises into a single entity 8. 10. Competition 10. What questions should you ask? What kinds of input do you need in order to fulfill your task? 18 . The design of a product. Marketers must consider the effects of a new product on the company's business. You are a marketing manager for a firm that makes home carpets. What must product planners try to determine while considering the introduction of a new product? 6. Marketing J. What does merchandising mean to the manufacturer? 5. created to appeal to more or less permanent criteria of what is acceptable Discussion 1. Describe the role of marketing in relation to those who buy or use goods or services. The president asks you to develop a program to merchandise curtains and drapes. Why do some firms develop and market radically new products? 12. Describe two approaches to introducing a new product. What makes a product "new"? 4. How might the introduction of a new product affect the distribution. Give some reasons or motivations to alter or add to a product line. 8. What type of business would tend to avoid spending money on product research? 14. The currently accepted style or the custom of the moment issues 9.

обнаруживать богатый. c) A product or service introduced to offer greater convenience and value to its users. Vocabulary Willingness to determine elaborate techniques identify response challenge integrate commitment appraise scrutiny reveal affluent capabilities research and development department желание определять тщательно разработанный методика отождествлять. Give examples of goods or services from your country which describe the following: a) A product or service redesigned frequently for reasons of fashion. исследование открывать. реакция вызов интегрировать. изобильный возможности отдел научных исследований и разработок 19 . разоблачать. b) A product or service which enhances the value of other products or services in a company's line. узнавать ответ.2. идентифицировать. включать обязательства оценивать внимательный осмотр.

Think of the variety of styles and features offered consumers. Marketers must know what attracts customers and keeps them. From refrigerators to religions. Some design elements. PRODUCT POLICY: WHAT SELLS Special Terms Sales appeal Trend Taste Quality Feedback Quality control Consumer goods Target market Positioning Trading up Brand Brand name Trademark товарный вид тенденция вкус качество обратная связь контроль качества потребительские товары целевой рынок позиционирование. or improving established ones. this may not be evident for a variety of reasons. they compete for customers in a world which is growing not only in size but in sophistication and complexity. Additional uses and styles should be incorporated to supplement the basic value. знак или символика. may add nothing to the basic utility of the 20 . One of the goals should be to benefit the consumer. such as more jewels or special bands. as well as the producer. and must respond accordingly. Whether designing new products. Take watches. for example. The product should be designed to function as efficiently as possible in relation to its price and use. paying special attention to the use of the Infinitive. размещение товара на рынке сбыта повышение цены за счет улучшения качества брэнд (название. Even if one product is clearly superior to another. отличающая товар к-л производителя или продавца) наименование.UNIT THREE. название товара торговая марка Working on the text Read and translate the text below. Product Policy: What Sells Few products or services offered today are simple to market. there are certain basic objectives. This element of variation increases the functions of the product as well as attracting particular segments of the market. redesigning old ones.

on the other hand. are highly visible prestige items. better oriented. sizes.watch. All these elements influence the breadth of the product line. 21 . from clothing to entertainment. More dollars are actually involved in sales to industrial buyers than to consumers. A style may or may not be a fashion at any given time: it becomes a fashion only when widely accepted. In the United States. They will. more profitable marketing practices are developed. They use these results to produce products that they hope will sell. add to sales appeal at the point of purchase and further expand the potential market. at some point. This is called industrial marketing. Questions of quality are thus carefully considered in the process of deciding what to buy and what to sell. This element is basic to all kinds of products and services. While marketers are not directly involved in production activities. culminates when large numbers follow it. marketers must also look at the potential size of a market. Fashion designers. so salt comes in limited types and packages. more homogeneous segments. more than $1 trillion of such income is generated annually. consider the breadth of their product line—how many different items to offer. Quality is a judgment made by both manufacturers and customers. and classes. Target marketers believe that in most product areas the market is composed of widely dissimilar submarkets. image is unimportant to the consumer. naturally. Maintaining quality in a product adds to the cost of production and to final price. try to influence public taste. Many businesses have developed methods for scrutinizing the trends of sales in their special fields. Marketing managers must. Sometimes the marketer's job is almost entirely to gauge fashion trends. In addition to marketing "finished" goods to consumers. and at the resources available. A fashion has its beginning when a few people are influenced by it. most automobile manufacturers offer a wide choice of models and options. and declines when it is abandoned by its following. Cars. a producer is able to reach for parts of the market that would be unavailable if the pattern or product were single or limited. businesses also market industrial goods and services to other businesses. Determining where to position particular products is an important marketing decision. By selecting smaller. Fashion is a manifestation of group psychology and is. they do receive the feedback on product acceptance. For this reason. By designing consumer goods in various models. quality control is important to the entire merchandising process. Educated consumers consider more than comparative prices. In products like table salt. it is important to focus a marketing strategy on target customers. One of the vital factors in merchandising is the ability to cope with fashion. however. at the financial position and practices of their firm. When deciding questions of diversification and simplification. difficult to predict. Regardless of the type of good. at best.

This practice has grown tremendously. the trademark for the petroleum jelly produced by Chese-brough-Ponds. Because of their importance as short cuts to the customer's memory. Inc. so that elegant department stores such as Bloomingdales do it as well as supermarkets like the A&P. In mergers. Ideally. in this example. Changes in format. A paper products company may market all its products—tissues. It identifies merchandise and differentiates it from competing products. they arrange to sell manufacturers' products under their private brand. the price will be raised. This process is known as trading up. Vaseline. When a manufacturer sells more than one product. These dealers don't actually produce the goods. dish detergent. particularly large ones. or editorial policy can appeal to the same consumer interests that buy the leader If. In addition to positioning with respect to consumer segments. and sometimes considered more important. and scouring powder will all be labeled with different brand names. The hand soap. there is a brand choice issue. but later may be repositioned as a family product. are trademarks. like department stores and supermarkets. A firm which merchandises many types of soap may choose individual brands for each of its products. deals with brands. The opposite policy is that of family branding. the result is also to appeal to a market which is more affluent and more qualityconscious. In recent years distributors. emphasis. A magazine publisher may wish to position a publication so as to challenge the leader in a given market. toilet paper— under one recognizable brand name. towels. and their legal protection to assure exclusivity. wellestablished trademarks have a large cash value. Another aspect of product policy. some well-known trademarks have been valued at millions of dollars. Some carry manufacturer's brands only. this occurs when consumers are so satisfied with the merchandise that they note and remember the brand.An item such as deodorant may be introduced specifically as a men's or women's product. Many people refer to any petroleum jelly as "Vaseline. The marketer hopes for sales stability due to consumer loyalty to the brand. while others carry a combination of manufacturer's brands and their own. marketing managers position their products with respect to the competition. Branding is commonly used by marketers to influence consumers' perceptions and is closely related to the issue of positioning. clothes detergent. have been branding products.. many trademarks have almost eclipsed the name of the manufacturer. Closely related to brand identification. is such an example. napkins. Through constant use on packages and in advertising. particularly relevant to consumer goods marketers." 22 .

What is the purpose of branding? A. the target market and the resources available.Comprehension Tick the correct answer A. challenging the leader. because they have to cope with fashion. 3. the financial position only. to make the company famous. B. to function efficiently. C.B or C for 1 – 6 below 1. offering high-quality. B. because fashion is difficult to predict. What is trading up? A. C. The product is to be designed: A. Why is it the marketer’s job to gauge fashion trends? A. to satisfy consumers with attractive brand names. 4. to meet the requirements of the producers. The feedback on product acceptance is important for: A. The breadth of the product line of a company depends on: A. consumers to consider comparative prices B. the quality control. C. 23 . C. B. because they must offer their customers а variety of styles. B. deciding questions on diversification and simplification. positioning products with respect to the competition. 6. to identify merchandize and differentiate it from other products. B. C. expensive goods to affluent markets. 2. C. to benefit both the manufacturer and the consumer. 5. the entire merchandising process.

or moving from one____3____ and tested category to an allied one. g) brand names. f)core value. voice and aspect distinctions. однородный. nominal and verbal. характеристики. готовый товар. The Continuous Infinitive denotes a simultaneous action in progress. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. оценивать. b) extension. e) to expand. отказываться от ч-л. затмевать.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Реагировать. Grammar Revision: The Infinitive The Infinitive is a non-finite form of the verb that has a double nature. требовательный к качеству. the elastic can snap and the____8____ of the name becomes devalued as some companies have found to their cost. раскрученная торговая марка. 24 . taking out fat or sugar. Dunhill was the first___6____ the power of its brand name and has___7____ successfully a luxury goods empire. отождествление. But some companies have___4___ into new and unexpected areas. hard-pressed marketing directors in the food industry offered consumers more choice by adding new flavours. During the__2_____. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive include tense. в отношении. The indefinite infinitive (active and passive) expresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb. d) recession. моющее средство. h) to build up Brand ___1____has become valuable in the past five years. c) tried. a) to recognize. Change the form of the words where necessary. For more info see § 4 of the Grammar Reference. Among them are tobacco companies – which by moving into sectors like luxury goods and closing keep their____5___ in the mind of the public despite stringent regulations on advertising. But if you stretch a brand too far. пополнять. модельеры. Its nominal character is manifested in the syntactic functions.

символ или знак. 8. 5. создаваемого рекламой. They couldn’t (to launch) an entirely new model within such a short period of time. If a product is (to position) against a competitor. a lot of things should (to take) into consideration.Exercise 3 Explain the functions of the infinitive in the following sentences: 1. 25 . 5. We intended to have signed the contract. As we understood our competitors meant (to introduce) a new style but I don’t think they succeeded. (To gauge) fashion trends correctly the marketer has to do a lot of market research. отвечающих потребностям рынка. 7. 3. Торговая марка – это официально зарегистрированное название. идентифицирующий товар или услугу. 4. Вы думаете. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. либо посредством его основных характеристик. 3. Стратегия маркетинга часто сфокусирована на целевом покупателе. Questions of quality are carefully considered in the process of deciding what to buy and what to sell. 6. 5. Размещение товара на рынке может происходить либо посредством имиджа. They use the results to produce product that they hope will sell. 4. 7. Модельеры часто стараются повлиять на вкус потребителя. To market a new product is not as easy as it may seem. 2. получаемая от потребителей через мониторинг данного товара. Ваша фирма способна правильно оценить тенденции в моде? 2. They happened at the moment to be packing the goods. 3. 6. 2. Жизненно важный фактор маркетинга – идти в ногу с модой. The advertising campaign to be launched is under discussion now. 4. They were happy (to run) the company for 10 years so effectively. Плановики производства пытаются определить будет ли спрос на новый товар и какие затраты энергии и средств потребуются компании. 9. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the infinitive: 1. The product (to design) is to function efficiently. Think of supplemental features which might be added to help a product appeal to a new market. Обратная связь – это информация. Исследование и разработка новых товаров требует больших вложений. 6.

13. feedback D. that which we deem to be tasteful or in good taste is perceived as superior. 2. A name.10. Если производитель производит более одного вида товаров. symbol. The strategy of raising a product's price by improving its quality or image 4. harmonious. figure. trading up F. continuous inspection. quality B. 26 . symbol. The manner in which a product is aimed at specific consumer segments or needs. sign. A general course or prevailing tendency. Очень трудно быть конкурентноспособным на богатом. 11. The sense. Those qualities in a product or its presentation which interest potential customers and stimulate them to buy 8. Those goods meant for use in producing other products 9. The population of customers to whom an organization directs its marketing strategy 5. taste G. letter. the recognized direction of a style. term. Items such as food and clothing produced for the final consumer. or beautiful. 7. 11. target market I. either through its basic characteristics or through the image created by its promotion 6. то здесь возможно повышение цены за счет улучшения качества. or design. trademark E. 12. он может присвоить индивидуальное наименование каждому из своих товаров или единое название для всей совокупности товаров. word. Если потребители данного рынка более требовательны к качеству товара. consumer goods J. включая финансовое положение фирмы и наличие ресурсов. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. sales appeal C. of what is fitting. quality control K. shared by homogenous groups. Industrial goods A. Чтобы принять решение по производству новых товаров. маркетологи должны учитывать ряд проблем. 10. The officially registered name. насыщенном рынке. The system of maintaining a desired level of quality in each item by careful planning. or mark identifying a product or service 3. trend H. use of proper equipment. or a combination of them which identifies the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers. and corrective action where required.

Are they cheaper than manufacturer's brands of the same kind of product? Are they usually as well made? As well publicized? As tastefully packaged? 19. in advertising. 5. Why might a product be repositioned after it has been introduced onto the market? 16. 27 . it usually refers to superior attributes or excellence in a product or service. positioning L. or correcting errors. 8. 15. think of supplemental features which might be added to help a product appeal to a wider market. Discussion 1. of a product? 2. What is the major role of a product's trademark? 20. M. What are the trademarks of some products marketed in your country? 21. What is the role of branding in marketing? 17. 18. What role does taste play in response to these attempts? Give some examples from your country 7. or usefulness. Why is industrial marketing important? 13. What is the role of marketing in relation to the utility. What further additions might add sales appeal to the example you just chose? 4. Give some other examples of this. What is the theory of target marketing? 10. How does consumer perception of importance influence the extension of the product line? 12. What is the relationship between manufacturers and consumers with regard to a product's quality. brand 13. What questions do marketers ask when considering diversification and simplification? 14. Name some types of goods and services which are affected by fashion trends. Continuous data about a particular item or event for purposes of monitoring. Give an example of this role. What uses do marketers make of the feedback they receive on a product's acceptance? 9.12. Give some examples of distributor's brands. What are the advantages of broadening a product line? 11. controlling. The character or nature of a particular thing. Give a specific example of a family brand and of individual brands. Vaseline is given as an example of a product whose trademark has almost eclipsed the name of its manufacturer. Some marketers attempt to introduce a fashion or style. Give an example of an auto or auto rental product which has been positioned against a competitor. How does a new fashion come about? How does a particular fashion rise and fall in popularity? 6. 3.

изобильный требовательные к качеству отличаться моющее средство слияние затмевать . Does it offer a wide variety of meals or a limited menu? Why? Is it positioned against any other restaurants in the same neighborhood? Has it changed its image since it opened? Has the clientele remained the same? D. совладать. entertainment. Why did you do both of these? C. Focus on a product which you yourself wear. do you think it was adequate? How might it be improved. then rejected. What is its basic utility? Does it have any supplemental features which persuaded you to buy it? Name them. coffee. соединять дополнять. gasoline. добавлять ценность. Was it functional? In what ways do you think it helped preserve and protect the product? Assuming that a lot of thought went into the package design. стоимость справиться. eat. утонченность. What was it about this item which most attracted you—which aspects of its sales appeal caused you to purchase it? B. Think of your favorite restaurant. List ten consumer goods which you regularly purchase (cigarettes. recreation. jewelry. зд. food. candy. After each type of product. искушенность получать выгоду включать. идти в ногу оценивать мода однородный разнообразие вызов богатый. You probably know many more brand names than you realize. or means of transportation? How do fashion trends in these areas affect you? Think of a fashion trend in one of these areas which you consciously rejected. records). Do you usually adhere to a particular style of clothes. Think of the packaging of the last kitchen product you purchased. list as many brands as you can think of. Vocabulary sophistication to benefit to incorporate to supplement value to cope to gauge fashion homogeneous diversification challenge affluent quality-conscious differentiate detergent merger to eclipse 28 сложность. Think of a trend you once accepted.Review A. What are some of the most widely known trademarks in your country? F. E. or use regularly.

shipments. CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION Special Terms Consumer outlet Channels of distribution Sales representatives Broker Sales territory Marketing mix Franchise Direct mail Discount house Patronage dividend Overhead торговая точка каналы сбыта торговые представители брокер торговая территория «маркетинг микс». Ostia. With the spread of trade. and fish were common. was one of the world's busiest inland markets with its trans-Saharan caravan trade. A growing proportion of the food consumers purchase today is ready to eat or has only to be heated. Overseas purchases. From the time of the Roman mercatus (Latin. By the second century. совокупность затрат на маркетинг франшиза (право на торговлю под известной торговой маркой) почтовая рассылка рекламы магазин. each producer accepts major responsibility for advertising. finding customers.UNIT FOUR. already had large consumer warehouses. Timbuktu. In this type of locale. the town market square has been an important center of commerce where direct transactions between producers and consumers take place. And by the fourteenth century. and distribution of grain. oil. for a public place where sellers and buyers meet). more and more specialized artisans were able to live without growing their own food. Today the trend in marketing food and other commodities is such that most of the preparation is handled in bulk by specialized agencies. bringing together the buyer and seller and facilitating their exchange is the essence of marketing. one of Rome's ports. The opening of the sea routes between Europe and the East Indies stimulated marketing channels for sugar and other tropical goods. торгующий со скидкой патронажный дивиденд (выплачивается акционерам) накладные расходы Working on the text Read and translate the text Channels of Distribution As we have noted. and setting a price. 29 . in the Upper Niger region. Longdistance marketing of textiles and other wares took place along the so-called silk road from China to the Middle East at centers like Samarkand.

and component parts. ball-point pen manufacturers use a policy of extensive distribution for the maximum number of outlets. Policies are formulated not only as to the types of intermediaries. local customs. so do consumer demands. so sellers frequently maintain more direct channels to those users than to the household consumer. Thus. as well as other products. directly to retailers. The product itself most often determines the places for and methods of distribution. pass through numerous channels before being sold at countless consumer outlets. or to retailers through sales representatives. To the merchant. climate. To the supplier of these goods. there are fundamentally just three categories of channels: wholesalers. Larger firms frequently use their own sales force working out of the main offices or branch offices located throughout the sales territory. If they decide to sell to the ultimate consumer through wholesalers who. At the other extreme. Today. the "rule-of-thumb. is that goods go from producers to intermediaries before they get to us. Just as the supplies or goods themselves differ in type. and quality. the interaction of the component parts of the marketing mix is considered in selecting channels. but frequently by legal and political ones as well. the decision as to what goods to select for resale is the key element of merchandising." or normal method. Variations may occur according to season. At one extreme is the policy of exclusive distribution. finding the best channels of distribution is a key problem. retailers. to jobbers. to the customers through sales agents. whether a wholesaler or a retailer. semi-finished products. or state of the economy. sell to retailers. Marketers must decide what methods are best for distributing their particular products. they may also choose intermediaries such as brokers or manufacturers' agents. They may sell directly to customers. The producers of industrial goods face similar decisions. Between these extremes are manufacturers who are variously selective in their channel choices While the entire complex of getting products to users may be complicated for some products or geographic areas. but also as to their numbers. Distributors must adapt the flow of their supplies to such variations. service is usually more important to the industrial product. They are governed not only by economic and social restraints. There are three types of agents employed in marketing channels: 30 . in turn. They may even be marketed all over the world. quantity. Piano manufacturers typically issue franchises to one dealer in a specific region. and agents who may supplement or benefit the other two. Consumer channels sell finished products. Industrial marketing channels feature a large proportion of raw materials. fashion.What this means in practical terms is that many foodstuffs. where one wholesale or retail intermediary is the sole outlet for the product or service in a given territory. Distribution systems develop in such a way as to match the available supplies to the consumers' demands. Distribution channels are an integral part of a complex system that has evolved from cultural and social patterns in order to facilitate exchange transactions.

lumber. They generally work for small firms with no sales staff. Skis will sell better in regions near the slopes than in those far away. 2. play a role as well. Selling agents have the authority to negotiate prices and usually work without territorial limits. because of the many lines of goods they carry. This type of agent sells products like textiles.1. and home furnishings to ice cream. Ranging from jewelry. or for firms entering a new geographic market. Other considerations for specific products might include taste characteristics of the product. questions of reliable or prestigious reputations and sufficient financial standing may enter into the decisions. 31 . they can usually fulfill any demand for their type of product. around the world: Specialty stores usually sell a complete assortment of one line. proximity to associated types of goods and services. books. The first decision in determining channels of distribution is the form it should take. They call on grocery wholesalers for the manufacturers who are their clients and help them make inroads into broader markets. Brokers are essentially used to sell food products. by direct mail. Should a manufacturer of skis sell through retail stores. are actually consolidations of many specialty shops under one roof. for firms carrying products unrelated to their normal line. These are the major types of retailing found. but may stock items in their own warehouses. discount houses. 3. Regional considerations. or a limited number of closely related lines. baked goods. or a combination of these? Even within these types. These agents usually have no authority to set prices. in one form or another. Department stores. metals. and electrical appliances. Manufacturers' agents may work for several different manufacturers and sell part or all of the producers' product line within a sales territory. of course. of merchandise. They represent the entire line of a manufacturer and may render financial assistance to their principals. or both? If retail stores are chosen. what level or type of store: specialty shops. and clothing. coal. department stores. sporting goods stores.

cigarettes. parcel post. five chain supermarkets sell 40 percent of all the food in the country. The overhead is small. and freight services are reliable and economical. These mass distribution organizations save money for themselves and the consumer by buying and selling in large quantities. soft drinks. Chain stores are a group of stores under the same management. The major types of chains specialize in groceries. animal food. in Canada. Usually the sales representative carries a small stock or shows samples. They are practical where catalog printing. gasoline. so the manufacturer does not need extensive storage 32 . notably household items and makeup. they dominate the market. they extend credit and make deliveries. based on volume of purchases over a given period. Merchant wholesalers maintain warehouses. auto supplies. They may carry specialized or diverse lines of products. makes up a large part of the retail business in certain products. They are popular in rural areas. without a personal sales force. drugs. Direct retailing. marketing such items as groceries. and the consumer has the convenience of home shopping. and clothing. Usually. In some product areas.Mail order houses are large operations selling a great range of merchandise directly to consumers by mail. and books are vended in high-traffic areas. takes orders. owned and operated by local groups of farmers or other consumers. and food preparation services. Consumers' cooperatives. populardemand. and makes deliveries later. Candy. or house-to-house selling. standard-quality goods. low-cost. wholesalers buy from manufacturers and suppliers and resell to retailers. Vending machines sell many types of small-sized. are also called "co-ops”. For the most part. Their chief attraction to consumers is the patronage dividend.

or to final industrial or household consumers. B. 5. C. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. Manufacturers' branch offices also function as wholesalers. A drop-shipper is: A. To the supplier the main problem to be solved is: A. An intermediary who doesn’t invest in goods. to retailers. Some have a limited geographic range or sell to a few large customers. What is the trend in marketing commodities today? A. Selling product in a maximum number of outlets. To find the best channels of distribution. they are able to regroup different types of goods into acceptable lots and screen the goods presented by the manufacturers. The entire complex of getting products to users. Another type of wholesaler is the drop shipper. The products are sold directly by manufacturers through numerous consumer outlets. but merely takes orders which the producer or supplier fills directly to the customer. B. 33 . Business-to-business selling. The policy of extensive distribution means: A. 2. B or C for 1-5 below 1. To supply the market by all means. B. C. A company who ship the goods. The goods are marketed through intermediaries. who never takes possession of merchandise. 4. A wholesaler who buys merchandise. 3. In addition to maintaining a sales force. B. They are able to sell to other wholesalers. C. The commodities are marketed all over the world by producers themselves. Wholesale business. A house-to-house selling is a kind of: A. They operate entirely from the factory or central office. Retail business. C. Cash-and-carry wholesalers require customers to transport their own goods and to pay for them in cash. C. What goods to select for resale. Using a sole outlet in a given territory. B.facilities.

and with what support. обрабатывать в больших объемах. and to whom it is to be sold: for example on its design. c)decisions . каналы сбыта. h)warehousing. полномочие. j)wholesalers. i)purchase. include personal selling. price and ___4_____ . прямые продажи. when. the gerund can perform the function of subject. крайность.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Cуть. торговый автомат. b)advertising. People and organizations make___3______ as to how. Grammar Revision: the Gerund The Gerund (verb + ing ) is a non-finite form of the verb that combines nominal and verbal properties. e)marketing mix. f)channels of distribution. and sales promotion. to whom. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. полуфабрикат.____7____. поставщик. place. what to sell. товары – почтой. The verbal characteristics of the gerund include tense and voice distinctions. морские пути. The_____1____ is often summarized as the so called four Ps: product. d)promotion. publicity. сеть магазинов. object. price. and predicative. ____10______and inventory control facilities. ограничение. The ____5_____ that customers pay for products influences the product’s image and the likelihood of ___6______. закупка. конечный потребитель. g)place. Having nominal characteristics. 34 . a)price.___8_____ refers to where the product is made available to market members. For more info see § 5 of the Grammar Reference. склад. Promotion programs. It covers two areas: channels of distribution such as ____9_____ or retailers and physical distribution such as transportation. близость. It can be rendered into Russian either by noun or by verb. накладные расходы. неотъемлемая часть. оказывать финансовую помощь. Change the form of the words where necessary. where. специализированные магазины. designed to persuade the customers to buy the product.___2____.

а также путем рассылки рекламы по почте. Brokers help manufacturers (to make) inroads into broader markets. This job involves analyzing our sales figures. Exercise 4 Use either the Gerund or the Infinitive in the following sentences: 1. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. 35 . Магазины. 6. 2. Совокупность затрат на маркетинг включает в себя стоимость всей программы стимулирования продаж. The problem of selecting channels is considered in relation to the interaction of the components of the marketing mix. They refused (to reduce) the share of semi-finished goods in their export. 8. 3. finding customers. продающие товары со скидкой пользуются большой популярностью. Существует пять основных каналов сбыта: от производителя к потребителю (от двери до двери). The chain stores you are talking about are not worth (to buy). 5. 5. 4. and setting a price. The warehouses need (to attend to) no doubt. 3. The essential job of a marketer is looking for target customers. 4. They launched the product without (to do) the necessary research. Finding the best channels of distribution is a key problem. 3. The clients threatened (to go) to a different company. налоги. такие как: арендная плата. 7. 6. электричество и др. амортизация. 2. Before being sold at countless consumer outlets many goods pass through numerous channels.Exercise 3 Explain the functions of the gerund in the following sentences: 1. Vending machines are good for ( to sell) small inexpensive standard quality items. Their company had difficulty in (to find) a ship dropper. 4. It’s no use (to advertise) these wares: their life cycle is coming to the end. 9. через оптовика и розничного торговца или при помощи дистрибьютера.это оперативные издержки ведения бизнеса. 2. Each producer accepts major responsibility for advertising. Накладные расходы .

5. including rent. 36 . and depreciation but excluding labor and materials. 11) Direct mail K. who in representative turn pay cash and take care of any servicing or repair problems themselves. то Вы можете воспользоваться магазинами. Франшиза – это право продавать товар или вести бизнес по установленному образцу на определенной торговой территории. Those people who represent a company and sell to retailers 4) Overhead D. Для оптовика или розничного торговца ключевым моментом торговли является решение. The operating expenses of running a business. position. 7) Sales territory G. Торговой точкой называется любой рынок. dealers. a merchant. without owning the goods. The permission granted by a manufacturer to a distributor or retailer to sell its products. sales promotion. An agent who buys or sells for someone else. какой товар выбрать для перепродажи. direct selling. 9) Discount house I. or an open-air stall 2) Franchise B. services. 5) Channels of E. through which a commodity product or service is marketed 3) Direct mail C. Если Вы не любите ходить по магазинам. such as a store. insurance. Ваша фирма пользуется адресной рекламой? 8. Услугами брокеров обычно пользуются для продажи продуктов питания. and brokers. 10) Sales J. advertising. Any specific market where consumers buy goods. 9. 6. an agency. продающими товары почтой. A defined region in which a representative or distribution agent can sell a product or service 6) Patronage dividend F. A retail store that cuts prices for customers. electricity. The value of all of a firm's input into a program for stimulating sales: products. and all the channels of distribution. wholesale and retail. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1) Marketing mix A. taxes. A sum of money paid to shareholders or members of a cooperative enterprise out of its earnings. prices. 8) Consumer outlet H. 7. The advertising matter mailed to large numbers of potential customers. где покупатель может приобрести товар. usually confined to a specific sales territory. on a commission or fee basis. The structure of internal and external agents. 10.

3. and point out differences in the channels of distribution. What is the job of a manufacturer's agent? What types of businesses do these agents represent? 9. What is the difference between the policy of exclusive distribution and the policy of extensive distribution. What are co-ops? What types of products do they generally merchandise? 16. 2. What is the most important element of merchandising to the merchant? To the supplier? 5. Name some of the earliest large marketing centers of times past. 8. Why are certain establishments known as specialty stores? 13. Where are vending machines found? What do they sell? 18. How might variations in consumer demands affect distribution of goods? 6. or door-to-door selling? 17. What are some considerations in determining channels of distribution? 12. Why must the marketing mix be considered in the process of selecting channels of distribution? 7. How do mail order houses operate? Where are they practical? 15. What is the difference between a merchant wholesaler and a drop shipper? What are some ways in which the former helps manufacturers? 19. give examples. How is a selling agent different from a manufacturer's agent in terms of price negotiations? In what areas are selling agents prominent? 11. 4. What are cash-and-carry wholesalers? Writing a composition Describe the roles of the various types of agents employed in marketing channels. Use your imagination to briefly trace the route of a bolt of cotton print from the textile factory to your closet. How does a department store resemble a specialty shop? 14. Refer to the chart diagramming the flow of goods to consumers. What use might munitions manufacturers make of agents? 37 . In what areas do brokers usually work? How do they do their jobs? 10.Discussion 1. Are there any advantages of house-to-house. What are the major methods or channels of distribution open to producers.

экстенсивный дополнять оказывать помощь близость специализированный магазины. основное правило конечный крайность обширный. протяжение. разница между себестоимостью и продажной ценой обрабатывать большими объемами. большой.Vocabulary channels of distribution locale to set a price spread to handle in bulk rule-of-thumb ultimate extreme extensive supplement to render assistance proximity specialty mail order houses chain stores vending machines munitions каналы сбыта место действия устанавливать цену распространение. продающие товары почтой сеть однотипных магазинов торговый автомат военное снаряжение ) 38 . в большом количестве приближенный подсчет. кустарный способ.

formulated by the British economist Thomas R. This awareness produces a "normal price" with little variation. в убыток) ценовая война Working on the text Read and translate the text Pricing What is given in exchange for a product or service is its price. According to the law of supply and demand. продающийся по заниженной цене.UNIT FIVE. similar goods tend to have the same market price because the costs of producing and marketing them tend to be similar. for each commodity some price must exist that will cause its supply and demand to be equal. PRICING Special Terms Equilibrium Price control Oligopoly Monopoly Maximization of profits Price fixing Target return Elastic Boycott Fixed cost Break-even point Mark-up Turnover Loss leader Price war равновесие контроль за ценами олигополия монополия максимизация прибыли фиксирование цены запланированная прибыль эластичный бойкот фиксированные издержки точка самоокупаемости наценка товарооборот приманка (товар. they will cut prices. or normal price. In any particular region at a particular time. This average norm is the price toward which market prices theoretically move. They are aware of the range of prices in the past and have a notion of what they will be in the future. Thus any variation from the equilibrium 39 . the seller or producer and the buyer or user agree on the price. based on producers’ costs sad consumers’ needs. Malthus. In other words. The meeting of those who supply or sell with those who demand or buy is how market prices are determined. In the process of this exchange. Even before goods reach the market. Buyers who are looking for sellers will offer to pay higher prices. the willingness of buyers to buy and of sellers to sell generally reveals some price at which the two activities intersect to create the equilibrium. If sellers cannot find buyers. buyers and sellers are generally not too far apart in their ideas of what prices should be.

with the complex issues of unemployment. There must be "like price for like quality and quantity. that is selling the same goods to different buyers at different prices. Even though price fixing is illegal. This competition. therefore. it is relatively easy to do and. by printing the price on the package or announcing the price through advertising. In the strict theory of competition. Prices are assumed to be determined by that automatic mechanism which adjusts prices to bring supply and demand into equilibrium. If they establish a fixed price among themselves. producers or distributors of certain goods want to protect the retail sales of their products against price cutting. so prices cannot be too high unless there is a unique feature or quality. However. the international balance of trade. When there are many suppliers of a standard product. this is the theory. The price is kept stable— and usually low—by the availability of the product. Where a single producer has the entire market. Monopolists often set different prices for markets separated by distance and in those markets which are least responsive to price change. controlled form. In some cases. These price maintenance procedures are regulated by law in most countries. and national priorities. prices may vary widely in spite of the number of producers. If it goes too high. Speculation and price controls are inhibiting factors to this natural process. This increases profitability. Price policy is therefore associated with imperfect competition since marketing-conscious producers will set prices at the lowest unit cost of the most efficient production method to insure the widest market. When goods are considered in the aggregate. the price of a product can be high. A less-than-perfect competitive market occurs when the number of producers is so small that the output of any one of them can cause a change in price. This condition allows for a stable. The producers must still contend with some competition. the amount offered by any one of them has little or no effect on the market price. they can be fined or. however. or oligopoly.price seems to automatically correct itself by market forces which push toward the norm. Usually these measures involve well-known brands or trademarked goods. in extreme cases. the noticeably large profit will encourage others to enter the market. such as war or famine. price policy has no role and individuals do not put prices on their products. At least. the equilibrium will still be reached. the Robinson-Patman Act of 1936 makes any price discrimination illegal. quite common. 40 . competitive market. They set a price below which their product cannot be sold. When a few large producers furnish the entire supply of a given product monopoly exists. allows producers to set prices higher than they could in a more competitive market." The only differences permitted must be based on cost differences or the need to meet competition. closed down. In an abnormal atmosphere. but in an altered. The effect of supply on price depends on the number and size of the suppliers.

" Another key input variable in making pricing decisions is industry demand. Certain products are important to consumers because they are necessities. profit objectives will guide pricing decisions. If the average price of a product is reduced. there are many areas which are not so important. as prices rise. rice to the Japanese cook or gas to the taxi driver Where this is true. the industry demand will be insensitive. Disposing of goods at reduced prices draws attention to the specific brand. Where there are many competitors offering the same type of product. it is said to be inelastic. in the hope that customers will continue to buy when prices return to "normal.Price. where detailed prices are printed and distributed. and promotion. the demand is said to be highly elastic. The marketing manager knows that the costs of the separate elements of the marketing mix can be recovered by proper pricing. The marketing manager must analyze and reconcile the various elements of those variables which influence price. such as an extended vacation at the beach or a night at the 41 . and marketers have little discretionary power to influence prices. The marketing manager has to decide whether to maximize profits or establish a target return. Pricing is extremely important since it so directly affects an organization's sales and profits. price competition will be active. The cost of the product itself—the promotion and selling associated with it. along with product. so that elasticity of demand for a product may be greater over a longer time period. On the other hand. It is in this circumstance that marketers and merchants alike look to sales techniques. products tend to lose their individuality. influences may cause fluctuation. consumers will be forced to pay more. The most fundamental part of any marketing analysis is the recognition of the competitive structure of the industry. in order to keep their products from faring poorly in a widely variable atmosphere. the time factor is crucial. will there be large. This price sensitivity or insensitivity is influenced by various factors. Even in service areas such as passenger fares and freight rates. and must then decide on an optimal price policy. Marketers are concerned with all the factors affecting price. modest. making precise forecasting of the impact of price changes difficult Occasionally. the distribution expenses. consumer response occurs after a time lag. if demand is little affected by price. are the variables that the marketing manager controls. or no expansion of demand? When demand increases significantly as prices are lowered. and profit — are all directly related to price.i e. When there are great numbers of similar offerings. With any objective. Naturally. Thus price knits together the elements of the marketing mix and pays for their respective contributions. Then differentiation becomes difficult. What is an appropriate objective for the short-term may not be for the long-term and vice-versa. place. for a small family operation. A particular target might be a certain percentage return on sales or a certain percentage return on investment or. the return might be a fixed dollar amount of profit to cover overhead and living expenses.

This is why large scale production and distribution are potentially more profitable. and subsequently the price. 42 . to stay in business. There have been rare cases where consumers boycotted items in such numbers that they forced prices down. costs do drop steadily as the quantity produced increases. If the cost of zinc rises. such as the need for tourist hotels only where there are sufficient numbers of tourists to warrant them. A particular level of profit may be built into the calculation as another fixed cost to be recovered. hoping not to suffer a price war retaliation. retailers must continually decide when to cut prices. Finally. If Argentinians are already eating all the beef they want. Therefore. in the market. it is unlikely that the beef industry will stimulate demand further by lowering the price. Smaller firms may decide that the best pricing strategy is to stay close to the big competition. Finally. Whether the pricing policies involve active or passive roles. The income level of the current customer is also a factor. Cost of production is one of the several inputs into the pricing decision. The data is then used to compute various break-even points at various price assumptions. Whenever substitute products are available. the demand for coffee in many countries seems far from satiated. industries which use it may substitute a plastic substance. and which items to market as loss leaders. On the other hand. The same type of projection may be used to compute projected earnings at given sales levels. Average-cost pricing. positions. profits must keep pace with sales. so a price rise or dip may not affect sales as much as a similar rise or dip in the cost of a color television set. may vary with the quantity purchased. or even leadership. is typical in business. Marketers separate these costs into those which are fixed and those which are variable. no matter why they had risen originally. and price reductions would reasonably accelerate sales. there is danger of losing customers if prices rise too much. Private planes are affordable only by the very rich. they must ultimately become part of the total marketing mix. Some products have a derived demand. short-range tactics or long-range strategy. These less important items may be highly sensitive to price. Ultimately. which consists or adding a "reasonable" mark-up to the average cost of an item. there is the perceived saturation of need for a product. and resources of their own firms. what to discount. For the producer. In an effort to keep goods moving and insure profits. the "average" cost. Other factors affect industry demand and elasticity. but not so high as to prevent sales and a turnover of merchandise. Retailers mark-up their prices enough to cover their buying prices and overhead and make a profit at the same time.opera. Break-even calculations provide a measure of the minimum sales required to avoid losing money. marketing managers must take into account the goals. Large companies with large financial resources may absorb short-term losses in order to ultimately gain a secure position.

It sets like price for like quality and quantity. When products lose their individuality and differentiation becomes difficult. B. When do marketers start looking for new selling techniques? A. C.How can the best prices for a company's products be established? There is no current technique available for setting prices at an optimal level. But that wishful thought is a contradiction in terms: variable factors. Pricing is not a one time decision. There are many suppliers of a standard product. B or C for 1-6 below 1. When the demand is elastic. B. The minimum profit required not to lose money. It makes people pay different price for the same product. The equilibrium price is created by: A. ever-changing. it would be possible to choose the best price for a single product if all the variable factors were known. 6. and unstable. C. Changes in the competitive environment. plus other factors are all dynamic. the pressures of inflation—these and many other factors demand continuing attention to pricing. There is only one producer who supplies the entire market. changes in a product's cost structure. A large number of potential buyers. vary. B. The maximum costs of production. C. A stable and competitive market exists when: A. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. Mathematically. Because it wants to protect the price from reduction. The inability of sellers to find buyers. C. When demand decreases as prices are raised. When they dispose of the goods at reduced prices. consumer demand. The supply that corresponds to the demand. Break-even point is calculated to show: A. 43 . B. Why is price discrimination illegal? A. 2. When is the demand said to be highly elastic? A. 4. When consumers are forced to pay more. C. The cost of raw materials and labor. B. by definition. The number of producers is small. 3. 5. When it fails to respond to price changes. C. The minimum costs of production. B.

but it is also used to mean any profitable product or business generating a steady flow of _____2_____. Price policy is usually associated with ___3_____ competition. d) price maintenance. j)sales revenues. Grammar Revision: Complex Subject Complex Subject is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. привести в равновесие. Change the form of the words where necessary. Some producers protect their goods from undercutting prices by ____4_____procedures. 3. b) inelastic. диапазон цен. For more info see §6 of the Grammar Reference. and some others in the Passive Voice. A ___8____ is frequently given to quantity purchasers. 44 . насыщение потребности. 8. рассматривать в совокупности. с другой стороны. g)marketing mix. вызывать колебания. A firm that ____9___ neither earns nor loses money. A retailer who buys an item for $10 and sells it for $15 has a 33% ____7___. mental activity. it is hoped. a ___1_____ is a profitable product or business with high market share in a low-growth market. i)cash cow. 6. c) boycott. One of the purposes of a __10______ is to force prices down. ценовая политика.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Спрос и предложение. в крайнем случае. 2. It is usually used after a limited number of words denoting sense perception. 4. a)Mark-up. процедуры поддержания цен. e) breaks even. 1. be persuaded to buy profitable ones. реагирующий на изменение цены. h)loss leader. 9. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. All of the contributions to the ____5_____ can be recovered by proper pricing. f)discount. Technically.A ____6_____ is a product sold unprofitably in order to attract customers who will then. средняя стоимость.7. 5. пересекаться.

It seems to us that the goods were not in proper condition. это считается незаконным. 6. несмотря на число производителей. 8. The manager believes that a new price list has already been made. т. 6. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. когда несколько крупных производителей полностью обеспечивают рынок данным товаром. especially for large companies. 6. 2. that he will enter their market. 7. Если у покупателя есть желание купить какой-то товар.Exercise 3 Find the Complex Subject in the following sentences and translate them into Russian: 1. Маркетологам необходимо решить максимизировать ли прибыль или установить запланированный доход. They say the demand for this merchandise is inelastic. на которой после уплаты всех налогов нет ни прибыли. ни убытков. 3. They are sure to start price war. 2. They are certain. 5. 4. 45 . Во время войны или голода цены могут сильно варьироваться. Монополия существует. Prices are assumed to be determined by that automatic mechanism which adjusts prices to bring demand and supply into equilibrium. Exercise 4 Rewrite the sentences using the Complex Subject: 1. 2. Необходимо рассматривать все условия в совокупности. Any variation from equilibrium price seems to automatically correct itself. 5. 4. то он готов заплатить любую цену. Если несколько производителей устанавливают между собой фиксированные цены. It turned out that some boxes were damaged. их могут оштрафовать или даже закрыть.к. The idea of a good public image seems to be growing in importance. We expect that their company will sign the contract tomorrow. They are reported to be priced out of the market. Точка самоокупаемости – это такая точка. 3. Цены регулируются автоматически и приводят спрос и предложение в равновесие. 5. The demand is said to be highly elastic. 4. 3.

9. To abstain from buying. A pricing objective which sets a specific financial yield goal. 10. Costs such as labor and supplies. Elastic D. The exclusive control of a commodity or service in point a particular market. Failure to respond to change 11. Boycott G. Price control I. Equilibrium F. The state of balance due to the equal weight of of profits opposing forces or influences. N. чтобы покрыть накладные расходы и получить прибыль. A pricing objective which seeks to make as much profit as possible. as a means of coercion or protest. Break-even E. or at least a control broad enough so that price manipulation is possible. 2. 4. such as an increase in demand as a result of a decrease in price L. The amount added to the costs of goods by a seller when figuring the selling price. Monopoly C. change in direct proportion to changes in output and demand. An article sold at cost or at a loss for the purpose of attracting trade. На этом рынке существует ощутимое насыщение потребности в данном товаре. Fixed cost 12. using. Loss leader J. Maximization A. Competitors establishing the same prices at above market prices M. particularly among retailers in which prices are repeatedly cut to undersell competitors or force them out of business 46 . Vocabulary test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. Розничные торговцы делают наценку. The establishment of prices at a determined level by a government or by mutual consent among producers products. The intensive competition. 7. This creates a high degree of interdependence among the existing firms. The market condition that exists when there are few sellers. Price fixing: H. Responsive to change. Cash cow 13. 8. or dealing with. 5. 6. 9. Oligopoly K. 10. Target return B. 3. to charge prices as high as the market will bear. Mark-up 14.

Explain why marketing managers must take into account the goals and resources of their own organization. What is the Robinson-Patman Act? 8. How does the marketing mix figure into pricing policy decisions? 10. Why do similar goods tend to have similar prices at a given time and place? 3. Severe weather disrupts half the world's tea production. 5. 4. How is it determined? 2. What is the Malthusian theory of supply and demand as it relates to price? 4. how is the optimal price of a product or service set? 11. The price of a luxury yacht rises 5 percent. What does the consideration of industry demand involve? Why do producers look to potential elasticity of demand? 13. 3. Generally. there is neither profit nor loss P. after expenses are paid. Why do variations from the equilibrium tend to automatically correct themselves? What are some possible inhibiting factors to this theory? 5. A profitable product or business Discussion 1. 2. Briefly analyze and describe what you think might result from the following situations. What are the variables the marketing manager controls? 9. A cost which remains relatively unaffected by changes in the quantity or volume of sales. Why is large scale production and distribution potentially more profitable than small scale? 17. How does consumer perception of a product's importance affect its demand and price sensitivity? 14. Variable costs 17. A large wealthy firm cuts its prices so low that smaller firms cannot meet them. 47 . 1. how can prices be changed or controlled? 7. Why will a standard product in a competitive market situation usually maintain a stable price? 6. In business. In what situation is price competition most fierce? 12. An optician opens a shop next door to an eye clinic. Price war 18. In an oligopolistic situation. Define price. such as rent and insurance S. How does the income level of a market reflect its probable reaction to price change in a certain product area? 15. Inelastic 16. Turnover O. Why are break-even calculations used by pricing policymakers? How are they used? 16. the point at which.15. The cost of gasoline doubles in one month. The rate at which goods are sold and restocked Q.

saturation 16. принимать на себя. притворяться предположение.Vocabulary 1. inhibiting inhibition 6. улаживать производный гарантировать насыщение насыщенный. to fare 12. существовать. contend (with) 9. присвоение. Supply 2. derived 14. to be aware awareness 4. to warrant 15. случаться примирять. сознавать осознание. принятие на себя снабжать быть. торможение в совокупности голод соперничать предполагать. furnish 11. in the aggregate 7. осознавать. воздаяние 48 . to keep pace with 18. satiated 17. average 5. famine 8. отплата. to reconcile 13. demand 3. assume assumption 10. пресыщенный идти в ногу возмездие. retaliation предложение спрос знать. сознание средний сдерживающий сдерживание.

or improvements of familiar goods. в разнос рекламирование средства массовой информации лозунг. девиз навязчиво рекламировать товар рекламная заставка рекомендация. and customs. In many cases. uses. marketers carefully analyze the means. and how large should the overall communications budget be? How much of the communications burden should 49 .UNIT SIX. and information to be disseminated. Since the goal of this communication is to stimulate sales. it may describe the new features. habits. It may take the form of the simple announcement of what is on the market and how it may be obtained. реклама связи с общественностью образец премия сделанный на заказ презентация взятка «откат» ( взятка в виде доли от предполагаемой прибыли) попытка продать товар или услугу незаинтересованному покупателю потенциальный покупатель подробное предложение итог Working on the text Read and translate the text Communication: Promotion and Selling If marketers are to persuade consumers to buy their products. the communicators shape tastes. At which consumer groups should the communication be directed? What kinds of information do these groups seek? What are the specific objectives of the communication? How much will it cost. COMMUNICATION: PROMOTION & SELLING Special Terms Promotion Hawk Advertising Media Slogan Hype Spot Testimonial Display Publicity Public relations Sample Premium Custom-made Detail sales Bribe kickback Cold call: Lead Bid Bottom line продвижение торговать на улице. methods. свидетельство витрина. расклад товара известность. there must be communication. it may announce new products.

The agencies earn most of their income from commissions. in pictures. shouters or "criers" have walked through villages. To be effective. or trademark is repeated again and again until it becomes part of our awareness and even of our vocabulary. Highway and street billboards and cards in public conveyances reach commuters and travelers. have been used at least since the Babylonian era. it will buy its products. They frequently sell the benefits of products instead of the products themselves. The idea here is that if the public respects the institution or company. Most advertising is for branded products. or outdoor advertising." A good ad attracts attention. newspapers. not fire insurance. 2) mass selling to large numbers of customers at the same time. Throughout history. Marketing managers must blend the methods of 1) face-to-face personal selling. a telephone directory ad can be highly 50 . not a house in the mountains. five thousand years ago. Lately. but "the good life". in telling the target market about the "right" product. or spoken. like pricing mentioned in the previous chapter. announcing medicines for sale. and businesses. creates desire. direct mail. in 1841. Whether they are on film. Many firms also advertise so as to establish a good reputation with the public. they must appeal to the consumers' self-interests. and 3) short-term sales promotion. is one of the strategic decision areas of marketing. professions. The first known paid ad in an American newspaper appeared in the Boston News Letter on May 8. Handbills or fliers are often distributed in public places or door-to-door in selected neighborhoods. a new type of marketing intermediary has evolved: the advertising agent. When a product or service is infrequently used by consumers. Some advertisers believe that the more a product is hyped. The first newspaper ad appeared in Germany in 1525. Pictorial signs. hawking their wares. but "knowledge". Specialized products and services may be advertised in the so-called trade magazines which are editorially devoted to the interests of particular trades. their standard rate is 15 percent of the cost billed by the medium to the advertiser. An ad does not sell encyclopedias. or "your child's future". and impels action. arouse their curiosity. and offer them news. the more we will remember it and the more of it we will buy. in print. 1704. slogan. but "protection for your family. The name. assures belief. Specific markets can be reached by advertising in selected magazines and journals aimed at special-interest readers. The first advertising agency was founded in Philadelphia. Printed advertising may be found in magazines. oil companies have tried to improve their image by advertising the good they are doing for their community or nation. all advertisements have some features in common. These specialists have become invaluable to manufacturers for preparing and placing ads in the media.be assumed by the manufacturer and how much by the channels of distribution? Promotion. During the 19th century. and catalogs. in the United States. stirs up interest. Prehistoric traders must have "marketed" their goods by announcing publicly that they had surplus skins or food to trade.

A popular example is the cereal box designed around cut-outs to attract children. An important factor for items sold through self-service stores is the package designed for point-of-purchase eye appeal. Containers are often designed to make theft. marketers always hope to get favorable publicity for their firms or products. or substitution difficult. The success of direct mail campaigns depends largely on the quality of the mailing list. and to ensure cleanliness. These lists are rented or purchased from companies which compile them according to occupation. packaging has become an important factor in the marketing success of a product. plays a role in bringing firms and their products to the attention of the customer. the potential for greater realization of profits exists. or floor displays at the point of sale encourage shoppers to buy on the spur of the moment—to buy on impulse. packages have many purposes and goals. The idea of a good public image seems to be growing in importance. just as small merchants sponsor local civic events. Their other advantage is that people can be doing something else—like driving or ironing—while listening. income. the subject of packaging was treated as an incidental side issue of product policy and design. people will make positive comments to each other in their everyday conversations and thus publicize a service or product by word-of-mouth. Industrial films are used at large gatherings of prospective buyers. adulteration. At one time. their disadvantage is that words have less impact than pictures. or stop-motion techniques. interest. In recent years. and transportation.effective. musical ads. 51 . spots use live action. storage. short dramatized stories. Radio ads cost less than TV ads. National and international trade shows are excellent opportunities for identifying new product ideas and marketing trends. animation. Public relations. such as conventions or trade shows. Radio commercials include straight announcements. In addition to advertising. too. Counter. In addition to advertising the product. and testimonials. these short films are also shown in most houses before the main feature. Some large firms sponsor cultural and humanitarian activities. They should protect goods from spoilage or contamination. handling. manufacturers or wholesalers will supply retailers with window-display materials. age. By putting forth a positive public image. Ranging in length from a few seconds to a full minute. Ideally. which cannot be easily displayed. Frequently. shelf. The display concept is also widely used in store windows to attract passing shoppers. or neighborhood. They are especially valuable for items like heavy equipment. In many countries. Packaging is another advertising tool. Television ads or commercials are the most expensive because they reach the most people. They should be shaped to facilitate dispensing. especially for large companies. however. Displays at these shows are designed to attract customers by pleasing the eye.

for example. providing materials for window or counter displays. and American manufacturers are competing for a share of the expanding market. after-sales services on vehicles and industrial products. such as a cup of coffee in Turkey. Japanese. Dealer or trade promotion includes instructing retailers in effective means of selling products. non-prescription medicines. In the Middle East. and key rings may be given to customers to remind them of the advertisers' names. Sales promotions are built on a solid foundation of strong local representation and regular tours by home office executives. Some firms use bribes to make sales. This approach recognizes that business in that part of the world is highly personalized. French. and products. their own energy and ingenuity can supplement their incomes. The most effective advertising reaches for particular market segments but it seldom tries to deal with the individual needs of particular consumers Personal selling is more appropriate for technically complex products—those available in a wide variety of styles and colors or custom-made. Keeping and managing a sales force is usually the most expensive persale form of communication. owe recent marketing gains to their prompt. Other techniques include distributing samples. match books. in particular. personal sales activities are necessary in many product and geographic areas. One form of this corrupt activity is the kickback. For this reason. Cultural patterns and customs may dictate that sales are to be accompanied by certain non-business activities. Useful novelties. The key here is the personal touch. and conducting point-of-sale demonstrations to help consumers select and use a product effectively. effective. soaps and detergents. Nevertheless. although the practice is unethical and usually illegal. for example. some industrial goods manufacturers rely on catalog sales rather than on selling teams. such as calendars. Generally. and cosmetics which are used by many different kinds of consumers. while others rely on leads 52 . holding contests to stimulate interest in a product. German. major British. and keeping merchants informed of promotional tactics and strategies. relying more on cultivation of individual customers and government officials than on media advertising and other sales techniques. In this way. cigarettes. manufacturers rely on missionary or detail sales representatives to stimulate their products' sales. Many salespeople earn a commission or percentage of money on the amount they sell. Certain products demand conventions which are separate from actual sales. advertising seems to be most effective for uncomplicated items such as alcoholic beverages.The concept of sales promotion covers various activities which link advertising and publicity with selling. cars. Demonstrations are also important in dealing with retailers. The Japanese. in which a portion of the sale price is given to the one who influenced the sale. giving premiums tied to consumer purchases. services. In the dental supplies and pharmaceutical industries. Some salespeople use the cold call.

the seller-buyer relationship becomes social and personal. they must be nice and pleasant. выставлять счет. there is no formula. C. B or C for 1-5 below 1. 2. C. at large gatherings. B. 3. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. to show the quality of a product.from the kinds of promotional activities described earlier. a lead will come in the form of a request for a bid so that prices and services can be compared by the prospective consumer. What is the purpose of distributing samples of a product? A. C. B. наружная реклама. 4. формировать вкус. Salespeople often stay closely in touch with their customers in order to service products and secure repeat sales. to make people buy at least a sample. B. in store windows. What must all advertisement do if they are to be effective? A. For what goods or services an ad in a telephone directory could be effective? A. or kind of material that can guarantee sales. 5000 years ago. for any type of goods. in 1525 in Germany. For those that are rarely used. technique. method. 5. they must arouse consumers’ curiosity. B. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Простое объявление. B. C. in 1704 in America. рекламное агентство. The bottom line measures the success or failure of promotion and selling efforts. продвижение продаж. вызывать 53 . C. For the goods that are frequently used. Where are films especially valuable for promotion? A. Frequently. Clearly. Often. they must be aggressive. for heavy equipments that is difficult to show in operation. When did advertising really start? A. because the product itself is not available.

permits individuals to obtain goods for which they pay over a period of time. постоянный пассажир. games). Because it is presented in an editorial format. offer marketers many more___9_____ to achieve promotional goals in foreign than in domestic markets. readers tend to perceive it as more believable than____3____. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. In the Middle East major German. They watched the commercial being shown on TV. ____8____. spots use live action. 5. листовки. Japanese. подмена. рекламный щит.____7___ . i)opportunities. c)communication. мгновенно. 2. There are two participles in the English language. Significant opportunities for publicity involve portraying global firms as good citizens in host countries. Exercise 3 Find the Participle in the following sentences and determine its function. contests. Consumer credit. Participle I (verb + ing) and Participle II (verb+ed or the 3d form of irregular verbs) for more info see §7 of the Grammar Reference. список адресов. an adjective and an adverb. _____5____includes short-term. Throughout history shouters have walked through villages hawking their wares. involving charge accounts and credit cards. g)trade shows. спонсировать местные городские мероприятия. Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. animation. French. _____1____is short-term non-paid. f)samples. non-personal ___2______about products and people in print or electronic media. or stop-motion techniques. 54 . e)publicity. one-time incentives to distributors or customers designed to reinforce other components of the promotion and marketing mixes and ___6___ sales (coupons. in particular. общественный транспорт. h)stimulate. in___4_____ new products. Ranging in length from a few seconds to a full minute. British and American manufacturers are competing for a share of the expanding market. 4. 3. проведение конкурсов. Change the form of the words where necessary. фальсификация. b)sales promotion. d)advertising.любопытство. Grammar Revision: the Participle The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb that combines properties of a noun. a)Introducing. обеспечить повторные продажи. and in anticipating and countering criticism. несущественный.

Многие маркетологи полагают. размещенная в общественном транспорте. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the Participle: 1. 6. что упаковка является еще одним средством рекламы. The car (to buy) by my friend is being largely advertised now. мыла. We’ve never heard them (to sell) anything on credit. the firm decided to start a price war.6. направлена на постоянных пассажиров данного маршрута. использующие мультипликацию. 7. they decided to change their strategy. We saw the workmen scraping off billboard advertisements across the town. Чтобы сделать кражу. 6. эти товары используются разнообразными потребителями. косметики т. живое действие или стоп-кадр обычно показывают перед основным художественным фильмом. Чтобы реклама была эффективной она должна быть обращена к интересам потребителя. а рекламные щиты на дорогах привлекают внимание путешествующих. Наиболее эффективна реклама алкогольных напитков. 10. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. фальсификацию и подмену невозможными используются контейнеры. 3. громко предлагая свой товар. 9. 4. что навязчивая реклама помогает лучше запомнить название товара и побуждает потребителя купить его. Рекламные листовки часто раздают в общественных местах. Помимо того. Рекламные заставки. The goods (to produce) by your company are in great demand. она должна предохранять товар от порчи и загрязнения. 3. 5. 2. 2. (To reach) specific markets by advertising. В давние времена зазывалы ходили по деревням. 5. (To realize) what happened. 4. стиральных порошков. Реклама. вызывать его любопытство. 7. Итоговые цифры финансового отчета показывают количество прибыли и убытков. 55 . 8. While (to make) positive comments on the product people publicize it thus (to generate) favorable publicity. The taste (to shape) now is the result of our hyping.к.

12. Известность приобретается путем упоминания о компании в средствах массовой информации. Потенциальный покупатель отличается от случайного тем. Public relations I) A derogatory slang word meaning the overly persistent promotion of a product. and publicity. как часть дохода от сделки. 2. Media A) Any communication for purposes of selling a product or service. на благоприятный исход которой этот человек повлиял. TV. including advertising. 6. those figures appearing in a company's financial statements which show the amount of profit or loss. etc. что он проявил заинтересованность в вашем товаре. 13. а вознаграждение. usually in newspapers and magazines or on television or radio. а также посредством общения между людьми. Publicity product or service by paid announcements. они ждут. Bribe G) An attempt to sell a product or service to someone who has shown no intent to buy 8. Выслав нам образцы своих товаров. 3. service. Testimonial C) To peddle or offer for sale by calling aloud or going from door to door 4. place. magazines. and supervise ads or ad campaigns E) The practice of calling public attention to a 5. An advertising H) A brief catch-phrase or motto adopted for agency advertising a product. Spot D) A company employed to plan. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. radio. or company.11. Detail sales F) The aggregate of all mass communications: newspapers. 9. direct mail. 56 . 7. 14. design. personal selling. Hype B) The end result. Вы когда-нибудь давали взятку? – Не совсем взятку. billboards. что мы непременно разместим у них свой заказ.

Bid 16. Lead 21. Premium 13. R) An arrangement of merchandise designed to induce sales. P) An offer. V) A prize or bonus given as an inducement to purchase products or to use services. Kickback 19. an organization. style. Discussion 1. usually a radio or television advertisement or commercial during or after a program. Hawk 20. and nature of the whole. Bottom line 17. in store windows. S) Public notice resulting from mention in the media and verbal communication among people. usually seen at trade conventions. What are trade magazines? What is the special value of advertising in them? 57 . M) an expression of interest or intent from a prospective buyer N) Designed to specification for an individual customer O) Anything given or promised to induce someone to act dishonestly or to influence behavior. What must all advertisements do if they are to be effective? 3. Promotion 22. Advertising 18. Where fliers can be used? 6.10. Cold call 11. or qualities of a person. Why do some firms try to advertise their reputations? 5. Custom-made 14. Sample 15. Give some examples of selling the benefits of a product or service rather than the products or services themselves. or a product L) Promotional presentation of drugs or medical supplies. Display J) A brief announcement. excellence. T) The promotion of a good reputation with the public U) A specimen or part of a product used to show the quality. intended to secure a sale Q) A portion of income given to a person who secretly influenced a financial transaction. usually including specific details of a product or service. What is the history of advertising? 2. and at point-of-purchase counters. K) A written or spoken declaration from an individual certifying the value. How do your examples appeal to the emotions of the potential customers? 4. Slogan 12.

or contests? How would you integrate advertising into the package design? B. What is the importance of the bottom line? 19. Would you suggest TV or radio spots? Would you use novelties. samples. When might a sale be made on the basis of a bid? Is this method usually a competitive approach to trade? 17. Why do marketers try to get favorable publicity for their products? 13. 14. safer model of motorcycle. How and where are demonstrations employed as sales promotional techniques? 15.7. Is there any advantage of radio commercials over TV ads? Name some kinds of radio ads. Where are films especially valuable for promotion? 11. You have been assigned the task of designing a sales promotion campaign for a newer. For what type of ad campaigns are mailing lists rented or purchased? How are the lists organized? 8. You are working for an advertising agency which promotes a multivitamin for children. 10. Have you ever taken a course from a commercial language school? Why did you choose that particular school? What type of promotion does it rely on for the bulk of its enrollment? Were there any personal sales activities? D. What type of printed advertising is most prevalent in our country? Which do you rely on most for commercial messages and communications? Write a composition on one of the following topics: A. costly items (such as elevators or diamond-cutting tools) promote their wares? What are the limitations on advertising imposed by the nature of these products? C. With what type of product does general advertising seem to be most effective? With what type is personal selling more important? 16. What are repeat sales? How do salespeople go after them? 18. List some sales promotional activities typically used by firms attempting to call attention to their products. Describe some ways in which package designs are used as advertising tools. 12. In what way are TV ads more effective than printed ads? 9. What kinds of communication might you choose? Where would you advertise? What part might salespeople play in your overall strategy? 58 . How do manufacturers of highly specialized.

развиваться. свойственный. соглашение. съезд.Vocabulary To disseminate To blend To evolve To impel To bill Curiosity To arouse curiosity Handbill Flier Billboard Neighborhood Public conveyances Commuter Mailing list To rent Stop-motion Main feature Commercial Gathering Convention Counter On the spur Incidental Spoilage Contamination Dispensing Theft Adulteration Substitution Civic events Ingenuity To supplement распространять. искусство пополнять. сочетать эволюционировать. развертываться побуждать. конвенция прилавок под влиянием момента случайный. раздача кража фальсификация. несущественный. район. продвигать выставлять счет любопытство вызывать любопытство рекламный листок листовка рекламный щит соседство. скопление собрание. добавлять 59 . рассеивать смешивать. сборище. подделка подмена. присущий порча загрязнение. заражение. окрестности общественный транспорт постоянный пассажир список адресов арендовать стоп-кадр художественный фильм рекламная передача (на радио или телевидении) собрание. порча отправка. замена городские мероприятия изобретательность.

инвентарная опись оборотный капитал распродажа остатков репутация. Government or industry regulations. and sold affects each dealer along the way. tended the crop. The farmer chose the seeds. престиж. Each marketer takes some risk with some degree of profit or loss. and had it graded. условная стоимость деловых контактов фирмы маржа. FROM MAKER TO USER Special Terms Stock Streamline Assembly line Synthetic Analytic Lot Inventory Working capital Leftover sale Goodwill запас совершенствовать линия сборки синтетический аналитический партия опись. Marketing encompassed all the activities that occurred in getting the green beans from the farmer to the cannery. once additional processing of a product takes place—in this case the packaging of the fresh beans into canned beans—a new product is created. or generally accepted public standards. However. Now a new set of marketing activities exists—getting the can of beans from the maker to you. stocked. «гудвил». guarantee ) Working on the text Read and translate the text From Maker to User There are many stages in the marketing process. harvested and transported it. overor under-stocking costs money. influence the finished product. Even the 60 . In fact these beans have actually been "marketed" twice. Before a can of green beans is opened.UNIT SEVEN. cooked. Each marketer has financial dealings with suppliers and customers. The number of units produced. gross profit) Charge account Сredit card Mortgage Warranty (син. and eaten. planted them. it has passed through dozens of hands and machines. the canner is the new "maker" and the process starts all over again. прибыль валовая прибыль кредитный счет кредитная карта ипотека гарантия Margin Gross margin (син.

Each juncture in the marketing process involves some purchasing experience. In some cases. breaks down raw materials to produce an end result. One. 61 . and ingredients for paint. changes the form of the raw materials. Peanuts go through analytic processes to become cooking oil. conditioning. but there is usually an automatic reordering procedure for staples or repeat items. Oil refineries separate the elements of crude oil to produce gasoline and petrochemicals. One of the most important streamlining activities for manufacturers is the assembly line. They must stay within basic price and product lines. as a result. The consumer has the broadest discretion in purchasing and. mixes ingredients or assembles parts. Another. ideally. the synthetic process. All businesses— even service-type establishments like shoe repair shops and veterinarians— buy supplies of one sort or another. A third process. but the final user is affected by all of them. Since the makers of most goods are separated from the users by long distances. Plastics are produced by mixing chemicals and typewriters are made by assembling ready-made parts.Large assembly operations usually have advantages over small or separate ones. Savings in cost and advantages in merchandising accrue to those enterprises which streamline their activities. there are trade association agreements and government regulations to enforce quality standards and specifications. Most products undergo substantial changes before they are ready for the final user . Because consumers' tastes and needs change.consumer has a part in the overall process by judging the quality of the product. For this reason. Most retailers stock goods when they run low or when they feel confident enough to buy for the future. leaving little discretion as to what should be bought. these agencies are empowered to force changes in production operations or to recall goods from the market when tests show that they are below acceptable standards. it is impractical to think that every item or lot purchased can be individually inspected. Making products involves three types of processes. Grading makes the marketing system more efficient and. Usually no one person participates in each of these activities or steps. The questions of when and how much to buy are linked to questions of storage. the analytic process. increases customer satisfaction by insuring standard quality. but have some degree of choice. How large an inventory to stock is a continuing problem. Ore from mines becomes steel which becomes part of a telephone cable. Some purchasing activities are so large or complex that they require specialists known as purchasing agents. peanut butter. Industrial supplies are often bought according to exact specifications. influences the wholesale and retail buyers. All levels of buying new items depend on the initiative of a sales force. Wholesalers and retailers have more latitude in buying their goods for resale. Frequently government agencies "spot check" products at random to insure that standards are met. the intermediaries try to stay alert to trends in the public's buying habits and modify their own buying accordingly.

a motor freight carrier. or spoiled. Industrial and commercial products are moved on every kind of vehicle. When goods are stored on counters. while overstocking forces leftover sales. Except in retail sales of portable goods. a ship. Wholesalers and merchants try to keep an inventory large enough to satisfy normal customer needs promptly. price fluctuations may result in a lower margin than expected. Wholesalers and retailers often borrow money to build up stock for a specific season. The reliability of the supplier may be more important than differences in price. Nonetheless. All types of credit involve some degree of risk. the seller has the responsibility for delivery. or deferred payment. Understocking may mean lost sales opportunities. Many traders keep extensive storage facilities so that they can control their sales flow. The owner of the goods or service sacrifices the opportunity to use the invested capital for other purposes. the kind of transportation must be appropriate to protect the goods. most businesses and individuals rely on one or more of the forms of credit practiced throughout the world. everyone involved loses money. Many small manufacturers and stores concentrate their purchases with a single supplier so as to take advantage of quantity discounts and personal service. A public storage facility or warehouse is one which rents space for various kinds of goods. it is the latter. is common at all levels of marketing. hoping to repay it from sales. But whether the means are horse and cart. But how much is enough? Since large orders usually involve quantity discounts and freight savings. who has the biggest interest in keeping costs down. which may result in loss of profit. In some cases. Financial hardships may befall businesses that operate on too much credit. a store owner may 62 . or in the stockrooms of manufacturers.Processing plants hold reserve stocks of raw materials so that their machines and workers are not idled by delays in the arrival of new supplies. Goodwill is invaluable in every phase of marketing. Whether the shipping or freight costs are charged to the buyer or absorbed by the seller. In expectation of increased sales during an upcoming season. On the other hand this ties up working capital. and keeping large storage areas can be expensive. This question becomes particularly acute in product areas where the goods are perishable or short-lived due to fashion or season. specialized transportation such as refrigerated vans is essential. damaged by careless handling. Commercial credit is money used to carry on business or trade. If goods are delivered late. Manufacturers need capital or credit while awaiting sale and payment. shelves. The movement of products is an important problem to solve. All forms of credit are risky. Credit. Effective inventory control is needed in most phases of marketing to keep goods flowing at a rate appropriate to sales. usually taken with an expectation of profit. there is an advantage in quantity buying. Large-scale buyers frequently use many sources to avoid dependence on a single one. since all of the component parts require financing. they are said to be in private storage. or a supersonic jet aircraft.

a long-term loan may be necessary – a large sum to be repaid over several years. and census data. often involving charge accounts and credit cards. and they frequently attract organized crime. Service is still an important part of marketing. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual. socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income). In those rare instances when a single enterprise carries out all of the activities described. There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation. these dealings are secretive. size of market. Those products which are perceived to be of higher importance. A subject only peripherally related to marketing. Anyone who sells or distributes goods or currency through illegal channels or in violation of ceiling prices is dealing in the black market. but of social significance in some areas. it is said to have integrated all the marketing functions. still require sales and after sales attention and servicing. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region. When those with extra money do not care how much they pay for an item. The special type of consumer credit used in buying buildings is a mortgage. or family about a purchase. Through observation. This is a short-term loan. group. When business increases the money is repaid. The problems with total integration are so complex that even the most adventurous of firms usually achieve only partial integration.borrow money to modernize and redecorate the premises. purchasing power. intensive analysis. If a machine manufacturer wants to expand by building another factory. the service factor is all-important for effective functioning of the products and for future sales. Needless to say. frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers. Some products offer warranties or money-back guarantees to prove that the manufacturers stand behind their products. Consumer credit. and many other details. Self-service sales methods for food and other consumer goods are increasing because of rising labor costs. governments set up systems of rationing so that everyone may receive a fair share of scarce goods at a legally stated price. In product areas such as farm equipment and sophisticated medical equipment. although it is diminishing in importance in some product areas. is the black market. however. where available. customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket. the extent to which they read labels. permits individuals to obtain goods for which they pay over a period of time. In times of crisis or as a necessary economic practice. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like or dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government’s statistical analyses. etc. industrial activity. their stops at counters or shelves. usually repaid in two to six months. Investment credit allows a business to borrow money for capital goods. black markets spring up to serve them.) 63 .

C. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates. Short-term credit. B. B. since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. What does synthetic process involve? A. Long-term credit. Because industrial goods are often ordered according to exact specifications. 3. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process it the input is to be useful to them. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves. C. Because they must stay within basic price and product lines. Why do wholesalers and retailers have more discretion in purchasing than industrial suppliers? A. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it. B or C for 1-5 below 1. They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research and how much to invest in it. To provide marketers with the analyses of in-depth interviews. When does the black market emerge? A. 5. 2. To determine purchasing power of the target market. they are involved and concerned with it. B. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. What for are the census data used? А. What kind of credit is not risky? A. C. Separating elements of some substance. Neither. Conditioning the material. 4. Because they keep extensive storage facilities. When there exists scarcity of goods. С. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan’s feasibility. B. 64 . When the demand for a certain product is low. Mixing ingredients and combining parts.Market research is not an element in the marketing mix but a tool used for decision-making about the mix’s elements. C. To analyze the traffic pattern of customers. When people don’t care how much to pay. В.

h)streamline. 8. 7. данные переписи населения. to see. a)Commercial. Grammar Revision: Complex Object The Objective-with-the infinitive is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. Goodwill is usually a result of _________. собрать урожай. to feel. склад. покупательная способность. g)analytic. 3. declaring: to declare. c)under-stocking. 10. i)conditioning. b)overstocking. mental activity: to know. Mixing ingredients or assembling parts is called a ________ type of process. 4. неосторожное обращение. стоимость труда. претерпевать изменения. etc.When the price for _______goods is calculated. to report. to pronounce. основные средства. отзывать товар с рынка. e)consumer. финансовые трудности. оставаться начеку. d)good service and customer care. организованная преступность. to expect. A closeout or leftover sale may be necessary due to __________. Poultry inspectors examine chickens in order to __________ their quality. to notice. The production of bacon from a hog is an example of _________ processing. to believe. 1. etc. They are constantly ________ their advertising. to think. 6. 65 . 2. Change the form of the words where necessary.5. to consider. доход на душу населения. 9. to watch. k) grade. A department store owner preparing for a holiday season may require _______ credit. A process called ________ changes the form of the raw materials. перерабатывающий завод. 2. нехватка товара.________ may result in lost opportunities. sense perception: to hear. отсроченный платеж.Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Пройти через десятки рук. It is used after verbs denoting: 1. дефицитный товар. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. per capita income of a target market is usually taken into account. выборочно. 3. взять деньги в долг. to observe. затаривание. колебания цен. to find. f)synthetic. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below.

For more info see§8 of the Grammar Reference. Ипотека представляет собой особый вид кредита на покупку дома. to intend. 6. My boss intended me to go to India to expand our business there. wish and intention: to want. Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. Хорошая репутация обычно является результатом хорошего обслуживания. to get. to mean. 2. 2. to hate. 4. Exercise 4 Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Object: 1. Затоваривание на складе может привести к распродаже остатков. to suffer.4. 6. to cause. to allow. I haven’t heard the news that our competitors streamlined their assembly line. 7. заботы о покупателе и конечно высокого качества товара. feeling and emotion: to like. cannot bear. etc. to wish. I cannot bear them to take over our company. We didn’t expect them to merge so soon. etc. to have. I cannot get him sign the contract. 3. 2. 5. The CEO ordered the goods to be ready for dispatch first thing in the morning. compulsion: to make. 3. to have. to desire. 4. to dislike. We expected that our suppliers would give us a discount. 5. 5. They don’t know that our company gives life long guarantee. результатом которой может оказаться потеря прибыли. order and permission: to order. 3. в котором сам дом и является залогом под данный заем. 6. 7. 7. The firm declared their goods to be environmentally friendly. I saw that the secretary had brought the morning mail into the office. I didn’t think that goodwill belonged to intangible assets. Exercise 3 Find the Complex object in the following sentences. We would like to allow your company to pay back by installments. The intention of the top management of our company is to penetrate new markets. 66 . I haven’t heard their company penetrate foreign markets. etc.

5.Assembly line 14. usually plastic. frequently held at the end of a fashion season or before spoilage.Analytic 13.Gross profit 10. manmade E) a small. a form of credit H) a distinct portion of merchandise considered collectively I) a detailed list of the stock in possession at a given time J) a written promise that the dealer or manufacturer will repair or replace any defective parts free of charge for a certain period of time K)Current liquid assets minus current liabilities L) successive payments over a fixed period of time M) a sale of remaining products. and often at no profit to the Seller N) a special type of consumer credit to buy buildings over a period of time It is a pledge of property to a creditor as a security against a debt.Streamline A) accumulated supply of goods. 6. Working capital 8. Guarantee 6. Кредитный счет позволяет покупателю оплачивать товары после того как они уже получены. 67 . Inventory 7.Charge account 12. Goodwill 5. Каждое предприятие старается усовершенствовать свою работу.4. Installments 2. Lot 4. 8. 7. Розничные торговцы часто нуждаются в коммерческом кредите.Stock 11. and workers in which a product being put together passes through consecutive operations until completed D) artificial. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. чтобы сделать запасы в ожидании грядущего сезона. Margin 9. machines. Synthetic 3. piece of identification authorizing the holder to buy on credit F) separation of material into its constituent elements G) an arrangement in which purchases are billed and paid for after a customer receives them. Если фирма желает взять деньги в долг на средства производства – мы имеем дело с инвестиционным кредитом. to keep a supply of goods B) to improve in appearance or efficiency C) an arrangement of tools. Гарантия – это письменное обещание заменить или починить неисправную деталь бесплатно.

Contrast the synthetic process of manufacturing with the analytic one. Is there any difference between private and public storage? 8. How have grading and quality standards practices come about? How are they overseen and enforced? 4. Why might a firm buy from several suppliers rather than one? 9.A credit card 17.Leftover sale O) an intangible asset due to the good reputation of a business P) The difference between the cost and the selling price Q) that is the money that remains after subtracting the cost of the goods sold from net sales Discussion 1. Have you ever used some form of credit? What type? How does credit affect your business and personal life? 15.Mortgage 16. Is it necessary for processors and manufacturers to hold reserve stock of their raw materials? 7. What are the differences in discretionary purchasing power among manufacturers. What is credit? Why is its practice so widespread throughout the business world? 11. What are the possible stages in the marketing process? 2. What types of credit do you know? Give an example of each type. 3. What does the integration of all marketing functions involve? 14. Give your own examples of each one. What is a purchasing agent? Why is this job necessary in some businesses? 6. What is a mortgage used for? 68 . What role does service play in marketing? 13.15. Describe the types of manufacturing processes. What synthetics are used in the clothing industry? 17. How does goodwill accrue to a company? 16. wholesalers. 12. retailers and consumers? 5. What are some of the potential problems arising from late shipping and poor delivery? 10.

воспринимать. занимать трудности случаться. усмотрение (I leave it to your discretion . основной предмет торговли простаивать. увеличиваться.на Ваше усмотрение) истощаться. дефицитный валюта нарушение перепись населения покупательная способность доход на душу населения призывать выполнимость смета. заканчиваться главный продукт.Vocabulary Tend Harvest Grade Encompass Cannery Accrue Spot check At random Latitude Discretion ухаживать собирать урожай сортировать заключать. широта действий. наобум широта осторожность. окружать консервный комбинат накопляться. работать вхолостую острый скоропортящийся (товар) брать в долг. оценки отсроченный платеж 69 To run low Staple Idle Acute Perishable Borrow Hardships Befall Fluctuations Nonetheless Premises Capital goods Diminish Perceive Scarce Currency Violation Census Purchasing power Per capita income To call in Feasibility Estimates Deferred payment . доставаться проверка на месте наугад. чувствовать редко встречающийся. приключаться колебания тем не менее помещения основные средства уменьшать постигать.

why they will buy it. are used to reach conclusions about market preferences. telephone. Researchers may use a focus group or concept test to assess the need the product is supposed to fill. a pain-killing pill was developed to be taken without water. Product research aims at adapting products to the desires of buyers. A product may look good on paper and make sense to those who design it. that feature was its main advantage over other analgesics. приглашаемая на интервью (фокусная группа) концептуальный тест вскрытие причин прототип панель (группа людей. the value of the 70 . and presented by sophisticated techniques designed to reveal what consumers will buy. Food. clothing. analyzed. This data is collected. but it may not appeal to the public. The next step in product testing may be to design a prototype to determine a panel's reactions to the product as they use it. codified. In the case of one pharmaceutical firm. or mail. cosmetics. A postmortem revealed that people want to take tablets with water because they believe. исследование. обзор анкета группа потребителей. and how much they will pay for it. marketers depend on various kinds of information. RESEARCH Special Terms Survey Questionnaire Focus group Concept test Postmortem Prototype Panel Sales forecast Quota Saturation point Market testing Trajectory method Payoff обозрение. The purposes of use-testing are to determine the specific qualities that are liked or disliked. The idea was sound. but the product did not sell. отобранная по какому-либо признаку) прогноз продаж квота точка насыщения рыночное испытание метод траектории результат Working on the text Read and translate the text Research In order to make their frequent decisions. Often a questionnaire is used to obtain such feedback. correctly or not that water makes medicine more effective.UNIT EIGHT. and appliances are examples of products which are often use-tested. tabulated. gathered by personal interviews. Consumer survey data.

(This type of research is highly specialized and is used by advertisers. Some of the most common methods for pre. the quantitative area forecasts future demand and estimates current potential. Package research seeks to give a product’s package more “shelf appeal” through the use of designs. The media must present themselves as productive vehicles for communication. or seen. Post-testing measures advertising that has been read. Comparisons in which a specific product is rated against another are known as paired comparison tests. inventories. too. the various uses of the product. and budgeting.product to consumers. brand name.and post-testing are: Consumer jury tests ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message's effects. Many decisions are based on detailed knowledge of sales opportunities and projected sales volume. directing sales efforts. a question like "What did you see advertised on TV last night?" Recall measurements seek a respondent's ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad. this can prevent costly mistakes. Communication research is usually divided into two main areas of inquiry: one measures the effectiveness of the ad itself and another measures the suitability and economy of the media carrying the message. and communication appeal. This research area of market potential is generally divided into two parts: the qualitative area identifies and diagnoses markets. Some large firms forecast general business conditions in an attempt to predict the economic climate and its influence on their future activities. Respondents are asked various types of questions to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness. listened to. An aided recall test attempts 71 . Long-range sales forecasts are used most often in planning long-term financing and development and in supporting investment credit applications. the test is called monadic. advertising agencies. broadcast. They are aids in setting quotas. and colors. and how it compares with existing products. are market tested to see if customers unconsciously or openly identify strengths and qualities with certain names. These groups may reveal insights into their attitudes and reactions to overall ad effectiveness. is known as pre-testing. and the media. Short-term forecasts are used to regulate production. but specific copy effectiveness is usually measured by interviewing individuals. Attractive packaging may influence buyers to choose one product over another when both are similar in price or content. with no comparisons. Measuring the effectiveness of advertising material before it is published. or telecast. Market forecasts and commercial tests are frequently developed to precisely measure expected sales and to select the appropriate packaging. When a product is rated on its own merits. The advertisers want assurances that their money is making money. The sales forecast is usually the key to planning and controlling a company's operations. Brand names. The agencies must learn and demonstrate to their clients by solid research what is effective. and purchasing. Awareness measurements look for brand or advertising familiarity. materials.

using technology like that of the lie detector. Probing the subconscious reasons for buying requires trained interviewers or sophisticated machines like the galvanic skin response recorder. Each medium does its own research for this purpose. least expensive way to reach people. One of the aims is to determine the maximum volume of advertising a market can absorb before the saturation point is reached. another type of communications research. This electronic device allegedly measures the intensity of a person's feelings. Not a survey is done in which data are not tabulated. while TV and radio must rely only on surveys. Such sophisticated measurement can tell advertisers what proportion of consumers reached are professionals.to discover those brand names or logos which are most deeply impressed on consumers minds: ''What brand of beer do you remember seeing or hearing advertised recently" Unaided recall tests are without clues: ''What ads have you seen recently that impressed you most?" Triple associate recall tests seek to learn the extent of consumers' associations with products. Psychological measurements hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli. how often. analyzed. and income level so that they can match the message and the medium to the audience. Media research. is conducted to determine the most effective. Attitude and attitude change measurements seek first to understand the nature of opinions. "What beer advertises that it is 'the one to have when you're having more than one'?" Recognition tests judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read. but may in fact be impressed by the imagined status of its subscribers. Sales results in themselves measure the effectiveness of ads. and at what cost. or students. A respondent may claim to like a magazine because it is comprehensive. or “read” most. laborers. Advertising gets maximum results when it reaches the greatest number of prospective buyers at the lowest cost. This is the starting point for defining an audience. The first step in this process is to find out from each medium the number and kind of people it reaches. and copy themes. occupation. and manipulated by computer. where. location. Motivational research relies on psychology and sociology to learn why people really behave. 72 . techniques for measuring consumer data are very refined. Attitude devices also analyze the degree of modification in attitudes as a result of specific advertising. It is of prime importance for the advertisers to have data concerning age. “seen / associated”. A product's image is an important clue to which segment of the market may buy it. sex. react. Magazines and newspapers measure their audiences by circulation readership. Thanks to computers. brand names. Very often in these tests respondents will go through the magazine page by page with an interviewer and answer general and specific questions such as: “Have you seen this ad before?” “Did you notice this part?” “Did you associate it with this advertiser?” Scores are compiled for ads that are “noticed”. and buy as they do. and to some extent on surveys.

Even well-tested products of long standing are closely monitored. controlled sales experiments. and census data. While marketing managers rarely conduct research themselves. etc. (Such statistics are also useful in determining sales territories since they are broken down by region. are a favorite of researchers. Consumerattitude surveys and use tests are designed to keep up with the current state of the market. approaches. intensive analysis. and reasons for research apply to existing. Managers may decide on exploratory research to determine a plan's feasibility.) Market research is not an element in the marketing mix. and many other details. Recently introduced products are watched carefully to see that they behave as predicted. Products are tested under conditions designed to measure their sales in normal circumstances. or family about a purchase. purchasing power. group. Research payoff is constantly measured against research costs: the expense of collecting data must not exceed the payoff derived from it. They define the problems to be studied and analyze the collected data in ways relevant to their decisions. the extent to which they read labels. customers are systematically watched: their traffic pattern within a store or supermarket. All these techniques. products. in season. Marketing managers must play an active role in the research process if the input is to be useful to them. marketers trace their goals by the trajectory method. Since speed in assessing performance is vital.Since actual sales are the best proof that a product will sell. There are three more main sources of information used in different aspects of research: observation. Through observation. size of market. or market tests. their stops at counters or shelves. industrial activity. Often they choose low-cost techniques providing crude estimates. An intensive analysis is an in-depth interview of an individual. they are involved and concerned with it. where available. as well as new. Sometimes the need for adjustments in the marketing effort becomes evident through sales or market share analyses. which utilizes the same principles as those which follow-rocket and missiles. 73 . frequently provides marketers with information on location of potential customers. (How did they hear about the product? Who decided to buy it? What do they like and dislike about it? Will they buy it again? How would they like to see it improved or altered?) The use of the government's statistical analyses. and how much to invest in it. against competition. socio-economic characteristics of population (such as per capita income). They decide when to call in the specialists to conduct research. since they recognize the virtual impossibility of collecting error-free data. but a tool used for decision-making about the mix's elements. and in a repeat cycle.

5. грубая оценка. C.Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. B. B. апробация нового товара. when a product is estimated on it’s own advantages. 2. отслеживать свою цель. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Получать обратную связь. advertising. packaging. C. B. Vehicles for communication are: А. продуктивный вид рекламы. 3. 74 . to understand the best qualities of a rival product. предсказать экономический климат. использовать те же принципы. learn about market preferences. тираж. собирать информацию. when a product is compared with existing products. when a product is rated in monetary value. В. B. данные обзора потребителей. кодировать и сводить в таблицу. C. advertising agencies. С.“Shelf-appeal” deals with: A. to make a conclusion about market preferences. бессознательная реакция на рекламный стимул. to gather as complete data as possible. the type of research. товарный вид. calculate the payoff. Consumer-attitude surveys and use tests are designed to: A. collect census data. A monadic test is: A. Why do marketers use questionnaires in their surveys? A. C. иметь смысл. 4. mass media. content. промышленные испытания. B or C for 1-5 below 1.

c) feasible. Stating a general rule If you rate a product against another it is paired comparison.Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. For most products. however. f) failure. provided) introduces a condition. the same values resoundingly_____8____ in France were resoundingly successful in Disney Japan. There are four main types of conditional sentences: 1. Grammar Revision: Conditionals If (unless. a)Postmortem . where more visitors traipsed through the theme park in 5 years than traipsed through the original Disneyland theme park in 35 years. 4. There are also mixed types of conditional. For more information see §9 of the Grammar Reference 75 . Imagining If the postmortem revealed the reasons for failure they would never make similar mistakes. Change the form of the words where necessary. During the April-June 1993 the Euro-Disney theme park in France lost a disastrous 87 million while stock values plunged 20 per cent. e) a survey.___4____ to modify products or services to meet local market____5___ can have expensive consequences. 3. It means that something may happen depending on the circumstances. d)economic climate. standardized plans aren’t____2___ as evidenced by___3______ which showed that only one in ten consumer products was exported without significant modification. Interestingly. Forces like economic integration and the increased sophistication of _____1_ _____ are moving markets toward greater unification. i) needs. and misjudged cultural environments. Speculating about the future (promising or threatening) If we try to forecast general business conditions we’ll be able to predict the influence of the economic climate on our future activities. ______6____ revealed that the key reason was misjudged_____ 7 ______. Speculating about the past If the new product had been use-tested it would have helped to determine the specific qualities that are disliked by consumers. 2. g)rejected. b)communication technologies.

Если какой-то товар не продается. and if you do bring real value to that customer. If respondents (to ask) to gauge advertising effectiveness and brand consciousness it (to be) awareness measurements. If we (break into) the Indian market at that time our turnover (to increase) long ago. Чтобы определить специфические характеристики товара. Exercise 4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the Conditionals: 1. If you tabulated the collected information if would be easier to analyze it. которые нравятся или не нравятся потребителю используются различные виды тестов. сравнения с другими товарами. 4. 3. 3. If the company had taken into account the degree of cultural grounding they would have adapted their product. We might be able to reduce the expenditure on advertising on condition our partners help us. 5. 7.Exercise 3 Define the type of conditionals in the following sentences. 4. 5. If you do know your customer. Don’t promise anything unless you ( to be sure) completely. If they (use) trained interviewers while conducting the survey. If we wanted to measure consumers’ interest in ads located in magazines we would use recognition tests. Provided they ( not to go) on their offer. Translate the sentences into Russian: 1. If the company had used census data they would have positioned their products more accurately. we ( to sign) the agreement next week. 6. 6. focus groups or concept tests if we (to know) a better way of assessing the need the product is supposed to fill. We (not to use) questionnaires. the advertising campaign (to be) such a failure. We won’t strike a deal with you unless you create favorable conditions. 76 . Exercise 5 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson: 1. необходим анализ. 2. 2. анкеты. 2. чтобы вскрыть причины неудачи. the two of you will be doing business for life.

Оценка осведомленности направлена на поиск знакомых брэндов или рекламы. Market testing 6. solution. Vocabulary Test Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one 1. the product’s path is monitored closely on a graph i) the amount beyond which no more can be absorbed 77 . Survey 3. размерах рынка. Рыночные прогнозы часто используются с целью получить оценку ожидаемых продаж. Questionnaire 5. Тесты на узнаваемость оценивают рекламу.3. Издательства журналов и газет оценивают аудиторию своих читателей по раскупаемому тиражу. доходах на душу населения. Тесты потребительского жюри направлены на выявление воздействия данной рекламы на возможного покупателя. наименование и средство рекламы. 8. Payoff 2. Saturation point 8. размещенную в журналах. Focus group 7. 7. 6. Trajectory method 4. 5. Quota a) an original form of a product which serves as a model for its future production b) a statistically selected sampling of people representing a specific population c) seek a respondent’s ability to remember any ad of a specific product or the content of a particular ad d) in marketing. an examination to determine the reasons for failure in any part of the marketing plan e) an attempt to predict the future about product sales or market levels f) hope to discover unconscious reactions to advertising stimuli g) the final choice. Concept test 9. Данные переписи населения обеспечивают маркетологов информацией о покупательной способности потенциальных потребителей. 4. or result h) a way of setting goals according to research results and analyses. а также выбрать соответствующую упаковку.

What are the main areas of concern for market researchers? 2. What are the purposes of use-testing? What types of product is it good for? 4. Awareness measure.Psychological measurement j) a research technique in which the product is sold at selected locations while its reception by consumers is observed k) ask groups of possible consumers to evaluate the message’s effects l) Judge the respondents interest in ads located in magazines they say they read m) an assigned goal of the total volume of sales to be reached within a specific time period n) looking for brand or advertising familiarity o) market research technique used to see how prospective consumers react to a proposed new product 16. What are the values of pre-testing? Of post-testing? 12. Which are the main areas of communication research? Identify those concerned with this research.10. Sales forecast 14. Why do some firms engage in general business forecasting? 8. What are the specific goals of which? 7. Describe the three recall types of measurement employed in marketing research. What is “shelf-appeal”? What do marketers hope for in the choice of brand names? 10. Panel 13. Postmortem 11. How are market potential tests classified? What are the uses of these classifications? 9. or opinions and analysis of the data 18. What does a consumer jury test measure? 13. Recall measurements r) set of questions designed to yield usable information for marketing purposes Discussion 1. Compare short-term forecasts with long-range forecasts.q) a sampling or partial collection of facts ments figures. How do recall and recognition tests differ? 15. Prototype 12. Why is each involved? 11. How do their goals differ from each other? 14. Recognition test p) a group of five or six people that meets with an interviewer to discuss products and consumer needs 17. How is product image measured? Why? 78 . Why are market forecasts and commercial tests developed? 6. Consumer jury test 15. What does a concept test show? 3. What is the difference between paired comparison tests and monadic tests? 5.

000 Family Size: I) 1 or 2 members 5) S 15. How does observation help obtain information on consumer behavior? 22.000-to 25. official Education: I) none to 8 years of school e) skilled labor 2) 8 to 12 yean of school f) unskilled labor 3) some college or university g) farm 4) college or university 5) some postgraduate work Family annual income: 6) graduate degree I) under $5000 2) $5000 to 7500 3) $7500 to 10. 17.000 4) 810. What are the goals of media research? How does it differ from advertising effectiveness research? 18.000 2) 3 or 4 members 6) $25. What is a product’s performance in a test market supposed to show? How are market tests conducted? 20.000 to 15. technical 4} Divorced or separated b) clerical c) managerial proprietor d) military-. What do researchers hope to learn from intensive analyses of individuals or groups of consumers ? What types of questions are asked? 23.000 and over 3} 5 or more members Other: Race Residence: 1) a) urban Religion b)suburban Length of employment c) rural Ages of children 2) a) own Reading or entertainment b) rent habits 79 . What is psychological or motivational testing aimed at? Describe some methods used. What do consumer data tell advertisers about their audiences? 19. Why are trajectory paths chartered specifically for newly introduced products? 21. What is the role of marketing manager in marketing research? Typical Breakdowns for Consumers Data or What Every Marketer Wants to Know Age: I) under 18 9} 18 to 24 3) 25 to 34 4) 35 to 49 5) 50 to 64 6) 65 and over Sex: 1) Female 2) Male Occupation: 1) Unemployed 2) Student 3) Retired 4) Not employed outside of Marital Status 1) Single home 2) Married 5) Employed 3) Widowed a) professional.16.

Choose one which includes a jingle – a repetition verse set to music.Case Study a) Think of a memorable TV or radio commercial you have heard or seen. In the questionnaire below you can find a number of ideas about the jingle. Place a check mark in one space in each row to show the degree to which you think the idea fits the commercial. b) What conclusions might a researcher draw from the results of this type of questionnaire? How much those conclusions affect the marketing effort? What other categories and ideas could have been added for testing? Do you buy the product or use the service being advertised in your example? Sample Consumer Questionnaire (A survey of audience attitudes) Type of commercial: TV____ Radio______ Your age______ Type of product ___________________ Brand name ______________ Very Somewhat Neither Somewhat Very Different Exciting Up-to-date Interesting Fun Energetic With it Like me Professional Strong Easily understood Appealing Loved the performance Would like to hear it again 80 Ordinary Dull Behind-thetime Boring Work Relaxed A drag Not like me Amateurish Mild Difficult to comprehend Unappealing Hated the performance Would not like to hear it again .

без наводящих вопросов испытание на узнаваемость оценка изменения отношения зондирование подсознательный по утверждению. будто бы. якобы стимул тираж чернорабочий.Vocabulary Appliances Merits To rate Unconsciously Awareness measurements Consumer Jury Tests Recall measurements Unaided Recognition tests Attitude change measurements Probing Subconscious Allegedly Stimulus (stimuli) Circulation readership Laborer To trace their goals Utilize the same principle бытовая техника достоинства оценивать бессознательно оценка осведомленности тесты потребительского жюри оценка запоминаемости зд. неквалифицированный рабочий отслеживать свои цели использовать те же принципы 81 .

This is important not only among nations and cultures. управления по сбыту валовой национальный продукт картель запас. Failure to develop the advertising budget fully.C. Postmortems of marketing failures are important factors in making decisions about the future.UNIT NINE. Failure to appreciate regional differences. Failure to keep a product up-to-date. 4. THE FUTURE OF MARKETING Special Terms Bankruptcy Export Import Letterhead Patent Multinational corporation (MNC) Marketing boards Gross national product (GNP) Cartel Stockpile Subsidy Demographics статистика Working on the text Read and translate the text In marketing. these are the thirteen most common marketing errors: 1. the A. 2. Failure to estimate the market potential accurately. but within product areas. 7. According to the largest marketing research company in the world. Significant trends need time to develop. as in the rest of life. резерв субсидия. 6. Adjustments in the marketing program must be made readily. 82 банкротство экспорт импорт фирменный бланк к-л организации патент транснациональная корпорация торговые палаты. there is much to learn from history. Nielsen Company. Products must be suited to the market. Failure to gauge the trend of the market. Advertising and distribution efforts must reflect environmental and cultural limitations. дотация демографическая . Failure to adhere to long-range goal policies. Failure to appreciate seasonal differences in demand. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently short-sighted. The spectrum of marketing failures ranges from inadequate return on the original investment to corporate bankruptcy. Enthusiasm should be tempered with realism. 3. 5.

A realistic appraisal of errors is vital. enter the international market. The tendency is to underestimate the resources and the ingenuity of the competition while overestimating one’s own position or reputation. even relatively small ones. 3. One toothpaste manufacturer found that promising white teeth was inappropriate in many regions of Southeast Asia. Every year more and more firms. As production techniques and marketing systems become more sophisticated. in the foreign country. cross-cultural trading increases. in a marketing sense. 13. Failure to try new ideas. Communication and transportation systems have created a small world. These independent businesses act as agents for firms that want to participate in worldwide trade. As people of different cultures become more dependent on each other for their living standards.8. Researching the foreign market. they often use special letterheads showing their address as the manufacturer's "export department" or "international division. 10. Conducting on-site tours to determine the best methods of distribution. slogans. Exhibiting the products at overseas trade shows. sometimes within an existing sales network." The services performed by the export company for its client include: 1. Appointing commission representatives. 11. Colgate-Palmolive made an expensive mistake when it introduced its Cue toothpaste into French-speaking countries. and concepts from one language and culture to another. Failure to appraise the competition objectively. Special promotional activities cannot substitute for advertising. 2. Export marketing companies are another result of international marketing. Marketers are accustomed to risk-taking. Failure to integrate all phases into the overall program. Advertisements that do not conform to local lifestyles are wasted. but in international dealings the dimensions of these risks are often misjudged and misunderstood. Failure to admit defeat. they appreciate the need for peace and stability. 4. Failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and long-range strategy. the brand name and trademark turned out to be pornographic in French. 83 . 9. One area of special interest is the literal translation of advertising names. Changes must be made before competitors force them. instead of their own names. There is a difference between what people say and what they actually do. where chewing betelnut is an elite habit and black teeth are symbols of prestige. Coordination is the key. It must have been embarrassing to General Motors when its "Body by Fisher" became "Corpse by Fisher" in Flemish. 12. The problems encountered there are significantly different from those encountered in domestic operations. Failure to test-market new ideas.

their influence. General improvements in marketing can be expected in three major areas. especially technological and managerial skills. 7. 8. insurance. a board of trade. Despite obstacles. They are involved in trading. particularly on raw materials markets. and similar details. One facet of the trend toward joint action in world marketing is the formation of cartels. manufacturing. and production. control. The first is the enterprise of private traders and corporations seeking profits. Many firms that entered the export business in a modest way eventually became fully committed to an international perspective. Handling the paperwork of export and import declarations. and organization of the economic activities of several nations. Adapting the goods to local conditions and legal and trade standards. Competition will always stimulate cheaper and more effective distribution methods. and a number of service industries. for each country to duplicate advanced research. trading companies. mining. more economical production. is an organized market for agricultural goods. The emergence of the multinational corporation (МNС) is of major significance in the future of marketing. More and more cooperatives will provide economical marketing facilities and a firm bargaining base for their members. marketing boards. The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources. Preparing and adapting appropriate sales literature. Many marketing boards have developed to require producers and handlers of certain commodities to observe rules and procedures. Meeting patent and trademark requirements. 6. such a board assumes full responsibility for marketing certain products. In the United States. is substantial. It seems likely that those MNCs that can evolve effective accommodations with nationalism will flourish. It is enormously expensive. their combined sales figures represent almost 30 percent of Japan's GNP. handling commodities in much the same way as stock exchanges do for stocks and bonds. Global approaches to economic decisions often differ with the aims of specific countries. instructions for special handling. and the extraction of profits.5. or a combination. banking. in global terms. Trading companies in Japan function similarly. urban and regional development. or commodity exchange. In some countries. and the reduction of profit margins. shipping and customs documentation. The second is joint action by firms or individuals. multinationals have expanded steadily because they reduce this duplication and contribute to the economy of their host nations. Probably the most 84 . These may be made up of individual companies. technology. There may be resistance to multinational activities for reasons of nationalism. resource development. either with its own staff or with private firms and cooperatives.

Facilitating aid provides market information and statistics. and movement of goods. and economic systems. storage. and increase competition. and price-fixing protect consumers. Knowledge: increasing education and sophistication with less faith and acceptance. customs. less traditional. sale. and the establishment of minimum health standards. as will the new attitudes. subsidies. and the regulation of transport and market facilities helps insure fair practices. Some governments practice such support activities as stockpiling. the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.renowned group of this sort is OPEC. humanistic. This can take three major forms: Regulatory aid includes the standardization of weights. Demographics: A slowing population growth with corresponding smaller family size. patents and trademarks. Values: More secular. The following is an outline of the major forces in society which will affect marketing in the years ahead. A. They also try to protect producers and consumers against emergency pressures or chronic weaknesses in a marketing system. In some cases. mores. measures. institutions. a government will be its own largest consumer and may be so involved in purchasing goods and services for defense and social welfare that it virtually defines the marketing process from start to finish. and finances research into ways of raising efficiency or reducing marketing costs. 3. Laws prohibiting deceptive advertising. sets up training and extension services. The main headings represent the four major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates. a rising average age in the United States as post-World War II babies move through their life cycle. Some laws are designed to define sales contracts and how they must be fulfilled. Governments may influence prices. Other laws deal with bankruptcy. religious. The third area in which marketing improvements are expected is governmental assistance. 2. and financial statements. Sociocultural 1. price discrimination. more varied subcultures and life styles. Anti-trust laws prohibiting monopolies and assisting fair competition create a healthy market climate. supplement existing market channels. in industrial nations and regions. and rational. which has controlled the marketing of petroleum products in virtually every nation in the world. Direct intervention is government involvement in the purchase. Social Structure: More open and fluid societies. and a price equalization aid to farmers known as parity. and mystic. The trends noted in this unit will all affect the future of marketing. patterns of a "one-world" mentality. 85 . and containers. 4. Quality inspection and grading is vital to everyone. increased participation of women in the work force.

Economic 1. B. 4. and more multinational trade. Need to preserve the environment Marketing is more than business techniques and economic activities. 2. Governmental 1. More direct intervention in the economic system. 2. C. a usual market. 3. The problems that firms encounter on the international market are: A. larger companies. Competition: More visible. Ecological 1. 3. and society. C. a stock exchange. a commodity exchange. Limited resources. not mentioned. On-site tours are conducted by export marketing companies: A. organizations. B. Increased interdependence among nations. accelerated. Technology: Extremely important. Comprehension Tick the correct answer: A. C. 2. 3. B or C for 1-5 below 1.' 3. What forms it will take in the future depend on political and economic changes. but one thing is certain. More interaction with business. Increased complexity and size. A board of trade is: A. It is comprised of and affected by the diverse interrelationships of individuals. marketing will always be with us in an important way. approximately the same as on the domestic market. Much of the world burdened by population growth. to prepare appropriate sales literature. Structure: More concentration. B. governments. 4. quite different. D. 86 . 2. closer government observation. to handle the paperwork. it is a social process that fulfills a basic social need. to understand the best channels of sales.B. More restrictions on marketing with a struggle surrounding the regulatory role. C.

economic. g) resist. соответствовать местному образу жизни. education.and cross-cultural variables. торговать товаром. psychological. b) cross-cultural. a) Defining. буквальный перевод. What is not mentioned among the major breakdowns of the system in which marketing operates? A. c) lost sales. customs. В. становиться все более зависимым. Direct intervention is: А. A firm’s level of cultural competence can be the primary determinant of its …5…in a given market. 5. government involvement in the movement of goods. law. so does the need for intra – and …4… competence to deal with culturally diverse publics that influence the health and growth of the enterprise. in that they …3… change and foster continuity. Vocabulary Practice Exercise 1 Find English equivalents in the text: Точно оценить потенциал рынка. MNC entering a local market. элитная привычка. Culture is a complex whole. morals. выезд на место. As the globalization of business grows. encompassing beliefs. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the words below. values. In the context of crucial role of culture in the…7…. language. d) habits. B. and capabilities. 87 . Cultural incompetence can lead to …6… and calamitous customer relations. Culture provides…2… a sense of identity and well-being. h) strategic planning process. emergency pressure. learned and shared by members of society. ecological. признать поражение. Cultures are inherently conservative.4. art. f) level of involvement. С. умерять энтузиазм. соблюдать правила.…1…. e) members of society. it’s the job of the global marketing manager to identify significant intra. C. religion. This information can then influence every aspect of the strategic marketing planning process from …8…the nature and needs of target markets to building marketing mixes that appeal to these markets. неумение отличить. корректировка маркетинговой программы. Change the form of the words where necessary.

still are usually separated by the semicolon. nor. besides. shared. which was announced on Monday. whereas.Grammar Revision: Punctuation 1) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members used without any conjunction: A country’s culture is learned. 7) Non-defining relative clauses that add non-essential information are separated by commas. 5) Coordinate clauses joined asyndetically or by the conjunctions nether. 6) Defining relative clauses that add essential information to the sentence are not separated by a comma: I am speaking about the company that produces telephone equipment. yet. 2) A comma is used to separate several homogeneous members if the last is joined by the conjunction “and”: Among significant cultural variables that can help marketing managers define and develop international markets are values. then. and object clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause: What they learned of marketing in that month was much more than that he had learnt in all his life. predicative. but contracts or even mergers with other companies may be necessary. language. The new investment plan. transmitted. and religion. 88 . 4) A comma is used to separate homogeneous members joined by the conjunction “but” and the correlative conjunction not only… but also: Not only may substantial investments be required to develop and market new products. 8) Subject. conjunctive adverbs moreover. nor did they offer to pay their debts. 3) No comma is used if two homogeneous members are joined by the conjunction “and”: Approaches for identifying and measuring significant cultural variables include observational fieldwork. will take five years to complete. but occasionally a comma is found: The company did not sell their assets.

multinationals expanded steadily because they contribute to the economy of their host nation. especially technological and managerial skills. Advertising budgets based on immediate sales are frequently shortsighted. 4. занимающиеся экспортом. 2. причиной которой являются возможные прибыли. It is enormously expensive. enter the international market. What people say does not really mean they do it. Принесите мне. 6. in global terms. and organization of the economic activities of several nations. проводят поездки на места. регулируют сбыт и помогают поддерживать репутацию отдельной страны. Маркетинговые советы проводят исследования. and production. Валовой национальный продукт представляет собой денежное выражение всех товаров и услуг. фирменные бланки Ваше 89 . The two basic roles of these MNCs are the transmission of resources. пожалуйста. предоставляют информацию. компании.Exercise 3 Read the sentences below and explain the punctuation: 1. 3. Транснациональные корпорации могут столкнуться с сопротивлением принимающей стороны. What they wanted to introduce on the world market was testmarketed three times in order to adhere to long-range goal policies. Despite obstacles. technology. Он примет на себя всю ответственность за продажу этого товара. необходимо придерживаться политики долговременных целей. 3. Чтобы определить лучшие методы сбыта. for each country to duplicate advanced research. 4. 7. Every year more and more firms. Exercise 4 Translate from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary of the lesson 1. 2. even relatively small ones. 5. 7. произведенных в стране за год. 5. Чтобы избежать ошибок в маркетинге. 6.

Cartel I) To send or sell merchandise to a foreign country 10. Patent J) The total monetary value of all goods and services produced in a country during one year 11. What is the difference between failure to adhere to long-range goal policies and failure to differentiate between short-term tactics and longrange strategy? 3. 3. Stockpile K) The vital and social statistics of a population 12. Bankruptcy . Marketing boards G) The state in which a person or company is unable to pay creditors 8. production. Multinational corpora. use. and marketing of the products of its members 7. Gross national product C) A company that has a manufacturing or investment base in at least two countries (GNP): outside the country of its origin 4. or sell a specific item. What is the value of studying marketing failures? 2.Match the words in the left column to their definitions in the right one A) Stationery containing the name and address of an organization 2. Letterhead E) To bring in merchandise from a foreign country.Demographics H) A reserve supply stored and maintained for future use 9. Direct intervention M) Financial aid of a government to a private industry Discussion 1.F) A business association formed to regulate tion (MNC) prices. Import B) The exclusive right to make. Export D) Organizations which promote and facilitate the worldwide marketing of specific products. 5. What is the trend in marketing with regard to international trade? Are domestic marketing problems similar to international ones? 90 1. granted by a government to a person or company for a stated time period. especially for resale 6. Subsidy L) Government involvement in the movement of goods 13.

Can you think of any others which should be included in the list? B. What is an export marketing company? 7. Give an example of a cartel and its effect on other nations. 15. What is the difference between regulatory government aid and facilitating government aid? 14. Give an example of an error made because of the failure to reflect local values and life styles. What is a board of trade in the United States? A trading company in Japan? 12. Give some examples of translation errors made by marketers advertising abroad. Why do multinational firms meet resistance from individual nations? 10. Which of the 13 most common failures listed by Nielsen do you consider the most relevant to marketing practices in your country? Give examples to illustrate at least two of these failures. 11. Describe the role of marketing boards. 8. Describe those necessary activities which exporters must practice. What effect have multinational firms had in your country? Is there any national resistance? What is the relationship of marketing boards to MNCs? Do you see a trend toward more or less cooperation between them? 91 . What are the two basic roles of MNCs? 9. 6. Will there be more of this in the future? How do you view governmental involvement in marketing practices? Write a composition on one of the following topics: A. What kinds of direct intervention and support activities do some governments engage in with regard to marketing. What has the effect of international trade been on your country? What are your most important exported raw materials and final products? Is the trend in your country toward more or less international marketing? C. 13.4. List all the kinds of government assistance offered to marketing in your country. 5.

протяжение план огромной важности. знаменитый. величина. прославленный помощь в выравнивании цен бессоюзно 92 . огромного размаха нравы вековой. сторона /медали/. аспект известный.Vocabulary To adhere To substitute for To appraise Ingenuity Encounter Dimensions Scheme of vast dimensions Mores Secular Accommodations Facet Renowned Price equalization aid Asyndetically твердо держаться. стычка размеры. светский приспособления. столкновение. подставлять оценивать изобретательность. придерживаться замещать. объем. искусство неожиданная встреча. удобства. соглашения грань. происходящий раз в сто лет.

recently) Perfect Continuous To have been + Participle I I (you.No. just. которое началось в прошлом и продолжалось до настоящего момента и либо закончилось к настоящему моменту либо все еще продолжается. Exports have been growing steadily over the past six months. they) have been working He ( she. Употребляется: 1.Действие в процессе в момент речи: What are you doing?. how long) 93 . 4. 6.Изменяющаяся ситуация: The number of people using the Internet is growing. Новость:Our fax number has changed. запланированное будущее: She is leaving for Paris on Monday. Характеристика человека: My sister sings very well. Ряд глаголов в Continuous не употребляется Perfect To have + Participle II I (you.Действие. 2. Полученный жизненный опыт:He has done many jobs in his time 4. 3. since. раздражение: We are always discussing it. we. you) are working / Are you working? They are not working Употребляется: 1.GRAMMAR REFERENCE Simple I (you. lately. Has he been waiting for me for a long time? (since. утверждение истины: We sell our products into many markets. never. Показатели (ever. моменту и результат важен:It has broken down the barriers of geography and time. Действие по графику. as soon as etc)I can’t make a decision if I haven’t received all the data 5. if. they. they) have worked He ( she. it) has been working Have you been working? Has he been working? He has not been working. 2. Continuous To be + Participle I I am working / Am I working? He (she. После: This is the first / second time: It’s only the second time I’ve driven a car. расписанию The train for London leaves at 9 p. yet. 5. 3. Обычное.I’m trying to find a file. already. it) works Do you work? I do not ( don’t) work Does he work? He does not (doesn’t) work Употребляется: 1. it) has worked Have you worked?. for. we. Ближайшее. I have not (haven’t) worked Has he worked? – No. 3. Констатация факта. it) is working / Is it working? We (they. 2. Повторяющееся действие. he has not (hasn’t) worked Употребляется: 1. 4. but in vain. повторяющеееся действие He plays golf every Sunday.Временнoе действие: They are staying at the Crill Hotel until May. for. Завершенное действие в будущем в придаточных условия и времени ( после: when. we) work He (she.Действие в процессе в настоящее время. The sun rises in the East.m.Действие совершилось к наст. но не в момент речи: They are building a new office.

Действие. we were not working. либо закончилось к какому-то моменту в прошлом. I’d rather выражает действие. we had not been working. we .неправ. had supper. 3.Действие.V+ed или 2-я ф. которое не произошло: I wish I had been more interested in English at School. которое произошло раньше другого действия в прошлом.гл. Употребляется: 1. I( you. they. Употребляется: 1. he. If only I had bought those shares! I’d rather he had asked me before taking my car. At 5 o’clock I was cooking . we) were working Were you working? – No. После выражений I wish. She would come and see me every day. действие в прошлом: He used to listen to music for hours. I was not watching TV.they) had been working Had you been working? – No. she. she. совершенное в прошлом и не связанное с настоящим: Radio was invented by Popov. Had the film already started when you came to the cinema? She had finished her work by 4 o’clock. it) had worked Had you worked? – No. They launched this project in 1980. 2. Повтор. (but he did) I ( he. I (you. If only. Употребляется: 1. Перечисление действий в прошлом: She came home. I ( he. Действие в процессе в определенный момент времени в прошлом. watched TV and went to bed. she. до какого-то момента в прошлом: She had to take a break because she had been working far too hard. I was watching TV when my parents arrived. we had not worked Употребляется: 1. we. 2. We had been waiting for him for half an hour before he came 94 .которое происходило на протяжении какого-то времени./he/she/it/ they) worked Did you work? He did not work. While their mother was cooking dinner the children were playing in the garden. it.Действие. it )was working They( you. В отрицательной форме выражает сожаление по поводу содеянного) He wishes he had not left his previous job.

если I’ll go and shut the window. которое будет завершено в какой-то момент в будущем. bring you the book tomorrow. 2.in the sea. 95 . 3. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema. he. которое начнется в будущем и будет продолжаться до какого-то момента в будущем в течение некоторого времени. Употребляется: Действие. I believe. When you are out? I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. Will/shall have been + Participle I She will have been working at this problem for a month when you visit us a second time. 3. Will you be passing a post-office. 1. 2. Спрашивая о планах. At 9 o’clock we will have gone to work. don’t Употребляется: worry.30 Употребляется: 1. Действие. 1. хотите попросить сделать чтоIt’s cold here. I suppose etc. we – shall Present Continuous) What time will Shall I go on? your friends be arriving? (What time are your friends arriving?) Will have + Participle II She match will have finished at 10. Внезапное решение что. то сделать (в момент речи) 2. Действие совершиться к к-то моменту в будущем. либо для Вас. Действие которое точно будет Употребляется: происходить в определенный момент в будущем. Ближайшее запланированное будущее (взаимозаменяемо с В вопросах с I. Will you be seeing her this evening? He will come on time. Обещание This time tomorrow I’ll be swimming I’ll pay you back in a week. they) will tomorrow. she. После выражений типа: I think. it.Will/shall + infinitive без ” Will/shall be +Participle I to” She will be working at 10 o’clock I ( you.

I) been informed? No. they. we shall not (shan’t) be invited Will he (you. he hasn’t been informed We (I. it) was being watched You (we. 96 . I am not being watched. he. they) will be invited Shall I (we) be invited? No. you. we) being watched? No. she. they) were being watched Was she (he. it. it. they) being watched? No. I) invited? No. they weren’t being watched. we. she. it. they) have been informed He (she. it. it) has been informed Have you (we. he. I shan’t have been informed Will they have been informed? No. he is not being watched I (he. we have not been informed Has he (she. Is she invited? . she. it) had been informed Had you been informed? No. it) was invited You (we. they) be invited No. I) being watched? No. it) is invited Are you invited? – No. he. I hadn’t been informed F U T U R E I (we) will (shall) have been informed They (you. they won’t have been informed. they) are being watched He (she. they. Is he (she. it) is being watched Are you (we. she. I’m not invited. they) are invited He (she. he was not invited. they) were invited Were they (you. they were not invited. she. it) been informed? No.СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ Simple P R E S E N T P A S T I am invited You (we. she wasn’t being watched Were they (you. it) will have been informed Shall I have been informed? No. he will not (won’t) be invited ---------------------------Continuous I am being watched You (we. I (we) shall (will) be invited You (she. Was he (she. Perfect I (you. we) invited? No. she is not invited I(he.No. it) being watched? No.

to give etc. to ask. акцент делается на самом действии. Возвратными глаголами с окончанием на –ся A lot of new hotels are built in Russia every year. to deny. to advise. и в основном. to promise. 2) The letter is written with a pencil. некоторые глаголы допускают образование страдательного залога. to award. Деятель может вводиться предлогом by (одушевленный предмет) with (неодушевленный предмет). Мне показали контракт. to teach. Я был приглашен на конференцию. to allow.Употребление страдательного залога Употребление времен в страдательном залоге полностью совпадает с употреблением времен в действительном залоге. to order. Меня пригласили на конференцию. I was shown the contract. Самим страдательным залогом: I was invited to the conference. а над подлежащим. так и с косвенным дополнением. то деятель чаще всего опускается. 2. 3. to tell. Неопределенно-личным предложением I was invited to the conference. а не на деятеле. Особенности употребления страдательного залога в английском языке В английском языке также как и в русском. 97 . 1) The company was founded in 1970 by my grandfather. The contract was shown to me. например: 1. Каждый год в России строится много новых гостиниц. Способы перевода страдательного залога на русский язык Существует несколько способов перевода страдательного залога с английского языка на русский язык. как с прямым. К ним относятся: to accord. Но в отличие от русского языка. страдательный залог образуется от переходных глаголов. Так как в страдательном залоге действие производится не подлежащим.

smell. hear. taste. feel. Они имеют одну или две грамматические формы (Present Simple. 3. Исключение составляют модальные глаголы ought (to). Недоверие. Past Simple) и сочетаются с инфинитивом без частицы “to”. 1. Когда же говорится о какой-то определенной ситуации.Модальные глаголы (Modal verbs) Модальные глаголы выражают отношение говорящего к предполагаемому действию. Present Simple Can May Must Should Ought (to) Am/ is/ are (to) Could might Was / were (to) Past Simple эквивалент Be able (to) To be allowed (to) to be permitted (to) To have (to) to be obliged (to) - CAN ( could) эквивалент – be able Can выражает способность. удивление. Недостающие видовременные формы восполняются их эквивалентами. сомнение. недоверие. to be (to). Мы используем модальный глагол Can только когда речь идет об общих физических способностях: see. He didn’t want to come. сомнение. Возможность (зависящая от обстоятельств) Can I speak to Mr. 2. то употребляется эквивалент to be able. удивление (употребляется со всеми формами инфинитива в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях) But could he hate his job and still keep going there. but we were able to persuade him. который по своему значению ближе к глаголу manage. he is not available. Brown? Sorry. 98 . Физическая или умственная способность (употребляется только с Indefinite Infinitive) He could understand 3 foreign languages when he was 5 years old. understand. возможность.

Could (can) she have said that? . Мы могли бы пообедать в ресторане. you may not . They might still be doing that business.Неужели он мог ненавидеть свою работу и продолжать ходить туда? Can she be waiting for us? . You might have told me about it You might lend me your car.Может ли она нас ждать? She cannot be waiting for us. Could несет в себе понятие сослагательного наклонения: We could have dinner at a restaurant. чтобы она нас ждала. (Используются все формы инфинитива). а также употребляется при согласовании времен. please.No. Разрешение. MAY (might) эквиваленты . 1.Не может быть. Might выражает большую степень неуверенности. you must not (зависимость от обстоятельств) 2. которые помешали бы вам сделать это.No. 4.No. возможность. вероятность. .Нет условий. Запрет может быть выражен несколькими способами: May I read the letter? .Здесь также возможно употребление модального глагола Can. упрек. In these documents you may (can) find a lot of interesting things. 3. (В этом значении употребляется только Indefinite infinitive). (Обычно используется Indefinite infinitive). . В данном значении употребляется только might с Perfect Infinitive. They said they might be interested in merging. don’t . предположение с оттенком сомнения.Вам дают разрешение.to be allowed / to be permitted May выражает разрешение. (Употребление Indefinite Infinitive выражает просьбу с оттенком упрека) 99 . You can take these copies . You may take these copies . Вероятность. Неуверенность.Неужели она это сказала? 4. Упрек. May употребляется только в утвердительных предложениях. неуверенность. They may or they may not agree to our terms of payment. В этом значении возможно употребление can.

100 . 1. предположение. по договоренности и переводится на русский язык – должен. граничащее с уверенностью. (В отрицательных предложениях употребляется evidently) Предположение.Yes. They must have been marketing their products for five years already on the world market. запрет отрицательной форме).No. Обязанность. Они выражают совет. He must earn money. OUGHT (TO) Модальные глаголы should и ought(to) часто взаимозаменяемы. Глагол ought (to) по своему значению ближе к модальному глаголу must. They are not likely to delay the cargo. They will probably reroute the vessel. почти убежденность. запрет. you needn’t (отсутствие необходимости) (в 2. You must leave the room at once. We were to meet at 5. не может быть выражено через модальный глагол must. you must . предположение. You must not do it. but he didn’t come. You ought to use new methods in advertising.to have (to) / to be obliged (to) Must выражает обязанность. граничащее с уверенностью. TO BE (TO) Модальный глагол to be (to) выражает долженствование по плану. необходимость. Evidently. необходимость. Must I go to the meeting? . Вероятность. You should have informed me beforehand. Smith is. Who is to go on business to London? – Mr. SHOULD. Вместо него используется модальное слово probably или выражение to be likely.MUST эквиваленты . 2. (Употребляются все формы инфинитива. Предположение. относящееся к будущему. You should use new methods in advertising. Употребление этих модальных глаголов с Perfect Infinitive выражает упрек. He must work. но только в утвердительных предложениях). she did not know my address. и выражает настоятельную рекомендацию. Команда.

You should have signed the contract. что помогая какое-то время Я рад. to intend (в Past Indefinite) выражает действие. 2. что мне помогут Я рад. 101 . что помог Я рад. My watch must have stopped. might.Я предполагал сделать это. надежде. которое не совершилось вопреки ожиданию. После глаголов to expect.в сочетании с модальными глаголами must. Предположение . should. что помогаю Я рад. намерению: I meant to have done it . обладающая временными и залоговыми характеристиками. Tense Active Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to help To be helping To have helped To have been helping Voice Passive To be helped To have been helped - I am glad to help you I am glad to be helped I am glad to be helping I am glad to have helped I am glad to have been helping I am glad to have been helped Я рад помочь Вам Я рад.Инфинитив (the Infinitive) Инфинитив – это неличная (неизменяемая) форма глагола. 3. Сожаление или упрек по поводу невыполненного действия после модальных глаголов could. to mean to hope. что мне помогли **Perfect Infinitive 1. may.

сочетающая в себе признаки глагола и существительного. Никто не мог войти и выйти незамеченным. 2. Чтобы сделать работу хорошо вы должны усердно трудиться. Дополнение He likes to be introduced to famous people. Поддерживать устройство в рабочем состоянии нелегко. 4.Функции инфинитива в предложении 1. 2. предшествующее действию выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. который надо разрекламировать. Часть сказуемого (составного именного и составного глагольного) To see is to believe. когда его представляют знаменитостям. Товар. очень важен для нашей компании. No one could pass in or out without being seen. The Indefinite Gerund (active or passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием глагола сказуемого. на русский язык может переводиться как глаголом. Tense Indefinite Perfect Active Voice Writing Having written Passive Voice Being written Having been written 1. В нижеприведенной таблице представлены формы герундия. следовательно. так и существительным. Подлежащее To keep the unit in operation is not very easy. We’ll have to launch a new advertising campaign. (Именное) Увидеть – значит поверить. Определение The product to be advertised is of great importance to our company. 102 . The Perfect Gerund обозначает действие. 5. (Глагольное) Нам придется запустить новую рекламную кампанию. Герундий (The Gerund) Герундий – это неличная форма глагола. Ему нравится. 3. Обстоятельство To do the job well you must work hard.

She denies having spoken with him. Она отрицает, что разговаривала с ним. 3. Однако предшествующее действие не всегда выражается при помощи the Perfect Gerund. Иногда, после глаголов to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank, и после предлогов on, upon, after, without можно также употреблять и the Indefinite Gerund. I don’t remember discussing this problem with Mr. Brown before. 4. После глаголов to want, to need, to deserve, to require, to be worth употребляется герундий в действительном залоге, несмотря на то, что он несет страдательное значение: They were not worth saving. Их не стоило спасать. The advertising campaign wants attending to, no doubt. Несомненно, рекламной кампанией необходимо заняться. Функции герундия в предложении 1. Подлежащее Talking mends no holes. 2. Часть сказуемого (именная) The only remedy for my headache is going to bed. 3. Дополнение I love riding. 4. Определение He was born with the gift of winning hearts. 5.Обстоятельство (всегда с предлогом) After verifying all the documents the parties signed the contract. Употребление герундия 1. После следующих глаголов и идиоматических выражений: To avoid; to burst out; to deny; to enjoy; to excuse; to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise); to finish; to forgive; to give up; to go on; to keep on; to leave off; to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences only); to postpone; to put off; to suggest; cannot help and others. 2. После следующих глаголов с предлогами: To accuse of; to agree to; to approve of; to complain of; to depend on; to feel like; to insist on; to look like; to object to; to persist in; to prevent from; to rely on; to speak of; to succeed in; to suspect of; to thank for; to think of; to look forward to. 103

3. После следующих существительных с предлогом: Opportunity of; chance of; interest in; way of; possibility of; experience in; hope of; reason for; idea of. 4. После следующих выражений с глаголом to be: To be aware of ; to be busy in; to be capable of; to be fond of; to be guilty of; to be indignant at; to be pleased at; to be proud of; to be sure of; to be surprised at; to be worth (while). Сложный герундиальный оборот Сочетание герундия с предшествующим ему притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже называется сложным герундиальным оборотом. Этот оборот как самостоятельная единица может выполнять любые функции в предложении. В зависимости от выполняемой функции сложный герундиальный оборот переводится на русский язык соответствующим придаточным предложением. Например: Her being sent on business to London is quite unexpected to us. –( подлежащее) То, что ее посылают в командировку в Лондон – для нас полная неожиданность. I heard of your friend’s having accepted our offer. – (дополнение). Я слышал, что Ваш друг принял наше предложение. Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) Complex Subject состоит из существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, стоящего после сказуемого. Как правило, этот оборот переводится на русский язык вводным неопределенно-личным предложением. Например: The product is known to be selling well. Известно, что этот товар хорошо продается. She doesn’t appear to have heard the news. Похоже, она не слышала новость. Сложное подлежащее употребляется только после определенных глаголов: 1. To seem, to appear, to prove - в действительном залоге. 2. To think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to know, to mean, to expect, to say, to report, to find - в страдательном залоге. 3. to be sure, to be likely, to be certain.


Причастие ( the Participle) Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола, прилагательного, наречия. В английском языке существуют причастие настоящего времени (Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II). Participle I Participle Active Passive writing being written Indefinite having written having been written Perfect Indefinite Participle (active and passive) выражает действие одновременное с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым. Arranging a summit we faced many problems. Организовывая встречу на высшем уровне, мы столкнулись с множеством проблем. Perfect Participle (active and passive) выражает действие, которое предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом сказуемым. Having written a letter she decided not to post it. Написав письмо, она решила не отправлять его. Функции причастия в предложении В предложении причастие может выполнять следующие функции: 1. Определение: а) перед определяемым словом: The dancing girl was very beautiful. b) после существительных в причастных оборотах, соответствующих определительным придаточным предложениям: Who is that man speaking with my partner? 2. Обстоятельство (в функции обстоятельства соответствует русскому деепричастию): Knowing English well she translated the article without any difficulty. 3. Часть сказуемого: He is watching TV now. 4. Часть сложного дополнения: I heard him being invited to participate in the conference.


When I listen to music. Однако замена придаточных предложений причастными оборотами в русском языке возможна только в том случае. Сравните: Когда я слушаю музыку. я работаю в хорошем настроении. Независимый причастный оборот (the Absolute Participle Construction) Причастные обороты в функции определения и обстоятельства по своему значению эквивалентны придаточным предложениям.Participle II 1. When received the amount will be credited to your account. Listening to music I work in high spirits. От правильных глаголов совпадает с формой Past Simple (V+ed) 2. Чашка разбитая вами принадлежала моей сестре They were asked to wait. Их попросили подождать. Слушая музыку. От неправильных глаголов – 3-я форма (broken. 106 . I work in high spirits. как часть сказуемого (в страдательном залоге). я работаю в хорошем настроении. а также в качестве обстоятельства. written) Participle II (причастие прошедшего времени) от переходных глаголов соответствует русскому страдательному причастию настоящего или прошедшего времени (shown – показанный) и употребляется в функции определения перед или после существительных. Participle II от непереходных глаголов самостоятельно не употребляется и служит для образования времен группы Perfect. когда подлежащее главного и придаточного предложений совпадают. Когда сумма будет получена ее переведут на Ваш счет. unless например: The cup broken by you belonged to my sister. чаще всего с союзами when if.

We heard them discussing marketing budget. как они обсуждали бюджет маркетинга.е. мы запустили рекламную кампанию. Я видела как он перешел улицу. Например: As everything was ready we launched our advertising campaign. Мы не ожидали. что он придет вовремя. подлежащее которых не совпадает с подлежащим в главном предложении. действие закончено) 107 . (Полнота действия. Такие обороты называются независимыми и переводятся на русский язык придаточными обстоятельственными предложениями. в английском языке есть обороты. т.Но в английском языке в отличие от русского возможна замена причастным оборотом и таких придаточных предложений. Мы слышали. Так как все было готово. Например: We did not expect him to come on time. Возможно также употребление причастия. being our ready we advertising ------------------- Следовательно. На русский язык переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением. имеющие свое собственное независимое подлежащее. Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) Cложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном и инфинитива.е. После глаголов чувственного восприятия инфинитив употребляется без частицы “to”. Everything launched campaign. (Неполнота действия. т. выполняющего по отношению к ним предикативную функцию. В этой конструкции причастие выполняет предикативную функцию и служит как бы сказуемым к своему собственному подлежащему. действие не закончено ) I saw him cross the road.

may. относящиеся к настоящему или будущему. Что бы Вы ни сделали. Однако. could + инфинитив смыслового глагола. might. Например: I wish I were a banker! Эх.to be – were – для всех лиц. 108 . В условном предложении эта форма обозначает нереальное условие. Остальные глаголы употребляются в Past Simple. в научном тексте). Она также сохранилась в некоторых устойчивых выражениях: Be it so! God forbid! Да будет так! Боже упаси! The Past Subjunctive Форма Past Subjunctive сохранилась только у глагола . Эта форма употребляется для выражения действия в настоящем или будущем (крайне редко в основном в поэзии. Если бы я был на твоем месте. я бы поменял работу. Whatever you may do I hope it‘ll do good to our business. я надеюсь. это будет во благо нашего дела.Сослагательное наклонение (the Subjunctive Mood) Сослагательное наклонение выражает субъективное отношение говорящего к воображаемому или желаемому действию. The Present Subjunctive (синтетическая форма) Все глаголы в форме Present Subjunctive имеют форму инфинитива без частицы “to”. в документах. would. был бы я банкиром! If I were you I should change the job. наблюдается устойчивая тенденция употреблять также и форму was. в современном английском языке. особенно в американском варианте. Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения Аналитическая форма сослагательного наклонения состоит из вспомогательных глаголов should.

1. то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect. Когда условие и результат относятся к настоящему или будущему. то в условном предложении будет Past Simple. то в условном – Past Simple (Past Subjunctive of “to be”). в английском языке эти формы варьируются в зависимости от того. If I had consulted my own interests I should have never done it. я бы не позволила ему ухлестывать за другими женщинами. 4. 109 .а в главном . то в условном предложении будет Past Perfect. а результат к прошлому. а результат к настоящему или будущему. If he were my husband I shouldn’t allow him to chase other women. он бы давно стал богатым человеком. Если условие относится к настоящему или неопределенному времени. 2. я бы никогда этого не сделал. Если условие и результат относятся к прошлому. Если бы он купил те акции в 2000 году. Если бы он был моим мужем. Если бы я руководствовался только своими интересами. Если бы у них была возможность проникнуть на другие рынки. 3.Сложные предложения В отличие от русского языка. где мы имеем только одну форму сослагательного наклонения. If they had an opportunity to penetrate other markets they would do it immediately. они бы сделали это немедленно. If you had taken your medicine yesterday. а в главном предложении should / would + Perfect Infinitive. you would be well now. а в главном предложении should /would + Simple (Indefinite) Infinitive смыслового глагола. а в главном – should / would + Perfect Infinitive смыслового глагола.should / would + Simple Infinitive. Если условие относится к прошлому. к какому времени относится нереальное условие и нереальное следствие. (Но он сделал) If he had bought those shares in 2000 he would have become a rich man long ago.

I wish you would stay with me for a while. Would употребляется для всех лиц когда: Действие относится к настоящему или будущему и подлежащее главного предложения не совпадает с подлежащим придаточного предложения. be anxious. order. 110 . aim. The director orders that everything should be ready by Monday. desire. advise. Подлежащее главного предложения выражено абстрактными существительными wish. The company’s aim was that their goods should be sold everywhere. когда: 1. it is important… etc. She opened the window lest it should be stuffy in the room. suggestion. to see to it. После слов: suggest. propose. Should употребляется для всех лиц.If he were not so absent-minded he wouldn’t have mistaken you for your sister. После главного предложения типа: it is necessary. 2. 3. он не спутал бы Вас с вашей сестрой. Если придаточное предложение цели вводится союзом lest (чтобы не). I wish we would wait for her. idea etc. 4. Если бы он не был таким рассеянным. It is necessary that he should have a meeting with his partners.

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