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Salsabila Dinda



Negotiation is an essential business process, with the initiation of a negotiation likely yo

affect how the process unfolds. The effect of culture on negotiation can be categorized into
intercultural and cross-cultural, and can be compared along cultural characteristics.
Individualism-collectivism is a commonly used compound descriptor and dimension in cross-
cultural research (Hofstede, 1980; Hui, 1988; Ting-Toomey, 1988; Triandis, 1988). The terms
individualism-collectivism were first introduced by Hofstede (1980), and since then these
concepts have been widely used to explain differences in the ways people think and act in the
West and the East. Cross cultural negotiation concerns negotiation between individuals from
different cultures. Examples of cultural characteristics include collectivist versus individualistic
culture. Research has found, however that negotiators in collectivist cultures are more likely to
reach integrative outcome than negotiators in individualist (Lituchy, 1997, Arunachalam, wall
and chan, 1998) . According to a PsycNET search of individualism-collectivism, 1,736 articles
have been published since 1988 with 279 articles published on individualism-collectivism and
conflict. Intracultural negotiation refers to negotiation within one is own culture.Research
suggest that culture does have an effect on negotiation comes, although it may be no be direct,
and it likely has an influence through differences in the negotiation prosess in different cultures.
Different cultures weigh the criteria to select negotiators differently, leading to varying
expectations about what is appropriate in different types of negotiations. For example In the
United States, people score highly in individualism while Pacific Rim countries, such as China
and Japan, tend to be more collectivist.
This thought process influences the way societies are organized and decisions are made.
American culture is often characterized as individualist whereas Chinese culture is seen as more
collectivist. In countries with highly individualist cultures like the United States, people are more
likely to consider themselves as independent of the social group and thus more free to focus on
personal goals. As a result, American negotiators generally rely more on analytical-rational
thinking styles that focus on the problem, and use tactics such as argumentation based on logic
and the presentation of facts.In contrast, negotiators from countries with more collectivist
cultures like China rely more on intuitive-experiential thinking styles and use tactics that appeal
to emotions, social obligations, and the desire to maintain harmony and save face. Consequently,
Chinese negotiators are more likely to think about negotiation in terms of relationships whereas
American negotiators are generally more focused on outcome.
New research, however, suggests that these characterizations about individualist and
collectivist negotiation styles may be too simplistic and that collectivists may actually act more
aggressively to out-group members (i.e. people who are not a part of their collective). Researchers
posit that when negotiating with strangers outside their culture, negotiators from collectivist
cultures may no longer feel constrained by a concern for others and are thus more likely to reveal
their egotistical sides.It is thus clear that the individualism-collectivism dimension affects how
negotiators negotiate, suggesting for our purposes that this cultural dimension has implications for
American-Chinese email negotiations.