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9 Any motion which repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration.

9 Machines with repetitive power sources, such as engine, motor, turbine, often

have vibration problems.

problems may cause malfunctions or failure.

consume the energy.

K

M

C

2

Type of Springs

store energy, to provide restoring forces, and to measure force.

9 From the way the springs are loaded, there are 4 major types of springs:

compression springs, extension springs, torsion springs, and radial springs.

garter spring

3

Dw

9 Dm: mean diameter

9 Outside Diameter:

OD = Dm + Dw (1)

ID

9 Inside Diameter: Dm

OD

ID = Dm – Dw (2)

9 Free length

9 Install length

9 Operating length

9 Solid length

4

Compression Spring – Terminologies (II)

compression spring are often grounded

and closed.

9 Pitch angle:

λ

⎛ p ⎞

λ = tan ⎜⎜

−1

⎟⎟ (4)

⎝ πDm ⎠

L f = p × N a + 2 Dw (5) P πDm

Dm

5

Compression Spring – Stress Analysis (I)

F

9 When a spring is in compression or tension, the

wire itself is twisted.

9 The torsional shearing stress:

Tr FDm 2 ⋅ Dw 2 8FDm

τ= = = (6) FDm/2

J πDw 32

4

πDw3

8KFDm

τ= (7)

πDw3 F

into a spring.

9 Spring Index: C = Dm Dw (8)

6

Compression Spring – Stress Analysis (II)

4C − 1 0.615

K= + (9)

4C − 4 C

1.4

1.35

1.3

Wahl Factor, K

1.25

1.2

1.15

1.1

1.05

1

0 5 10 15 20

Spring Index, C

7

Compression Spring – Spring Constant

9 Strain energy when the spring wire is twisted:

θ=

TL ⎛ GJ ⎞

T = Kθ θ = ⎜ ⎟θ

GJ ⎝ L ⎠

2

1 1 ⎛ GJ ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ GJ ⎞⎛ TL ⎞ T 2L

U = Kθ θ = ⎜

2

⎟θ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = (10)

2 2⎝ L ⎠ 2 ⎝ L ⎠⎝ GJ ⎠ 2GJ

T=

FDm πDw4

J= L = πDm N a

2 32

4 F 2 Dm3 N a 1 2 F 2

U= 4

= kδ = (11)

GDw 2 2k

GDw4

⇒k = (12)

8 Dm3 N a

9 Spring constant depends on wire diameter, mean diameter, number of active

coils, and modulus of elasticity in shear, among which wire diameter and

mean diameter have the greatest influence.

8

Free Vibration of an Undamped, Translational System (I)

9 Undamped vibration and damped vibration.

9 Free Vibration of an Undamped, 1 DOF System

m&x& + k (δ + x ) = mg (13)

mg = kδ

m&x& + kx = 0 (14) kδ

k

x = ce st mcs 2 e st + kce st = 0

ms 2 + k = 0 δ x=0 m

m

⇒ s = ± − k = ± iω n

mg

m

(a) (b)

ωn = k m

9

Free Vibration of an Undamped, Translational System (II)

9 Homogenous solution:

iω n t − iω n t

x(t ) = A1 cos ωn t + A2 sin ωn t (17)

x = c1e + c2 e (15)

iω n t

t = 0, x( 0 ) = A1 , x& (0) = A2ωn

⎧ e = cos ωn t + i sin ωn t

⎨ −iωnt (16) x&0

⎩e = cos ωn t − i sin ωn t x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t + sin ω n t (18)

ωn

9 Equivalent stiffness:

m

δ = fl 3 3EI

x=0 k e = f x = 3EI l 3

l

ω n = k e me

10

Free Vibration of an Undamped, Torsional System

9 If a rigid body oscillates about a specific reference axis, the resulting motion is

called torsional vibration.

9 The displacement of a body is measured in terms of an angular coordinate, and

the restoring moment may be due to the torsion of an elastic member or to the

unbalanced moment or force.

kt

ωn =

l

rad/sec (20)

Jo

θ = Tl GJ s , T = K tθ ⇒ K t = GJ s l O

θ

J o = ∫ r dA

2

11

A Solid Pendulum Experiment to Calculate the Polar

Moment of Inertia

9 It is difficult to calculate JO for objects with complicated shapes.

9 The solid pendulum experiment:

J oθ&& + mgr sin θ = 0 (21) O

C

J oθ&& + (mgr )θ = 0

r

(22)

ω n = mgr J o

mgr

f = ωn 2π ⇒ Jo = (23) mg

4π 2 f 2

From theory of parallel axis: J c = J o − mr 2 (24)

12

Example 1. Piano Metronome

9 The polar moment of inertia with respect to point O

(

J o = Ml 2 + mx 2 ) (25)

9 Moment equilibrium: m

x

− Mgl sin θ + mxg sin θ = (ml 2 + Mx 2 )θ&& (26)

( )

Ml + mx θ&& + (Ml − mx )gθ = 0

2 2

(27)

轉軸

pivot

O l

9 Natural frequency:

θ

ωn =

(Ml − mx )g (28)

Ml 2 + mx 2 M

9 The frequency will be small if m is moved away from the pivot. When Ml=mx,

there will be no vibration.

13

Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (I)

9 A vehicle suspension system usually consist of a spring, a shock absorber,

and a set of linkages. The shock absorber is a typical viscous damping.

裝置於車體

to vehicle

活塞桿

piston rod

避震筒壁 防塵套筒

活塞 液壓油

hydraulic fluid

piston

基閥

fluid passage

活塞

piston

液壓油

hydraulic fluid

車軸

to wheel

14

Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (II)

9 The viscous damping force F is proportional to the speed and can be expressed as

F = −cx& (29)

where c is the damping constant or coefficient of viscous damping.

9 The equation of motion:

m&x& + cx& + kx = 0 (30)

9 Let x=cest ms 2 + cs + k = 0

⇒s= − c ± c

2m

2

− 4mk = − c ±

2m

( )

c −k

2m m

2

(31)

c

Cc = 2 mk = 2m k = 2mωn (32) ζ = (33)

m Cc

c

=

c Cc

⋅

2 m Cc 2 m

= ζω n (34) ( )

s = − ζ ± ζ 2 − 1 ωn (35)

15

Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (III)

9 Homogeneous solution of

⎛⎜ −ζ + ζ 2 −1 ⎞⎟ωn t ⎛⎜ −ζ − ζ 2 −1 ⎞⎟ω t

Equation (30): x(t ) = c1e⎝ ⎠

+ c2 e ⎝ ⎠ n

(36)

臨界阻尼系統與過度阻尼系統運動狀態

9 Critically damped system

(ζ=1) and overdamped

ζ >1

Overdamped

過度阻尼

system(ζ>1

system( ) Î The

solution does not have

imaginary part, thus no

Criticallyζ damped

臨界阻尼 =1

oscillation. X(t)

more commonly seen in

practice.

t

16

Underdamped System

9 Eq.(36) can be re-arranged as follows:

where x0 is the initial displacement

and φ is the phase angle. x0 e −ζω nt

O

The vibration frequency approaches

φ

natural frequency as ζ approaches 0.

−ζω t

9 x(t ) = x0e n determines the

“envelope” of the vibration amplitude.

The amplitude decreases faster as ζ

approaches 1.

17

Coulomb Damping

9 Coulomb friction arises when bodies

slide on dry surfaces.

x , x& , &&

x

m&x& + kx = − μN

N = mg

m&x& + kx = μN (39) k

m

9 Particular solution:

μN

xp = m (40)

k f = μN

μN

x(t ) = A cos ω n t + B sin ω n t −

k

μN

x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t + (41)

k

18

Example 2. Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping (I)

9 x0=0.06m, and m=15kg , k=1800N/m, μ=0.1, N=mg=147N, μN/k=8.17×10-3m.

9 The first half cycle (0≦ωnt≦π), when t=0, x0=0.06m:

A1 = x0 − μN k B1 = 0

μN

x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t + = ( x0 − μN k ) cos ωn t + μN k

k

9 The other half cycle (π ≦ωnt≦2π), when ωnt= π, x = 2 μN k − x0

A2 = x0 − 3 μN k B2 = 0

μN

x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t − = ( x0 − 3μN k ) cos ωn t − μN k

k

19

Example 2. Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping (II)

9 The amplitude decreases by 2μN/k each half cycle. The motion stops at the

4th half cycle.

有庫倫阻尼的振動系統運動時間對位移圖

X

μN

+

k

μN

π 2π ωt

3π ωnt

−

k

20

Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

internal planes that slip or slides as deformation f

takes place is called hysteretic damping.

f = kx + (kβ ω )x& (42)

is determined by

ΔE E = 2πβ x

9 Hysteretic damping has similar behavior as

viscous damping, and is often treated the same

way as viscous damping.

21

Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (I)

in mass distribution will generate f sin θ

harmonically excited vibration. y

f = mo eω 2 (43) f = m o eω 2

f cosθ

M θ

f y = f cos θ = f cos ωt (45)

e

9 The magnitude of this centrifugal force x

depends on the mass, the amount of O

eccentricity, and the rotational speed.

22

Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (II)

e

9 Equations of motion:

m&x& + kx = f cos ωt (46) x , x& , &&

x

O

9 The homogeneous solution is the same as

Eq.(17), and particular solution is:

m

f

xp = cos ωt (47)

k −mω 2 k, c

x&0

x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t +

f

sin ωn t + cos ωt (48)

ωn k − mω 2

23

Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (III)

x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t +

f

sin ωn t + cos ωt

frequency ωn, and the frequency of ωn k − mω 2

harmonic vibration ω.

9 When ω → ω n = k , f x(t)

X(t)

→∞

m k −mω 2

which means that the vibration amplitude ω

approaches infinity. This is called <1

ωn

resonance.

t

t

9 For machinery with reciprocating power 0

source, the frequency of the power source x(t)

X(t)

should avoid the natural frequency to

prevent the whole system from resonance.

ω

>1

0

ωn tt

24

Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (IV)

9 If we consider the damping effect on the e

bushing, Eq.(46) becomes:

x , x& , &&

x

m&x& + cx& + kx = f cos ωt (49) O

9 For steady state, the homogeneous solution

will approach zero and we can only focus on

m

the particular solution:

x p = X cos(ωt − φ ) (50) k, c

can be expressed as follows:

X=

f ⎛ cω ⎞

[(k − mω ) + (cω ) ] φ = tan −1 ⎜

(51)

2 ⎟

1 (52)

2 2 2 2

⎝ k − mω ⎠

f f

9 When ω → 0 , X = ; when ω → ω n X =

k cω

9 Vibration can be reduced if we add bushing

at proper positions.

25

Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (I)

roll y

9 There are four independent mass x bounce

nodes: body, two front tires, and

rear tires. pitch

DOF), pitch, and roll (rotational shock

減震筒 absorber

DOF).

懸載彈簧

spring

9 Front tire DOF: bounce

9 Rear tires DOF: bounce, roll.

9 There are 7 DOF in the system.

Considering only bounce, it can be 輪胎彈簧

tire spring

simplified into a 2 DOF system. 輪胎阻尼

tire damping

26

Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (II)

ms

cs z1

ks

9 Equation of motion: mus

ms &z&1 = k s ( z 2 − z1 ) + cs ( z&2 − z&1 ) (53) kt ct

z2

mus &z&2 = k s (z1 − z 2 ) − kt z 2 + cs (z&1 − z&2 ) − ct z&2 + F (t ) (54)

路面

⎡ms 0 ⎤ ⎡ &z&1 ⎤ ⎡ cs − cs ⎤ ⎡ z&1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

⎢0 + + =

mus ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣&z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− cs cs + ct ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− k s k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ F (t )⎥⎦

(55)

⎣

M&x& + Cx& + Kx = F(t ) (56)

9 M is the mass matrix of this system, C is the damping matrix and K is the stiffness matrix.

27

Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (III)

9 Considering undamped, free vibration:

⎡ms 0 ⎤ ⎡ &z&1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡0⎤

⎢0 + =

mus ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣&z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− k s k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0⎥⎦

(57)

⎣

9 Assume solution is in the following form:

z1 = Z1 cos ω nt &z&1 = −ω n2 Z1 cos ωn t (58)

z2 = Z 2 cos ω nt &z&2 = −ω n2 Z 2 cos ω n t (59)

⎡− msωn2 0 ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ =

k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0⎥⎦

(60)

⎣ 0 − musωn2 ⎦ ⎣ Z 2 ⎦ ⎣− k s

⎡− msωn2 + k s − ks ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (61)

⎣ − ks − musωn + k s + kt ⎦ ⎣ Z 2 ⎦ ⎣0⎦

2

⎡ ks ks ⎤

⎢m − ω 2

n − ⎥ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤

ms

⎢ s

⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (62)

⎢ − ks k s + kt 2 ⎥ ⎣Z 2 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎦

− ωn

⎢⎣ mus mus ⎥⎦

28

Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (IV)

⎡ ks ks ⎤

⎢ m −

ms ⎥

−1

M K=⎢ s ⎥

k s + kt ⎥

(63) ( )

⇒ M −1K − ω n2 I Z = 0 (64)

⎢− k s

⎢⎣ mus mus ⎥⎦

9 ωn2 are the eigen values of M-1K. The corresponding eigen vectors represent the

mode shape.

9 Assume ms=2000kg, mus=200kg, ks=80kN/m, kt=800kN/m, two eigen values of M-1K

are 8.45rad/sec=1.34Hz and 66.62rad/sec=10.60Hz. They are called the first natural

frequency and second natural frequency, respectively.

9 The corresponding eigen vectors are:

⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡− 0.9792⎤ ⎡ 0.0207 ⎤

⎢ Z ⎥ = ⎢− 0.2027⎥, ⎢− 0.9998⎥ (65)

⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

9 They are called the first mode and the second mode.

29

Mode Shapes

beam obtained from finite element

analysis: two bending modes and

a twisting mode.

9 The natural frequency is a good

index for the stiffness of a

structure. The mode shapes often

indicates the DOF that has lower

stiffness.

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