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Chapter 11 Mechanical Vibration

9 Any motion which repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration.

9 Machines with repetitive power sources, such as engine, motor, turbine, often
have vibration problems.

9 Vibration will cause uncomfortable feeling or noise. Serious vibration


problems may cause malfunctions or failure.

9 Three major components in a vibration system: mass, spring, and damper.

9 Spring is to temporarily store energy during vibration, and damper is to


consume the energy.
K

M
C
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Type of Springs

9 In mechanical systems, springs are often used to absorb impact energy, to


store energy, to provide restoring forces, and to measure force.

9 From the way the springs are loaded, there are 4 major types of springs:
compression springs, extension springs, torsion springs, and radial springs.

garter spring
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Compression Spring – Terminologies (I)


Dw
9 Dm: mean diameter

9 Dw: wire diameter

9 Outside Diameter:

OD = Dm + Dw (1)
ID
9 Inside Diameter: Dm
OD
ID = Dm – Dw (2)

9 Free length

9 Install length

9 Operating length

9 Solid length
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Compression Spring – Terminologies (II)

9 For assembly needs, the ends of the


compression spring are often grounded
and closed.

9 Number of active coils, Na = N – 2 (3)

9 Pitch, p: distance between each coil.

9 Pitch angle:
λ
⎛ p ⎞
λ = tan ⎜⎜
−1
⎟⎟ (4)
⎝ πDm ⎠
L f = p × N a + 2 Dw (5) P πDm

Dm
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Compression Spring – Stress Analysis (I)
F
9 When a spring is in compression or tension, the
wire itself is twisted.
9 The torsional shearing stress:
Tr FDm 2 ⋅ Dw 2 8FDm
τ= = = (6) FDm/2
J πDw 32
4
πDw3
8KFDm
τ= (7)
πDw3 F

9 Wahl factor K is a stress concentration factor caused by bending the wire


into a spring.
9 Spring Index: C = Dm Dw (8)
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Compression Spring – Stress Analysis (II)
4C − 1 0.615
K= + (9)
4C − 4 C

1.4

1.35

1.3
Wahl Factor, K

1.25

1.2

1.15

1.1

1.05

1
0 5 10 15 20
Spring Index, C
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Compression Spring – Spring Constant
9 Strain energy when the spring wire is twisted:

θ=
TL ⎛ GJ ⎞
T = Kθ θ = ⎜ ⎟θ
GJ ⎝ L ⎠
2
1 1 ⎛ GJ ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ GJ ⎞⎛ TL ⎞ T 2L
U = Kθ θ = ⎜
2
⎟θ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = (10)
2 2⎝ L ⎠ 2 ⎝ L ⎠⎝ GJ ⎠ 2GJ

T=
FDm πDw4
J= L = πDm N a
2 32
4 F 2 Dm3 N a 1 2 F 2
U= 4
= kδ = (11)
GDw 2 2k
GDw4
⇒k = (12)
8 Dm3 N a
9 Spring constant depends on wire diameter, mean diameter, number of active
coils, and modulus of elasticity in shear, among which wire diameter and
mean diameter have the greatest influence.
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Free Vibration of an Undamped, Translational System (I)

9 Free vibration and forced vibration.


9 Undamped vibration and damped vibration.
9 Free Vibration of an Undamped, 1 DOF System

m&x& + k (δ + x ) = mg (13)
mg = kδ

m&x& + kx = 0 (14) kδ
k
x = ce st mcs 2 e st + kce st = 0
ms 2 + k = 0 δ x=0 m
m

⇒ s = ± − k = ± iω n
mg
m
(a) (b)
ωn = k m

is called the natural frequency of the vibration system.


9
Free Vibration of an Undamped, Translational System (II)

9 Homogenous solution:
iω n t − iω n t
x(t ) = A1 cos ωn t + A2 sin ωn t (17)
x = c1e + c2 e (15)

iω n t
t = 0, x( 0 ) = A1 , x& (0) = A2ωn
⎧ e = cos ωn t + i sin ωn t
⎨ −iωnt (16) x&0
⎩e = cos ωn t − i sin ωn t x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t + sin ω n t (18)
ωn
9 Equivalent stiffness:

m
δ = fl 3 3EI
x=0 k e = f x = 3EI l 3
l
ω n = k e me

9 Natural frequency is an important index of stiffness of the system.


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Free Vibration of an Undamped, Torsional System
9 If a rigid body oscillates about a specific reference axis, the resulting motion is
called torsional vibration.
9 The displacement of a body is measured in terms of an angular coordinate, and
the restoring moment may be due to the torsion of an elastic member or to the
unbalanced moment or force.

J oθ&& + ktθ = 0 (19)

J 0 : polar moment of inertia with respect to point O

kt
ωn =
l
rad/sec (20)
Jo

θ = Tl GJ s , T = K tθ ⇒ K t = GJ s l O

θ
J o = ∫ r dA
2
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A Solid Pendulum Experiment to Calculate the Polar
Moment of Inertia
9 It is difficult to calculate JO for objects with complicated shapes.
9 The solid pendulum experiment:
J oθ&& + mgr sin θ = 0 (21) O

For smallθ , sin θ ≈ θ


C
J oθ&& + (mgr )θ = 0
r
(22)

ω n = mgr J o

If we measure the frequency of the solid pendulum θ


mgr
f = ωn 2π ⇒ Jo = (23) mg
4π 2 f 2
From theory of parallel axis: J c = J o − mr 2 (24)
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Example 1. Piano Metronome
9 The polar moment of inertia with respect to point O
(
J o = Ml 2 + mx 2 ) (25)

9 Moment equilibrium: m
x
− Mgl sin θ + mxg sin θ = (ml 2 + Mx 2 )θ&& (26)

( )
Ml + mx θ&& + (Ml − mx )gθ = 0
2 2
(27)
轉軸
pivot

O l
9 Natural frequency:
θ
ωn =
(Ml − mx )g (28)
Ml 2 + mx 2 M

9 The frequency will be small if m is moved away from the pivot. When Ml=mx,
there will be no vibration.
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Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (I)
9 A vehicle suspension system usually consist of a spring, a shock absorber,
and a set of linkages. The shock absorber is a typical viscous damping.
裝置於車體
to vehicle

活塞桿
piston rod
避震筒壁 防塵套筒

活塞 液壓油
hydraulic fluid
piston
基閥
fluid passage
活塞
piston

液壓油
hydraulic fluid

車軸
to wheel
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Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (II)
9 The viscous damping force F is proportional to the speed and can be expressed as
F = −cx& (29)
where c is the damping constant or coefficient of viscous damping.
9 The equation of motion:
m&x& + cx& + kx = 0 (30)

9 Let x=cest ms 2 + cs + k = 0

⇒s= − c ± c
2m
2
− 4mk = − c ±
2m
( )
c −k
2m m
2
(31)

9 Define a “critical damping constant” Cc, and damping ratio ζ


c
Cc = 2 mk = 2m k = 2mωn (32) ζ = (33)
m Cc

c
=
c Cc

2 m Cc 2 m
= ζω n (34) ( )
s = − ζ ± ζ 2 − 1 ωn (35)
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Free Vibration with Viscous Damping (III)

9 Homogeneous solution of
⎛⎜ −ζ + ζ 2 −1 ⎞⎟ωn t ⎛⎜ −ζ − ζ 2 −1 ⎞⎟ω t
Equation (30): x(t ) = c1e⎝ ⎠
+ c2 e ⎝ ⎠ n
(36)
臨界阻尼系統與過度阻尼系統運動狀態
9 Critically damped system
(ζ=1) and overdamped
ζ >1
Overdamped
過度阻尼
system(ζ>1
system( ) Î The
solution does not have
imaginary part, thus no
Criticallyζ damped
臨界阻尼 =1
oscillation. X(t)

9 Underdamped systems are


more commonly seen in
practice.

t
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Underdamped System
9 Eq.(36) can be re-arranged as follows:

x (t ) = x0 e −ζω nt cos( 1 − ζ 2 ω n t + φ0 ) (37) x (t )


where x0 is the initial displacement
and φ is the phase angle. x0 e −ζω nt

9 Vibration frequency is: ωd = 1 − ζ 2 ω n (38)


O
The vibration frequency approaches
φ
natural frequency as ζ approaches 0.
−ζω t
9 x(t ) = x0e n determines the
“envelope” of the vibration amplitude.
The amplitude decreases faster as ζ
approaches 1.
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Coulomb Damping
9 Coulomb friction arises when bodies
slide on dry surfaces.
x , x& , &&
x
m&x& + kx = − μN
N = mg
m&x& + kx = μN (39) k
m
9 Particular solution:

μN
xp = m (40)
k f = μN
μN
x(t ) = A cos ω n t + B sin ω n t −
k
μN
x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t + (41)
k
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Example 2. Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping (I)
9 x0=0.06m, and m=15kg , k=1800N/m, μ=0.1, N=mg=147N, μN/k=8.17×10-3m.
9 The first half cycle (0≦ωnt≦π), when t=0, x0=0.06m:
A1 = x0 − μN k B1 = 0
μN
x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t + = ( x0 − μN k ) cos ωn t + μN k
k

9 At the ωnt= π, the displacement is 2 μN k − x0


9 The other half cycle (π ≦ωnt≦2π), when ωnt= π, x = 2 μN k − x0
A2 = x0 − 3 μN k B2 = 0
μN
x(t ) = A cos ωn t + B sin ωn t − = ( x0 − 3μN k ) cos ωn t − μN k
k

9 At the ωnt=2 π, the displacement isx0 − 4 μN k


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Example 2. Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping (II)
9 The amplitude decreases by 2μN/k each half cycle. The motion stops at the
4th half cycle.
有庫倫阻尼的振動系統運動時間對位移圖
X

μN
+
k
μN
π 2π ωt
3π ωnt

k
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Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

9 The damping caused by the friction between


internal planes that slip or slides as deformation f
takes place is called hysteretic damping.
f = kx + (kβ ω )x& (42)

9 β is called the hysteretic damping constant, which


is determined by
ΔE E = 2πβ x

ΔE is the energy loss (area of the loops).


9 Hysteretic damping has similar behavior as
viscous damping, and is often treated the same
way as viscous damping.
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Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (I)

9 The centrifugal force caused by unbalance


in mass distribution will generate f sin θ
harmonically excited vibration. y

f = mo eω 2 (43) f = m o eω 2
f cosθ

f x = f sin θ = f sin ωt (44)


M θ
f y = f cos θ = f cos ωt (45)
e
9 The magnitude of this centrifugal force x
depends on the mass, the amount of O
eccentricity, and the rotational speed.
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Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (II)

e
9 Equations of motion:
m&x& + kx = f cos ωt (46) x , x& , &&
x
O
9 The homogeneous solution is the same as
Eq.(17), and particular solution is:
m
f
xp = cos ωt (47)
k −mω 2 k, c

9 General solution is:


x&0
x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t +
f
sin ωn t + cos ωt (48)
ωn k − mω 2
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Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (III)

9 There are two frequencies: the natural x&0


x(t ) = x0 cos ωn t +
f
sin ωn t + cos ωt
frequency ωn, and the frequency of ωn k − mω 2

harmonic vibration ω.
9 When ω → ω n = k , f x(t)
X(t)
→∞
m k −mω 2
which means that the vibration amplitude ω
approaches infinity. This is called <1
ωn
resonance.
t
t
9 For machinery with reciprocating power 0
source, the frequency of the power source x(t)
X(t)
should avoid the natural frequency to
prevent the whole system from resonance.

ω
>1
0
ωn tt
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Harmonically Excited Vibration of Rotating Machinery (IV)
9 If we consider the damping effect on the e
bushing, Eq.(46) becomes:
x , x& , &&
x
m&x& + cx& + kx = f cos ωt (49) O
9 For steady state, the homogeneous solution
will approach zero and we can only focus on
m
the particular solution:
x p = X cos(ωt − φ ) (50) k, c

where X(amplitute) and ψ(phase difference)


can be expressed as follows:

X=
f ⎛ cω ⎞
[(k − mω ) + (cω ) ] φ = tan −1 ⎜
(51)
2 ⎟
1 (52)
2 2 2 2
⎝ k − mω ⎠
f f
9 When ω → 0 , X = ; when ω → ω n X =
k cω
9 Vibration can be reduced if we add bushing
at proper positions.
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Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (I)

roll y
9 There are four independent mass x bounce
nodes: body, two front tires, and
rear tires. pitch

9 Body DOF: bounce(translational z


DOF), pitch, and roll (rotational shock
減震筒 absorber
DOF).
懸載彈簧
spring
9 Front tire DOF: bounce
9 Rear tires DOF: bounce, roll.
9 There are 7 DOF in the system.
Considering only bounce, it can be 輪胎彈簧
tire spring
simplified into a 2 DOF system. 輪胎阻尼
tire damping
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Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (II)

ms

cs z1
ks
9 Equation of motion: mus
ms &z&1 = k s ( z 2 − z1 ) + cs ( z&2 − z&1 ) (53) kt ct
z2
mus &z&2 = k s (z1 − z 2 ) − kt z 2 + cs (z&1 − z&2 ) − ct z&2 + F (t ) (54)

9 Rearrange Eq. (53) and (54): Road


路面
⎡ms 0 ⎤ ⎡ &z&1 ⎤ ⎡ cs − cs ⎤ ⎡ z&1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢0 + + =
mus ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣&z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− cs cs + ct ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− k s k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ F (t )⎥⎦
(55)

M&x& + Cx& + Kx = F(t ) (56)
9 M is the mass matrix of this system, C is the damping matrix and K is the stiffness matrix.
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Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (III)
9 Considering undamped, free vibration:
⎡ms 0 ⎤ ⎡ &z&1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ z1 ⎤ ⎡0⎤
⎢0 + =
mus ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣&z&2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− k s k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0⎥⎦
(57)

9 Assume solution is in the following form:
z1 = Z1 cos ω nt &z&1 = −ω n2 Z1 cos ωn t (58)
z2 = Z 2 cos ω nt &z&2 = −ω n2 Z 2 cos ω n t (59)

⎡− msωn2 0 ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ k s − k s ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ =
k s + kt ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Z 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0⎥⎦
(60)
⎣ 0 − musωn2 ⎦ ⎣ Z 2 ⎦ ⎣− k s

⎡− msωn2 + k s − ks ⎤ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (61)
⎣ − ks − musωn + k s + kt ⎦ ⎣ Z 2 ⎦ ⎣0⎦
2

⎡ ks ks ⎤
⎢m − ω 2
n − ⎥ ⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤
ms
⎢ s
⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (62)
⎢ − ks k s + kt 2 ⎥ ⎣Z 2 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎦
− ωn
⎢⎣ mus mus ⎥⎦
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Vibration Analysis for Multiple DOF System (IV)

⎡ ks ks ⎤
⎢ m −
ms ⎥
−1
M K=⎢ s ⎥
k s + kt ⎥
(63) ( )
⇒ M −1K − ω n2 I Z = 0 (64)
⎢− k s
⎢⎣ mus mus ⎥⎦

9 ωn2 are the eigen values of M-1K. The corresponding eigen vectors represent the
mode shape.
9 Assume ms=2000kg, mus=200kg, ks=80kN/m, kt=800kN/m, two eigen values of M-1K
are 8.45rad/sec=1.34Hz and 66.62rad/sec=10.60Hz. They are called the first natural
frequency and second natural frequency, respectively.
9 The corresponding eigen vectors are:

⎡ Z1 ⎤ ⎡− 0.9792⎤ ⎡ 0.0207 ⎤
⎢ Z ⎥ = ⎢− 0.2027⎥, ⎢− 0.9998⎥ (65)
⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

9 They are called the first mode and the second mode.
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Mode Shapes

9 Three mode shapes of a cantilever


beam obtained from finite element
analysis: two bending modes and
a twisting mode.
9 The natural frequency is a good
index for the stiffness of a
structure. The mode shapes often
indicates the DOF that has lower
stiffness.