# The Megohmmeter An ordinary ohmmeter cannot be used for measuring multimillion ohm values of resistances, such as those in conductor

insulation. To test for such insulation breakdown, you need to use a much higher potential than that supplied by the battery of an ohmmeter . This potential is placed between the conductor and the outside of the insulation. A megger (megohmmeter) is used for these tests. The megger, shown in figure 3 -15, is a portable instrument consisting of two main elements: (1) a hand -driven dc generator, which supplies the necessary voltage for making the measurement, and (2) the instrument portion, which indicates the value of the resistance you are measuring. The instrument portion is of the opposed -coil type, as shown in view A. Coils a and b are mounte d on movable member c. A fixed angular relationship exists between coils, and they are free to turn as a unit in a magnetic field. Coil b tends to move the pointer counterclockwise, and coil a tends to move it clockwise. Figure 3-15. - Megger internal cir cuit and external view.

Coil a is connected in series with R3 and unknown resistance R x . The combination of coil a, R3, and R x forms a direct series path between the + and - brushes of the dc generator. Coil b is connected in series with R2, and this combination is also connected across the generator. Notice that the movable member (pointer) of the instrument portion of the megger has no restoring springs. Therefore, when the generator is not being operated, th e pointer will float freely and may come to rest at any position on the scale. The guard ring, shown in view A of figure 3 -15, shunts any leakage currents to the negative side of the generator. This prevents such current from flowing through coil a and affecting the meter reading.

The external appearance of one type of megger is shown in view B of figure 3 -15. which controls the amount of the current in coil a. the position of the moving element is independent of the voltage. such as 10. However. Meggers are usually equipped with friction clutches. Because changes in voltage affect both coils in the same proportion.000 -volt generator is available for extended ranges. The movable coil is pivot -mounted between the fixed coils. When using a megger. coil b still tends to move the pointer counterclockwise. disconnect the component being checked from other circuitry before using a megger ELECTRODYNAMOMETER -TYPE METERS The electrodynamometer -type meter differs from the galvanometer types we have just studied in that two fixed coil s are used to produce the magnetic field instead of a permanent magnet.000 megohms or more. As shown in figure 3 -16. such as R x . the fix ed coils are connected in series and positioned coaxially (in line) with a space between them. current will flow internally through coil b and deflect the pointer to infinity. however. The electrodynamometer meter is most commonly found in various types of power meters. the pointer tends to move clockwise. is to be measured. the instrument will not be damaged under these circumstances. there are other types.If the test leads are open. The main shaft on which the movable coils are mounted is restrained by spiral springs that restore the pointer to zero when no current is flowing through the coil. When an extremely high resistance. These springs also act as conductors for delivering current to the movable coils. a high voltage is needed to cause enough current flow to actuate the meter movement. Since these conducting springs are very small. you can easily be injured or damage equipment if you do not observe the following MINIMUM safety precautions: y y y y Use meggers on high-resistance measurements only (such as insulation measurements or to check two separate conductors on a cable). At the same time. which are designed to slip if the generator is cranked faster than its rated speed. Never touch the test leads while the handle is being cranked. is connected between the test leads. current also flows in coil a. This reading indicates a resistance too large to measure. The two pairs of coils (fixed pair and movable pair) are also connected in serie s with each other. This prevents the generator speed and output voltage from exceeding rated values. When a resistance. If you short the test leads together. no current will flow in coil a. De-energize and discharge the circuit completely before connecting a megger. composed of both coils and the pointer. the meter cannot carry a high value of current. Since R3 limits the current. the moving element. the pointer will come to rest at zero because the current in coil a is relatively large. A 1. Most meggers you will use are rated at 500 volts. Two movable coils are also used in the electrodynamometer meter. This position depends upon the value of R x . . Therefore. The two movable coils are also positioned coaxially and are connected in series. comes to rest at a position in which the two forces are balanced. Whenever possible.

.Internal construction of an electrodynamometer. .Figure 3-16.