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# SKMM 3443 – HEAT TRANSFER

Chapter 6(8)
Internal Forced Convection

## Assoc. Prof. Ts. Dr. NAZRI KAMSAH

Department of Thermo-fluid
School of Mechanical Engineering

## Turbulent Flow in Tubes

Flow is fully turbulent for Re > 10,000. Nu relation is proposed by
Colburn,

## More accurate expression is proposed by Dittus-Boelter,

where n = 0.4 for heating and n = 0.3 for cooling of the fluid.
Note: Fluid properties are evaluated at bulk mean fluid temperature,
Tb = (Ti + Te)/2. When variation in fluid properties is large, the relation
proposed by Sieder and Tate can be used.
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## Note: Fluid properties are evaluated at Tb but μs is evaluated at Ts.

The 2nd Pethukov equation reduces the error to less than 10%,

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Liquid Metals
For liquid metals the equations proposed by Sleicher & Rouse are
recommended,

## Note: The Pr is evaluated at the surface temperature, Ts.

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## Developing Turbulent Flow in Entrance Region

The entry length for turbulent flow is,
Lt ,turbulent  10 D
The Nu for fully developed turbulent flow can be used for the entire
tube, with reasonable results for long tubes and conservative results for
short ones.

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## Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes

Nu relations for circular tubes can be used for noncircular tubes but
diameter D in the Re calculation must be replaced by a hydraulic
diameter, Dh, defined as
4 Ac
Dh 
p
where Ac is cross-sectional area and p is perimeter of the cross-section.

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Example 8-3

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Example 8-3

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i.e. shorter than the total length of the tube. Therefore, we assume a fully
developed turbulent flow,

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## Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (80+10) / 2 = 45C

are (Table A-9)

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which is less than 10,000 but much greater than 2300. We assume the flow to be
turbulent. The entry lengths

i.e. shorter than the total length of the duct. We assume fully developed turbulent
flow in the entire duct. The Nusselt number

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## Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 35C

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined
from

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which is not greater than 10,000 but the components will cause turbulence and
thus we can assume fully developed turbulent flow in the entire duct

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The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct.
Assuming uniform surface heat flux, its value is determined from

Discussion The bulk mean temperature of air is (27 + 39.3)/2 = 33.2C. This is very
close to the assumed temperature of 35C. Therefore, there is no need to repeat
calculations. Also, the entry lengths are

Since the length of the channel is 1 m, the flow is actually developing based on
these values. However, we assumed fully developed turbulent flow since the
components will cause turbulence.

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ASSIGNMENT: SUBMIT

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