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Eurosteel 2002

The Third European Conference on Steel Structures


Coimbra, Portugal

An Overview of Composite and Steel


Construction in Brazil

S. A
S A. L
L. d
de A d d 1,
Andrade 1 2

P. C. G. da S. Vellasco 2
J. G. S. da Silva 2
1 PUC-Rio 2 UERJ

Summary

Introduction

Steel Construction Historical Background

Steel and Composite Construction from the


90’s
’ OOnwards

Conclusions

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Introduction
Civil Engineering Construction in Brazil has a
g tradition of building
long g in all kinds of concrete
applications despite steel being available since
June 1946

Before 1946 most of structures assembled and


erected in Brazil were imported and the most
common were industrial building trusses

Early 2002 large production of rolled section


just begun

Introduction
In the last fifty years a great scenario
change was produced

This paper presents the continuous


development of composite and steel
construction in Brazil

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Steel Construction
Historical Background
Central Avenue Building, Rio de
Janeiro
Constructed from 1959 to 1961
112m height, 36 floors
5620t. of rolled A-7
Constructed area of 75,000m2
Steel piles Foundations
Lateral bracing:
dividing walls in the transverse
direction
near the elevator shafts in
longitudinal direction
Rivet built-up members and
connections

Steel Construction
Historical Background
Development Palace Building, Brasília
Constructed in 1973
2195 t. of riveted rolled A-7
23 floors (70m height) 26,625m2
A typical floor area 17m x 70.4m
First four floors used reinforced concrete
structure
Subsequent floors made with a 80mm
concrete slab over the steel structure
The lateral bracing system used bolts
connected to the main steel structure
High-rise building constructions in
Brasília at this time used imported steel
structures due to its fast erection

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Steel Construction
Historical Background

VARIG hangar, Rio de Janeiro, 3960 tons of A-36


A 36
115m length, 130m width and 43.5m height
14960m2 enabling a 29m height free space volume 433840m3
Three DC-10 or two Boeings 737 airplanes
Supports were pinned can sustain 110,00kN vert. and 2000kN horiz.
Truss form with rigid connections

Steel Construction
Historical Background

Horizontal and vertical bracing system used a X-type configuration


connectedt d tto the
th main
i ttruss bottom
b tt chord
h d andd to
t the
th sides
id off
consecutive main truss portal frames
This hangar building still stands as the major structure of this kind
built in Brazil
Beam-columns were conceived as variable depth trusses
Sliding door never passed the drawing board stage

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Steel Construction
Historical Background
House of commerce building, 1987,
Salvador, Bahia
14 floors (58m height)
5 reinforced concrete floors
9 floors made of 975 tons of A-441
welded steel profiles
2 reinforced concrete towers (15m
length x 10m width x 200mm thickness)
30m apart were used in the lower four
fl
floors to
t supportt the
th orthogonal
th l
transverse steel trusses that sustain the
top nine floors
Towers rigid cores absorbed lateral
loads

Steel Construction
Historical Background
The main girders were trusses with rigid
node connections
Largest truss beam length was 90m,
with 4.2m height, with up to 30m spans
and 15m overhanging spans
Beginning of an age of three-plated-
welded I steel sections (WWF), used for
high-rise construction
The prefabricated parallel-chord trusses
were entirely assembled by welding on
the ground floor
Top to bottom erection sequence
The concrete core had monolithically
wall built corbels to enable cranes to
rest large trusses on them in erection

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Steel Construction
Historical Background
Multi-purpose commercial building,
Belo Horizonte, 1992
Capri first floor is a shopping mall, next 2
floors are garage floors, subsequent 14 floors
are medical surgeries offices, 68m height
7220m2 with a typical floor of 342m2
7 frames 6.9m apart, 540t. of A-529 welded
sections, rigid connections
100mm thick concrete slabs supported by
WWF 600x200 beams and WWF 700x200
columns
Lateral bracing systems used in the long.
building facades, interrupted in garage floors
Architect took advantage of bracings to
accommodate air-conditioning self units

Steel Construction
Historical Background
Itaú Cultural Centre Building São Paulo
720 t. A-529, 11,075m2, 57.2m height
9 steel floors  (11.25m x 32.5m x 2.5m)
5 underground concrete floors  (55m x 20m)
The steel floors are supported by four hollow
section columns defining spans of 11.25m and
33m in the transv. and long. directions
The main truss, 7.5m height, with rigid
connections supported the top 9 floors and 2
intermediate columns dividing the 33m long.
span in 3 11.5m, 10m and 11.5m spans
Trusses and x-type bracing  lateral resistance
Typical steel floor is supported by long. steel
girders and composite transv. WWF 750 x 350
castellated beams to provide services flexibility

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Steel Construction
Historical Background

Red Line Double-Deck Highway Overpass


Rio de Janeiro

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

Full-size test on a cold-formed open-web-steel-joist


structure for industrial buildings

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Rollon Marko Construction Company, uses


standardized galvanized cold-formed members and
bolted connections
Distribution centre with 90,000m2

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

This simple shed construction  Brazil tropical climate


The girder full depth receives a translucent cladding that
provides natural light
Secondary joists, with 15m span, have a stepped section to
accommodate ventilated windows for energy efficiency
This 12,000m2 building has column spacing of 20m in the
girder direction and 15m in the transversal direction

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Tilt-up structural system


Four
F 20m
20 x 33 33m panels l off d
double
bl
layer space structures were
assembled and received the
finishing layer of paint on site
Erection  sub-structure
tilting-up phase
Panels are joined at vertical sides
forming a box structure that
encloses a water tank 33m high

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

This 3,000m3 water storage


tank was built on the top of a
Rio de Janeiro shopping
centre
It was enclosed by standing-
seam roof decks assembled
in the vertical position, simply
for aesthetic reasons
The circular 36m high steel
tank, its pipes and valves
were intentionally hidden

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

22m diameter skylight roof


The connection was
designed to transmit
bending moments and axial
forces due to non-
symmetric wind loading

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

The welded circular ring supports 5kN loads due to


advertisement or media panels

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

The “Wire Opera”


auditorium was
designed to hold 2400
persons
The auditorium was built
in just 75 days
240t. circular steel tubes
and grids for floors and
walkways

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

This 4500m long triangulated aerial truss structure was designed


to support ductwork, electrical and air conditional services for the
largest South-American television studio

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

The structures received galvanized steel cladding for


environmental protection.
The system allows easy modifications, repair, maintenance and
fast upgrading

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

Steel truss roof structure used on a fast-food chain


Each pair of trusses was assembled on the site floor for a
subsequent erection saving crane usage and labour

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards
Alternative to three-
plated welded sections
used in the last twenty-
years, specially for low-
rise construction, is the
built-up section
The cross section is
made of two lipped
channel sections joined
by intermittent or
continuous welds
The building used fully
welded connections

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards
16m span shopping
centre steel staircase

The staircase girder is


made of a trapezoidal
box section (400mm
height x 200 to
400mm width)

The structure is
supported by:
4 edge supports on 1st
and 2nd floors and 2
lower ground supports

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

The structure has 4


additional supports
located in cantilever
beams close to the
nearest internal back wall
The structure natural
frequencies, measured
with the aid of
accelerometers, were
5.4Hz and 8.0Hz at the
steps and intermediate
landings

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards
The front light panel structure
is made of 3 WWF beams
ti on transversal
resting t l beams
b

The structure spans 24m from


the 5th to the 7th building floors

Three transversal beams also


s pport walkways
support alk a s bet
between
een the
two separated buildings

The circular panel has a 10m


diameter

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

A typical warehouse structure in the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro


Secondary and main trusses
The constructed area ranges about 60m x 150m
Typical secondary frame spacing is 12m
Doorframes provide support for an intermediate roof truss
reducing the purlin and girt spans to 6m and 4m

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards
Commonly used industrial
building structures entirely
fabricated with light three plated
welded sections

An office building block, part of


this building, is made of 250mm
wide pre-cast concrete planks

This floor is very common in


Brazil due to its low cost and fast
erection, being an alternative to
the steel deck solution

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Pre-cast concrete planks can be used in a composite solution if :


channel shear connections are welded to the girder top flange
minimum 50mm width is left for slab end support
Stud bolts directly welded into the steel deck are not very popular in
Brazil due to its cost and to the high electrical current required at the
construction site

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

An interesting alternative is the Perfobond shear connector

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Car dealer showroom building, Rio de Janeiro


The structure was made WWF sections with circular
openings for aesthetics reasons
Glass-curtains walls and fabrics are increasingly being
used in Brazil

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

Car Space Duplicate – Automated Mechanical System

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

In the late 90s the largest South American shopping centre decided
to incorporate a 600 seated restaurant
Three-floor complex adopted a entire wave shaped skylight roof
structure

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

The structure used 200t. of A-529 steel, mainly WWF profiles


The apparent structure is entirely protected with intumescent
paint

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

220m long footbridge


170t. of A-529 steel

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

A fabric membrane supported by 168mm


steel arches covered the entire footbridge

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

In the same shopping


p
centre a multiplex
cinema complex was
built with:
18 theatres
several shops and
restaurants
1600t. of steel was used
Tensile membrane fabric
roof was utilized to
cover the Canyon (110m
x 42m)

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

Galeão Airport passenger connection to airplanes

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Rather unusual steel


structures are found in
water parks
The rectangular box
girder section
supports a 4.5m wide
fibreglass open water
channel
composite column,
1.5m diameter, is the
unique support for the
structure

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards
Following the success of
the 1st and 2nd Rock in
Rio concerts a new
complex centre for the
3rd event was planned
The complex
incorporated four
separated stages
The main stage structure
spanned 82.6m without
intermediate supports

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Structural Nodes and


Supports

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

It covered 5,000m2
Clear height of 35m
110t. of tubular sections
53 triangular double layer modules
Typical module has 13m-side length

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards
Assembly process used an
innovative pre-stressed
load bearing for temporary
propping

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

The structure was


designed to support:
membrane tensile
fabric
additional 600kN
from services for
light and sound
equipment

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Steel and Composite Construction
from the 90’s Onwards

Final stage of tubular spatial structure assemblage together


with its lifting and crane equipment

Steel and Composite Construction


from the 90’s Onwards

Near to completion main stage structure with the tensile


fabric still to be pre-stressed

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Conclusions
A small sample of the Brazilian composite and steel
construction in the last fifty years was presented
Steel structures became a natural solution for a
country with continental dimensions where
environmental loading is quite favourable ie:
 No snow
 No earthquake
 Heavy rains in some areas
 Moderate winds

Conclusions (cont.)
Although the country possesses moderate winds
load reversal can be the predominant especially for
roof structures

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Conclusions (cont.)
Brazilian steel industry can produce
annually up to:
 500,000t. of structures
 240,000t. of roof steel decks
 250,000t. transmission tower structures

Despite this fact a 5.000.000 deficit in


residential units still remains

Conclusions (cont.)

The increasing costs in labour have shifted the


conventional construction industry, based on cheap
unqualified labour, to moderately paid workers employed
by the fast grown steel construction industry
Based on numbers of May 2002 steel building structures
i l di ffabrication,
including b i ti erection
ti and
d painting
i ti iis priced
i d
around 1400 EUROS per ton

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Conclusions (cont.)

In the last 12 years:


 more than a 150 shopping centres have been
built in Brazil representing more than
3,000,000m2 of construction
 Part of this number is associated to steel and
composite construction

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