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Bernoulli�s Theorem (Daniel Bernoulli, 1738)

Bernoulli's principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli

who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's
principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states
that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along
a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the
sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. If the fluid is flowing
out of a reservoir the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines
because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the sum of pressure and
gravitational potential ? g h) is the same everywhere.

(In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to
its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass
from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its
acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes.)
(In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its
position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or
other factors. Common types of potential energy include the gravitational potential
energy of an object that depends on its mass and its distance from the center of
mass of another object, the elastic potential energy of an extended spring, and the
electric potential energy of an electric charge in an electric field.)

Bernoulli�s theorem, in fluid dynamics, relation among the pressure, velocity, and
elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity
(internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady, or
laminar. First derived (1738) by the Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli, the
theorem states, in effect, that the total mechanical energy of the flowing fluid,
comprising the energy associated with fluid pressure, the gravitational potential
energy of elevation, and the kinetic energy of fluid motion, remains constant.
Bernoulli�s theorem is the principle of energy conservation for ideal fluids in
steady, or streamline, flow.

Bernoulli�s theorem implies, therefore, that if the fluid flows horizontally so

that no change in gravitational potential energy occurs, then a decrease in fluid
pressure is associated with an increase in fluid velocity. If the fluid is flowing
through a horizontal pipe of varying cross-sectional area, for example, the fluid
speeds up in constricted areas so that the pressure the fluid exerts is least where
the cross section is smallest. This phenomenon is sometimes called the Venturi
effect, after the Italian scientist G.B. Venturi (1746�1822), who first noted the
effects of constricted channels on fluid flow.

Bernoulli�s theorem is the basis for many engineering applications, such as

aircraft-wing design. The air flowing over the upper curved surface of an aircraft
wing moves faster than the air beneath the wing, so that the pressure underneath is
greater than that on the top of the wing, causing lift.

Bernoulli's Theorem


Bernoulli�s theorem is based on a few assumptions.
� The fluid is incompressible and nonviscous.
� There is no energy loss due to friction between the fluid and the wall of the
� There is no heat energy transferred across the boundaries of the pipe to the
fluid as either a heat gain or loss.
� There are no pumps in the section of pipe under consideration.
� The fluid flow is laminar and steady state.