0 Up votes0 Down votes

134 views2 pagesNov 01, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

134 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

You are on page 1of 2

October 1996

S

(Editor’s note: The Geophysical Fresnel Zone

200

RADIUS

700

Corner is a feature that will regularly 2-WAY

TIME

1 300 1000

FREQUENCY

4

Central Peak

Committee. This new feature will 1.5 5

h+

5

400

SECONDS

6

λ/4

h 1.5

10

2

7

1500

2.5 8

geophysical technologies, integration of 2.0

500

METERS

3 10

FEET

20

KM/S

FT/S

HERTZ

30

3.0 4 600

2000

address the impact of geophysical 40

Center of Zone

15

Edge of Zone

5

R1 4.0 60

technology and techniques on 5.0 100

6

7

20

exploration.) 6.0 8

25

800

3000

150 10

1000

By R.E. SHERIFF

1200

“Limit of seismic resolution” usually 4000

makes us wonder, how thin a bed can Figure1 – Within a Fresnel Zone Figure 2 – The Pythagorean theorem Figure 3 – Nomogram for determining

we see? Yet seismic data is subject to a reflection contributions arrive allows one to calculate the radius of Fresnel Zone radius. A straight line

horizontal as well as a vertical coherently and thus reinforce. Outside the Fresnel Zone. connecting the two-way time and

dimension of resolution. peaks and troughs tend to cancel frequency intersects the central line at

The horizontal dimension of seismic

each other and thus make little net the same point as a line connecting

resolution is described by the “Fresnel

Zone.” contribution. the average velocity and the Fresnel

Huygen’s principle states that each Zone radius. For example, a 20-Hz

part of a wavefront is the source of a reflection at 2.0 seconds and velocity

new wave. If you’ve watched waves in a of 3.0 km/s has a Fresnel Zone radius

lake pass by a solid seawall jutting into the seismic line. Fresnel Zone will be offset by the of 470 m.

the lake, you know that the waves fill in The reflected waves will interfere constructive contribution of other zones

the water behind the seawall. Seismic constructively where their travel paths – and thus the reaction of the reflector

waves behave in a similar manner when differ by less than a half wavelength responsible for a reflection will be only

being reflected from a subsurface (see Figure 1), and the portion of the that of the First Fresnel Zone. geometry. This is shown in Figure 2 for

reflector with an anomaly on it. reflecting surface involved in these In other words, a reflection that we a plane reflector in the constant velocity

The area where the waves interfere reflections is called the First Fresnel think of as coming back to the surface case, allowing for two-way travel time.

with each other constructively is our Zone. from a point is actually being reflected Note that the Fresnel Zone radius

area of concern, called the “First Beyond this First Fresnel Zone from an area with the dimension of the depends on wavelength (itself a

Fresnel Zone.” The anomaly will be region interference will be alternatively First Fresnel Zone. The adjective “first” function of frequency and velocity). For

seen throughout this region, and this destructive and constructive. Fresnel is often dropped.

has caused dry holes to be drilled on showed that the destructive contribution The dimensions of the Fresnel Zone

anomalies that were off to the side of of some of these zones beyond the First can be calculated easily by simple continued on next page

OCTOBER 1996

AAPG

EXPLORER 19

R

Fresnel

Radius

CMP Profile

Direction

Post-migration Pre-migration

Fresnel Zone Fresnel Zone

migration collapses the Fresnel Zone affects a surface region by an area

to a small circle, but 2-D migration equal to the Fresnel Zone. In migration

collapses it in only one direction. the entire Fresnel Zone must therefore

be summed over to obtain the correct

amplitude.

interest to oil finders, the resulting porosity, hydrocarbon accumulations,

dimensions are quite large (Figure 3). lithology, porosity-thickness, etc., we

The effect of migration can be must integrate over all of the affected

thought of as lowering geophones surface in the migration process in

through the earth until they are order to get the correct relative value.

coincident with a reflector, at which time Thus, if we are to compute porosity-

the Fresnel Zone will have shrunk to a thickness correctly from a 3-D seismic

small circle. If the data and migration survey, the survey must extend for the

are two-dimensional, then the Fresnel full Fresnel-zone radius beyond the

Zone will have only shrunk in one field.

dimension and will still extend its full Because of data coming out of the

width perpendicular to the line plane on the 2-D profiles shown in the

(Figure 4). model (Figure 6), the algal mound is

Much of the improvement of 3-D seen on all profiles that are within a

over 2-D is because of this difference. 1,000-foot window. A profile only 800

Figure 2 can be turned upside down feet away looks identical to one over the

to show the portion of the surface center of the feature. Hence, any survey

affected by the reflectivity at a print on must extend beyond the area over Figure 6 – Model demonstrating out-of-the-plane imaging and Fresnel Zone

the reflector (Figure 5). If we wish to which one intends to interpret effects on data over a hypothetical reef with the specified offsets. The false image

preserve amplitudes so that we can amplitude changes by a fringe distance in this example is clearly seen 1,500 feet away (after Jackson and Hilterman,

interpret amplitude variations as required by the migration process. ❏ 1979).

OCTOBER 1996

- DefenceUploaded byJaishal
- Seismic AttributesUploaded byMahmoud Said
- AAPG PGUploaded byAhmatjan Matturdi
- Reservoir CharacterizationUploaded byapi-19973382
- Marotta IR Missile Seeker CoolingUploaded byÁlvaro Conti Filho
- AvoUploaded byAnna Kruk
- Embry sequence stratigraphy.pdfUploaded byMartik Martikian
- ew0331Uploaded byShoyeb Ahmed
- Part ThreeUploaded byI Gede Susanto
- Decoding Indias MMRCA DecisionUploaded byV2
- Seismic Calibration and Low Frequency ModelingUploaded byMahmoud Eloribi
- Applied Petroleum Geoscince CourseUploaded bymohamed_books
- Fresnel ZoneUploaded bypramod002
- Basics of Seismic InterpretationUploaded bynisacore
- Defence Offsets IndiaUploaded byRakesh
- SEISMIC Interpretation for Important FeaturesUploaded bymohamedkamaal
- NAVMC 3500.50Uploaded byMatteo Granata
- Missile Guidance Palumbo_guesteditorUploaded byMidttun Kristijonas
- EFTP_manualUploaded bye69ender6544
- Electronic Warfare In the 21st CenturyUploaded byvbharathi072
- Infra Red and Heat Seeking MissileUploaded byDerris Surya
- Seismic InterpretationUploaded bySebastian Inz
- 3D59Fd01Uploaded bymohazad
- Geo QuestionsUploaded bytayofela
- The Volumetric MethodUploaded bytayofela
- PDR report0Uploaded byabenigma
- RadarUploaded byPriya Sharma
- DXUploaded byalper797
- Clutter 2Uploaded byapplesense

- Rock PhysicsUploaded bymohamed_books
- Petrel Volume AttributeUploaded byM Fauzan Murtadho
- Conceptual Overview of Rock and Fluid Factors That Impact Seismic Velocity and ImpedanceUploaded byFerrando Nañez
- Ch5 NMO Stacking 2017Uploaded bytarek moahmoud khalifa
- Pore Pressure Offshore Nile DeltaUploaded bymohamed_books
- Imaging_Channels_In_Nile_DeltaUploaded bymohamed_books
- AVO Response Fro Thin BrdsUploaded bymohamed_books
- 3 Chopra Et Al 2012Uploaded bymohamed_books
- Embry sequence stratigraphy.pdfUploaded byMartik Martikian
- Npv Versus IrrUploaded byDipesh Agarwal
- PHD in InversionUploaded bymohamed_books
- Statics Correction ElevationUploaded byAndi Mahri
- 7. InterpretationUploaded bymohamed_books
- Avo TheoryUploaded byshantanuril
- Tuning Analysis and Wedge ModellingUploaded bymohamed_books
- Seismic Inversion in CarbonatesUploaded bymohamed_books
- AVO for ManagersUploaded bymohamed_books
- Carbonates.pdfUploaded byMahmoud Eloribi
- Borehole Seismic GeoscientistUploaded bymohamed_books
- 2D and 3D Land Seismic Data AcquisitionUploaded byapi-3841513
- Applied Petroleum Geoscince CourseUploaded bymohamed_books
- Seismic InterpretationUploaded bystoiandan
- Geology of EgyptUploaded bymohamed_books
- Sat IsUploaded bymohamed_books
- Diff MultiplesUploaded bymohamed_books

- fLUIDOS ANSYSUploaded byNoe Mayor
- Chiaravalli Giflex Flexible Couplings 2016 MAKUploaded byИгорь Курганов
- Week 1b Chapter 3, 4, 5 Physics & the Atom and EMF 98Uploaded byjalal uddin
- Purdue - Advanced Thermodynamics course - Homework 2Uploaded byEdwinAndresRodriguez
- 1704-Paper[1]Uploaded byvishal giri
- 013391545X_section5-1 - 5-2Uploaded byAtef Naz
- Buckling of Elliptical Plates UnderUploaded byShashank Patole
- Swing Bolt CalculationUploaded byNicolaSavili
- PS2 StaticsUploaded byGillian Amba
- Mechanics of Fluids Lab Impact of a JetUploaded bypatrickNX9420
- Plane Stress and Strain 2Uploaded byAkash Prabhakaran
- Storativity_TransmissivityUploaded byDjayusYus
- Tarea de Termo 1Uploaded byMileny Mileny Q Peña
- Cw-1d Kinematic Pair WorksheetUploaded byCj Pascual
- 005001.pdfUploaded byIsaque Alberto
- Pump System Analysis and SizingUploaded byeblees101
- seismic interpre.pdfUploaded bydebashis22m
- Additional Tutorial 3 Heat TransfeUploaded byTeeWenSeng
- Sm_lecture_6 Simple Bending Theory and Beam DeflectionUploaded bysmok38442
- Value of g at Different Locations on EarthUploaded byDannyRao
- Fatigue Course DNV-RP-C203_Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures_tcm153-578957Uploaded byMyoung Choi
- Problems on Statistical Physics Final (1)Uploaded byMohamed Mazouzi
- Tensile Strength in SoilUploaded byManash Protim Gogoi
- Wave Plan MethodUploaded bychu42
- Column BucklingUploaded byAbraham Imam Muttaqin
- New Microsoft Word DocumentUploaded byjuaz
- Comparative Analysis of Optical Ring Resonators with Cross- and Direct-Coupled Configurations.pdfUploaded byF. E. Seraji
- GuidelinGuidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure in process pipeworkes for the Avoidance of Vibration Induced Fatigue Failure in Process PipeworkUploaded byAnonymous 4K4vcgSx
- 03 - Thermodynamic Cycles (Otto Diesel)Uploaded byAntonio Di Fiore
- CE-516 (Elective-3) ID-E0852Uploaded byThiyagu Banu

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.