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# Chapter 3

MULTI-LOOP CONTROL
TECHNIQUES

NOORLISA HARUN
Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering,
University Malaysia Pahang.
PhD (University of Waterloo), MEng (UTM), BEng (UTM)
noorlisa@ump.edu.my, 09-5492885, 019-9708277

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MKK 1263
Control of Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO)
Processes

##  In practical control problems there typically

number of process variables which must be
controlled and a number of variables which
Chapter 3

can be manipulated
 “Process interactions" between controlled and
manipulated variables – Each manipulated
can affect both controlled variables

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Chapter 3 MKK 1263

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Chapter 3 MKK 1263

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MKK 1263
 Characterizing process interactions and selecting an appropriate
multiloop control configuration.
 If process interactions are significant, even the best multiloop
control system may not provide satisfactory control.
 In these situations there are incentives for considering
multivariable control strategies
Chapter 3

Definitions:

## Multiloop control: Each manipulated variable depends on

only a single controlled variable, i.e., a set of conventional
feedback controllers.

## Multivariable Control: Each manipulated variable can depend

on two or more of the controlled variables.
Examples: Decoupling control, Model Predictive Control

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MKK 1263 Multiloop Control Strategy
 Typical industrial approach
 Consists of using ‘n’ standard FB controllers (e.g. PID),
one for each controlled variable.
Control system design
1. Select controlled and manipulated variables.
2. Select pairing of controlled and manipulated
variables.
Chapter 3

## 3. Specify types of FB controllers.

Example: 2 x 2 system

## Two possible controller pairings:

U1 with Y1, U2 with Y2 …or
U1 with Y2, U2 with Y1
Note: For n x n system, n! possible pairing configurations.
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MKK 1263
Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

## Two controlled variables and two manipulated variables

(4 transfer functions required)

Y1 ( s ) Y1 ( s )
 GP11( s ),  GP12 ( s )
Chapter 3

U1 ( s ) U 2 ( s)
Y2 ( s ) Y2 ( s )
 GP 21( s ),  GP 22 ( s)
U1 ( s ) U 2 (s)

## Thus, the input-output relations for the process can be

written as:
Y1 ( s)  GP11( s)U1 ( s)  GP12 ( s)U 2 ( s)
Y2 ( s)  GP 21( s)U1 ( s)  GP 22 ( s)U 2 ( s)

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MKK 1263

## Or in vector-matrix notation as,

Y ( s)  GP ( s)U ( s)

## where Y(s) and U(s) are vectors,

Chapter 3

Y1 ( s)  U1 ( s) 
Y ( s)    , U ( s)   
 2 
Y ( s )  2 
U ( s )
And Gp(s) is the transfer function matrix for the process

##  G P11(s) G P12 (s) 

G P (s)   
 P 21
G (s ) G P 22 (s ) 

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Chapter 3 MKK 1263

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MKK 1263

CONTROL-LOOP INTERACTIONS

##  Process interactions may induce undesirable

interactions between two or more control loops.
Chapter 3

Example: 2 x 2 system
Control loop interactions are due to the presence
of a third feedback loop.

##  Problems arising from control loop interactions

i) Closed -loop system may become destabilized.
ii) Controller tuning becomes more difficult

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MKK 1263

## For the multiloop control configuration the transfer

function between a controlled and a manipulated
variable depends on whether the other feedback
control loops are open or closed.
Chapter 3

## Example: 2 x 2 system, 1-1/2 -2 pairing

From block diagram algebra we can show
Y1 ( s)
 GP11( s), (second loop open)
U1 ( s )
Y1 ( s) GP12GP 21GC 2 (second loop closed)
 GP11 
U1 ( s ) 1  GC 2GP 22
Note that the last expression contains GC2 .

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Chapter 3 MKK 1263

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MKK 1263 PAIRING OF CONTROLLED AND MANIPULATED VARIABLES

## • Manipulated Variables: D, B, R, Q , and Q

D B
Chapter 3

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MKK 1263 Bristol’s Relative gain array Method
This method Provides two useful types of information:
1) Measure of process interactions
2) Recommendation about best pairing of
controlled and manipulated variables.
Requires knowledge of steady-state gains but not
Chapter 3

process dynamics.

RGA is given by
U1 U 2 Un
Y1  11 12 1n 
Y2 21 22 2 n 

 
 
Yn  n1 n1 nn 

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MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

## open - loop gain (yi / u j )u

ij   ………. (1)
closed - loop gain (yi / u j ) y

where the relative gain, ij, relates the ith controlled variable and the
jth manipulated variable
Chapter 3

## Steady-state process model for 2 x 2 process is given by

y1  K11u1  K12u2
………. (2)
y2  K 21u1  K 22u2
where Kij denotes the steady-state gain between yi and uj

## This model can be expressed in matrix notation as

y  Ku ………. (3)

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MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system
 y 
From (2)    K 1
………. (4)
 u 
11
1 u2

## Solving Equation (2) for u2 and holding y2 constant at its nominal

value y2 = 0
K 21
u2   u1 ………. (5)
Chapter 3

K 22
Substituting (5) into (2) gives

 K 12 K 21 
y1  K 111  u1 ………. (6)
 K 11K 22 

 y1   K12 K 21 
   K111   ………. (7)
 u1  y
2
 K11K 22 
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MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

1
11  ………. (8)
K12 K 21
1
K11K 22
Chapter 3

## The Relative Gain Array (RGA) for 2 x 2 process is denoted by

11 12 
  ………. (9)
 
 21 22 
Because each row and each column of RGA sums to one, the other
relative gains are easily calculated from 1 1 for the 2 x 2 case:

    1   and   
12 21 11 11 22
………. (10)

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MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system
Thus RGA for a 2 x 2 system can be expressed as

 1  ………. (11)
 
1    
For higher dimension process, the RGA can be calculated from the
Chapter 3

expression
  K H ………. (12)

## Where  denotes the Schur product (element by element

multiplication)
 K H ij ij
………. (13)
ij

Kij is the (i,j) element of K in Equation (3) and Hij is the (i,j) element of
H  ( K 1 )T ; that is Hij is the element of the transpose of the matrix
inverse of K.
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MKK 1263

Scaling Properties:

i) ij is dimensionless
ii)   ij    ij  1.0
i j
Chapter 3

For 2 x 2 system,
1
11  , 12  1  11   21
K K
1  12 21
K11K 22

## Corresponds to the ij which has the positive value

and as close to ONE as possible.
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MKK 1263
In general:
1. Pairings which correspond to negative pairings should
not be selected.
2. Otherwise, choose the pairing which has ij closest
to one.

Examples:
Process Gain Relative Gain
Array,  :
Chapter 3

Matrix, K :

K11 0  1 0
 0 K 
 22 
 0 1 
 
 0 K12 
0 1 
K
 21 0 
  1 0
 
K11 K12 
 0 K   1 0
0 1 
 22 
 
 K11 0 
K 
 21 K 22 
 1 0
0 1 
  Page 3-20
MKK 1263

EXAMPLE: Hydrocracker

U1 U2 U3 U4
Chapter 3

## Y1  0.931 0.150 0.080  0.164

Y2   0.011  0.429 0.286 1.154 

Y3  0.135 3.314  0.270  1.910 
 
Y4  0.215  2.030 0.900 1.919 

## Recommended controller pairing?

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MKK 1263

EXAMPLE: Hydrocracker

## The RGA for a hydrocracker has been reported as,

U1 U2 U3 U4
Y1  0.931 0.150 0.080  0.164
Chapter 3

## Y2   0.011  0.429 0.286 1.154 


Y3  0.135 3.314  0.270  1.910 
 
Y4  0.215  2.030 0.900 1.919 

## Recommended controller pairing?

MKK 1263 Recall, for 2X2 systems...
1
Y1  K11U1  K12U 2 11  , 12  1  11   21
K K
1  12 21
Y2  K 21U1  K 22U 2 K11K 22

EXAMPLE:

 K 11 K 12   2 1.5
K  
K 22  1.5 2 
Chapter 3

 K 21
 Recommended pairing is Y1
 2.29  1.29
and U1, Y2 and U2.
   
  1.29 2.29 

EXAMPLE:

##  2 1.5 0.64 0.36

K     
1.5 2   0.36 0.64 

##  Recommended pairing is Y1 with U1, Y2 with U2.

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MKK 1263 RGA for Higher-Order Systems:
For and n x n system,
U1 U 2 Un
Y1  11 12 1n 
Y2 21 22 2 n 

 
 
Yn  n1 n1 nn 
Chapter 3

## Each ij can be calculated from the relation

 ij  K ijHij
Where Kij is the (i,j) -element in the steady-state gain matrix, K :

Y  KU

## And Hij is the (i,j) -element of the H  K  

1 T
.
Note that,   KH
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MKK 1263
EXERCISE 1
A conventional multiloop control scheme consisting of two
PI controllers is to be used to control the product composition
xD and xB of distillation column shown in Fig. The manipulated
Variables are reflux flow rate R and steam flow rate to the
Chapter 3

## reboiler S. Experimental data for number of steady-state

conditions are stated below. Use this information to do the
following:
MKK 1263

Run R S xD xB
(lb/min) (lb/min)
1 125 22 0.97 0.04
2 150 22 0.95 0.05
Chapter 3

## 3 175 22 0.93 0.06

4 150 20 0.94 0.06
5 150 24 0.96 0.04

## (1) Calculate RGA and determine the recommended pairing between

Controlled and manipulated variables

## (2) Does this pairing seem appropriate from dynamic considerations?

Justify your answer.
Chapter 3 MKK 1263
SOLUTION
Chapter 3 MKK 1263
MKK 1263
EXERCISE 2

## 𝑦1 0.48 0.90 −0.006 𝑢1

𝑦2 = 0.52 0.95 0.008 𝑢2
𝑦3 0.90 −0.95 0.020 𝑢3
Chapter 3

## c) Determine the preferred multiloop

control strategy?

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MKK 1263
Singular Value Analysis

## SVA is powerful analytical technique used for

 Selection of controlled, measured and manipulated variables
 Evaluation of robustness of proposed control strategy
 Determination of best multiloop control configuration
Chapter 3

##  Desirable property of K is that the n equations and n unknowns

to be linearly independent
 If the equations are dependent not all the n controlled
variables are independently regulated
MKK 1263
Singular Value Analysis
How to check linear independence of matrix K?
1. If the determinant of K is zero, the matrix is singular and the n
equations are not linearly independent
2. Calculate the eigenvalues of matrix K.
• If anyone of eigen values is zero, K is a singular matrix.
Chapter 3

## Difficulties will be encountered to control the process.

• If one eigenvalue is very small compared to others then very
large change in one or more manipulated variable is required to
control the process
The eigenvalues of matrix K are the roots of the equation K  I  0

## where 𝑲 − 𝛼𝑰 denotes the determinant of matrix 𝑲 − 𝛼𝑰, I is the n x n

identity matrix, 𝛼1, 𝛼2, …, 𝛼n is the eigenvalues.
MKK 1263 Singular Value Analysis

## 3. The singular values, σ1, σ2, …, σn are nonnegative numbers that

are defined as the positive square roots of the eigenvalues of the
matrix product 𝑲𝑇 𝑲.
• The eigenvalues of matrix 𝑲𝑇 𝑲

𝑲𝑻 𝑲 − 𝜶′ 𝑰 = 𝟎
Chapter 3

## • The singular values are the positive square root of the

eigenvalues

4. Condition number
• Assuming K is non singular. Condition number (CN) is the ratio
of the largest, σ1 and the smallest singular value, σr.
• If K is singular, then it is ill-conditioned, by convention CN=∞.
MKK 1263

EXERCISE 3

## A 2x2 process has the following steady-state gain matrix

1 K 12 
K  
Chapter 3

10 1 
Calculate the determinant, RGA, eigenvalues and
singular values of K for K12 = 0 and K12 = 0.1.
MKK 1263

EXERCISE 4

matrix 1 K 
K  12

Chapter 3

10 1 

## Calculate the determinant, RGA, eigenvalues and

singular values of K for K12 = 0 and K12 = 0.1.
MKK 1263 CN is a measure of sensitivity of the matrix properties to
changes in a specific element.
Consider
 1 0
K  
10 1 

 (RGA) = 1.0

Chapter 3

control.

## RGA and SVA used together can indicate whether a

process is easy (or hard) to control.

## K is poorly conditioned when CN is a large number (e.g., >

10). Hence small changes in the model for this process
can make it very difficult to control.
10.1 0
 (K ) = 
0.1
CN = 101
 0
MKK 1263

EXERCISE 5
A 3x3 process has the following steady-state gain matrix

3.38 5 0.953
𝐾 = 6.4 0.48 1.98
Chapter 3

## a. Formulate the possible 2×2 control configurations

and identify the best 2×2 control configuration based
on Relative Gain Array (RGA) method
b. Perform SVA for the selected 2x2 control
configuration in (a)

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