Process COntrol

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Process COntrol

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You are on page 1of 36

MULTI-LOOP CONTROL

TECHNIQUES

NOORLISA HARUN

Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering,

University Malaysia Pahang.

PhD (University of Waterloo), MEng (UTM), BEng (UTM)

noorlisa@ump.edu.my, 09-5492885, 019-9708277

Page 3-1

MKK 1263

Control of Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO)

Processes

number of process variables which must be

controlled and a number of variables which

Chapter 3

can be manipulated

“Process interactions" between controlled and

manipulated variables – Each manipulated

can affect both controlled variables

Page 3-2

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

Page 3-3

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

Page 3-4

MKK 1263

Characterizing process interactions and selecting an appropriate

multiloop control configuration.

If process interactions are significant, even the best multiloop

control system may not provide satisfactory control.

In these situations there are incentives for considering

multivariable control strategies

Chapter 3

Definitions:

only a single controlled variable, i.e., a set of conventional

feedback controllers.

on two or more of the controlled variables.

Examples: Decoupling control, Model Predictive Control

Page 3-5

MKK 1263 Multiloop Control Strategy

Typical industrial approach

Consists of using ‘n’ standard FB controllers (e.g. PID),

one for each controlled variable.

Control system design

1. Select controlled and manipulated variables.

2. Select pairing of controlled and manipulated

variables.

Chapter 3

Example: 2 x 2 system

U1 with Y1, U2 with Y2 …or

U1 with Y2, U2 with Y1

Note: For n x n system, n! possible pairing configurations.

Page 3-6

MKK 1263

Transfer Function Model (2 x 2 system)

(4 transfer functions required)

Y1 ( s ) Y1 ( s )

GP11( s ), GP12 ( s )

Chapter 3

U1 ( s ) U 2 ( s)

Y2 ( s ) Y2 ( s )

GP 21( s ), GP 22 ( s)

U1 ( s ) U 2 (s)

written as:

Y1 ( s) GP11( s)U1 ( s) GP12 ( s)U 2 ( s)

Y2 ( s) GP 21( s)U1 ( s) GP 22 ( s)U 2 ( s)

Page 3-7

MKK 1263

Y ( s) GP ( s)U ( s)

Chapter 3

Y1 ( s) U1 ( s)

Y ( s) , U ( s)

2

Y ( s ) 2

U ( s )

And Gp(s) is the transfer function matrix for the process

G P (s)

P 21

G (s ) G P 22 (s )

Page 3-8

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

Page 3-9

MKK 1263

CONTROL-LOOP INTERACTIONS

interactions between two or more control loops.

Chapter 3

Example: 2 x 2 system

Control loop interactions are due to the presence

of a third feedback loop.

i) Closed -loop system may become destabilized.

ii) Controller tuning becomes more difficult

Page 3-10

MKK 1263

function between a controlled and a manipulated

variable depends on whether the other feedback

control loops are open or closed.

Chapter 3

From block diagram algebra we can show

Y1 ( s)

GP11( s), (second loop open)

U1 ( s )

Y1 ( s) GP12GP 21GC 2 (second loop closed)

GP11

U1 ( s ) 1 GC 2GP 22

Note that the last expression contains GC2 .

Page 3-11

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

Page 3-12

MKK 1263 PAIRING OF CONTROLLED AND MANIPULATED VARIABLES

D B

Chapter 3

Page 3-13

MKK 1263 Bristol’s Relative gain array Method

This method Provides two useful types of information:

1) Measure of process interactions

2) Recommendation about best pairing of

controlled and manipulated variables.

Requires knowledge of steady-state gains but not

Chapter 3

process dynamics.

RGA is given by

U1 U 2 Un

Y1 11 12 1n

Y2 21 22 2 n

Yn n1 n1 nn

Page 3-14

MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

ij ………. (1)

closed - loop gain (yi / u j ) y

where the relative gain, ij, relates the ith controlled variable and the

jth manipulated variable

Chapter 3

y1 K11u1 K12u2

………. (2)

y2 K 21u1 K 22u2

where Kij denotes the steady-state gain between yi and uj

y Ku ………. (3)

Page 3-15

MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

y

From (2) K 1

………. (4)

u

11

1 u2

value y2 = 0

K 21

u2 u1 ………. (5)

Chapter 3

K 22

Substituting (5) into (2) gives

K 12 K 21

y1 K 111 u1 ………. (6)

K 11K 22

y1 K12 K 21

K111 ………. (7)

u1 y

2

K11K 22

Page 3-16

MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

1

11 ………. (8)

K12 K 21

1

K11K 22

Chapter 3

11 12

………. (9)

21 22

Because each row and each column of RGA sums to one, the other

relative gains are easily calculated from 1 1 for the 2 x 2 case:

1 and

12 21 11 11 22

………. (10)

Page 3-17

MKK 1263 Example of RGA Analysis: 2 x 2 system

Thus RGA for a 2 x 2 system can be expressed as

1 ………. (11)

1

For higher dimension process, the RGA can be calculated from the

Chapter 3

expression

K H ………. (12)

multiplication)

K H ij ij

………. (13)

ij

Kij is the (i,j) element of K in Equation (3) and Hij is the (i,j) element of

H ( K 1 )T ; that is Hij is the element of the transpose of the matrix

inverse of K.

Page 3-18

MKK 1263

Scaling Properties:

i) ij is dimensionless

ii) ij ij 1.0

i j

Chapter 3

For 2 x 2 system,

1

11 , 12 1 11 21

K K

1 12 21

K11K 22

and as close to ONE as possible.

Page 3-19

MKK 1263

In general:

1. Pairings which correspond to negative pairings should

not be selected.

2. Otherwise, choose the pairing which has ij closest

to one.

Examples:

Process Gain Relative Gain

Array, :

Chapter 3

Matrix, K :

K11 0 1 0

0 K

22

0 1

0 K12

0 1

K

21 0

1 0

K11 K12

0 K 1 0

0 1

22

K11 0

K

21 K 22

1 0

0 1

Page 3-20

MKK 1263

EXAMPLE: Hydrocracker

U1 U2 U3 U4

Chapter 3

Y2 0.011 0.429 0.286 1.154

Y3 0.135 3.314 0.270 1.910

Y4 0.215 2.030 0.900 1.919

Page 3-21

MKK 1263

EXAMPLE: Hydrocracker

U1 U2 U3 U4

Y1 0.931 0.150 0.080 0.164

Chapter 3

Y3 0.135 3.314 0.270 1.910

Y4 0.215 2.030 0.900 1.919

MKK 1263 Recall, for 2X2 systems...

1

Y1 K11U1 K12U 2 11 , 12 1 11 21

K K

1 12 21

Y2 K 21U1 K 22U 2 K11K 22

EXAMPLE:

K 11 K 12 2 1.5

K

K 22 1.5 2

Chapter 3

K 21

Recommended pairing is Y1

2.29 1.29

and U1, Y2 and U2.

1.29 2.29

EXAMPLE:

K

1.5 2 0.36 0.64

Page 3-23

MKK 1263 RGA for Higher-Order Systems:

For and n x n system,

U1 U 2 Un

Y1 11 12 1n

Y2 21 22 2 n

Yn n1 n1 nn

Chapter 3

ij K ijHij

Where Kij is the (i,j) -element in the steady-state gain matrix, K :

Y KU

1 T

.

Note that, KH

Page 3-24

MKK 1263

EXERCISE 1

A conventional multiloop control scheme consisting of two

PI controllers is to be used to control the product composition

xD and xB of distillation column shown in Fig. The manipulated

Variables are reflux flow rate R and steam flow rate to the

Chapter 3

conditions are stated below. Use this information to do the

following:

MKK 1263

Run R S xD xB

(lb/min) (lb/min)

1 125 22 0.97 0.04

2 150 22 0.95 0.05

Chapter 3

4 150 20 0.94 0.06

5 150 24 0.96 0.04

Controlled and manipulated variables

Justify your answer.

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

SOLUTION

Chapter 3 MKK 1263

MKK 1263

EXERCISE 2

𝑦2 = 0.52 0.95 0.008 𝑢2

𝑦3 0.90 −0.95 0.020 𝑢3

Chapter 3

control strategy?

Page 2-29

MKK 1263

Singular Value Analysis

Selection of controlled, measured and manipulated variables

Evaluation of robustness of proposed control strategy

Determination of best multiloop control configuration

Chapter 3

to be linearly independent

If the equations are dependent not all the n controlled

variables are independently regulated

MKK 1263

Singular Value Analysis

How to check linear independence of matrix K?

1. If the determinant of K is zero, the matrix is singular and the n

equations are not linearly independent

2. Calculate the eigenvalues of matrix K.

• If anyone of eigen values is zero, K is a singular matrix.

Chapter 3

• If one eigenvalue is very small compared to others then very

large change in one or more manipulated variable is required to

control the process

The eigenvalues of matrix K are the roots of the equation K I 0

identity matrix, 𝛼1, 𝛼2, …, 𝛼n is the eigenvalues.

MKK 1263 Singular Value Analysis

are defined as the positive square roots of the eigenvalues of the

matrix product 𝑲𝑇 𝑲.

• The eigenvalues of matrix 𝑲𝑇 𝑲

𝑲𝑻 𝑲 − 𝜶′ 𝑰 = 𝟎

Chapter 3

eigenvalues

4. Condition number

• Assuming K is non singular. Condition number (CN) is the ratio

of the largest, σ1 and the smallest singular value, σr.

• If K is singular, then it is ill-conditioned, by convention CN=∞.

MKK 1263

EXERCISE 3

1 K 12

K

Chapter 3

10 1

Calculate the determinant, RGA, eigenvalues and

singular values of K for K12 = 0 and K12 = 0.1.

MKK 1263

EXERCISE 4

matrix 1 K

K 12

Chapter 3

10 1

singular values of K for K12 = 0 and K12 = 0.1.

MKK 1263 CN is a measure of sensitivity of the matrix properties to

changes in a specific element.

Consider

1 0

K

10 1

(RGA) = 1.0

Chapter 3

control.

process is easy (or hard) to control.

10). Hence small changes in the model for this process

can make it very difficult to control.

10.1 0

(K ) =

0.1

CN = 101

0

MKK 1263

EXERCISE 5

A 3x3 process has the following steady-state gain matrix

3.38 5 0.953

𝐾 = 6.4 0.48 1.98

Chapter 3

and identify the best 2×2 control configuration based

on Relative Gain Array (RGA) method

b. Perform SVA for the selected 2x2 control

configuration in (a)

Page 3-36

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