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PDHonline Course M558 (10 PDH)

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Oil & Gas – Essential Quiz Questions


Major Concepts

Instructor: Jurandir Primo, PE

2015
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CONTENTS:

Page

I. INTRODUCTION 2

II. ONSHORE DRILLING RIGS – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 3

III. DRILLING RIGS QUESTIONS – BASIC CONCEPTS 16

IV. ONSHORE DRILLING PROCESSES – MULTIPLE CHOICE 33

V. OFFSHORE DRILLING RIGS – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 52

VI. OFFSHORE DRILLING PROCESSES – MULTIPLE CHOICE 61

VII. REFINERY PROCESSES – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 73

VIII. REFINERY PROCESSES – MULTIPLE CHOICE 82

IX. MODUSPEC QUIZ QUESTIONS 92

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I. INTRODUCTION:

Quiz questions are, undoubtedly, the best way to learn the concepts and definitions and to pass a
test in any specific area. These quiz questions are based totally in several oil & gas training cour-
ses and brought here to help the students interested in advanced learning, even for specific areas.
These questions are commonly used on applicants to a job, operations, maintenance and in in-
spection, as part of the global energy businesses.

These quiz questions and answers provide the resources to develop competent engineers, opera-
tors and technicians for today’s advanced oil and gas industry. The questions follow strict instruc-
tional design protocols that ensure students to understand all relevant theories, plant processes,
equipment and component operations that are necessary to drive efficiencies, promote safety, and
achieve operational excellence. The answers are presented at the end of the quiz questions.

A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, or clavis, is also presented with an alphabetical list of
terms, considering the definitions for onshore, offshore and refinery terms. Traditionally, a glossary
appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book, however, in this handbook the
glossary is presented before each sector of oil & gas quiz questions, to show a guideline to stu-
dents, that enables definition of major concepts, especially for newcomers to this field of study.

This series of quiz questions and answers is suitable for all kinds of professionals or students look-
ing for opportunities in Oil and Gas Industry, from upstream to downstream, including production
and process operations, processing, refining, transportation and distribution. These studies can
also determine learning needs, deliver a streamlined set of practical skills, and ensure competency
developments using hands-on with assessment processes.

To get your Professional Development Hours, this course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the
end, based on the glossaries and consecutively in all questions concepts, defined to enhance the
understanding of the course materials.

PDHONLINE courses references:

M535 - Oil & Gas Production and Processes – Fundamentals


M544 - Underwater Welding Technology – Cutting & Inspection
M548 - Oil & Gas Drilling Technology – General Overview – Part 1
M549 - Oil & Gas Drilling Technology – Onshore Rigs – Part 2
M550 - Oil & Gas Drilling Technology – Offshore Rigs – Part 3
M557 - Oil & Gas Refining - Production and Processes

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II. ONSHORE DRILLING RIGS – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:

Abandonment: To stop production of a well and plug the wellbore to prevent any possible future
leakage into fresh water.

Acidizing a Well: Increasing the flow of oil from a well by pumping hydrochloric acid into the well
under high pressure. This re-opens and enlarges the pores in the oil-bearing limestone formation.

Air Drilling: A form of rotary drilling that uses compressed air instead of mud. Used predominantly
in shallow, low pressure areas.

Annular Space: The space between a well’s casing and the wall of the borehole.

Annular Blowout: The space between the surface casing and the inner, producing wellbore cas-
ing. A large valve, usually installed above the ram preventers, that forms a seal in the annular
space between the pipe and well bore or, if no pipe is present, on the well bore itself.

Anticline: A geological term describing a fold in the earth’s surface with strata sloping downward
on both sides from a common crest. Anticlines frequently have surface manifestations like hills,
knobs and ridges. At least 80 percent of the world’s oil and gas has been found in anticlines.

API: American Petroleum Institute, a petroleum industry association that sets standards for oil field
equipment and operations.

API Gravity: The gravity (weight per unit of volume) of crude oil expressed in degrees according
to an American Petroleum Institute recommended system. The higher the API gravity, the higher
the crude. High gravity crudes are generally considered more valuable.

Associated Gas: The gas that occurs with the oil either as free gas or in a solution. When occur-
ring alone, it is referred to as unassociated gas.

Bailing: To recover bottomhole fluids, samples, or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel
called a bailer to the bottom of a well, filling it, and retrieving it.

Barrel Standard (BBL): Unit of measurement in the petroleum industry. One barrel of oil equals
42 U.S. gallons.

Basement Rock: Igneous or metamorphic rock lying below sedimentary formation in the earth’s
crust. Basement rock does not contain petroleum deposits.

Basin: A depression in the earth’s crust in which sedimentary materials have accumulated. Such a
basin may contain oil or gas fields.

Behind Pipe: If a well drills through several pay zones and is completed in the deepest productive
reservoir, casing is set all the way down to the producing zone. Viewed from (a perspective) inside
the borehole, reserves in the shallower pay zones up the hole are behind the casing.

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BHP (Bottom Hole Pressure): The pressure of the reservoir or formation at the bottom of the
hole. A decline in pressure indicates some depletion of the reservoir.

Bleeding Core: Is a core sample of rock, so highly permeable and saturated that oil drips from it.

Block: Any assembly of pulleys on a common framework; in mechanics, one or more pulleys
mounted to rotate on a common axis. The crown block is an assembly of pulleys mounted on
beams at the top of the derrick or mast. The drilling line is passed through the grooved wheel on
the pulley of the crown block, which is raised and lowered in the derrick or mast by the drilling line.

Blowout: An uncontrolled expulsion of oil, natural gas or water (usually brine) from a well into the
atmosphere. The Blowout Preventer (BOP) is a stack of heavy-duty valves placed on top of the
casing to control well pressure during drilling.

BOEPD: Barrels of Oil Equivalent per Day.

Bottomhole Pressure: Pressure exerted upward by the reservoir formation.

Cantilever Jack-ups: Jack-ups that have the derrick package mounted on steel arms and can be
extended out from the hull of the rig. Extension allows for the positioning adjacent to a platform rig
for development drilling.

Cased Hole: A wellbore in which casing has been installed and cemented.

Casing: Is large diameter pipe that is inserted into a recently drilled section of a borehole and held
into place with cement. The steel pipe is installed in the wellbore to protect from cave-in and the
migration of formation fluids into the wellbore, or communication between zones.

Casing Pipe: Used in oil wells to reinforce the borehole. Sometimes several casings are used,
one inside the other. The outer casing, called the “surface pipe”, shuts out water and serves as a
foundation for subsequent drilling.

Casinghead: The portion of the casing that protrudes above the surface and to which control
valves and flow pipes are attached.

Casinghead Gas: Natural Gas from an oil well, as opposed to gas produced from a gas well.

Cement (CMT): Fluid cement is mixed at the surface, pumped to the bottom of a cased well,
forced to flow around the lower end of the casing and up into the space between the casing and
the borehole. When cement solidifies (sets), it holds the casing in place and provides support.

Cementing: Filling the space between the casing and the wellbore walls with cement to support
the casing, and seal between zones.

Cement Squeeze: Forcing cement into the perforations, large cracks and fissures in the wall of a
borehole to seal them off.

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Chain Tongs: A tool consisting of a handle and a releasable chain that is used for turning pipe or
fittings. The chain is tightened around the pipe or fitting.

Christmas Tree: An assembly of valves for flow control of production fluids or gasses installed at
the top of the casing.

Choke: An orifice installed in a pipeline at the well surface to control the rate of flow.

Completion: To finish a well and prepare it for production.

Completed Well: A well-made ready to produce Oil or Natural Gas. The completion also involves
cleaning out the well, running steel casing and tubing into the hole, surface control equipment and
perforating the casing, so, oil or gas can flow into the well and be brought to the surface.

Conductor Casing or Conductor Pipe: Wide-diameter casing installed at the surface prior to
rigging up to prevent caving.

CO2 Injection: A secondary recovery technique in which carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into
wells as part of a miscible recovery program.

Coring: Taking a sample of the formation or rock to determine its geologic properties.

Crown Block: Stationary pulley system used to raise or lower drilling equipment for the derrick.
Supports the traveling block.

Crude Oil: Unrefined petroleum, as it comes out of the ground. Crude Oils range from very light
(high in gasoline) to very heavy (high in residual oils). “Sour Crude” is high in sulfur content.
“Sweet Crude” is low in sulfur and therefore often more valuable.

Cuttings: Chips and small rock fragments brought to the surface by the flow of drilling mud as it is
circulated and examined by geologists for oil or gas content.

Derrick: A steel mast used to support the drill string or drilling equipment such as casing.

Directional Drilling: Drilling at an angle, instead of on the perpendicular, by using a whip stock to
bend the pipe until it is going in the desired direction, used to reach the oil beneath rocks or some
other location which cannot be drilled directly. Is deviating a wellbore along a planned path to a
target located a given lateral distance and direction from vertical.

Downhole: Refers to equipment or operations that take place down inside a borehole.

Downstream: All operations taking place after crude oil is produced, such as transportation, refin-
ing and marketing.

Drawworks: Equipment used for hoisting the drilling string via the derrick. It consists of a spool
wrapped with wire ropes positioned to the side of the derrick, with the wire ropes traveling up the
crown block.
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Drill Bit: A tool located at the end of the drill string used for cutting or boring.

Drill Collars: Heavy walled steel pipe added to the drill string between the drill pipe and drill bit for
additional downward pressure.

Drill Pipe: Steel pipe used to conduct fluids and torque down to the drill bit. Typically 30 feet in
length.

Drill Stem: All members in the assembly used for rotary drilling from the swivel to the bit, including
the kelly, the drill pipe and tool joints, the drill collars, the stabilizers, and various specialty items.

Drill Stem Test (DST): A test through the drill pipe prior to completion to determine if oil or gas is
present in a formation.

Drill String (Drill Pipe or Drill Stem): An assembly consisting of drill pipe, drill collars and a drill
bit. The drill string serves as a conduit for fluid circulation and torque from the power source. Thir-
ty-foot lengths of steel tubing screwed together to form a pipe connecting the drill bit to the drilling
rig. The string is rotated to drill the hole and also serves as a conduit for drilling mud.

Drilling Mud: A mixture of clay, water, chemical additives and weighting materials that flushes
rock cuttings from a well, lubricates and cools the drill bit, maintains the required pressure at the
bottom of the well, prevents the wall of the borehole from crumbing or collapsing and prevents oth-
er fluids from entering the well bore.

Drilling Rig: The surface equipment used to drill for oil or gas, consisting chiefly of a derrick, a
winch for lifting and lowering drill pipe, a rotary table to turn the drill pipe and engines to drive the
winch and rotary table.

Dry Hole: An exploratory well that, although reaching target depths, does not result in the produc-
tion of hydrocarbons.

Dry Natural Gas: Natural gas containing few or no natural gas liquids (liquid petroleum mixed with
gas).

Electric Rig (SCR): A drilling rig that uses diesel generators to supply power to separate electric
motors to power each of the rig’s components (silicon-controlled rectifier).

Electrical Well Logging: A method of oil exploration that originated with Conrad Schlumberger,
who first tested it in 1927 on a 1,500-meter well in France. As used today, the process is very sim-
ple. Current passes into the ground, through the resistive medium and into the instrumentation
sonde. The resulting charts show the varying resistance, the conductance and the self-potential of
the strata surrounding the well at entry level, and geophysicists use them to assay whether petro-
leum is present in a formation.

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Enhanced Oil Recovery: Injection of water, steam, gas or chemicals into underground reservoirs
to cause oil to flow toward producing wells, permitting more recovery that would have been possi-
ble from natural pressure or pumping alone.

Exploration: The search for oil and gas. Exploration and operations include; aerial surveys, geo-
physical surveys, geophysical studies, core testing and the drilling of test wells.

Exploratory Well: A well drilled to either search for an undiscovered pool of hydrocarbons or to
define the limits of the hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

External Casing Packer: A device used on the inside of the well casing to seal off formations or to
protect certain zones. The packer is run on the casing and expanded against the wall of the bore-
hole at the proper depth by hydraulic pressure or fluid pressure from the well.

Field: A geographical area under which one or more oil or gas reservoirs lie, all of them related to
the same geological structure.

Filter Cake: A plastic-like coating that builds up inside the borehole. Such buildup can cause seri-
ous drilling problems, including sticking of the drill pipe.

Fishing: Recovering the tools or pipe that have been accidentally lost down the borehole by using
specially designed tools that screw into or grab the missing equipment.

Fishing Tools: Special instruments equipped with the means for recovering objects lost while drill-
ing the well.

Flaring: The burning of gas vented through a pipe or stack at a refinery, or a method of disposing
of gas while a well is being drilled. Flaring is regulated by state agencies. Venting (gas escape
unburned) is generally prohibited.

Flooding: One of the methods of enhanced oil recovery. Water Flooding or Gas Flooding might be
considered secondary recovery methods.

Footage Contracts: A contract under which the operator and contract driller agree to a fixed price
per foot drilled. Contractor carries more of the operating risk than in a Daily Contract.

Formation: A geological term that describes a succession of strata similar enough to form a dis-
tinctive geological unit useful for mapping or description.

Fossil Fuels: Fuels that originate from the remains of living things, such as coal, oil, natural gas
ancient plants and animals.

Fracturing (FRAC): A well stimulation technique in which fluids are pumped into a formation under
extremely high pressure to create or enlarge fractures for oil and gas to flow through. Proppants
such as sand are injected with the liquid to hold the fractures open.

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Gamma-Ray Logging: A technique of exploration for oil in which a well’s borehole is irradiated
with gamma rays. The varying emission of these rays indicates to geologists the relative density of
the rock formation at different levels.

Gas Cap: The gas that exists in a free state above the oil in the reservoir.

Gas Condensate: Liquid hydrocarbons present in casinghead gas that condense when brought to
the surface.

Gas Lift: A recovery method that brings oil from the bottom of a well to the surface by using com-
pressed gas. Gas pumped to the bottom of the reservoir mixes with fluid, expands it and lifts it to
the surface.

Gas-Cut Mud: Drilling mud permeated with bubbles of gas from down hole. The circulation of such
mud can be severely impaired, seriously affecting drilling operations.

Geophones: The sound-detecting instruments used to measure sound waves created by explo-
sions, set off during seismic exploration work.

Gun Perforation: A method of creating holes in a well casing down hole by exploding charges to
propel steel projectiles through the casing well. Such holes allow oil or gas from the formation to
enter the well.

Heavy Oil: A type of crude petroleum characterized by high viscosity and a high carbon-to-
hydrogen ratio. It is usually difficult and costly to produce by conventional techniques.

Hook: A large, hook-shaped device from which the swivel is suspended. It is designed to carry
maximum loads ranging from 100 to 650 tons and turns on bearings in its supporting housing. The
hook load is the weight of the drill stem that is suspended from the hook.

Horizontal Drilling: The newer and developing technology that makes it possible to drill a well
from the surface, vertically down to a certain level. Deviation of the wellbore at least 80° from verti-
cal so that the wellbore penetrates a productive formation in a manner parallel to the formation.

Horsehead: The curved guide or head piece on the well end of a pumping jack’s walking beam.
The guide holds the short loop of cable, called the bridle, attached to the well’s pump rods.

Hydraulic Fracturing: A method of stimulating production from a low-permeability formation by


creating fractures and fissures by applying very high fluid pressure.

Hydrocarbons: A large class of organic compound of hydrogen and carbon. Crude Oil, Natural
Gas and Natural Gas Condensate are all mixtures of various hydrocarbons, among which methane
is the simplest.

Hydrostatic Head: The height of a column of liquid, or the difference in height between two points
in a body of liquid.
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Injection Well: A well employed for the introduction into an underground stratum of water, gas or
other fluid under pressure. Injection Wells are employed for the disposal of salt water produced
with oil or other waste, also used for a variety of other purposes, as below:
Pressure maintenance, introduces a fluid into a producing formation to reduce underground
pressures, due the production of oil or gas;
Secondary recovery operations, introduce a fluid to decrease the viscosity of oil, reduce its
surface tension, lighten its specific gravity and drive oil into producing wells, resulting in the
greater production of oil.

Kelly: A four- or six-sided pipe at the top of the drill string, through which the rotation is started.

Kelly System: A cage with V & square faced rollers, which fit the Kelly during departure rotation,
while slowing up and down movement. The kelly pipe fits inside the kelly bushing, which fits inside
the master bushing, which fits inside the rotary table. The rotary table creates the torque that is
transmitted through the kelly down the drill pipe to the drill bit (versus a top drive system which
foregoes all of such components).

Kerogen: The hydrocarbon in oil shale. Scientists believe that kerogen was the precursor of petro-
leum and that petroleum development in shale was somehow prematurely arrested.

Key-seating: A condition in which the drill collar of another part of the drill string becomes wedged
in a section of crooked hole.

Kick: When the pressure encountered in a formation exceeds the pressure exerted by the column
of drilling mud circulating through the hole. If uncontrolled, a kick leads to a blowout.

Kill a Well: To overcome down hole pressure by adding weighting elements to the drilling mud or
wellbore.

Liner: A string of pipe used to case an open hole below an existing casing.

Limestone: Sedimentary rock largely consisting of calcite. On a world-wide scale, limestone res-
ervoirs probably contain more oil and gas reserves than all other types of reservoir rock combined.

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): Natural gas that has been converted to a liquid through the cooling
process (~260º F) at atmospheric pressure.

Load Water: Fluid (water) pumped into a well, usually during a fracture treatment of a producing
formation.

Logs: Records made from data-gathering devices lowered into the wellbore. The devices transmit
signals to the surface which are then recorded on film, paper or computer and used to make the
record describing the formation’s porosity, fluid saturation and lithology. The filing of a log is r e-
quired by the Federal Government if the drill site is on federal land.

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LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas): Hydrocarbon fractions lighter than gasoline, such as ethane,
propane and butane, kept in a liquid state through compression and/or refrigeration commonly
referred to as “bottled gas”.

Mechanical Rig: A drilling rig where the power generated from combustion engines (diesel) is
distributed mechanically (shafts, sprockets, chains and clutches) to various components of the rig.

Mud: The liquid circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling operations. In addition, the
function of bringing cuttings to the surface, the drilling mud cools and lubricates the drill bit and the
drill stem, protects against blowouts by holding back subsurface pressures, and deposits a mud
cake on the wall of the wellbore to prevent loss of fluids to the formation.

Mud Engineer: A technician responsible for proper maintenance of the mud system.

Mud Logging: The recording of information derived from examination and analysis of formation
cuttings made by the bit and of mud circulated out of the hole.

Mud Logger: A technician who uses chemical analysis, microscopic examination of the cuttings
and an assortment of electronic instruments to monitor the mud system for possible indications of
hydrocarbons.

Mud Pump: A large high-pressure pump used to circulate the mud on a drilling rig.

Mud Tank: One of a series of open tanks usually made of steel plate, through which the drilling
mud is cycled to remove sand and fine sediments. Also called mud pits.

Natural Gas: A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of various non-hydro-
carbons (such as carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen) existing in the gaseous
phase or in solution with Crude Oil in natural underground reservoirs.

NGL (Natural Gas Liquids): Portions of natural gas that are liquefied at the surface in lease sepa-
rators, field facilities or gas processing plants. Natural gas includes, but not limited to: ethane, pro-
pane, butane, natural gasoline and condensate.

Offset Well: A well drilled near the discovery well. Also a well drilled to prevent oil and gas from
draining from one tract of land to another where a well is being drilled or is already producing.

Oil Column: The vertical height (thickness) of an oil accumulation above the oil-water contact.

Oil Gravity: The density of liquid hydrocarbons, generally measured in API degrees.

Oil Pool: An underground reservoir containing oil. An oil field may contain one or more pools, each
of which has its own pressure system.

Oil Rig: Oil platform or offshore platform, is a large structure with facilities in land and overseas, to
drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, or store product for refining and marketing.

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Oil Shale: A fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains kerogen partially formed oil. Kerogen can
be extracted by heating the shale but at a very high cost.

Oil Production: The phase which petroleum industry has to do with bringing the well fluids to the
surface and separating, storage, gauging, and otherwise preparing the product for the pipeline,
also the amount of oil or gas produced in a given period.

Operator: Organization that obtains (buys or leases) the right to drill and produce oil and/or natural
gas from the owner of a specified location. The operator of an oil or gas well or field.

Operator – Independent: A person or a small organization that engages in the drilling, producing
and selling of oil and gas, but has no pipeline or other means of transportation or refining.

Operator – Integrated (Majors): A larger organization typically engaged in drilling, production,


transportation and refining of oil and natural gas, as well as the retail sales of oil and gas products.

Operator – National Oil Company: State-owned organization typically engaged in the drilling,
production, transportation and refining of oil and natural gas, as well as the retail sales of oil and
gas refined products.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): An organization formed in 1960 for


the intent of negotiating the price and production levels of oil. There are currently twelve members
including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Vene-
zuela, Indonesia, the Neutral Zone (the area between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait) and Iraq.

Perforating Gun: An instrument lowered at the end of a wire line into a cased well. It contains
explosive charges that can be electronically detonated from the surface.

Permeability: The measure of conductivity of fluids through the pores of rock.

Petroleum: A natural occurring solid, liquid or gaseous substance in the earth containing hydrogen
and carbon in various mixtures. Term often refers to oil and does not include natural gas or gas
liquids such as propane or butane.

Pipeline: A tube or system of tubes for the transportation of oil or gas, which includes: lead lines-
form pumping well to a storage tank; flow lines-from flowing well to a storage tank; lease lines-
extending from the wells to lease tanks; gathering lines-extending from lease tanks to a central
accumulation point; feeder lines-extending from lease to trunk lines; and trunk lines-extending from
a producing area to refineries or terminals.

Platform: A drilling and production platform that is supported by a truss of steel members (a jack-
et) secured to the ocean floor.

Platform Rig: Mobile drilling rig packages mounted on production platforms.

Plugging a Well: To stop the flow of hydrocarbons and/or water by filling the wellbore with cement
when the well is abandoned.
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Primary Recovery: Production in which oil moves from the reservoir into the wellbore under natu-
rally occurring reservoir pressure.

Production Test: A test made to determine the daily rate of oil, gas and water production from a
potential pay zone.

Proppants: Materials used in hydraulic fracturing for holding open the cracks made in the for-
mation by the fracturing process. Proppants may consist of sand grains, beads or other small pel-
lets suspended in fracturing fluid.

Reclamation: The restoration of land to its original condition by regarding contours and re-planting
after the land has been mined, drilled or otherwise has undergone alteration from its original state.

Reservoir: A porous, permeable sedimentary rock formation containing quantities of oil and/or gas
enclosed or surrounded by layers of less permeable or impervious rock. Also called a “horizon”.

Reservoir Pressure: The pressure at the face of the producing formation when the well is shut-in.
It equals the shut-in pressure at the wellhead plus the weight of the column of oil in the hole.

Rig: The derrick or mast, drawworks and attendant surface equipment of a drilling unit.

Rig Year: A measure of the number of equivalent rigs operating during a given period. It is calcu-
lated as the number of days rigs are operating divided by the number of days in the period. For
example, one rig operating 182.5 days during a 365-day period represents 0.5 rig years, and 100
rigs operating for 33,000 cumulative days, during a 365-day period would equal 90.4 rig years
(33,000 divided by 365).

Rotary Drilling: A drilling method in which a hole is drilled by a rotating bit, where a downward
force is applied. The bit is then fastened and rotated by the drill stem, which also provides a pas-
sageway through the circulation of the drilling fluid.

Roughnecks: Members of the drilling crew.

Roustabout: A semi-skilled hand that takes care of tools and equipment, makes maintenance and
works on producing wells and production facilities.

Sample: Cuttings of a rock formation broken up by the drill bit and brought to the surface by the
drilling mud, then examined by geologists to identify the formation and type of rock being drilled.

Sample Log: A record of rock cuttings which is made during drilling operations. The record shows
the characteristics of various drilling strata.

Sandstone: Rock composed mainly of sand-sized particles or fragments of the mineral quartz.

Secondary Recovery: The introduction of water or gas into a well to supplement the natural res-
ervoir drive and force additional oil to the producing wells.

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Seismic 3-D: A relatively new exploration technique used in the search for oil and gas under-
ground structures. The basic premise behind seismic is the same as Ultra Sound Technology used
in the medical field. Sound waves from a shot hole is recorded from geophones and interpreted to
give a picture of the underlying structures within the earth. The seismic 3-D has now become a
common practice to re-define and identify known and unknown structures.

Seismic 4-D: The newest advances in Seismic Technology, which now takes into consideration
the 4th dimension. With a Seismic 4-D, skilled geologists are now able to monitor the movement
and mobility of oil, as it is extracted in the production process.

Seismic Exploration: A method of prospecting for oil or gas by sending shock waves into the
earth. Different rocks transmit, reflect or refract sound waves at different speeds. W hen vibrations
at the surface send sound waves into the earth in all directions, are reflected to the surface at a
distance and angle indicating the depth of the source. These reflections are recorded and ana-
lyzed to map underground formations.

Seismograph: A device that records natural or manmade vibrations from the earth. Geologists
read what it has recorded to evaluate the oil potential of underground formations.

Shale: A type of rock composed of common clay or mud.

Shale Oil: The substance produced from the treatment of kerogen, the hydrocarbon found in some
shale rock formations, which is difficult and costly to extract. Only about 34 gallons of shale oil can
be extracted from one ton of ore.

Shale Shaker: A vibrating screen or sieve that strains cuttings out of the mud before the mud is
pumped back down into the borehole.

Shoot a Well: A technique that stimulates the downhole production of a tight formation by setting
off explosion charges, which opens the formation by cracking rocks. The early wells were shot with
nitroglycerin, later dynamite was used. The nitro man has been replaced today by acidizer techni-
cians and frac trucks.

Slot Jack-ups: Jack-ups that have the drilling derrick mounted over a slot in the hull and cannot
be used over adjacent structures.

Sour Crude or Gas: Oil or Natural Gas containing sulfur compounds, notably hydrogen sulfide a
poisonous gas.

Spudding the Well: The initiation of the drilling of a well. To spud a well means to start the initial
drilling operations.

Stack the Rig: Or stack the rig out, means to dismantle and to store the drilling machinery on
completion of a job, when the rig is to be withdrawn from operation for a time.

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Swab: A hollow rubber cylinder with a flap (check valve) on the bottom surface. It is lowered below
the fluid level in the well. This opens the check valve allowing fluid into the cylinder. The check
valve flap closes, as the swab is pulled back up, lifting oil to the surface.

Sweet Crude: Crude oil with low sulfur content (= < 0.42%) which is less corrosive, burns cleaner
and requires less processing to yield valuable product.

Syncline: A downfold in stratified rock that looks like an upright bowl. Unfavorable to the accum u-
lation of oil and gas.

Synfuels: Fuels produced through chemical conversions of natural hydrocarbon substances such
as coal and oil shale.

Synthetic Crude Oil (Syncrude): Crude oil derived from processing carbonaceous material, such
as shale oil or unrefined oil in coal conversion process.

Synthetic Gas: Gas produced from solid hydrocarbons, such as coal, oil shale or tar sands.

Swivel: A rotary tool that is hung from the rotary hook and the traveling block to suspend the drill
stem and to permit it to rotate freely. It also provides a connection for the rotary hose and a pas-
sageway for the flow of drilling fluid into the drill stem.

Tank Bottoms: A mixture of oil, water and other foreign matter that collects in the bottoms of stock
tanks and large crude storage tanks and must be cleaned or pumped out on a regular basis.

Tertiary Recovery: Is a complex and very expensive methods, such as the injection of steam,
chemicals, gases or heat. Compared to primary recovery involves depleting a naturally flowing
reservoir or a secondary recovery, which usually involves re-pressuring or water flooding.

Tool Joints: Heavy duty steel couplings used to connect lengths of drill pipe.

Tool Pusher: The supervisor of the drilling rig operations.

Top Drive: A powered swivel connected directly to the drill stem to provide the necessary torque
for the drill bit. Replaces the conventional rotary table from the hook attached to the traveling
block. Allows three lengths of drill pipe to be tripped in and out at a time, and provides makeup and
breakup power for the assembly of the drill pipe lengths.

Trap: A natural configuration of layers of rock where non-porous or impermeable rocks act as a
barrier blocking the natural upward flow of hydrocarbons.

Traveling Block: Is the block hanging from the derrick supporting the drill string as it “travels” up
and down as it raises and lowers the drill string into the wellbore.

Trip: When drill string is pulled and returned to the wellbore.

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Turnkey Contract: The drilling contractor agrees to drill a well according to the operator’s specifi-
cations for a fixed lump sum fee. The contractor carries the majority of the operating risk.

Upstream: Activities concerned with finding petroleum and producing it compared to downstream
which are all the operations that take place after production.

Vapor Pressure: The pressure exerted by a vapor held in equilibrium with its solid or liquid state.

Waterflooding: A secondary recovery method in which water is injected into a reservoir to force
additional oil into the wells.

Wellbore (Well): The hole created when drilling that serves as the passageway between the sur-
face and the reservoir.

Wellhead: Flow control equipment located at the top of the casing string at the surface of the well-
bore. A device on the surface used to hold the tubing in the well. The wellhead is the originating
point of the producing well at the top of the ground.

Well-servicing: Maintenance works on a producing well to improve its flow rate. Service typically
involves repairing equipment installed during drilling, completion or workover, but may include ad-
dition of new equipment. Well-servicing jobs usually take less than 48 hours to complete.

Well Program: The procedure for drilling, casing and completing a well.

Wellbore: Physically a wellbore refers to a borehole. In other words, a completed well.

Wet: A reservoir rock is said to be “wet” when it contains water but little or no hydrocarbons. Wet
gas is the natural gas containing liquid hydrocarbons, commonly condensate.

Wildcat: An exploratory well drilled in an unknown or unproven area.

Whipstock: A steel blocking device placed in a borehole. As drilling is resumed, the whipstock
forces the drill bit to veer off at a slight angle.

Workover: Essentially, refurbishment of a well to improve its flow rate. Workover includes any of
several operations on a well to restore or increase production when a reservoir stops producing at
the rate it should. Many workover jobs involve treating the reservoir rock, rather than the equip-
ment in the well. Workover jobs typically take a few days to several weeks to complete.

Zone: A specific interval of rock strata containing one or more reservoirs. Used interchangeably
with “formation”.

Zone Isolation: Sealing off a producing formation while a hole is being deepened. A special seal-
ant is injected into the formation where it hardens long enough for the hole to be drilled. Afterward,
the substance again turns to liquid unblocking the formation.

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III. DRILLING RIGS QUESTIONS - BASIC CONCEPTS

1. QUESTION

A heavy, thick-walled tube, usually steel, used between the drill pipe and
the bit in the drill stem. It is used to put weight on the bit so that the bit can
drill, is:

2. QUESTION

The equipment used to remove unwanted gas from a liquid, especially from
drilling fluid, is:

3. QUESTION

Equipment that uses rams to seal off pressure on a hole that is with or
without pipe and have interchangeable ram blocks to accommodate differ-
ent O.D. drill pipe, casing, or tubing, is:

4. QUESTION

The derrickman's working platform. Double board, triple board, or monkey


board located at a height in the derrick or mast equal to two, three, or four
lengths of pipe respectively, is:

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5. QUESTION

A device for measuring the weight of the drill string. Monthly calibration to
calculated drill string weight is required by API, is:

6. QUESTION

An area cleared for moving through by personnel and protected with a


handrail, is:

7. QUESTION

A portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit, distinguished from a


standard derrick, which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit, is:

8. QUESTION

A large reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud (drilling fluid), is:

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9. QUESTION

A centrifugal device, similar to a desander, used to remove very fine parti-


cles, or silt, from drilling fluid. This keeps the amount of solids in the fluid to
the lowest possible level, is:

10. QUESTION

A relatively short length of chain attached to the tong pull chain on the
manual tongs used to make up drill pipe. The driller then actuates the
makeup cathead to pull the chain off of the pipe body, which causes the
pipe to spin and thus the pin threads to spin into the box, is:

11. QUESTION

A device that removes gas from the mud coming out of a well when a kick
is being circulated out, is:

12. QUESTION

The hose on a rotary drilling rig that conducts the drilling fluid from the
mud pump and standpipe to the swivel and kelly; also called the mud
hose or the kelly hose, is:

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13. QUESTION

A mud pit in which a supply of drilling fluid has been stored. Also, a
waste pit, usually an excavated, earthen-walled pit. It may be lined with
plastic to prevent soil contamination, is:

14. QUESTION

The control panel, located on the platform, where the driller controls drill-
ing operations, is:

15. QUESTION

Large wrenches used for turning when making up or breaking out drill
pipe, casing, tubing, or other pipe; variously called casing tongs, rotary
tongs, and so forth according to the specific use. Pneumatically or hy-
draulically operated tools that spin the pipe up and, may apply the final
makeup torque, is:

16. QUESTION

A portable derrick capable of being erected as a unit, as distin-


guished from a standard derrick, which cannot be raised to a working
position as a unit, is:

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17. QUESTION

Powerful engines drive large electric generators. The generators pro-


duce electricity that flows through cables to electric switches and
control equipment enclosed in a control cabinet or panel. Electricity is
fed to electric motors via the panel, is:

18. QUESTION

An arrangement of pulleys or sheaves through which drilling cable is


reeved, which moves up or down in the derrick or mast, is:

19. QUESTION

A centrifugal device for removing sand from drilling fluid to prevent


abrasion of the pumps. It may be operated mechanically or by a fast-
moving stream of fluid inside a special cone-shaped vessel, in which
case it is sometimes called a hydrocyclone, is:

20. QUESTION

A trough or pipe, placed between the surface connections at the well


bore and the shale shaker. Drilling mud flows through it upon its re-
turn to the surface from the hole, is:

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21. QUESTION

The foundation on which the derrick or mast and usually the


drawworks sit; contains space for storage and well control equipment,
is:

22. QUESTION

Principal component of a rotary, or rotary machine, used to turn the


drill stem and support the drilling assembly. It has a beveled gear
arrangement to create the rotational motion and an opening where
bushings are fitted to drive and support the drilling assembly, is:

23. QUESTION

The heavy square or hexagonal steel member suspended from the


swivel through the rotary table. It is connected to the topmost joint of
drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns, is:

24. QUESTION

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Fuel storage tanks for the power generating system, is:

25. QUESTION

An assembly of sheaves or pulleys mounted on beams at the top of


the derrick. The drilling line is run over the sheaves down to the hoist-
ing drum, is:

26. QUESTION

A wire rope hoisting line, reeved on sheaves of the crown block and
traveling block (in effect a block and tackle). Its primary purpose is to
hoist or lower drill pipe or casing from or into a well. Also, a wire rope
used to support the drilling tools, is:

27. QUESTION

A rotary tool that is hung from the rotary hook and traveling block to
suspend and permit free rotation of the drill stem. It also provides a
connection for the rotary hose and a passageway for the flow of drilling
fluid into the drill stem, is:

28. QUESTION

A pit in the ground to provide additional height between the rig floor

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and the wellhead to accommodate installation of blowout preventers,


ratholes, mouseholes, and collects drainage water and other fluids, is:

29. QUESTION

The arrangement of piping and special valves, called chokes, through


which drilling mud is circulated when the blowout preventers are closed
to control the pressures encountered during a kick, is:

30. QUESTION

A small enclosure on the rig floor used as an office for the driller or as a
storehouse for small objects. Also, any small building used as an office
or for storage, is:

31. QUESTION
A series of open tanks usually made of steel plates, through which the
drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and sediments to settle out. Addi-
tives are mixed with the mud in the pit, and the fluid is temporarily
stored there before being pumped back into the well. Mud pit compart-
ments are also called shaker pits, settling pits, and suction pits, de-
pending on their main purpose, is:

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32. QUESTION

A horizontal support for tubular goods, is:

33. QUESTION

A heavy, flanged steel fitting connected to the first string of casing. It


provides a housing for slips and packing assemblies, allows suspen-
sion of intermediate and production strings, and supplies the means for
the annulus to be sealed off. Also called as spool, is:

34. QUESTION

Shallow bores under the rig floor, usually lined with pipe, in which joints
of drill pipe are temporarily suspended for later connection to the drill
string, is:

35. QUESTION

A device that removes gas from the mud coming out of a well when a
kick is being circulated out, is:

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36. QUESTION

A large reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud (drilling fluid) on a


drilling rig, is:

37. QUESTION

An angled ramp for dragging drill pipe up to the drilling platform or


bringing pipe down off the drill platform, is:

38. QUESTION

The largest diameter casing and the topmost length of casing. It is rela-
tively short and encases the topmost string of casing, is:

39. QUESTION

Is used to store water that is used for mud mixing, cementing, and rig
cleaning, is:

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40. QUESTION

A series of trays with sieves or screens that vibrate to remove cuttings


from circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations. The size of the open-
ings in the sieve is selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling
fluid and the anticipated size of cuttings. Also called a shaker, is:

41. QUESTION

The ramp at the side of the drilling rig where pipe is laid to be lifted to
the derrick floor by the catline or by an air hoist, is:

42. QUESTION

A device for spinning the drill pipe. Replaces the spinning chain, is:

43. QUESTION

The hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig. It is essentially a large winch


that spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the
drill stem and bit, is:

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44. QUESTION

A set of clamps that grips a stand, or column, of casing, tubing, drill


pipe, or sucker rods, so the stand can be raised or lowered into the
hole, is:

45. QUESTION

Wedge-shaped pieces of metal with teeth or other gripping elements


that are used to prevent pipe from slipping down into the hole or to hold
pipe in place, and fit around the drill pipe and wedge against the mas-
ter bushing, is:

46. QUESTION

One or more valves installed at the wellhead to prevent the escape of


pressure either in the annular space between the casing and the drill
pipe or in open hole (for example, hole with no drill pipe) during drilling
or completion operations, is:

47. QUESTION

A vertical pipe rising along the side of the derrick or mast. It joins the
discharge line leading from the mud pump to the rotary hose and

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through which mud is pumped going into the hole, is:

48. QUESTION

The storage device for nitrogen pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is


used in operating the blowout preventers, is:

49. QUESTION

A trough or pipe, placed between the surface connections at the well


bore and the shale shaker. Drilling mud flows through it upon its return
to the surface from the hole, is:

50. QUESTION

Stairs leading from one level to another. Protected with handrails, is:

51. QUESTION

A hole in the rig floor 30 to 35 feet deep, lined with casing that projects
above the floor. The kelly is placed in the rathole when hoisting opera-
tions are in progress, is:

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52. QUESTION

Usually the first casing to be run in a well. This is done after spudding-
in so a blowout preventer can be installed before drilling is started, is:

53. QUESTION

The space around a pipe in a well bore, the outer wall of which may be
the wall of either the bore hole or the casing; sometimes termed the
annular space, is:

54. QUESTION

A diesel, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), natural gas, or gasoline en-


gine, along with a mechanical transmission and generator for produc-
ing power for the drilling rig, is:

55. QUESTION

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A wire rope used in hoisting operations. Must conform to the API


standards for its intended uses, is:

56. QUESTION

The cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. The
circulating element permits the passage of drilling fluid and uses the
hydraulic force of the fluid stream to improve drilling rates, is:

57. QUESTION

Heavy seamless tubing used to rotate the bit and circulate the drilling
fluid. Joints of pipe 30 feet long are coupled together with tool joints, is:

58. QUESTION

The top drive rotates the drill string end bit without the use of a kelly
and rotary table. The top drive is operated from a control console on
the rig floor, is:

59. QUESTION

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Is used to store water that is used for mud mixing, cementing, and rig
cleaning, is:

60. QUESTION

Hopper type tanks for storage of drilling fluid components, is:

61. QUESTION

The braking device on the drawworks to stop a load being lifted, is:

62. QUESTION

A spool-shaped attachment on a winch around which rope for hoisting


and pulling is wound, is:

63. QUESTION

A vertical pipe rising along the side of the derrick or mast. It joins the
discharge line leading from the mud pump to the rotary hose and
through which mud is pumped going into the hole, is:

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64. QUESTION

Air or hydraulic fluid operated device that fits into the opening in the
rotary table to suspend the drill stem, eliminate the need to set and
take out slips manually. It is also a wedge-shaped device with teeth on
its face, which penetrate and grip the casing wall when the packer is:

65. QUESTION

Device that separates fine silt and sand from the drilling fluid. Mechan-
ical separation of solids from the mud system through the use of a
decanter centrifuge is a highly effective means of maintaining proper
mud weight and viscosity, is:

66. QUESTION

Also termed drilling fluid, used during the drilling process to transport
rock chips (cuttings) from the bottom of the well up and out of the well
bore, where the cuttings are screened and removed, is:

ANSWERS:
1. Drill Collar 23. Kelly 45. Slips
2. Degasser 24. Fuel Tanks 46. Blowout Preventer
3. Ram Blowout Preventer 25. Crown Block and Water Table 47. Standpipe
4. Monkey Board 26. Drilling Line 48. Accumulator
5. Weight Indicator 27. Swivel 49. Mud Return Line
6. Walkways 28. Cellar 50. Stairways
7. Mast 29. Choke Manifold 51. Rathole
8. Mud Pump 30. Doghouse 52. Surface Casing
9. Desilter 31. Mud Pits 53. Annulus
10. Spinning Chain 32. Pipe Racks 54. Engine Generator Sets
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11. Mud Gas Separator 33. Casing Head 55. Hoisting Line
12. Rotary Hose 34. Mousehole 56. Drill Bit
13. Reserve Pits 35. Mud Gas Separator 57. Drill Pipe
14. Drillers Console 36. Mud Pump 58. Top Drive
15. Tongs 37. Pipe Ramp 59. Water Tank
16. Mast 38. Conductor Pipe 60. Bulk Mud Components Storage
17. Electric Control House 39. Water Tank 61. Brake Bands
18. Travelling Block 40. Shale Shaker 62. Cathead
19. Desander 41. Catwalk 63. Standpipe
20. Mud Return Line 42. Kelly Spinner 64. Automatic Slips or Rotary Slips
21. Substructure 43. Drawworks 65. Centrifuge
22. Rotary Table 44. Elevators 66. Drilling Mud

IV. ONSHORE DRILLING PROCESSES - MULTIPLE CHOICE:

1. When, where and from whom was initiated the petroleum industry in the USA?

a. It was initiated in 1859, when petroleum was discovered in Oil Creek, Pennsylvania, when
"Colonel" Edwin Drake, drilled the first successful oil well in the Titusville Valley;
b. It was initiated in 1895, when petroleum was discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania, when
"Colonel" Edwin Drake, drilled the first successful oil well in the Oil Creek Valley.
c. It was initiated in 1859, when petroleum was discovered in Titusville, California, when "Colonel"
Edwin Drake, drilled the first successful oil well in the Oil Creek Valley;
d. It was initiated in 1859, when petroleum was discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania, when
"Colonel" Edwin Drake, drilled the first successful oil well in the Oil Creek Valley.

2. Hydrocarbon reserves are best defined as what?

a. The subsurface geological construct that traps crude oil or natural gas;
b. Reserves are the total volume of hydrocarbons that are present in an oil or gas field;
c. Reserves are the quantities of hydrocarbons that are commercially recoverable;
d. In common usage the term reserves, has the same definition as resources and is used to refer
to any subsurface petroleum.

3. The main boring diameter for drilling a well is 20-30 cm (8 – 10 inches) in diameter, while the
depth of the oil well may be about __________ km.

a. 7.5 to 12.5;
b. 1.5 to 4.5;
c. 0.1 to 0.5;
d. 15 – 20.

4. What's the name of the fossil fuel trapped inside the rock?

a. Kerogen;
b. Oil shale;
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c. Crude oil;
d. Fossil oil.

5. After having pulled 15 stands of drill pipe from the well the trip sheet confirm that fluid or gas has
been swabbed into the well. A flow check is carried out and the well is static. Which one of the
option is the best procedure for handling this problem?

a. Close the well immediately and check for pressure;


b. Trip or strip back to bottom and circulate bottoms up;
c. As the well is not flowing, continue pulling the string out of the hole;
d. Pull another 5 stands and check for flow.

6. How much water does it take to produce a barrel of oil shale liquid?

a. One barrel;
b. Two barrels;
d. Tree barrels;
d. Five barrels.

7. What term is used to describe the point when available conventional oil reaches a decline?

a. Oil terminal;
b. Peak oil;
c. Oil recession;
d. Decline oil.

8. Which of the following causes of well kick is totally avoidable and is due to lack of alertness of
driller? (Select two answers):

a. Drill pipe is lowered too fast in heavy mud causing lost circulation;
b. Gas cut mud;
c. Abnormal pressure;
d. Not keeping the borehole full.

9. Which of following practices are likely to increase the chances of swabbing? (Select two an-
swers):

a. Maintaining high drilling fluid viscosity;


b. Pulling pipe fast;
c. Pumping out of the hole;
d. Puling through tight spots with pumps on.

10. In a well during trip out, swabbing was suspected. The flow check was negative and it was
decided to run back to bottom (30 stands) checking for flow after lowering every 5 stands. The flow

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checks after 5, 10, 15 & 20 stands showed no flow. But with stand number 25 back in the hole, the
well was found to be flowing. What could be the most likely cause of the well flow?

a. Abnormal formation fluid pressure;


b. Derrick man mixed too light a slug prior to pulling out of the hole;
c. Running into the swabbed fluids caused hydrostatic pressure in annulus to drop;
d. In the hurry, it was forgotten to slug the pipe while preparing for running back.

11. If the pit level increases when the pumps are off but stays constant when pumps are running.
What is the problem?

a. Annular pressure losses are giving overbalance against formation pressure;


b. Mud hydrostatic pressure is greater than formation pressure;
c. The pumps need to be repaired;
d. Pump pressure is greater than mud hydrostatic pressure.

12. Which of the following are important for the calculation of formation strength at the shoe? (Se-
lect two answers):

a. Accurate pump strokes counter;


b. Accurate pressure gauge;
c. The pressure limit for the pump;
d. Exact vertical depth of casing shoe.

13. After lowering casing, which of the following operations are to be taken care of prior to con-
ducting a leak-off test. (Select two answers):

a. Drill casing shoe and about 10 ft in to new formation;


b. Keep the bit close to bottom;
c. Circulate and condition the mud to get uniform column of mud in the well;
d. Line up pump to conduct leak off at slow circulating rate.

14. After recognizing a drilling break, what is the first action to be taken?

a. Make a flow Check;


b. Circulate bottoms up;
c. Continue drilling;
d. Reduce pump speed.

15. Which of the following possible warning signs indicate that well may go under balance? (Select
two answers):

a. Increase in pump pressure;


b. Reduction in rate of penetration;
c. Change in cuttings size & shape;
d. Increase in drilled gas percentage.
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16. Which of the following equipment may warn of increase in formation pressure while drilling
overbalance? (Select three answers):

a. Flow line temperature gauge;


b. ROP meter;
c. Gas detector;
d. Return flow meter.

17. From all the following indications, which two indications would have little room for doubt that
the well is kicking?

a. Increased rotary torque;


b. Flow rate increase;
c. Pit volume gain;
d. Increased rate of penetration.

18. Will a kick always occur in the event of a loss of return?

a. No. it depends on the mud level in the annulus and the formation pressure;
b. No, it depends on the drill string weight reduction noted on the weight indicator;
c. Yes, losses will always occur above any potential kick zone;
d. Yes, loss of return is always followed by a kick.

19. Which one of the following is the first reliable indication that well is flowing?

a. Increase in torque;
b. Gas cut mud;
c. Decrease in pump pressure;
d. Increase in return flow.

20. Which one of the following be the first action to be taken, if the mud pump safety-valve pops-off
or hose going to the drill string is parted while circulating out a kick?

a. Drop the drill string, close blind/shear rams, close the choke;
b. Stop the pump, close the choke;
c. Stop the pump, close Kelly cock, close choke;
d. Repair pump or hose and resume well killing.

21. Which of the following drilling practices would be considered when connection gas is noticed?
(Select two answers):

a. Pulling out of the hole to change the bit;


b. Raising the mud yield point;
c. Minimizing the time during a connection when the pumps are switched off;
d. Controlling drilling rate so that only one slug of connection gas is in the hole at a time.
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22. A slug pill is being circulated around the well. When BHP will first increase?

a. When the pill is about to exist the bit;


b. When the beginning of slug pill enters the annulus through the bit;
c. When the beginning of slug pill enters the drill string;
d. When the end of the slug pill has gone through the bit and is displaced in the annulus by the
original drilling fluid.

23. When should the slow circulating rate pressure be recorded? (Select two answers):

a. Each time when drilling rate changes;


b. When bit nozzle size is changed;
c. After installation of BOP;
d. After liner size of pump is changed.

24. Which of the following situations require recording of a slow circulating rate pressure? (Select
two answers):

a. Only after drilling out casing shoe;


b. At beginning of each shift;
c. Every time mud density is changed;
d. After carrying out the drill pipe.

25. Which energy resource will last longer?

a. Uranium-235;
b. Coal;
c. Natural gas;
d. Crude oil.

26. Which of the below is a fossil fuel?

a. Geothermal energy;
b. Hydroelectric power;
c. Natural gas;
e. Uranium-235.

27. Which source could yield large amounts of natural gas in the future?

a. Secondary recovery;
b. Methane hydrates;
c. Oil shale;
d. Tar sands.

28. Commercially, the most valuable petroleum reservoirs (like aquifers) are:

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a. Low in porosity and low in permeability;


b. Low in porosity and high in permeability;
c. High in porosity and high in permeability;
d. High in porosity and low in permeability.

29. Fossil fuels are found in:

a. Sedimentary rocks;
b. Igneous rocks;
c. Metamorphic rocks;
d. All of the above.

30. Geo-pressurized natural gas maybe deep underground in:

a. Undiscovered caves;
b. High-pressure metamorphic rock;
c. Hot salty groundwater;
d. Completely inaccessible deposits.

31. New enhanced oil recovery methods can extract more oil from a reservoir:

a. With little additional expenses;


b. With no more environmental damage;
c. Won't work in old oil fields;
d. Expanding oil reserves.

32. Oil shale is currently extracted by:

a. Pressurized pumping;
b. Enhanced recovery;
c. Strip mining;
d. Gasification.

33. What is a beam pump?

a. A device used to pump beams of radiation onto the earth's surface;


b. A pump used to help transport liquids in interstate pipelines;
c. A recovery engine used to increase natural gas flow from marginal wells;
d. An artificial lifting device used to bring crude oil to the surface;

34. What kinds of rocks usually contain crude oil and natural gas?

a. Sedimentary;
b. Igneous;
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c. Metamorphic;
d. Low porosity formations.

35. The U.S. oil and gas industry had its birth with what famous discovery?

a. Spindletop;
b. Titusville;
c. Prudhoe Bay;
d. Daisy Bradford.

36. What is a "BOP" used for?

a. Prevents dangerous well blowouts;


b. Controls level of benzene, olefins and paraffins in gasoline;
c. Cleans ballast water of oil and particulates;
d. To report on basic oil properties.

37. Why is natural gas processed?

a. To separate crude oil from natural gas;


b. To increase the heating value of the dry gas;
c. To remove impurities and recover natural gas liquids;
d. To increase octane number of the dry gas.

38. Which drive mechanism involves using miscible gas to transport crude oil to the wellbore?

a. Gas cap drive;


b. Water drive;
c. Dissolved gas drive;
d. Nitrogen injection.

39. How much oil is recovered from a water drive in an oil reservoir?

a. 15-20%;
b. 25-30%;
c. 35-40%;
d. 45-50%.

40. What is the meaning of a “choke line”?

a. A drive system using a chain and chain gears to transmit power;


b. Control valves, and pressure gauges, to control the flow of oil;
c. A casing that has joints of various collapse resistance;
d. A pipe extension of the blowout preventer used to direct well fluids from the wellbore annulus.

41. What a casing head is mainly used for?

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a. To isolate downhole zones so they can be produced separately;


b. To allow near surface water zones to enter the wellbore;
c. To line the trench dug to lay a pipeline;
d. To control pressure in catalytic crackers.

42. What is a wireline log used for?

a. Record conversations between oil company executives;


b. Estimate the sulfur content of the oil;
c. Transmit seismic information;
d. Determine the salt water content of the rock.

43. Which of the following is not a drilling geometry?

a. Horizontal;
b. Vertical;
c. Open Hole;
d. Deviated.

44. What is drilling mud used for?

a. Ballast on drillships;
b. Stabilize the drilling rig to prevent shifting and listing;
c. Control downhole pressure and remove cuttings;
d. Prevent natural gas from seeping back into the formation.

45. Spindletop well was located in a field formed by what trapping mechanism?

a. Anticline;
b. Pinchout;
c. Salt Dome;
d. Fault.

46. Waterflooding is used for:

a. Recover additional gas from tight sands reservoirs;


b. Recover additional oil from tanker spills;
c. Recover additional oil from reservoirs;
d. Recover additional gas from aquifers.

47. What's the name of the world's largest oil shale reserve?

a. Green River Formation;


b. Australian Tertiary Deposit;
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c. El-Lajjun Deposit;
d. None of the above.

48. What is a workover?

a. Routine operations to start fluids flowing;


b. Repairing packers;
c. Swabbing the well;
d. Cleaning sands out of the well.

49. Crude oil is pumped by a __________ pump.

a. Screw;
b. Gear;
c. Centrifugal;
d. Reciprocating.

50. Which natural gas storage option has the lowest associated operating costs?

a. Aquifers;
b. Depleted gas or oil fields;
c. Salt caverns;
d. Spherical above-ground tanks.

51. Which statement about unconventional oil resources is correct?

a. Unconventional oil resources are not considered genuine petroleum;


b. Producing oil from unconventional resources is not commercially viable;
c. Though they require special refining equipment, oil produced from unconventional reserves is
naturally low in sulfur, which reduces its refining cost;
d. The total amount of unconventional resources could be three times as large as the world’s prov-
en reserves of conventional oils.

52. What is the primary means of preventing kick from occurring?

a. Using reducing pump rate and circulating pressure to kill the well;
b. Use of instrumentation to detect and warn for kicks;
c. The use of blow out preventer to close in a flowing well;
d. Using of drilling fluid hydrostatic pressure to balance formation pressure.

53. A gas bearing formation is over pressured by an artisan effect. Which of the following condition
has created the over pressure?

a. Compaction of the formation from the over burden;


b. Formation water source located at a higher level than the rig floor;
c. The difference in length between gas & formation fluid;

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d. All the above.

54. At a depth of 10000 ft the formation pressure is 5200 psi. This formation pressure is:

a. Above normal;
b. Below normal;
c. Normal;
d. None of the above.

55. Which gas is used to pre-charge accumulator bottles?

a. Nitrogen;
b. Air;
c. Hydrogen;
d. Oxygen.

56. What is the reason of operating the master air valve for at-least 5 seconds on a remote BOP
automation panel?

a. To bleed the air from the system;


b. To give time to the operator to think about what he is doing;
c. To check if the rig air pressure is correct;
d. To allow build-up of air pressure to operate the 3 position valve.

57. Packer made of which rubber material is suited for an Annular BOP being used in extreme cold
condition? (Select two answers):

a. Natural Rubber;
b. Nitrile rubber;
c. Neoprene Rubber;
d. None of the above.

58. You close a RAM on the driller's remote BOP control panel. The close light is illuminates but
the manifold pressure gauge does not drop what has happened?

a. Blockage in line between accumulator unit and BOP stack;


b. The 4-way valve on accumulator unit has not been operated;
c. Air Supply has been lost to the Driller's Panel;
d. Forget to hold down the master valve for 5 seconds as instructed.

59. What is the purpose of storing fluid under pressure in the accumulator bottles? (Two answers):

a. To enable the BOP to be closed in the event of power failure;


b. To operate a remote check;
c. To reduce the closing time of BOP functions;
d. To store hydraulic fluid;

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60. What is the primary function of the "Weep Hole" on ram type BOP?

a. To release any overpressure that may occur during testing;


b. To prevent damage to the opening chamber;
c. To show that the seals on the bonnet is leaking;
d. To show that the primary mud seal on the piston is leaking.

61. What is the purpose of by-pass valve on the driller's remote control panel?

a. Increase the hydraulic annular pressure to 3000 psi;


b. Increase the hydraulic manifold pressure to accumulator pressure;
c. Increase the hydraulic manifold pressure to 2000 psi;
d. None of the above.

62. On a driller's remote BOP control panel, the annular preventer was closed and the close light is
illuminated. What is the light telling you?

a. The annular has been closed;


b. A micro switch in the back of the Driller's Remote BOP control panel has been activated, indicat-
ing that you have pushed the lever to fully closed position;
c. The annular operating 4-way valve on the accumulator unit has functioned and fluid should be
going to the annular;
d. The signal has been sent to the accumulator units.

63. Why most of the front packers of pipe ram preventers are closed between the steel plates?
(Select two answers):

a. To prevent damage to the elastomer between pipe and ram block when well is under pressure;
b. To extrude elastomer and make sealing contact with pipe when sealing face wears out;
c. To prevent the expansion of elastomer due to heat;
d. To support the weight of drill string.

64. You are testing a surface BOP stack with a test plug. Why the side outlet valves below the test
plug should be kept in the open position? (Select two answers):

a. Because of the potential damage to casing/open hole;


b. Because the test will create extreme hook loads;
c. Otherwise reverse circulation would be needed to release the test plug;
d. To check for a leaking test plug.

65. What is the function of the shear blind ram?

a. To shear the drill pipe and seal the well bore simultaneously ;
b. To shear around the hexagonal and square kelly;
c. To only shear any kind of tubular in the well;
d. None of the above.

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66. On which of the following gauges of the remote panel would you expect to see reduction in
pressure when the ram preventer is being closed? (Select two answers):

a. Accumulator pressure gauge;


b. Annular pressure gauge;
c. Air pressure gauge;
d. Manifold pressure gauge.

67. When testing a pipe ram at the weekly BOP test you are informed that the “Weep Hole” on ram
is leaking. What action you will take?

a. Energize emergency plastic packing ring. If leak stops, then leave it till next maintenance
schedule;
b. The ram packing elements on ram body are worn and to be replaced immediately;
c. Weep hole only checks closing chamber seals leave it till next maintenance;
d. If the primary mud seal is leaking you should replace it immediately.

68. The "Unit Remote" switch is selected in "unit" mode, which of the following statements are
true? (Select two answers):

a. Annular can be regulated from the accumulator unit;


b. Annular cannot be regulated from the accumulator unit;
c. All Ram BOP cannot be operated from remote panel;
d. All ram BOP can be operated from remote panel.

69. Iron roughneck is:

a. A slang term for a person whose occupation is hard manual labor working on oil rigs, most
commonly associated with oil rigs.
b. Used where large forces are required such as in earth moving equipment, heavy cutting, press-
ing and clamping;;
c. Used to integrate hydraulic and electrical technologies for large applications, using the electrical
signal either AC or DC source, operating voltages from 12 V to 220 Volts;
d. A complex equipment that connects and disconnects the drill pipe as an integral part of the drill-
ing process, and also uses a rotary table and torque wrenches to make up or break down pipe.

70. “Responsible for the drilling mud, the mud pits and the mud pumps, where drilling fluids are
circulated, as well as, being the hand up to the derrick manipulating situations during tripping op-
erations, acts as a leader for the driller, mostly restricted to the rig floor, and in many cases, he is
also exclusively responsible for the whole work in the "tripping" pipe in and out of the hole”. This
statement refers to:

a. Motorman or Motorhand;
b. Floorhand or Worm;
c. Derrickman or Derrickhand;
d. Ginsel;
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71. Toolpusher is:

a. The manager of the drilling oil rig, responsible for controlling a rig's machinery during drilling, as
well as, most of other rig operations.
b. Responsible for the drilling mud, the mud pits and the mud pumps, where drilling fluids are cir-
culated, as well being the hand up to the derrick manipulating situations during tripping operations;
c. The highest position at the drilling rig, supervising the crew, and may stay on location for a few
days or weeks during operations, where individual drilling crews work only eight or 12 hour shifts
or "tours" (pronounced as "towers");
d. Answers a and c are correct.

72. Swellable well products are:

a. Versatile, safe, and cost-efficient alternatives to conventional polymer pipe connection tech-
niques, highly adaptable for a wide variety of installations;
b. More effective alternative to traditional cementing and mechanical and open-hole sealing meth-
ods, and have provided a wider set of technology options for zonal isolation and in multizone frac-
ture stimulations;
c. Polymers that swell proportionally when immersed in well fluids (water, oil or a mixture of both);
d. Answers b and c are correct.

73. What resources geologists use to search oil and gas?

a. Use natural pressure of the reservoir to push crude oil to the surface, including natural water
displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir;
b. Use expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the
movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts where the wells are located;
c. use seismic surveys for geological structures, underground explosion nearby and observing
the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures, and instruments
such as gravimeters and magnetometers;
d. Answers a and b are correct.

74. What is the meaning of terms like upstream, midstream, and downstream?

a. The upstream oil sector is commonly known as the exploration and production. The midstream
sector involves the transportation by pipeline, rail, barge, oil tanker or truck. The downstream sec-
tor commonly refers to the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw
natural gas;
b. The upstream oil sector is known as the searching for potential underground or underwater
crude oil and natural gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells. The midstream sector use pipelines
and other transport systems, from production sites to refineries and deliver refined products to
downstream distributors. The downstream sector brings products such as gasoline or petrol, kero-

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sene, jet fuel, diesel oil, heating oil, fuel oils, lubricants, waxes, asphalt, natural gas, and liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) and hundreds of petrochemicals;
c. The upstream oil is known as the sector that brings products such as gasoline or petrol, kero-
sene, jet fuel, diesel oil, heating oil, fuel oils, lubricants, waxes, asphalt, natural gas, and liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG) and hundreds of petrochemicals. The midstream sector use pipelines and
other transport systems, from production sites to refineries and deliver refined products to down-
stream distributors. The downstream sector is known as the searching for potential underground or
underwater crude oil and natural gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells.
d. Answers a and b are correct.

75. The process that reduces the weight of the hydrostatic column, reducing the back pressure
and allowing the reservoir pressure to push the mixture of fluids up to the surface, when the
downhole reservoir pressure falls off, due to the counter pressure from weight of the oil column in
the tubing, is designated as:

a. Gas Lift;
b. Oil Recovery;
c. Waterflooding;
d. Plunger Lift.

76. The injection of gas into the fluid stream reduces the fluid density and lowers the bottom hole
pressure, but another common process, also called as tertiary method, is:

a. Directional drilling;
b. Deepwater drilling;
c. Carbon Dioxide flooding;
d. Bottom Hole Assembly.

77. The most common types of onshore artificial lift pump systems are:

a. Sucker Rods and Hydraulic Pumping Systems;


b. Plunger Lift and Electric Submersible Pumps;
c. Rod Pumps and Progressing Cavity Pumps;
d. All the above.

78. What is the meaning of “well completion”?

a. Is when a perforating gun is lowered into the depth of the well, with explosive charges that cre-
ate holes in the drill casing and the well rocks, through which oil can flow;
b. Is necessary, to allow oil to flow into the casing in a controlled manner;
c. Is when finally, the Christmas tree is connected at the top of the tubing and the top of the casing
is cemented.
d. All the above;

79. Some can effectively close over an open wellbore, some are designed to seal around tubular
components in the well (drill pipe, casing or tubing) and others are fitted with hardened steel shear-
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ing surfaces that can actually cut through drill pipe, also intended to prevent the drilling fluid from
being blown out the wellbore. These concepts refer to:

a. Tubing Spools;
b. Blowout Preventers;
c. Blind Rams;
d. Christmas Trees.

80. The primary function of a Christmas Tree is:

a. To control the flow usually oil or gas, and to control the injection of gas or water into a non-
producing well in order to enhance production rates from other wells.
b. To provide numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, intervention
means, pressure relief conditions, monitoring points (such as pressure, temperature, corrosion,
flow rate, etc.);
c. To close the drill string, casing or a non-cylindrical equipment, known as the Kelly, and is also
effective at maintaining a seal around the drill-pipe, even when it rotates during drilling;
d. Answers a and b are correct.

81. Drawworks is:

a. Is the hoisting machinery that is an important component of the rotary drilling rig and its main
function is to provide means of raising and lowering the traveling blocks;
b. Is a mechanical device on a drilling rig that provides clockwise torque to the drill string to facili-
tate the process of drilling a borehole;
d. is a term that includes most equipment used in the drilling business to facilitate the drilling of oil
and natural gas wells;
c. Answers a and b are correct;

82. The well acids employed to dissolve quartz, sand and clay from the reservoir rocks are:

a. Backflush and sediments acids;


b. Carbonate and dolomite acids;
c. Hydrochloric (HCI) and hydrofluoric acids (HF);
d. Mud and fracturing acids.

83. What can be the main differences between proppants and propellants?

a. Proppants are solid materials, ceramic materials, or typically treated common sand, designed to
keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. Propellants are
low-explosive materials that generate large amounts of gas downhole very rapidly, and can be a
very economical way to clean up a wellbore damage.
b. Proppants are low-explosive materials that generate large amounts of gas downhole very rapid-
ly, and can be a very economical way to clean up a wellbore damage. Propellants are solid mate-
rials, ceramic materials, or typically treated common sand, designed to keep an induced hydraulic
fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment.
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c. Proppants, type Raystone, feature high strength alloy pellets, sintered with several kinds of met-
al materials, mainly used as proppants of fracturing of oil fields. Propellants may be the LPG (Liq-
uefied Petroleum Gas), which consists of a mixture of propane, isobutane and n-butane, also used
in most aerosols.
d. Answers a and c are correct.

84. The best concept for fracturing is:

a. Production can be improved via fracturing, because this stimulation method causes cracks or
fissures in the rocks, and consequently a highly conductive flow path between the reservoir and
the wellbore;
b. Production cannot be improved via well fracturing, because this process breaks or splits the
reservoir rock, to encourage hydrocarbons to flow from the rocks into the well;
c. Production cannot be improved via well fracturing, because this process is not a stimulation
method, since causes cracks or fissures in the rocks;
d. Production can be improved via fracturing, because it is simply a commercial treatment method,
and the development of specialized fluid systems is yet to become a constant research and devel-
opment focus.

85. The non-toxic and non-corrosive liquid (predominantly methane, CH4) that has to be converted
to liquid form, cooled to -162ºC (-260ºF) to shrink the volume of the gas 600 times, making it easier
for storage and transport when pressure is set at around 25 kPa (4 psi), is known as:

a. Bitumen Gas (BG);


b. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG);
c. Raw Natural Gas (RNG);
d. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

86. The organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic
chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, which contain amounts of oil and combus-
tible gas that can be extracted by destructive distillation, is known as:

a. Oil Barrels;
b. Oil Shales;
c. Tar Sands;
d. Crude Oils;

87. The solid hydrocarbon shiny black bitumen, and resembles coal, less soluble in turpentine than
the usual type of mineral asphalt, is currently known as:

a. Petroleum;
b. Paraffin oil;
c. Albertite;
d. Kerogen.

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88. The rigs sometimes called “spudders” raise and drop a drill string with a heavy carbide tipped
bit, which chisels through the rock by finely pulverizing the subsurface materials, is designated as:

a. Drilling jars;
b. Drilling cables;
c. Cable tool rigs;
d. Drilling bailers.

89. The drilling device, or a drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called as
"flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material and the rotation of the
blade causes the material to move out of the hole being drilled, is called as:

a. Cable tool driller;


b. Auger driller;
c. Rotary rig driller;
d. Horse-driven “spudder” driller;
90. Fixed-head bits rotate as one piece and contain no separately moving parts. Use synthetic
diamonds attached to the carbide inserts, 50 times stronger than steel bits. Since their first produc-
tion in 1976, the popularity of bits using these cutters has grown steadily. These descriptions make
references to:

a. Diamond Compact Bits;


b. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Polyvalent Diamond Compact (PDC) bits.

91. The “Tricone™” is:

a. A drill bit that usually consists of two or three cones made up of the hardest of materials (usually
steel, tungsten carbide, and/or synthetic or natural diamonds) and sharp teeth that cut into the rock
and sediment;
b. In 1933, Hughes Tool Company engineers developed advancement to the original Two-Cone Bit
concept with this new designation;
c. Is a three-cone bit that quickly became approved in the oilfields, and today has been developed
with three cones bit had bullet-shaped teeth made of tungsten carbide instead of pointed ones
made of steel;
d. All of the above.

92. In 1899, a very important American pioneer took a contract drill in Coalinga and 1900 he drilled
20 wells in the Kern River oilfields. Who was this important oil driller?

a. Robert Peary;
b. Howard R. Hughes, Jr;
c. Reuben Carlton "Carl" Baker, Sr;
d. Erle Palmer Halliburton.

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93. The advanced technology where a high pressure gas, about 6.9 MPa (1,000 psi)), is used to
accelerate a heavy weight hammer (5,000 kg ~2175 lb) to hit a base plate coupled from a distance
of 2 to 3 m, which is coupled to the ground to generate an acoustic pulse, is known as:

a. Vibroseis Truck;
b. Tovex;
c. Reflection Seismology;
d. Thumper Truck.

94. During critical drilling and direction changes, especially while using a downhole motor, an in-
strument tool is added to the drill string to provide continuously updated measurements and survey
data (inclination and azimuth) of the wellbore. This instrument is designated as:

a. MWD (Measurement While Drilling);


b. Enhanced Oil Recovery;
c. WiMax;
d. Stand Back.

95. “Rotary drilling can be subdivided into rotary cutting and rotary crushing. Rotary cutting creates
the hole by shear forces, breaking the rocks tensile strength. The drill bit is furnished with cutter
inserts of hard alloys, and the energy for breaking rock is provided by rotation torque in the drill
rod. This technique is limited to rock with low tensile strength such as salt, silt and soft limestone
not containing abrasive quartz minerals”. This statement is:

a. True;
b. False.

96. The creation of a detailed record of a borehole by examining the cuttings of rock brought to the
surface by the circulating drilling medium (most commonly drilling mud), is known as:

a. Well Samples Examination;


b. Mud Logging;
c. Measurement While Drilling (MWD);
d. Core Analysis.

97. The stimulation method that involves the injection of chemicals to dissolve rocks, "cleaning up"
the formation, thereby improving the flow of reservoir fluids, is called as:

a. Fracturing;
b. Nitrogen circulation;
c. Acidizing.
d. Single-well alternate completion;

98. What were the most important developments of Mr. Carl Baker in 1907, 1912 and 1923, re-
spectively, then granted as patents?

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a. The offset bit for cable tools drilling; the cement retainer; and the bridge plugs;
b. The Tricone and PDC; the bridge plugs; and the float shoe;
c. Answers a and be are correct;
d. The casing shoe; the cement retainer and bridge plugs; and the float shoe.

99. In 1920 using a new technology of oil well cementing, a process in which cement is forced
down pipe running the length of the well. When dry, the cement secures the pipe into place, pr o-
tecting the flowing oil from water and other contaminants, allowing a driller to regulate the flow.
These descriptions refer to:

a. Erle Palmer Halliburton;


b. Reuben Carlton "Carl" Baker, Sr;
c. Both oil drillers above;
d. Theodore Sutter.

100. Special electronic tools may be in a drill string or on a wireline normally at selected casing
points to evaluate rock properties. The wellbore pressure can also be measured with this method,
and core samples can be obtained with specialized drilling tools or wireline logs. These descrip-
tions refer to:

a. Formation Logging;
b. Well Logging;
c. Mud Logging;
d. All the above.

ANSWERS – GENERAL DRILLING PROCESSES:

1. d 11. a 21. c/d 31. d 41.a 51. d 61. b 71. c 81. a 91. d
2. c 12. b/d 22. b 32. c 42. d 52. d 62. c 72. d 82. c 92. c
3. b 13. a/c 23. b/d 33. d 43. c 53. b 63. a/b 73. c 83. d 93. d
4. b 14. a 24. b/c 34. a 44. c 54. a 64. c/d 74. d 84. a 94. a
5. a 15. c/d 25. b 35. b 45. c 55. a 65. a 75. a 85. b 95. a
6. d 16.b/c/d 26. c 36. a 46. c 56. d 66. a/d 76. c 86. b 96. b
7. b 17. b/c 27. c 37. c 47. a 57. a/c 67. d 77. d 87. c 97. c
8. a/d 18. a 28. c 38. c 48. d 58. a 68. a/d 78. d 88. c 98. d
9. a/b 19. d 29. a 39. d 49. c 59. a/c 69. d 79. b 89. b 99. a
10. c 20. c 30. b 40. d 50. b 60. d 70. c 80. d 90.c 100.d

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V. OFFSHORE DRILLING RIGS – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS): American shipping certifying authority equivalent to Lloyds
in United Kingdom (UK).

Anode: An electrode or an area of material at which a net oxidation or corrosion process takes
place. The anode corrodes by giving up charged positive ions and electrons. Anode also refers to
the positive terminal of the impressed current system from which current is discharged.

Accommodation Module: A part of a production platform, separate from the drilling and produc-
tion areas where the personnel live, or may be on a separate platform connected by a bridge to the
production platform.

Articulated Loading Platform (ALP): Is a type of Single Point Mooring (SPM) consisting of a lat-
tice structure connected to a mooring base by an articulated joint, or any device by means of which
an equipment or vessel may be secured or fastened.

Anchor: A floating production platform held in place by a low tension chain mooring system, and
may be often a converted semi-submersible.

Anchored Structure: A concrete gravity platform with a square cellular caisson and four columns
(30m steel on 112m concrete) made to support the deck. The caisson has steel skirts below, simi-
lar to sea-tank.

Barge: A drilling rig that is placed on a towed barge for shallow inland water, swamp and river ap-
plications to serve specialized duties, such as pipe laying. Many are self-propelled and some are
similar to the semi-submersible design.

Brownfield: An oil or gas accumulation that has matured to a production plateau or even pro-
gressed to a stage of declining production. Operating companies seek to extend the economic
producing life of the field using cost effective, low-risk technologies.

Buoyant Turret Mooring (BTM): A disconnectable turret mooring system consisting of a


disconnectable mooring buoy and a fixed turret structure located in the forepeak of the tanker. The
mooring buoy is fixed to the seabed by catenary anchor legs, supports the crude oil and gas risers
and is connected by means of a structural connector to the fixed turret. The fixed turret extends up
through the tanker, supported on a weathervaning bearing and contains the reconnection winch,
flow lines, control manifolds and fluid swivels located above the main deck.

Breakwater Walls: Walls in splash zone, generally comprising arrays of concrete holes which dis-
sipate waves and thus protect the structure within the wall area.

Bullnose: A bullet shaped plug on the end of a pipeline which allows it to be pushed into and
sealed onto a bell mouthed port (bullport) in the wellhead cellar. It is removed after installation.

Bullport: The receptacle for the bullnose of a flowline in a subsea production system.
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Bury Barge: Vessel used specifically to bury pipelines by towing a bury sled alongside the pipeline
which utilizes its "claw" to bury the pipe.

Caisson: Hollow metal tube descending from the platform into the water for the uptake of water or
the discharging of unwanted products, as oily water or drill cuttings.

Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring: A type of Single Point Mooring (SPM) usually with six anchors
laid radially from the buoy.

Can: A single length of circular section steel tube between two circumferential welds, forming part
of the leg or member of a jacket.

Cellar Deck: Is a lower deck in a production platform, below the drilling deck - usually the first
working level above sea level.

Cathode: An electrode or an area of material at which a net reduction reaction takes place, (e.g.
submerged structures). A cathode receives electrons and is protected from corrosion. (See also
"Cathodic Reaction").

Cathodic Protection (CP): A technique to prevent corrosion and protect a metal structure by
making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. It is based on passing sufficient cathodic current
to a metal surface to cause its anodic dissolution rate to become negligible.

Compressor Station: Generally, gases lose their pressure along distances of pipe. To ensure a
maximum flow of gas along a gas pipeline, pressure boosting compressor stations may be includ-
ed, typically every 70km along the gas pipeline.

Condeep: A concrete gravity platform consisting of a base of dome - roofed storage tanks (typical-
ly 16) with additional cells extending upwards to form legs supporting the deck structure.

Conductor: The first (outside) casing string of a borehole. On a production platform, the conductor
extends from the surface to blow-out preventer and some distance into the bedrock and serves to
protect the riser.

Conductor Guide: A guide through which conductor pipe passes during drilling operations and
which supports it against the action of the sea.

Crane Vessel: A ship-shape vessel or semi-submersible vessel with one or two cranes for lifting
platform modules and structures at sea. The crane hoisting capacities are substantial and range
from 300 to 14,000 tons. Cranes allow for moving the hook-load vertically and horizontally (in a
360° radius). In medium water depths the crane vessel is anchor-moored. In deepwater areas the
vessel is dynamically positioned.

Crude Oil Areas: Mean crude oil tanks, slop tanks, crude oil pump rooms, cofferdams, ballast
space or void spaces to crude oil tanks, as well the deck areas covering all the lengths of the unit.

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Deep Water: More than 300 meters water depth.

Dive Plan: A plan prepared before the start of diving activities to assist the operations and inspec-
tion personnel in different aspects such as safety, access, depth, worksite, equipment and type of
task; to perform the task efficiently.

Dive Crew: Employees at a dive site whose work is related to diving operations; dive supervisors,
divers, tenders and other surface support personnel.

Diver Grades: Diver grades and qualifications have been subject to changes during 1984. Full
details can be found in NUS/AODC/Divers agreement pamphlet "Offshore Divers Grading and Ad-
vancement Scheme".

Diver Inspection Qualifications: Due to the increasing recognition of the importance of underwa-
ter inspection and the need for proper training of those carrying out the inspection, many compa-
nies have introduced a specialized underwater inspection qualification. The most common is the
CSWIP qualification, which has two grades 3.1U and 3.2U. (See the Weld Inspection Section "In-
spector Qualifications").

Drillship: A ship-shape vessel for drilling and completing wells in medium to deepwater applica-
tions or may be a custom-built vessel or converted for drilling. Generally, it has a drilling derrick
over a central moon pool and a dynamic positioning to maintain the correct location. Typically it
may drill in depths over 1500 m.

Dry Tree Unit (DTU): A floating facility carrying surface completed wells, i.e. the Xmas trees are
located above the surface of the sea, on the floater, as opposed to the seabed. The rigid pipes
(tubing, casing etc.) that link the trees to the wells require high tension to avoid buckling. The DTU
is therefore under constant tension to compensate for the heave motion of the floater. Generally, a
DTU also carries basic drilling equipment to allow downhole intervention on a tender assist mode.
It can also feature full drilling capability.

Dynamic Positioning (DP): A station keeping system for floating units which uses thrusters to
compensate wind, wave and current forces in a dynamic controlled mode to keep the ship or a
mobile platform on a predetermined location and heading at sea.

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): The total weight of cargo, fuel, fresh water, stores and crew that a
ship can carry when immersed to her load line.

Exposed Location Single Buoy Mooring (ELSBM): The mooring and cargo loading hose are
stored on drums when the berth is unoccupied.

Fixed Offshore Installation: A fixed structure located offshore in shallow or deep water supported
by the sea bed soils and not connected structurally to land.

Flare Boom: A steel structure at the end of which unwanted gas can be burnt off safely.

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Flash Gas: The gas that is separated from the oil flow at the low or medium pressure separators
(2nd stage separation).

Floating Loading Platform (FLP): Basically the same as an ALP, but anchored to the seabed
with a catenary mooring system.

Floating Storage Unit (FSU): A floating unit (converted tanker) connected to a permanent moor-
ing system for the continuous storage of produced oil.

Flow Assurance: A number of design and operational measures to ensure that liquids in
deepwater flowlines between the well and the production platform (or FPSO) are kept flowing and
do not get blocked by hydrate formation, wax deposits or other obstructions.

Flowline Bundle: A gathered system of flowlines, cables, umbilicals etc. running from a group of
wells or manifold.

Flowmeter: A measuring device inserted into a fluid path of calibrated diameter to monitor the fluid
flow past the point in gallons per minute (or barrels per day).

Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO): An FPSO is a floating facility installed
above or close to an offshore oil and/or gas field to receive, process, store and export hydrocar-
bons. The cargo capacity of the vessel is used as buffer storage for the oil produced. The process
facilities (topsides) and accommodation are installed on the floater. The mooring configuration may
be of the spread mooring type or a single point mooring system, generally a turret.

Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading system (FPDSO): An FPSO with capa-
bility to drill, complete and workover wells from this facility. The FPDSO is designed to receive and
process the production stream from several subsea completed wells and is capable of drilling and
intervention on one well while production continues to flow from the others.

Floating Storage and Re-gasification Unit (FSRU): A floating vessel that is permanently moored
at a site where it can receive LNG from carriers, store and re-gasify the LNG and send it as natural
gas to shore via a subsea pipeline at a rate required by the natural gas users.

Gravity Structure: A steel reinforced concrete, or concrete and steel hybrid, structure supported
directly on the seabed, by its own weight, without pile foundations but provided with a shear key
skirt. This system often has large storage tanks at its base, with one to four columns supporting
the deck.

Helideck: Is an area made with a strong structure platform, designed to permit helicopter landings
on offshore drilling rigs or ships.

Header or Manifold: System of pipework used as a gathering and distribution point.

Holiday: A relatively small discontinuity of paint or coating that exposes the substrate metal sur-
face to the environment.
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Impressed Current: A current introduced to steel or a steel and noble metal galvanic cell to re-
verse the polarity of the two electrodes and ensure protection of the steel from corrosion.

Impressed Current Anode: Is an element of noble metal, typically coated in platinum, used as the
positive electrode in a cathodic protection system. The platform steel becomes the cathode but
only when the current, supplied from a platform DC power source, is passed between them to re-
verse their original polarities.

Instrument Pig: Pig designed to record irregularities and obstructions inside pipeline. Used to
survey newly installed pipeline, or inspect existing pipelines for damage.

Jacket: The supporting structure of a steel production platform, made up of legs, members and
guide frames. The term "jacket" originally applied to steel platforms piled through the legs (which
then formed a jacket around the pile} but is now used loosely for the supporting structure of any
steel platform.

Jack-up Rig: A drilling barge fitted with extendable legs. At the drill site the legs are lowered to the
seabed and the barge jacks itself up till it is clear of the water. It may be used in shallow water
down to 60 m (20 ft).

Jarlan Wall: A patented design of concrete breakwater wall, consisting of a perforated wall with an
enclosed hollow wave chamber behind. The holes in the wall are referred to as "Jarlan Holes".

"J" Tube: Is a curved tubular conduit installed on a platform to support and guide one or more
pipeline risers and cables, hydraulic control lines, electric cables, etc.

Jet Sled: Used from a bury barge to bury pipelines. Tubular steel sled towed by a trenching barge
and equipped with water jets and airlifts to excavate the trench and bury the pipeline.

Lazy "S": A submarine hose system in which the correct configuration is obtained by adjusting the
buoyancy of the tanks or by submarine floats.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): Oilfield or naturally occurring gas, chiefly methane, liquefied for
transport purposes.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): Light hydrocarbon material, gaseous at atmospheric tempera-
ture and pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport, and handling.
Commercial liquefied gas consists essentially of either propane or butane, or mixtures thereof.

Liquefied Natural Gas Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (LNG FPSO): Is a floating
facility installed above or close to an offshore gas field in order to receive, process, liquefy, store
and export natural gas. It consists of a purpose-built floater containing LNG storage tanks with
process facilities, gas treatment, liquefaction train(s) and an accommodation block on the deck,
permanently moored to the seabed by a turret-type mooring system. The process facility, located
on the deck, separates the fluid in gas, condensate and water. The water is treated to eliminate

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any remaining hydrocarbons and discharged overboard. The condensate is treated and stored in
separate crude oil tanks.

Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP): Is the upper section of a two-section subsea BOP stack
consisting of a hydraulic connector, annular BOP, flex joint, riser adapter, jumper hoses for the
choke, kill and auxiliary lines, and subsea control pods. (ISO 13624-1:2009).

Mobile Offshore Production Unit (MOPU): Is a movable, reusable structure, as a converted jack-
up drilling rig, carrying oil, gas and water separation equipment integrated with an oil storage tank
on the seabed with oil storage capacity. The produced fluids from the well are delivered via dry
tree wellheads on the platform. After treatment, the stabilized crude is stored in a storage tank on
the seabed, and subsequently transferred into shuttle tankers via a subsea tanker loading system.

Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU): Is a semi-submersible rig or a stable platform for offshore
oil and gas drilling, towed into position by a tugboat and anchored, or moved by and kept in posi-
tion by their own azimuth thrusters through dynamic positioning.

Pedestal Crane: Is a large, swiveling crane mounted on a platform or ship and used for general
purposes.

Pig: A cylindrical or spherical device which travels along a pipeline with the fluid flow or under its
own power for cleaning and inspection. The name comes from the squealing sound the pig makes
in operation.

Pig Launcher Receiver: A parallel branch of a pipeline and associated machinery for the purpose
of launching and/or receiving pigs, often called the pig trap.

pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in an electrolyte giving an indication
of acidity, neutrality or alkalinity. The pH scale is such that:

pH = 7 Neutral environment (pure water);


pH = between 0 and 7 = Acidic environment;
pH = between 7 and 14 = Alkaline environment.

Piled Structure: A jacket constructed from tubular steel, secured by tubular steel piles driven into
the seabed around the legs. The pile-guide is short steel cylinder (with an open cone uppermost)
in which the pile is supported while it is driven into the seabed. Pile guides are mounted in clusters
around each leg at three or more levels. It is often removed on completion of the piling operations.

Pipe-lay Barge: Self-contained pipeline installation vessel, used for welding and laying underwater
pipelines. It may be a barge or semi-submersible, maneuvered by a multiple anchor system and
equipped with a diving system, helideck, welding and bitumen-coating equipment. In medium wa-
ter depths the pipe-lay barge is commonly anchor-moored. In deepwater areas the barge is dy-
namically positioned.

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Pile Sleeve: A steel cylinder attached to the bottom of a jacket leg, which holds the top of a pile
after it has been driven into the seabed. Pile sleeves are mounted through shear plates to form an
integral part of the structure in clusters around the bottom of each leg.

Pitting: Is a form of corrosion where the metal under attack suffers metal loss at localized areas.
The corrosion rate in those areas is many times greater than the average corrosion rate over the
entire surface. Pits act as stress raisers and can lead to sudden failures.

Rabbit: Small plug or pig which is forced through the pipeline to test for, or clear restrictions such
as dents or foreign bodies.

Reel Barge: Is a self-contained pipeline installation vessel specifically designed to accommodate


the use of large spools of line pipe. These reduce the offshore welding required allowing pipelines
to be laid very quickly.

Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV): Is a tethered underwater robot which has been designed to
perform unmanned installation tasks or inspection in deepwater environments, commonly linked to
the installation vessel by an umbilical cable. Electrical power, video and data signals are trans-
ferred via the umbilical between the operator and the vehicle. High power applications will often
use hydraulics in addition to electrical cabling. Most ROVs are equipped with at least a video cam-
era and lights. Additional equipment is added to expand the vehicle’s capabilities.

Retrofit Anode: Sacrificial anode fitted to a pipeline or platform after installation to provide corro-
sion protection.

Riser: Is a section of a pipeline that provides a temporary extension of a subsea oil well to a surfa-
ce drilling platform, categorized into two types; marine drilling risers used with subsea blowout pre-
venters (BOPs), generally used by floating drilling vessels; and tie-back drilling risers used with a
surface BOP. Production risers carry oil or gas up from the wellhead, while export risers use pipe-
lines to take the processed oil or gas to other units.

Riser Turret Mooring (RTM): A disconnectable riser turret mooring system comprises a
disconnectable riser column and a fixed arm which is attached to the bow of the tanker. The riser
column is fixed to the seabed by catenary anchor legs, supports the crude oil and gas risers and is
connected by means of a structural connector to the fixed arm, located on the bow of the tanker
with a weathervaning bearing, reconnection winch, flow lines, control manifolds and fluid swivels.

Sacrificial Anode: A section of metal more active than steel Which is placed in contact with an
underwater steel jacket to protect the structure from corrosion. Zinc and aluminium alloys are
commonly used offshore. A current flows from the anode to the steel, so that the steel becomes
cathodic. Corrosion only takes place at the anode.

Semi-Submersible Crane Vessel (SSCV): Is a semi-submersible crane platform, which consists


of two lower hulls (pontoons), three columns on each pontoon and an upper hull. During lifting
operations, the vessel is ballasted down, as the lower hull is submerged. With this high stability is
possible to lift extremely high loads safely.
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Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM): Employed as an unmanned tanker loading or discharge
terminal with multiple fluid transfer circuits, highly elastic over a very wide range of water depths.
This inherent elasticity enables cargo transfer operations to continue under adverse weather and
sea-state conditions.

Single Anchor Leg Storage (SALS): A mooring system developed for the first FPSO (Shell’s
“Castellon”). It consists of a base, a riser and a yoke with a buoyancy tank which creates the ten-
sion in the riser, thus providing the restoring force.

Single Buoy Storage (SBS): A system which basically consists of a CALM buoy and a rigid arm
(instead of a mooring hawser) hinged to an FPSO or an FSO vessel. The system was developed
to permanently moor a vessel offshore, and to survive the 100 year storm.

Subsea Safety Valve: A failsafe gate valve operated remotely. It is normally included with the
B.O.P. or production tree arrangement.

Steel Catenary Riser (SCR): A steel pipe hung in a catenary configuration from a floating vessel
in deep water to transmit flow to or from the sea floor.

Satellite Wells: Secondary wells drilled away from the production platform from which feeder lines
carry the oil to an underwater manifold or directly to the platform.

Sea Tank: A concrete gravity platform consisting of a square cellular caisson with 2-4 columns
supporting a steel deck.

Semi-Submersible Rig: A mobile service installation (usually self-propelled) mounted on sub-


merged buoyant pontoons. It maintains position with several large anchors or dynamic positioning.
It can work all year round in depths of up to 300m.

Single Point Mooring (SPM): Used for loading oil into tankers in the open sea. It allows the tanker
to take position so as to present the least resistance to the prevailing conditions. Types include:

ALP: Articulated Loading Platform;


CALM: Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring;
ELSBM: Exposed Location Single Buoy Mooring;
SALM: Single Anchor Leg Mooring;
SPMT: Single Point Mooring Tower.

Spar: Is a type of SPM incorporating storage facilities so that production need not be shut off if bad
weather prevents tanker loading, or a deep-draft cylindrical and vertical floating production unit
(single column). This facility, although not heave-restrained, can accommodate surface completed
wellheads.

Splash Zone: The zone of a structure or pipeline which is alternately in and out of water, due to
the influence of tidal action, winds, and waves. That part of the structure between the crest level of

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the fifty year wave, superimposed on the level of the highest astronomical tide and 10 meters be-
low the level of the lowest astronomical tide.

Spool: Large reel holding a long length of small diameter line pipe. Used on reel barges, the pipe
is simply reeled off into the water. The longer pipe lengths used reduce the welding required off-
shore, hence speeding up the whole operation.

Spool Piece: The section of pipeline between a riser and its associated seabed pipeline. It is fab-
ricated specifically to the required size and shape, from measurements supplied by divers inspect-
ing the riser and the pipeline.

Spread Mooring: In the case of a spread moored FPSO/FSO, the tanker or process barge is
moored in a fixed heading with anchor lines distributed over the bow and stern of the vessel to
anchor points situated on the seabed. The heading is determined by the prevailing sea and weath-
er conditions. The spread moored FPSO/FSO can only be used on locations where currents,
waves and winds are very moderate or normally come from a prevailing direction.

Stinger: Is an articulated ramp used off the stern of a lay barge as a catenary support for the pipe
being laid, and can be altered using variable buoyancy units along the length of the stinger.

Submerged Zone: Is the zone of a structure that extends downward from the lower boundary of
the splash zone and includes a portion below the mudline.

Surf Zone: That portion of the pipeline which may be subject to breaking wave action, where it
crosses the beach at its onshore end.

Subsea Well Template: Structure placed on the seabed through which production wells are drilled
by a jack-up or semi-submersible drilling rig.

Tension Leg Platform (TLP): A particular type of anchored structure consisting of a floating plat-
form moored by hollow, steel tension legs to foundation templates on the seabed. Each leg is held
in tension eliminating rolling, but allowing some surge, swaying and yaw.

Tie-in: To make the final connection in a new branch pipeline. Is an operation in pipeline construc-
tion in which two sections of a pipeline are connected in a loop of the main line or a trunk line.

Umbilical: Insulated cable carrying current from surface transformer to the underwater unit.

Underwater Inspection: To examine the submerged parts of installations to ensure that the integ-
rity of installations are maintained during their operational life.

Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC): Oil transportation vessel from 200,000 to 320,000 DWT.

Weathervaning: Freely rotate in any direction, in accordance with the prevailing environmental
conditions.

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VI. OFFSHORE DRILLING PROCESSES - MULTIPLE CHOICE:

1. Offshore operations are conducted using all of the following structures or equipment except:

a. Tension Leg;
b. Jackups;
c. Semisubmersibles;
d. Geophones.

2. The main function of PSVs (Platform Supply Vessels) is:

a. To be summoned when something is going wrong, as when a search and rescue operation is
required;
b. To handle anchors for oil rigs, tow them to location, anchor them up, and in a few cases, serve
as an Emergency Rescue;
c. To be operated remotely under normal conditions, only to be visited occasionally for routine
maintenance or well work;
d. Keep the platforms provisioned and supplied.

3. Drilling rigs that can be jacked up, much like jacks, above the sea using legs that can be low-
ered, or mobile platforms used for more shallow and non-permanent oil storage, can be moved
around, towed into position by a tugboat and anchored, and kept in position by their own azimuth
thrusters with dynamic positioning, are designated as:

a. Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs);


b. Compliant Tower Rigs;
c. Jack-up Rigs or MODUs;
d. Concrete Caisson.

4. A Spar is:

a. Designed for very long term use (for instance the Hibernia platform) as various types of con-
struction structures are used, steel jacket, concrete caisson, floating steel and even floating con-
crete;
b. A type of offshore floating oil platform, which consists of a large-diameter, or a single verti-
cal submersed cylinder, supporting a topside deck;
c. Typically used in very deep waters, used as buoys in shipping that are moored in place vertical-
ly, and anchored to the seabed by way of a spread mooring system with either a chain-wire-chain
or chain-polyester-chain composition;
d. Answers b and c are correct.

5. What is the difference between a Semi-Submersible Drilling Rigs and a Drillship?

a. Semi-Submersible Drilling Rig is a merchant vessel designed for use in exploratory offshore
drilling of new oil and gas wells or for scientific drilling purposes, used as a platform to carry out
well maintenance or completion work, such as, casing and tubing installation, subsea tree installa-
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tions and well capping. Drillship is a marine vessel used in various specific offshore roles, such as,
offshore drilling rigs, safety vessels, oil production platforms, and heavy lift cranes, which may be
transformed, from a deep to a shallow draft, removing ballast water from the hull, and become a
surface vessel;
b. Semi-Submersible Drilling Rig is a marine vessel used in various specific offshore roles, such
as, offshore drilling rigs, safety vessels, oil production platforms, and heavy lift cranes, which may
be transformed, from a deep to a shallow draft, removing ballast water from the hull, and become a
surface vessel. Drillship is a merchant vessel designed for use in exploratory offshore drilling of
new oil and gas wells or for scientific drilling purposes, and can also be used as a platform to carry
out well maintenance or completion work, such as, casing and tubing installation, subsea tree in-
stallations and well capping;
c. Semi-Submersible Drilling Rig is a marine vessel used in various specific offshore roles, such
as, offshore drilling rigs, safety vessels, oil production platforms, for use in exploratory offshore
drilling to carry out well maintenance or completion work, such as, casing and tubing installation,
subsea tree installations and well capping. Drillship is a merchant vessel designed for use in ex-
ploratory offshore drilling of new oil and gas wells or for scientific drilling purposes, which may be
transformed from a deep to a shallow draft, removing ballast water from the hull, to become a sur-
face vessel;
d. Answers b and c are correct.

6. The “moon pool” is:

a. A common borehole in shale reservoirs because it allows drillers to place the drill bits in contact
with the most productive reservoir rock;
b. An opening on the base of the hull and depending on the mission of the vessel, drilling
equipment, small submersible crafts and professional subsea diver men may pass through;
c. The use of data configurations and Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) instruments to measure the
path of the wellbore in three-dimensional space;
d. Answers b and c are correct.

7. Drilling, typically carried out in order to explore and subsequently extract petroleum, which lies in
rock formations beneath the seabed, is known as:

a. Subsea drilling;
b. Offshore drilling;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Onshore drilling.

8. Seismic surveys are:

a. A way to probe beneath the surface to "see" underlying features that make up the underground
structure of a prospect;
b. Give precise information about subsurface features and even the presence of water, oil and gas;
c. Conducted using specially-equipped vessels that tow one or more cables containing a series of
hydrophones at constant intervals;
d. All the above.
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9. The activity concerned with exploration, foundation design, construction, performance, mainte-
nance, and decommissioning for human-made structures in the sea, such as, oil plat-
forms, artificial islands and submarine pipelines, is known as:

a. Offshore Geotechnical Engineering;


b. Spectral Noise Logging;
c. Stranded Gas Reserve;
d. Boomer Seismic Sources.

10. The subsea drilling template is:

a. Used to connect the underwater drilling equipment to the drilling platform;


b. Installed in the seabed (or underwater floor) by first excavating a shallow hole and then cement-
ing the template into the hole;
c. A stable guide for accurate drilling while allowing for movement in the overhead platform due to
wave and wind action;
d. All of the above.

11. What type of offshore drilling rigs according to water depth and conditions of the sea state and
winds at water depth from 20 m to 2000 m and water depth from 500 m to 3000 m, respectively,
can be chosen as a guideline?

a. Anchored drillships or semisubmersible rigs; and drillships or semisubmersible with dynamic


positioning;
b. Tender or jack-up assisted platforms; and anchored drillships or semisubmersible rigs;
c. Jack-up rigs; and drillships with dynamic positioning system;
d. All of the above.

12. The system which automatically controls a vessel or a ship to maintain her position and head-
ing exclusively by means of an active thrust, is known as:

a. Dynamic Positioning;
b. Slim Riser;
c. Azimuth;
d. Thruster.

13. An azimuth thruster is:

a. A unit system able to generate an automatic thrust in any direction;


b. Fitted to provide the desired maneuverability, or sometimes as a substitute for the main ship
propellers;
c. The vector from an observer (origin) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a
reference plane;
d. Answers a and b are correct.

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14. The subsea valve intended as a last-resort method of protecting the surface from the uncon-
trolled release of hydrocarbons. It is a cylindrical valve with either a ball or flapper closing mecha-
nism. This safety device is known as:

a. Kick Valve;
b. Surface-Controlled, Sub-surface Safety Valve (SCSSV);
c. Downhole Safety Valve (DHSV);
d. Wellhead valve;

15. Subsea cables that supplies required consumables to offshore equipment, supply air and pow-
er to a hydraulic pressure assembly, electrical power and fiber optics to any subsea apparatus and
are deployed on the seabed (ocean floor), connected on platforms, to supply necessary control,
energy (electric, hydraulic) and chemicals to oil & gas wells, are commonly known as:

a. Dual subsea trees;


b. Subsea controls;
c. Subsea umbilicals;
d. Coiled tubings.

16. Subsea umbilicals tied to floating systems, specifically designed to connect to the closest point
between the center tap of the subsea isolation transformer and the protective conductor, with a
combination of sophisticated hardware and advanced software algorithms, are known as:

a. Subsea Distribution Units (SDUs;


b. Umbilical Monitoring Devices (UMDs);
c. Umbilical Termination Assembly (UTA);
d. Drilling umbilicals.

17. Deployed systems suitable for use with digital or analogue communication, telecoms, water
treatment, oil & gas, petrochemical and general industries, to carry data signals. The signals can
be for movement, time, measurement, alarm, pressure, temperature or voice, using a variety of
transducers such as, pressure, proximity, analogic and digital instruments. These descriptions are
specific to:

a. Subsea manifolds;
b. Instrumentation cables;
c. Flying leads;
d. Drill Strings.

18. ROV´s (Remotely Operated Vehicles) are:

a. Underwater vehicles that are totally controlled by an operator, who is not inside the vehicle;
b. Vehicles operated by radio control, or through a cable or line connecting the vehicle to the oper-
ator’s control board;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Robotic vehicles that can drift, or glide on the water surface.
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19. A gas flare is:

a. A gas combustion device used in industrial plants, such as petroleum refineries, chemical
plants, natural gas processing plants, and offshore oil and gas rigs;
b. The controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Is a truss structure, which carries pipeline to connect the ship well test pipeline to a gas burner.

20. A two-way satellite ground station or a stabilized maritime antenna in a dish form, used to
transmit narrowband data (Radio-Frequency Identification - RFID, SCADA, etc.), and access satel-
lites in geosynchronous orbit to establish data from small remote earth stations to other terminals,
is specifically described as:

a. Portable Satellites BGAN;


b. Thuraya;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT).

21. MODU (Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit) is defined as:

a. An offshore platform capable of engaging in drilling operation for either the exploration or exploi-
tation of oil and gas resources, designed for operation afloat or supported on seabed, and usually
acts as an exploratory drilling rig;
b. An offshore platform that can be towed into position by a tugboat and anchored, or moved by
and kept in position by their own azimuth thrusters with a dynamic positioning system;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. A drilling platform and derrick that are located in the middle of a large, open area of the ship,
and the drill is extended through the ship to the drilling template.

22. A self-elevating unit, which is a type of mobile platform that consists of a buoyant hull fitted with
a number of movable legs, capable of raising its hull over the surface of the sea, refers to:

a. Jackup rigs;
b. Drilling barge;
c. Drillship;
d. The answers a and b are correct.

23. Platforms that float on the ocean surface on top of huge, submerged pontoons and some have
propulsion systems, which allow them to navigate to drilling sites under their own power while oth-
ers require a second vessel to tow them to the right location. Most use several anchors, up to a
dozen, that help maintain the structure's orientation. These concepts refer specifically to:

a. Submersible rigs;
b. Mobile Offshore Drilling Units;
c. Semisubmersible rigs;
d. Drillships.
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24. Large ships designed for offshore drilling operations that commonly have a drilling rig on the
top deck, to operate in deepwater, built on traditional ship hulls, such as used for supertankers or
cargo ships, and can also be a merchant vessel designed for use in exploratory offshore drilling,
are generally known as:

a. Offshore drilling rigs;


b. Drillships;
c. Semisubmersible rigs;
d. Mooring drilling rigs.

25. When the drilling vessel combines taut lines and catenary lines in one system, is known as:

a. Spread System;
b. Semi-Taut System;
c. Mooring System;
d. Answers b and c are correct.

26. Ballasting can be defined as:

a. Is the controlled flooding of compartments or tanks, to alter a vessel's draft, and change the
center of gravity or unequal balance by weight distribution;
b. A system that consists of a network of piping, valves, and pumps under the control of a comput-
erized system;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. A system that provides the main propulsion, in combination with the main propellers.

27. The stability of a floating offshore drilling vessel is, first of all, a matter of the hull design, moor-
ing system and weight distribution, is known as:

a. Metacenter;
b. Controlled Flooding;
b. Rudder System;
d. Answer b and c are correct.

28. The Floating Spar Platform, called simply as spar, is:

a. A type of offshore floating platform, which consists of a large-diameter, or a single vertical sub-
mersed cylinder, supporting a topside deck;
b. Typically used in very deep waters, used as buoys in shipping that are moored in place vertical-
ly, and anchored to the seabed by way of a spread mooring system with either a chain-wire-chain
or chain-polyester-chain composition;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Another driving system on a drilling rig, used to rotate the drill string during the drilling process,
instead of using the traditional Kelly and the rotary table driving system.

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29. “The basic design encompasses a ship-shaped vessel, with topsides processing equipment on
the vessel's deck, and hydrocarbon or crude oil storage below, in the double hull. Once linked by
subsea wells, hydrocarbons are transmitted through flowlines and umbilical connections to risers,
which transport the oil and gas from the seafloor to the vessel's turret”. Typical descriptions for:

a. FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) system;


b. Floating Production System (FPS);
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Troll-A Platform.

30. TLPs are:

a. Floating platforms tethered to the seabed in a manner that eliminates vertical movement of the
structure, with columns that are supported and connected by pontoons, similar to the design of a
semi-submersible production platform;
b. Typical production platforms, consisting of a deck that houses the drilling and production equip-
ment, as well as, the power module and the living quarters;
c. Rigs that can drill, anywhere, from 200 to 1,200 meters (660 to 3,940 feet) below the surface;
d. All the above.

31. Water for reservoirs injection has to be of high quality, as scaling and souring can occur due:

a. The water containing oxygen and sulphate is mixed, reducing produced hydrocarbons process;
b. Sulfate-reducing bacteria can contaminate the seabed wellbore, producing hydrogen sulfite;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Unwanted salts and other compounds that may improve the performance of the fracturing fluid.

32. “A compact, high-power system is now being used to prevent the transit of a wide variety of
organisms across the globe, in ballast water carried by ships. Ballast water is taken on board in
ports of supplies, to maintain stability when the vessel is not laden, and it is discharged when the
vessel takes on a new cargo”. These descriptions refer to:

a. H2S Stripping;
b. Ultraviolet (UV) Treatment;
c. Thermal Distillation Desalination;
d. Multi-Stage Flash Distillation.

33. What is Reverse Osmosis and how is processed?

a. A process used to desalinate water or to convert brackish or seawater to drinking water;


b. The phenomenon of osmosis occurs when pure water flows from a higher concentrated saline
solution through a semi-permeable membrane, placed between two compartments;
c. This process occurs when the semi-permeable membrane allows pure water to be filtered to
either side, but salts cannot pass through it;
d. All the above.

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34. “Mobile systems employing advanced pretreatment, allowing ultrafiltration to pre-treat high-
pressure nanofiltration membrane systems, offer much higher recovery of water compared to re-
verse osmosis desalination. As a non-core capability for oil producers, water treatment is often
considered the weak link in oil production, in both upstream and downstream operations”. These
descriptions make references to:

a. Offshore Water Management;


b. Water Recycling;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Low-Temperature Thermal Desalination.

35. How is produced the power supply to offshore rigs and how is used in FPSOs?

a. Generally produced from generators powered by gas turbines, or sometimes occasionally by


diesel engines;
b. Electrical power from the on-board generating plant is fed to medium and low-voltage networks
to FPSOs, using transformers and distribution switchgears, with safety-critical services, backed by
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, including emergency shutdown (ESD) and fire and
gas (F&G) detection and control;
c. The main part of the electricity is consumed by electric motors, and another part is consumed by
electric heating, lighting, comfort heating and auxiliary equipment;
d. All the above.

36. PowerBuoys are:

a. Sea moored, ocean “smart” buoys that can gather energy from waves and could be an efficient
and economic means of supplying electric power for various offshore oil and gas operations, in-
cluding well trees, monitoring systems, and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs);
b. Power generated systems. When sea waves cause the PowerBuoy coil to move up and down
relative to a fixed magnetic shaft, the voltage is induced and electricity is generated;
c. Sea wave electricity generators. Each buoy could potentially produce 250 kilowatts of power,
and this technology can be scaled up or down to suit a variety of energy needs;
d. All the above.

37. What is the most important method first recommended in firefighting?

a. The most important method to limit fire damage to structures from a blowout fire, is water and
has been the first means of fighting fire, and is still one of the best weapons;
b. Water is very important to use in blowout firefighting, not to extinguish the fire, but to cool parts
and equipment and allow men to work near the fire;
c. Water is very important as the liquid alone has extinguished some of the largest blowout fires,
once flow was directed vertically by firefighters;
d. All of the above.

38. A crude oil sample with a sulfur content of 1.6% will be classified as what?

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a. Sweet crude;
b. Light crude;
c. Sour crude;
d. Heavy crude.

39. What would a petroleum company determine using the Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE) calcula-
tion?

a. The distillate yield from refining a barrel of oil;


b. The amount of energy contained in a volume of crude oil relative to a volume of natural gas;
c. The value of crude oil samples collected from different reservoirs;
d. The volume of fuel a crude oil tanker will use during a cargo transit.

40. What is an interface?

a. The zone between two different products in a pipeline;


b. Pay at the pump technology;
c. The space between grains of sand in a formation;
d. The zone between two hydrocarbon layers.

41. How cold must LNG be kept for waterborne transportation?

a. -150º F;
b. -259º F;
c. -212º F;
d. -174º F.

42. The controlled burning or released directly to the atmosphere of natural gas in the course of
routine oil and gas production operations, is called as:

a. Flaring system;
b. Venting system;
c. The answers a and b are correct;
d. Discharge system.

43. The water treatment that utilizes a modified poly-acrylonitrile chemistry developed to be ex-
tremely oil-phobic and thus resistant to free-oil fouling is designated as:

a. Ultrafiltration;
b. Electrocoagulation;
c. Flocculation Magnetic Separation;
d. Produced water.

44. An important process used to desalinate water or to convert brackish or seawater to drinking
water, using a semipermeable membrane, is:

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a. Nanofiltration membranes;
b. Ultrafiltration;
c. Electrocoagulation
d. Reverse Osmosis.

45. SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute), refers to:

a. Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level = 14.7 psi abs, Temperature = 60°F (15.6°C), Relative Hu-
midity = 0% (dry);
b. Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level = 1.033 kg/cm² abs.), Temperature = 273°K (0ºC), Relative
Humidity = 0% (dry);
c. Relative Humidity;
d. Head of Water Column.

46. The system used to communicate to a remote central host system via radio communication,
also referred to as a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is designated as:

a. Central Control Room (CCR);


b. Industrial Control System (ICS);
c. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs);
d. Human-Machine Interfaces.

47. The system that consists of several instrumentations and products and provides communica-
tion between subsea controls and topside controls for all equipment via umbilicals risers, connec-
tions, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic and automation network system, is known as:

a. Subsea Field Architecture (SFA);


b. Subsea Distribution System (SDS);
c. Distributed Control Systems (DCS);
d. Industrial Control System (ICS).

48. The system that has the main function to distribute hydraulics, chemicals, electrical power and
communication signals around the field, between the various parts of the network equipment (e.g.
trees, manifolds, etc.), is known as:

a. Flying Leads;
b. ModPod;
c. Umbilical Termination Assembly (UTA);
d. Umbilical Monitoring Devices (UMDs).

49. The relative rotational movements between risers and platform use flex joints, stress joints,
and pull tubes to offset the movement. Are common methods of attaching an offshore pipeline to a
deep water floating oil production platform. These assertions are linked to:

a. Hydraulic Flying Leads (HFLs);


b. Multiple Quick Connectors (MQCs);
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c. Steel Catenary Riser (SCR);


d. Top Tensioned Risers (TTRs).

50. Drilling, typically carried out in order to explore and subsequently extract petroleum, which lies
in rock formations beneath the seabed, is known as:

a. Subsea drilling;
b. Offshore drilling;
c. Answers a and b are correct;
d. Onshore drilling.

51. “BGAN terminals do not require an external power source for idle operation with an average of
36 hours per charged battery. This system is an invaluable communications tool to thousands of
professionals and organizations worldwide, such as, industries, mobile offices, emergency, climate
change, oil & gas, etc.” This statement is:

a. True;
b. False.

52. “Are suitable for use with digital or analogue communication, telecoms, water treatment, oil &
gas, petrochemical and general industries, to carry data signals. The signals can be for movement,
time, measurement, temperature, pressure, alarm or voice, using a variety of transducers such as,
pressure, proximity, analogic and digital instruments”. These concepts refer to:

a. Bus cables;
b. Instrumentation cables;
c. Subsea umbilicals;
d. Optical fiber cables.

53. What can be a frequent cause of a well fire?

a. Human actions, such as accidents, arson, or natural events, such as lightning;


b. A high-pressure blowout during drilling operations;
c. Oil field spills;
d. All the above.

54. “The topside is the same as a typical production platform, consisting of a deck that houses the
drilling and production equipment, as well as, the power module and the living quarters. These rigs
can drill, anywhere, from 200 to 1,200 meters (660 to 3,940 feet) below the surface”. This descrip-
tion refers to:

a. Condeep Platforms;
b. Satellite Platforms;
c. Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs);
d. Gravity-Based Structure (GBS).

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55. The main function of PSVs (Platform Supply Vessels) is:

a. To be summoned when something is going wrong, as when a search and rescue operation is
required;
b. To handle anchors for oil rigs, tow them to location, anchor them up, and in a few cases, serve
as an Emergency Rescue;
c. To be operated remotely under normal conditions, only to be visited occasionally for routine
maintenance or well work;
d. Keep the platforms provisioned and supplied.

56. “The basic design encompasses a ship-shaped vessel, with processing equipment, or top-
sides, aboard the vessel's deck and hydrocarbon or crude oil storage below in the double hull”.
This concept refers exclusively to:

a. FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading;


b. FPS (Floating Production Systems);
c. FSU (Floating Storage Unit);
d. FSO (Floating Storage and Offloading).

57. Instruments that combined measure and record motions of the ground, including seismic
waves generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other seismic sources, are known as:

a. Geophones and hydrophones;


b. Ocean Bottom Cables and Marine Survey 4D;
c. Seismometers and seismographs;
d. Streamers and 2D surveys.

58. The world’s deepest offshore oil-drilling platform sits in how many feet of water?

a) 5,280 feet (1mile);


b) 6,600 feet (1.25 miles);
c) 8,000 feet (1.5 miles);
d. None of the above.

59. The product that refers to the hydrocarbon liquid, which is separated from the well stream fluid,
and can be stabilized, stored and exported as a high value liquid product, is designated as:

a. Condensate;
b. Nitrogen;
c. Oxygen;
d. Cryogenic.

60. Crane vessel is a ship-shape vessel or semi-submersible vessel with one or two cranes for
lifting platform modules and structures at sea.

a. True;
b. False.
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ANSWERS – OFFSHORE PROCESSES:

1. d 11. a 21. c 31. c 41. b 51. a


2. d 12. a 22. a 32. b 42. c 52. b
3. c 13. d 23. c 33. d 43. a 53. d
4. d 14. c 24. b 34. c 44. d 54. c
5. b 15. c 25. d 35. d 45. a 55. d
6. b 16. b 26. c 36. d 46. c 56. a
7. c 17. b 27. a 37. d 47. b 57. c
8. d 18. c 28. c 38. c 48. a 58. c
9. a 19. c 29. c 39. b 49. c 59. a
10. d 20. d 30. d 40. a 50. c 60. a

VII. REFINERY PROCESSES – BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:

Alkylate: Is the product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product, used
in blending high octane gasoline.

Alkylation Unit: Is a refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons
(e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an
acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, is an isoparaffin that
has high-octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock
value of the fuel.

Amine Treatment: Is a process to remove the sulfur-containing and other undesirable compounds
from acid gas by contacting the gas with amine. The amine absorbs H2S and other compounds,
and the “rich” amine is then regenerated by steam stripping to produce regenerated or “lean”
amine, along with an acid gas with a higher H2S concentration, which is then usually processed by
the Claus process to convert it into sulfur.

Aromatics: Are hydrocarbons characterized by their uniform unsaturated carbon ring structure
and their often pleasant aroma. Commercial petroleum aromatics include benzene, toluene, ethyl
benzene, xylenes, cumene, and naphthalene. The acronym BTX is commonly used to refer collec-
tively to benzene, toluene, and xylenes; the acronym BTEX is commonly used to refer collectively
to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes. These chemicals are used as high octane com-
ponents in gasoline.

Asphalt: Is a dark brown-to-black cement-like material obtained by petroleum processing and con-
taining bitumens as the predominant component. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following
finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and pe-
troleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts.

Atmospheric Crude Distillation Unit: Is the primary distillation unit at a refinery used to separate
crude oil components (including mixtures of other hydrocarbons) at approximately atmospheric
pressure conditions by continuously vaporizing and condensing the components.

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Aviation Gasoline: Is a complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small
quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines.
Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g.,
straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates
(alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus.

Beavon Sulfur Removal (BSR): Is the process for removing residual sulfur compounds from ef-
fluent gases and for the cleanup of Claus plant tail gas. This process uses catalytic hydrogenation
over a cobalt/ molybdenum catalyst converting carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and other organic
sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide, which is then removed by the “Stretford” process.

Benzene (C6H6): Is an aromatic hydrocarbon present in small proportion in some crude oils and
made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in petroleum naphtha
also made from coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as a solvent in the manufacture of deter-
gents, synthetic fibers, petrochemicals, and as a component of high-octane gasoline.

Biofuels: Are liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks,
used primarily for transportation.

Biomass or Biomass Fuels: Are non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material originating
from plants, animals or microorganisms, including products, by-products, residues and waste from
agriculture, forestry and related industries as well as the non-fossilized and biodegradable organic
fractions of industrial and municipal wastes, including gases and liquids recovered from the de-
composition of non-fossilized and bio-degradable organic material.

Bitumen: Is a naturally occurring viscous mixture, mainly of hydrocarbons heavier than pentane,
which may contain sulfur compounds, and in its natural occurring viscous state, is not recoverable
at a commercial rate through a well.

Blendstocks: Are petroleum products used for blending or compounding into finished motor gaso-
line. These include RBOB (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) and CBOB (conven-
tional blendstock for oxygenate blending), but exclude oxygenates, butane, and pentanes plus.

Blowdown: Is the act of emptying or de-pressuring a vessel. This may also refer to the discarded
material such as blowdown water from a boiler or cooling tower.

Boiler: Is an enclosed steel vessel using controlled flame combustion and having the primary pur-
pose of recovering and exporting thermal energy in the form of steam or hot water. Heat from an
external combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes found in the boiler
shell. This fluid is delivered to an end-use at a desired pressure, temperature, and quality.

Butane, N-butane or Normal Butane (C4H10): Is normally a gaseous paraffinic straight-chain or


branch chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.

Butylene or n-butylene (C4H8): Is an olefinic straight-chain hydrocarbon extracted from refinery


gas streams.
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Calcination: Is the process of thermally treating minerals without fusing to decompose carbonates
from ore, so that hydrates and the volatile material is expelled.

Calcium Hypochlorite: Is a white crystalline solid, Ca(OCl)2•4H2O, used as a bactericide, fungi-


cide, and bleaching agent.

Catalyst Coke: Or petroleum coke is a byproduct of petroleum refining, used as an industrial fuel
and in the manufacture of iron and steel, or anodes for aluminum smelters and other heating prod-
ucts (catalytic cracking and catalytic reforming). This carbon or coke is not recoverable in a con-
centrated form. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton. Coke from pe-
troleum has a heating value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.

Catalytic Cracking: Is the refining process to convert residual fractions in the presence of a cata-
lyst, where hydrocarbon molecules are fractured into smaller molecules or react with a contact
material to improve feedstock quality. For additional processes, the catalyst or a contact material is
continuously regenerated by burning off coke and other deposits.

Catalytic Hydrocracking Unit: Is the refining process that uses hydrogen and catalysts with rela-
tively low temperatures and high pressures for converting middle boiling or residual material to
high-octane gasoline, reformer charge stock, jet fuel, and/or high grade fuel oil. The process uses
one or more catalysts, depending upon product output, and can handle high sulfur feedstocks
without prior desulfurization.

Catalytic Hydrotreating or Catalytic Hydrorefining: Is the refining process for treating petroleum
fractions from atmospheric or vacuum distillation units (such as naphthas, middle distillates, re-
former feeds, residual fuel oil, and heavy gas oil) and other petroleum (e.g., cat cracked naphtha,
coker naphtha, gas oil) in the presence of catalysts and substantial quantities of hydrogen.
Hydrotreating includes desulfurization, removal of substances (nitrogen compounds) that deacti-
vate catalysts, conversion of olefins to paraffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline, and other
processes to upgrade the quality of the fractions.

Catalytic Reforming: Is the refining process using controlled heat and pressure with catalysts to
rearrange certain hydrocarbon molecules, thereby converting paraffinic and naphthenic type hy-
drocarbons (e.g., low-octane gasoline boiling range fractions) into petrochemical feedstocks and
higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished gasoline. The catalytic reforming process
unit does not include feed pretreatment (e.g., feed hydrotreater) or additional light-ends distillation
columns after the primary (full-range) distillation column and hydrogen recovery equipment.

Caustic Scrubber: Is a treatment apparatus that contacts an acidic gas, such as CO2, H2S, or
HCl, with a caustic or alkaline liquid, such as aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide or calcium
hydroxide, to remove the acidic pollutants from the gas stream. The scrubbing apparatus can be a
packed column, a tray tower, or a spray chamber.

Chloramine: May be any of several compounds containing nitrogen and chlorine, especially an
unstable colorless liquid, NH2Cl, used to make hydrazine. It is produced when ammonia and chlo-

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rine (as hypochlorous acid) react with each other. It is widely used as a disinfectant in water treat-
ment plants rather than chlorine, as chloramine is much more stable.

Coal: Are solid fuels as, anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite classified by the Ameri-
can Society for Testing and Materials - ASTM D388–05.

Coking: Is a thermal refining process commonly used to produce fuel gas, gasoline blendstocks,
distillates, and petroleum coke from the heavier products of atmospheric and vacuum distillation.
The coke produced can be used either as a fuel or in other applications such as the manufacturing
of steel or aluminum.

Combined Heat and Power Unit (CHPU): Is a unit using a common energy source to produce
both electricity and steam for other uses, resulting in increased fuel efficiency.

Condensates: Are hydrocarbon liquids separated from natural gas which condenses due to chan-
ges in the temperature or pressure, or both, and remains liquid at standard conditions.

Cryogenic Separation Process: Is a low temperature hydrogen separation process, which uses
the difference in boiling temperatures (relative volatilities) of the feed components to effect the
separation. Hydrogen has a high relative volatility compared to hydrocarbons. The simplest and
most common version of the cryogenic process is the partial condensation process.

Delayed Coking Unit: Is a refinery process, in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives
are thermally cracked, and petro coke is produced in a series of closed, batch system reactors.

Desalter: Is a process unit in an oil refinery, where in contact with water can remove salts and
other impurities from the crude oil prior to further processing. Well-designed and well-operated, it
will achieve an average of 85 to 95% removal of inorganic salts from the crude oil. The desalter is
considered part of the atmospheric crude distillation unit.

Desulfurization: Is the removal of sulfur, as from molten metals, petroleum oil, or flue gases. Pe-
troleum desulfurization is a process that removes sulfur and its compounds from various streams
during the refining process. Desulfurization processes vary based on the type of stream treated
(naphtha, distillate, heavy gas oil) and the amount of sulfur removed (sulfur reduction to 10 ppm).

Distillates: Are liquid hydrocarbons, usually colorless and of high API Gravity, recovered from wet
gas by a separator that condenses that liquid out of the gas. The present term is Natural Gas.

Distillate Fuel Oil: Is one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation opera-
tions and from crackers and hydrotreating process units. The generic term distillate fuel oil in-
cludes kerosene, kerosene-type jet fuel, diesel fuels (Diesel Fuels No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4), and
fuel oils (Fuel Oils No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4).

Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP): Is a filtration equipment that removes fine particles, like dust
and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge through the unit.

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Ethane (C2H6): Is a normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas


that boils at a temperature of -127.48 degrees Fahrenheit. It is extracted from natural gas and re-
finery gas streams.

Ethanol: Is a colorless liquid that burns to produce water and carbon dioxide. The vapor forms an
explosive mixture with air and may be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. An alcohol
which is most often derived from corn. Ethanol is designed to be blended with gasoline to produce
a cleaner burning fuel, and is an accepted oxygenate component for the oxygenated seasons
mandated by the EPA.

Ether: Is a generic term applied to a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, characterized by an oxygen atom attached to two carbon atoms (methyl
tertiary butyl ether).

Ethylene (C2H4): Is an olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical


processes. Ethylene is used as a petrochemical feedstock for numerous chemical applications and
the production of consumer goods.

Ethylene Process Unit: Is a chemical manufacturing process unit in which ethylene and/or pro-
pylene are produced by separation from petroleum refining process streams or by subjecting hy-
drocarbons to high temperatures in the presence of steam.

Feedstocks: Are raw materials that are transformed by reaction, oxidation, and other chemical or
physical methods into products and by-products, or any renewable, biological material that can be
used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product, such as biomass.
Crude oil, naphtha, condensate and straight run residual fuel are also referred to as feedstocks.

Flare Gas: Is the gas disposed of by burning in flares, usually at the production sites or at gas pro-
cessing plants. When possible, this gas is recovered and pipelined to a processing facility.

Flare Gas Header System: Is a piping system used to collect and transport gas to a flare, either
from a process unit or a pressure relief device from the fuel gas system. Sometimes known as
a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in petroleum refineries, and natural gas plants.

Fluid Coking Unit: Is one or more coking units where high molecular weight petroleum derivatives
are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is continuously produced in a fluidized bed system. The
fluid coking burner exhaust gas is continuously released to the atmosphere. The fluid coking unit
includes a fluidized bed coking vessel, a distillation column receiving gas directly from the fluidized
bed coking vessel, coke burner, and equipment for controlling air pollutant emissions and for heat
recovery on the fluid coking burner exhaust vent.

Fuel Gas: Is any gas which is generated at a petroleum refinery and which is combusted separate-
ly or in any combination with any type of gas. Fuel gas also includes natural gas when the natural
gas is combined and combusted in any proportion with a gas generated at a refinery.

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Gasoil: Is a liquid petroleum distillate that has a viscosity grade intermediate between kerosene
and lubricating oil. It derives its name from having originally been used in the manufacture of illu-
minating gas. It is now used to produce distillate fuel oils and gasoline.

Gasification: Is a process where coal, petroleum coke, biomass, wastes, or other carbon-
containing materials that are subjected to high temperatures and mixed with steam and oxygen to
produce a synthesis gas or “syngas” and can be burned to generate power, steam, or process
heat. The syngas typically contains hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and various impurities.

Heavy Fuel Oil: Is a residue from crude oil refining or a mixture of a distillate that contains petro-
leum residues. Sometimes have addition of lighter fuel oil to reduce excessive viscosity.

Heavy Oil/Asphalt Refinery: Is a refinery that processes heavy crude slates to produce primarily
road asphalt, roofing tars, and other asphalt products. These refineries are similar in complexity
and equipment to topping refineries, except they typically also use vacuum distillation.

Hydrogen (H2): Is a colorless, odorless, highly flammable gaseous element. It is the lightest of all
gases and the most abundant element in the universe, occurring chiefly in combination with oxy-
gen in water and also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons.

Hydrogen Plant: Is a process plant generally used for the production and purification of hydrogen
as a primary product. These processes include hydrogen conversion/production (steam reforming,
coal gasification, partial oxidation, electrolysis, and thermolysis), or hydrogen purification (pres-
sure-swing adsorption).

Hydroskimming Refinery: Is a refinery process equipped with atmospheric distillation, naphtha


reforming, and necessary hydrotreating processes; hydroskimming refineries also typically include
vacuum distillation as well as tankage, recovery facilities for gases and light hydrocarbons, and the
necessary utility systems.

Kerosene: Is a light petroleum distillate with a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the
10 percent recovery point, a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F, a minimum flash point of 100
°F, and a maximum freezing point of -22 °F.

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel: Is a kerosene-based product used in commercial and military turbojet
and turboprop aircraft. The product has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10
percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): Is a hydrocarbon-based gas derived from crude oil refining or
natural gas stream fractionation that is often liquefied, through pressurization, for ease of transport.
They include: ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane and isobutylene.

Lubricants: Are substances produced either from distillates or residues, used to reduce friction
between bearing surfaces, process materials used as aids in the manufacture of other products, or
used as carriers of other materials.

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Membrane Separation Process: Is a hydrogen purification process consisting of two layers of


membrane material; the first layer is nonporous, and the second layer is porous. A gas mixture
under increased pressure is subjected to the surface, which allows a smaller molecule such as
hydrogen to permeate faster than a larger molecule such as carbon dioxide.

Methane (CH4): Is a colorless, flammable, odorless hydrocarbon gas which is the major compo-
nent of natural gas. It is also an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes. Me-
thane is a greenhouse gas.

MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) (CH3)3COCH3: Is a processed product used in the blending
of reformulated gasoline, affecting vapor pressure and octane level. Blends up to 15.0% by volume
MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications.

Multi-Stage Claus Unit: Is a process unit that usually consists of two steps, a thermal step and a
catalytic step. In the thermal step substantial amounts of elemental sulfur are created, while the
catalytic step is used to increase conversion of H2S to elemental sulfur. In order to maximize the
overall recovery of elemental sulfur. The Multi-Stage Claus process has also multi-stage opera-
tions, as with each stage, additional conversion of H2S and SO2 also comes to elemental sulfur.

Natural Gas: Is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in
geologic formations beneath the earth’s surface. The principal hydrocarbon constituent is methane
that may be field quality or pipeline quality. Natural gas is composed of at least 70 percent me-
thane by volume or has a high heat value between 910 and 1150 Btu per standard cubic foot.

Oil Scrubber: Is an equipment used to remove hydrocarbons from a gas stream, by contacting the
gas with oil or a similar hydrocarbon liquid, typically with an absorber column.

Oil-Water Separator: Is a wastewater treatment equipment used to separate oil from water con-
sisting of a separation tank, which also includes other separator basins as; skimmers, weirs, grit
chambers, and sludge hoppers.

Petroleum Coke: Is a solid residue with a high carbon content and low in hydrogen, which is the
final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking. This product is
reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons
each) per short ton.

Petroleum Refinery: Is any facility plant engaged in producing gasoline, kerosene, distillate fuel
oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, asphalt (bitumen) or other products through distillation of petrole-
um or through redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives.

Petrolatum: Is an odorless, tasteless, greasy substance, obtained as residue from petroleum after
lighter and more volatile components have been boiled off. Purified residue is obtained in form of a
yellowish or decolorized semisolid, known as petroleum jelly in form of a clear to faintly yellow liq-
uid, known as mineral oil.

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Propane (C3H8): Is a normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon, or a colorless paraffinic gas


that boils at a temperature of -43.67 ºF, extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.

Pyrolysis: Is the thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures (greater than 400 °F, or
200 °C) in the absence of air. The end product of pyrolysis is a mixture of solids, liquids (oxy-
genated oils), and gases (methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide) with proportions deter-
mined by operating temperature, pressure, oxygen content, and other conditions.

Refinery Fuel Gas: Is a gaseous mixture of gases produced at the refinery (i.e., still or process
gas) and natural gas that is used as a fuel in boilers and process heaters throughout the refinery.

Reformate: Is the liquid product stream of catalytic reforming units. Reformate is characterized by
a high concentration of aromatics and high octane level, used as a gasoline blending component
or as feedstock for aromatics production.

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Is a non-combustion control technology that destroys NOX
(nitrogen oxides) by injecting a reducing agent (ammonia) into the flue gas that, in the presence of
a catalyst (vanadium, titanium, or zeolite), converts NOX into molecular nitrogen and water.

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR): Is a non-combustion control technology that de-


stroys NOX by injecting a reducing agent (ammonia, urea, or cyanuric acid) into the flue gas,
downstream of the combustion zone that converts NOX to molecular nitrogen, water, and when
urea or cyanuric acid are used, to CO2.

Semi-Refined Petroleum Products: Are all oils requiring further processing. Included in this cat-
egory are unfinished oils which are produced by the partial refining of crude oil and include the
following: naphthas and lighter oils; kerosene and light gas oils; heavy gas oils; and residuum, and
all products that require further processing or the addition of blendstocks.

Sodium Hypochlorite: Is an unstable salt, NaOCl, usually stored in solution and used as a fungi-
cide and oxidizing bleach. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant.

Soot Blowing: Is the process of removing soot that is deposited on process tubes in a process
heater, boiler, or other combustion device using steam or other blowing media.

Sour Water: Is the wastewater produced during many refining processes, which typically contains
sulfur compounds, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, and must be removed before be reused.

Steam Methane Reforming: A catalytic process that involves a reaction between natural gas or
methane and steam. The result is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and
water.

Still Gas or Process Gas: Is any form or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation,
cracking, reforming, and other processes. The principal constituents are methane, ethane, eth-
ylene, normal butane, butylenes, propane, propylene, etc.

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Stretford Process®: Is a process developed to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from town gas. It
was the first liquid phase, oxidation process for converting H2S into sulfur to gain widespread
commercial acceptance. This process was developed by Tom Nicklin of the North-Western Gas
Board (NWGB) in 1940.

Sulfinol®: Is the trade name for an acid gas removal solvent (a mixture of Sulfolane, DIPA or
MDEA and water) that can separate acid gases such as H2S, CO2, COS and mercaptans from
feed gas streams such as synthesis gas produced by gasification of coal, coke, heavy hydrocar-
bon oils or natural gas production.

Sulfur: Is a yellowish nonmetallic element, sometimes known as “brimstone.” It is present at vari-


ous levels of concentration in many fossil fuels whose combustion releases sulfur compounds that
are considered harmful to the environment. Some of the most commonly used fossil fuels are cat-
egorized according to their sulfur content, with lower sulfur fuels usually selling at a higher price.

Sulfur Recovery Plant: Is a process unit that recovers sulfur or produce sulfuric acid from hydro-
gen sulfide (H2S) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) from a common source of sour gas at a petroleum
refinery. This plant also includes sulfur pits used to store the recovered sulfur product, but it does
not include secondary sulfur storage vessels or loading facilities downstream of the sulfur pits.

Thermal Cracking: Is a refining process in which heat and pressure are used to break down, rear-
range or combine hydrocarbon molecules. Thermal cracking includes visbreaking, fluid coking,
delayed coking and other thermal (non-catalytic) cracking processes.

Toluene (C6H5CH3): Is a colorless liquid of the aromatic group of petroleum hydrocarbons, made
by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthas containing methyl cyclohexane. A high-octane
gasoline blending agent, solvent, and chemical intermediate, base for TNT.

Vacuum Distillation: Is a distillation process under reduced pressure (less the atmospheric) to
lower the boiling temperature of the liquid being distilled. This technique with its relatively low tem-
peratures prevents cracking or decomposition of the charge stock.

Visbreaking: Is a thermal cracking process, in which heavy atmospheric or vacuum-still residues


are cracked at moderate temperatures to increase production of distillate products, and reduce the
viscosity of this distillation residues.

Wax: Is a solid or semi-solid material at 77 °F consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or


derived from petroleum fractions, or through a Fischer-Tropsch type process, in which the straight-
chained paraffin series predominates.

Xylene (C6H4(CH3)2): Is a colorless liquid of the aromatic group of hydrocarbons made the cata-
lytic reforming of certain naphthenic petroleum fractions. Used as high-octane motor and aviation
gasoline blending agents, solvents, chemical intermediates. Isomers are metaxylene, orthoxylene,
paraxylene.

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VIII. REFINERY PROCESSES - MULTIPLE CHOICE:

1. What is a hydrocarbon?

a. A chemical containing water;


b. A molecule with carbon and hydrogen;
c. A non-polluting fossil fuel;
d. A compound produced at hydroelectric plants.

2. Hydrocarbon reserves are best defined as what?

a. Reserves are the quantities of hydrocarbons that are commercially recoverable;


b. The subsurface geological construct that traps crude oil or natural gas;
c. Reserves are the total volume of hydrocarbons that are present in an oil or gas field;
d. In common usage the term reserves, has the same definition as resources and is used to refer
to any subsurface petroleum.

3. What would a petroleum company determine using the Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE) calcula-
tion?

a. The distillate yield from refining a barrel of oil;


b. The value of crude oil samples collected from different reservoirs;
c. The amount of energy contained in a volume of crude oil relative to a volume of natural gas;
d. The volume of fuel a crude oil tanker will use during a cargo transit.

4. The term upstream refers to what functional segments of the oil and gas industry?

a. Exploration and Refining;


b. Marketing and Refining;
c. Exploration and Production;
d. Refining and Transportation.

5. Crude oil is a mixture of various different compounds called hydrocarbons. These different hy-
drocarbons need to be separated in a column by which process?

a. Factorial Distillation;
b. Fractional Distillation;
c. Chromographic Distillation;
d. None of the above.

6. Which of the following substances can be isolated by the method of separating the mixture of
hydrocarbons found in crude oil?

a. Kerosene;
b. Phenol;
c. Oil of Vitriol;
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d. Sodium Thiosulfate.

7. Chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms called hydrocarbon compounds tend to be too large to be
considered useful in industry. What is the name of the process which allows large hydrocarbon
molecules to be broken down into smaller hydrocarbon molecules so that they are efficient to use
in industrial processes?

a. Cracking;
b. Snapping;
c. Breaking;
d. Chopping.

8. What is an alkylation unit?

a. Removal operation or sulfur from gasoline;


b. A physical separation operation;
c. Gasoline octane improvement process;
d. A volume improvement process.

9. What is cracking?

a. Is when shorter chain fractions are built up into longer chain fractions;
b. Is the petrol fraction is removed from the rest of the crude oil;
c. Is the crude oil is separated into fractions by heating;
d. Is when longer chain fractions are broken into shorter chain fractions.

10. What percentage of a Barrel of Crude Oil is used for gasoline?

a.5%;
b.19%;
c.46%;
d.82%.

11. Products of hydrocarbon chains can be used in the formation of plastics. If a molecule of
ethene (C2H4), a member of the alkene family, reacts with other ethene molecules, what plastic is
formed?

a. Polythene;
b. Polyvinyl chloride;
c. Polystyrene;
d. Polyps.

12. The alkene family is known as having one double carbon to carbon bond within its structure. A
good example is when a molecule of ethene reacts with another molecule of ethene. Ethene mole-
cules are considered to be monomers. What is the name of the chemical process whereby mono-
mers join together to form longer chains?
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a. Addition monomerization;
b. Addition polymerization;
c. Additional conjoining;
d. Additional smelting.

13. The hydrocarbon ethene can be used to create ethanol. Which of the following substances can
ethene react with to create ethanol?

a. Carbon Dioxide;
b. Steam;
c. Carbon Monoxide;
d. Nitrogen Dioxide.

14. When using ethene, which catalyst is used to create ethanol?

a. Phosphoric Acid;
b. Sulfuric Acid;
c. Hydrochloric Acid;
d. Formic Acid.

15. Alkanes and alkenes are two chemical families found within crude oil. What chemical sub-
stance can be used to differentiate between two unknown substances - one containing an alkane,
the other, an alkene?

a. Iodine Water;
b. Vanadium Water;
c. Bromine Water;
d. Astatine Water.

16. A catalytic cracker is used for:

a. Improve the octane quality of naphtha;


b. Separate various petroleum fractions;
c. Lower the sulfur content of diesel oil;
d. Convert residual fraction to lighter products.

17. Which of the following crude oils has the highest specific gravity?

a. West Texas Intermediate 32 API;


b. North Sea Brent 38 API;
c. Alaskan North Slope 27 API;
d. California Kern River 13 API.

18. Natural gas liquids are composed of all of the following components, except:

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a. Propane;
b. Normal Butane;
c. Ethylene;
d. Natural Gasoline.

19. Cryogenic recovery is used for:

a. Recover more ethane from "wet" natural gas;


b. Keep natural gas cold for waterborne transportation;
c. Increase production from existing gas wells;
d. Refrigerate LPGs for pipeline transportation.

20. Which of the following fractions is not produced from the crude unit?

a. Naphtha;
b. Distillate;
c. Reformate;
d. Kerosene.

21. Visbreaking process is used mainly for making:

a. Smoke free kerosene;


b. High cetane diesel;
c. High octane gasoline;
d. Fuel oil.

22. The proper arrangement of the petroleum fractions in order of their boiling points is:

a. Lubricating oil > diesel > petrol > LPG;


b. Lubricating oil > petrol > diesel > LPG;
c. Petrol > diesel > LPG > lubricating oil;
d. Petrol > lubricating oil > diesel > LPG.

23. Choose the correct statement regarding the thermal cracking:

a. At low pressure, the yield of lighter hydrocarbons is more defined;


b. Moderate changes in operating temperature does not change the depth of cracking;
c. Greater depth of cracking gives lower octane number gasoline;
d. Increased residence time results in the decreased severity of cracking.

24. Butadiene is a/an:

a. Di-olefin;
b. Olefin;
c. Aromatic;
d. Naphthenes.
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25. Straight run naphtha is converted into high octane number petrol (gasoline) by catalytic:

a. Cracking;
b. Polymerization;
c. Isomerization;
d. Reforming.

26. The average boiling point of aviation turbine fuel is closest to:

a. Gasoline;
b. Kerosene;
c. LPG;
d. Diesel.

27. Gasoline extracted from natural gas (by compression and cooling) is called _______gasoline.

a. Unleaded;
b. Polymer;
c. Straight run;
d. Casing head.

28. The most widely used column topping in refineries is the __________ column.

a. Packed bed;
b. Perforated plate;
c. Fluidized bed;
d. Bubble-cap.

29. Petrolatum is:

a. Petroleum coke;
b. Same as petroleum ether;
c. A mixture of microcrystalline wax in viscous hydrocarbon liquids;
d. None of the above.

30. What are the names of the two catalysts used in cracking?

a. Iron and copper oxide;


b. Vanadium and aluminum oxide;
c. Nickel and Molybdenum oxide;
d. Silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide.

31. Crude oil is called "sweet" if:

a. It has = 0.5% sulfur;


b. It smells good;
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c. It removed from oil shale;


d. It is easy to recover.

32. Hydrocarbon trading reserves are best defined as:

a. The subsurface geological construct that traps crude oil or natural gas;
b. The total volume of hydrocarbons that is present in an oil or gas field;
c. The quantities of hydrocarbons commercially recoverable;
d. As resources used to refer to any subsurface petroleum.

33. What would a petroleum company determine using the Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE) calcula-
tion?

a. The distillate yield from refining a barrel of oil;


b. The value of crude oil samples collected from different reservoirs;
c. The volume of fuel a crude oil tanker will use during a cargo transit;
d. The amount of energy contained in a volume of crude oil relative to a volume of natural gas.

34. At what temperatures will kerogen liquefy?

a. Between 500 and 600 degrees Fahrenheit (200 and 316 degrees Celsius);
b. Between 650 and 700 degrees Fahrenheit (343 and 371 degrees Celsius);
c. Between 750 and 800 degrees Fahrenheit (399 and 427 degrees Celsius);
d. None of the above.

35. When a hydrocarbon burns with a plentiful supply of oxygen (O2) gas, the by-product would be
carbon dioxide (CO2). When there is a limited supply of oxygen, the by-product would be:

a. Carbon Trioxide (CO3);


b. Methyl Acetate (C3H6O2);
c. Carboxylic Acid (C(O)OH);
d. Carbon Monoxide (CO).

36. What physical property is used to separate petroleum fractions?

a. API Gravity;
b. Distillation Temperature;
c. Research Octane Number.
d. Sulfur Content.

37. The viscosity index of lubricating oil:

a. Is the measure of variation of viscosity with temperature;


b. Is the measure of its flash point;
c. Should be low;
d. None of the above.
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38. The solvent used in the de-asphalting process is:

a. Furfurol;
b. Propane;
c. Phenol;
d. Hexane.

39. Which of the following tests is not done for transformer oil?

a. Aniline point;
b. Flash point and acid value;
c. Dielectric strength;
d. Copper strip corrosion test.

40. Complete removal of ______from gasoline is done by Unisol process using caustic soda and
methyl alcohol.

a. Waxes;
b. Mercaptans;
c. Asphalt;
d. Diolefins.

41. Flash point of atmospheric distillation residue is determined by __________ apparatus.

a. Pensky-Martens (closed cup type);


b. Abel;
c. Cleveland (open cup type);
d. None of the above.

42. Which is the most undesirable component in kerosene?

a. N-paraffins;
b. Aromatics;
c. I-paraffins;
d. Naphthenes.

43. Which of the following fractions of a crude oil will have the maximum gravity API (°API)?

a. Diesel;
b. Vacuum gas oil;
c. Atmospheric gas oil;
d. Gasoline.

44. Diesel used in naval applications has a minimum cetane number of:

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a. 65;
b. 25;
c. 35;
d. 45;

45. The colour of gasoline is an indication of its:

a. Octane number;
b. Lead susceptibility;
c. Gum forming tendency & thoroughness of refining;
d. Fuel blending.

46. The catalyst used in catalytic reforming is:

a. Aluminium chloride;
b. Platinum and alumina.
c. Nickel;
d. Iron.

47. Which of the following has the lowest viscosity (at a given temperature) of all?

a. Naphtha;
b. Diesel;
c. Kerosene;
d. Lube oil.

48. Which is almost absent in crude petroleum?

a. Olefins;
b. Naphthenes;
c. Cycloparaffins;
d. Mercaptans.

49. Which of the following constituents present in petroleum is responsible for ash formation?

a. Sulphur compounds;
b. Oxygen compounds;
c. Organometallic compounds;
d. Nitrogen compounds.

50. Glycol added to petrol acts as a/an __________ agent.

a. Anti-gum forming;
b. Anti-icing;
c. Anti-knocking;
d. Dewaxing.
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51. Why would a heavy crude oil, like Mexico’s Mayan, sell at a discount compared to a lighter
crude, like Nigerian Light?

a. There is a larger supply of Mayan on the market than there is of Nigerian Light;
b. Heavy crudes like Mayan are more difficult to transport;
c. Heavy crudes like Mayan cannot be processed by every refinery;
d. Nigeria is an OPEC member and Mexico is not.

52. High-octane compounds are used to prevent knocking in petrol engines. Which one of the fol-
lowing features is not present in high-octane compounds?

a. Presence of C=C bonds;


b. Presence of one or more ring structures;
c. Short chain length;
d. High degree of branching.

53. The fraction of crude oil that is used in LPG (liquid petroleum gas) is:

a. Petroleum residue;
b. Refinery gas;
c. Gas oil;
d. Naptha.

54. When crude oil is heated and passed through a fractionating column, the different fractions
separate out according to their:

a. Melting points;
b. Smell and colours;
c. Boiling points;
d. Densities.

55. Hydrogen is obtained from methane by a process called:

a. Steam reforming;
b. Hydrogenation;
c. Isomeration;
d. Catalytic cracking.

56. The fraction of crude oil which has less than four carbon atoms per molecule is called:

a. Naphtha;
b. Refinery gas;
c. Kerosene;
d. Gas oil.

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57. In the fractionating column shown, what fractions come out at X and W?

a. X = petrol and W = bitumens;


b. X = bitumen and W = petrol;
c. X = petrol and W = diesel;
d. X = naphtha and W = bitumen.

58. The measure of the tendency of a fuel to prematurely ignite is measured by its:

a. Number of carbon atoms;


b. Fuel number;
c. Relative molecular mass;
d. Octane number.

59. Which one of the following is NOT a reason for using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the pe-
trochemical industry?

a. To reduce pollution;
b. To help crack long chain hydrocarbons;
c. To prevent knocking in a petrol engine;
d. To increase the oxidation number of a fuel.

60. What two processes are carried out in oil refineries to modify the octane number of hydrocar-
bons?

a. Isomerization and dehydrocyclisation;


b. Electrolysis and catalytic cracking;
c. Isomerization and electrolysis;
d. Catalytic cracking and dehydrocyclisation.

ANSWERS – REFINERY PROCESSES:

1. b 11. a 21. d 31. a 41. c 51. c


2. a 12. b 22. a 32. c 42. b 52. a
3. c 13. b 23. c 33. d 43. c 53. b
4. c 14. a 24. a 34. a 44. d 54. c
5. b 15. c 25. d 35. d 45. c 55. a
6. a 16. d 26. b 36. b 46. b 56. b
7. a 17. d 27. a 37. a 47. a 57. b
8. c 18. c 28. d 38. b 48. d 58. d
9. d 19. a 29. c 39. a 49. a 59. b
10. b 20. c 30. d 40. b 50. b 60. a

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IX. MODUSPEC QUIZ QUESTIONS:

The quiz questions below, were based totally in ModuSpec Training Courses and brought here to
help the students for advanced learning. These questions are commonly used by the Lloyd´s
Register on applicants for operation, processes and inspection of oil & gas drilling. The ModuSpec
Academy is part of ModuSpec, which is part of the global energy business of Lloyd’s Register.

Note: There are 5 questions for each segment, total 50 quiz questions, completely formulated by
ModuSpec. (See http://www.lredacademy.org).

PART 1 – DRAWWORKS: PART 6 – MUD PUMPS


PART 2 – TOP DRIVE SYSTEM: PART 7 – MAIN ENGINES
PART 3 – CROWN BLOCK/TRAVELLING BLOCK: PART 8 – CRANES
PART 4 – AIR WINCHES: PART 9 – RAM-TYPE PREVENTERS
PART 5 – DRILLING LIFTING EQUIPMENT: PART 10 – CHOKE AND KILL MANIFOLDS

PART 1 – DRAWWORKS:

1. What signs indicate that the drawworks brake bands/rims have been operating for an extended
period with insufficient cooling water?

a. The lining of the brake bands is wearing out too quickly.


b. The brake rims start showing a bronze discoloration and cracks appear on the rim surface.
c. The lining of the brake bands starts to burn when they are used.

2. Which of the following steps is the procedure for checking the play of the drawworks equalizing-
bar pins and bushings? What happens if the center pin of the equalizing bar fails?

a. Hang off the travelling block, secure the drill line, lift the brake and use a special blue light to
check for cracks.
b. Use a crowbar to lift the equalizing bar in order to check for play and wobble. If there is play the
bush will move.
c. Hang off the blocks, secure the drill line, lift the brake, and perform the wobble test using a
crowbar to lift the equalizing bar. The travelling block will come down in a controlled manner and
will crash on the drill floor.

3. Which of the following statements describes the functioning of a hydromatic brake?

a. Resistance is created exclusively by fluid friction and agitation of the water circulated between
the veined pockets of the rotor and stator elements, with the conversion of mechanical energy into
heat taking place directly within the water itself.
b. Resistance is created exclusively by air pressure discharged between the veined pockets of the
rotor and stator elements, with the conversion of mechanical energy into heat taking place directly
within the brake body frame itself.

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c. Resistance is created exclusively by applying electrical power to the veined pockets of the rotor
and stator elements, with the conversion of mechanical energy into heat taking place directly within
the brake body frame itself.

4. The drawworks with caliper brakes or disk brakes is usually configured as follows:

a. All brakes are pressure-to-close.


b. The service brakes are pressure-to-open; the emergency and parking brake are pressure-to-
close.
c. The service brakes are pressure-to-close; the emergency and parking brake are pressure-to-
open and spring closed.

5. Regenerative braking is a term applicable to:

a. A drawworks fitted with disk brakes.


b. Drive motors functioning as generator and shedding power through a system of resistors.
c. Systems in which the auxiliary brake will deliver the breaking force assisted by a friction brake.

PART 2 – TOP DRIVE SYSTEM:

1. Explain how to prevent the dolly wheels/guide rollers from falling onto the drill floor, should a
shaft fail. There may be more than one correct answer.

a. By installing dolly wheel catchers.


b. By conducting frequent NDT inspections.
c. By installing a heavy-duty safety sling.

2. What is the simplest way to visually check whether the top drive has a high-torque DC motor
installed?

a. By the nameplate on the motor.


b. By its larger cooling fans.
c. By the square or pineapple-shaped pattern on the commutator (rotor).

3. What are the typical top drive items which might cause prolonged downtime if they are not
available on the rig as spare?

a. The DC drive motor, or the AC drive motors and service loops.


b. The wash pipe, the IBOP, and the mud hose.
c. The mud hose and the service loop.

4. What is the main reason that the drawworks or mud pump DC motor cannot be used to drive the
Varco Top Drive System?

a. The drawworks DC motor is normally not a high-torque motor.


b. The drawworks DC motor has a different style of shaft hub and differently designed bearings.
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c. The drawworks DC motor does not physically fit inside of the frame of a Varco TDS.

5. Why does a modern top drive system control panel not require purge air?

a. Because the top drive system control panel is protected by EXi electrical equipment.
b. Because the top drive system control panel does not operate within a hazardous area.
c. Because the top drive system control panel is protected by EXp electrical equipment.

PART 3 – CROWN BLOCK/TRAVELLING BLOCK:

1. Explain the need for jumper bars on the crown block sheave cluster.

a. To ensure that the sheaves remain in perfect alignment and do not touch each other.
b. To prevent the drill lines from jumping off the sheaves during a sudden loss of load.
c. To prevent the sheaves from damage caused by dropped objects.

2. What are the obvious signs that the drill line has been twisted on the travelling block? There
may more than one correct answer.

a. Uneven wear on one side of the sheaves of the travelling block.


b. Distinct wear pattern on the cover plates of the travelling block.
c. The travelling block is rotating when there is no top drive installed.

3. How do you measure wear on the crown block sheaves and how is this indicated in the bear-
ings?

a. By using a specially-designed integrated dial indicator.


b. By performing a wobble test and by using sheave gauges.
c. By using sheave gauges.

4. How should the travelling block be stored, and why?

a. Dry and kept out of the rain, to prevent corrosion.


b. Vertically, to protect the bearings.
c. Horizontally, to protect the bearings.

5. What is the main reason(s) that bumper blocks are installed underneath the crown block? There
may be more than on correct answer.

a. To protect the water table structure and the travelling block from damage caused by a collision.
b. To provide a bumper against the build-up of grease on the sheaves.
c. To compensate for sudden shock loads in the derrick.

PART 4 – AIR WINCHES:

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1. Which sections of the tugger winch require Category III NDT?

a. The drum and the brake bands.


b. The brake bands and their full circumference.
c. The foundation frame and the foundation studs.

2. What are the differences between the standard utility winches and man-riding winches? There
may be more than one correct answer.

a. Man-riding winches should not be fitted with an anti-free-fall device.


b. Man-riding winches are designed for man riding only and must always have two types of brake
systems installed.
c. Man-riding winches should be fitted with a maximum-speed and a maximum-adjusted pull facili-
ty, an emergency stop and a slack line device.

3. Explain why pneumatic tugger winches must be fitted with a ball-type isolation within easy reach
of the operator.

a. Ball-type isolation valves are much more reliable than gate-type isolation valves
b. Ball-type valves can handle the water condensation from rig air much better because the balls
are made of stainless steel.
c. In order to rapidly isolate the air supply in the event of a malfunction of the air winch.

4. How can the personnel be prevented from using their hands to guide the tugger wires when
spoiling.

a. By the implementation of a permit-to-work system.


b. By giving clear explanation and strict instruction to all rig personnel.
c. By the installation of a simply designed, manually operated-spooling device.

5. What must be done with an oil-contaminated brake?

a. The lining must be washed with Electroclean as this will not leave any residue on the brake lin-
ing and it can be used again.
b. The cause of the leak must be found and the brake lining replaced.
c. It must be washed and cleaned with diesel; if there is not too much damage, it can be rescued.

PART 5 – DRILLING LIFTING EQUIPMENT:

1. Which areas of the deadline anchor require an NDT? There may be more than one correct an-
swer.

a. The shaft and fasteners.


b. The sheave.
c. The main triangle-shaped frame.

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2. When do you measure the master bushing inserts for wear? How can you determine if they
have excessive wear even before measuring them?

a. If the slips are lowered too far down. By measuring the gap between the master bushings;
b. If the inserts are lowered too far down. By measuring the gap between the two sections of the
master bushing;
c. If the inserts are lowered too far down. Ensure that the rotary slips fit and tightened around the
drill pipe and wedge against the master bushing to prevent the wear due the drilling fluid.

3. How does drilling and lifting equipment need be inspected as per API RP 8B Category III?

a. Every six months.


b. Every twelve months.
c. Every five years.

4. What should be done with drill string or casing elevators that have been welded?

a. Perform an NDT. If the condition is satisfactory, you can continue using them.
b. They should be scrapped immediately.
c. They should be colour-coded red as a warning.

5. What bails should be done with elevator links and bails that have wear on the vertical pins,
shafts or eyes?

a. The bails should be measured and their rating downgraded according to OEM specifications.
b. They should be colour-coded red as a warning.
c. They should be scrapped immediately.

PART 6 – MUD PUMPS:

1. Why must the relief-valve exhaust line (mud pump high pressure relief lines) slope downwards?

a. The downward slope has a positive effect on solidified mud, when high temperature mud.
b. The downward slope allows the relief valves to vent more quickly, thus preventing a build-up of
excessive pressure and possible friction.
c. The downward sloping ensures that the relief valves can vent by means of gravity, thereby
avoiding a blocked vent line caused by gelled or solidified mud.

2. What does the mud pressure depend on?

a. Speed (strokes per minute) and flow.


b. Pump charge pressure and pre-charge pressure of the discharge pulsation dampener.
c. Geometry of the system, mud properties and flow rate.

3. How can the flow rate affect the mud pump pressure?
a. Increased mud velocity.
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b. Increased friction.
c. Increased mud velocity and friction.

4. What is the maximum-allowed clearance of the main pinion shaft bearings rollers for operating
NOV mud pumps?

a. 0.16 inch.
b. 1.6 inches.
c. 0.016 inch.

5. What could cause severe corrosion on the gearwheel of the mud pumps?

a. Water or mud coming from southwest fluid ends that are leaking inside the crankcase area.
b. Condensation due to temperature changes after the mud pump has been switched off.
c. Ionizing forces from the chemically hardened gearwheels.

PART 7 – MAIN ENGINES:

1. At which percentage above normal speed will the overspeed protection shut down the engine?

a. 110%
b. 150%
c. 120%

2. Explain the most likely cause of the following engine gas colours: black, blue, and white.

a. Black is a lack of air, blue is burning oil, and white is a water leak.
b. Black is burning oil, blue is a lack of air, and white is a water leak.
c. White is a lack of air, blue is burning oil, and black is a water leak.

3. Explain how the rig saver valve works and why it is used on the rig.

a. The rig saver valve prevents a crankcase explosion in the diesel engines.
b. The rig saver valve checks for high CO2 levels in the engine exhaust gases, which can easily
kill an entire rig crew since CO2 has no odor.
c. The rig saver valve closes off the combustion chamber air inlet if the engine goes into
overspeed, which could be a result of leaking gas from the well been drawn in with the combustion
air.

4. What is the most common way to prevent a fire caused by burning soot?

a. Install spark arresters in the exhaust gas lines.


b. Check the cylinder head valve clearances monthly
c. Install overload sensors with an alarm.

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5. What is the most common cause of engine room fires?

a. A leak of lubricating oil or fuel coming in contact with an insulated exhaust gas line.
b. An overloaded and extremely hot engine leading to spontaneous combustion of engine parts.
c. A leak of lubricating oil or fuel spraying over an unprotected exhaust gas line.

PART 8 - CRANES:

1. What must be done before a typical land rig crane start lifting?

a. Fire up the air-conditioning or heating system in the crane cabin.


b. Extend the outriggers and ensure they are set on solid ground.
c. Remove the front window to give the crane driver a clear view.

2. How often do slewing ring bearing bolts on the pedestal have to undergo NDT inspections?

a. Every five years.


b. Every six months.
c. Every two years.

3. What methods are used for in-service monitoring of the slewing bearing condition? There may
be more than one answer correct.

a. Grease sampling analysis.


b. Ultrasonic testing.
c. Rocking test.

4. Give at least four examples of a crane´s automatic safety devices.

a. Boom limits, whip line limit, main block limit, and load cell monitoring system.
b. Whip line limit, speed limit, main block limit, speed limit, and main block limit.
c. Load cell monitoring system, whip line limit, speed limit, and main block limit.

5. When are cranes allowed for man riding? There may be more than one correct answer.

a. Cranes built under Class are suitable for man riding.


b. Additional features muste have been installede, such as an increased wire rope safety factor,
and the hook must be lockable.
c. A second independent brake system must be used on the hoisting winch and luffing winch.

PART 9 – RAM-TYPE PREVENTERS:

1. Which sections of the ram preventers require an NDT for cracks?

a. The ram body, the ram blocks, and the bonnet bolts.
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b. The ram body, the piston hubs, and the bonnet bolts.
c. The piston hubs, the ram blocks, and the bonnet bolts.

2. How are the VBRs (Variable Bore Rams) tested?

a. With both the smallest and the largest size of drill pipe in the string.
b. With the largest size of drill pipe in the string.
c. With the smallest size of drill pipe in the string.

3. What is the most likely consequence of damage or excessive wear on the ram (top) cavity?
There may be more than one correct answer.

a. The rams might leak during high pressure tests.


b. The rams might leak with a gas kick, but not wit mud.
c. The rams might leak at a low pressure from the bore.

4. What could be the result of opening the pipe rams, when a small amount of pressure is present
underneath the ram blocks?

a. The ram block will lose their to seals.


b. Nothing, since the rams vent the trapped pressure as soon as the rams open up.
c. The pressure acting on the rams makes them difficult to open, the ram blocks and the piston rod
hubs can deform or even crack.

5. What are the risks for the ram preventer´s rubber seals during storage? There may be more
than one correct answer.

a. The elastomers are covered with aggressive grease or pipe dope.


b. UV from light sources and ozone from electrical equipment.
c. The rubber can dry out when stored at temperatures above 25ºC, and nitrile packer can become
brittle when stored ate temperatures below 7ºC.

PART 10 – CHOKE AND KILL MANIFOLDS:

1. Should be the chokes ever be pressure tested?

a. Yes, because we want to know whether the chokes can be used safely to shut the well.
b. No. This is not required by API standards and, for some chokes, even dangerous.
c. Yes, but only Cameron chokes are tested.

2. What is the minimum-allowed radius of the elbow in relation to the piping in use?

a. The minimum-allowed radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter.


b. 90º elbows with heavy walls can be used any time.
c. At least ten times the nominal diameter of the piping.

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3. What is the most important characteristic of the rigid piping downstream the chokes?

a. The steel should be resistant to low temperatures, because rapidly expanding gases can cause
very low temperature.
b. Resistance to mechanical forces caused by high vibration levels.
c. The steel should be resistant to high temperatures. The large flow of gas can cause a lot of fric-
tion and thus very high temperatures.

4. Why is an unrestricted high-pressure vent line required for the choke and kill manifold? There
may be more than one correct answer.

a. Because most chokes, even when fully open, are flow restrictors and can easily become
plugged.
b. To be able to quickly vent rising casing pressure through the unrestricted line.

5. Why is the ID of the choke lines and gate valves downstream from the chokes often larger, than
the ID of the lines and gate valves that upstream from the chokes.

a. To prevent blockages of solidified mud in the downstream lines.


b. To prevente the vent lines in the downstream section, from becoming too hot.
c. To allow expansion of gas in the downtream section.

ANSWERS – MODUSPEC QUIZ QUESTIONS:

PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5


1. b 1. a 1. b 1. c 1. a/b/c
2. c 2. c 2. a/b 2. a/b/c 2. c
3. a 3. a 3. b 3. c 3. a
4. c 4. b 4. b 4. c 4. b
5. a 5. a 5. a/c 5. b 5. a

PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 PART 10


1. c 1. a 1. b 1. c 1. b
2. c 2. a 2. a 2. a 2. c
3. c 3. c 3. a/c 3. c 3. a
4. c 4. a 4. a 4. c 4. a/b
5. b 5. c 5. b/c 5. a/b/c 5. c

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